Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,710,190 articles and books

Information Technology and Staff Development: Issues and Problems Related to New Skills and Competence Acquisition.

This article highlights the problems related to the development of professionals involved in the field of educational technology, defining a series of new professional roles, skills, and competencies acquired to respond to the job market demand in this field. A referential model for the staff involved in the development of networked-based courses or activities is also defined in the course of this article to cover all the necessities of a networked-based course development.

It has become evident that there is a need to help teachers and operators of Information Technologies use technology effectively. Not only do they need to become proficient pro·fi·cient  
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.

An expert; an adept.
 as users and acquire new technical skills, but they also need to learn to use the technological means efficiently as an educational tool (Giuli Pettenati, Baldini, & Palmisano, 1999; Pettenati, Giuli, Baldini, & Palmisano, 1999). This means that they have to invest time and resources, in order to master technologies and effectively accomplish instructional design Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. The process consists broadly of determining the current state of learner understanding, defining the end goal of . As the teachers are the main promoters PROMOTERS. In the English law, are those who in popular or penal actions prosecute in. their own names and the king's, having part of the fines and penalties.  of any innovative activities in education, it is of vital importance to facilitate their efforts to integrate new technologies into their work. The emergence of a complex electronic communications and information environment for learning and research is bringing into focus new roles for the services and staff with responsibility for promoting skilled use of networked information resources (1) The data and information assets of an organization, department or unit. See data administration.

(2) Another name for the Information Systems (IS) or Information Technology (IT) department. See IT.
. Not only the delivery of networked courses, but als o the approach to the design of courses supported by the Information Technologies (IT) is rather different than is followed in a conventional training course.

According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 Levy, (1997) of the Department of Information Study of the University of Sheffield The University of Sheffield is a research university, located in Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. Reputation
Sheffield was the Sunday Times University of the Year in 2001 and has consistently appeared as their top 20 institutions.
, the learner support in a networked learning environment required a broad professional development framework for information staff likely to be involved in developing online approaches. She adopted the term networked learner support (NLS NLS - Native Language System ) (Fowell & Levy, 1995) to denote de·note  
tr.v. de·not·ed, de·not·ing, de·notes
1. To mark; indicate: a frown that denoted increasing impatience.

 computer-mediated approaches to reference assistance, user education and skills training for users of electronic information resources. She suggested that the new combination of skills required for effective provision of NLS would encompass information and IT expertise, as well as expertise in the educational uses of new information and communication technologies. The approach followed in this article starts from the analysis of the origins of the staff development needed and then to the description of the real market demand of new professionals, then goes on with the analysis of the different phases and responsibilities required to design an IT-sup ported training system to identify the roles, responsibilities, and co-operation involved. Then, a model for the skills development is given as a starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo

commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the
 for academic institutions and private companies, to train their staff to be ready for the demands of the IT society. Even if the purpose of this work was to identify the phases, tasks, and roles for the Instructional Design of a Web-based course, the analysis approach of this article is valid regardless of the technologies used, whether they involve video-conferencing, interactive TV, World Wide Web (WWW WWW or W3: see World Wide Web.

(World Wide Web) The common host name for a Web server. The "www-dot" prefix on Web addresses is widely used to provide a recognizable way of identifying a Web site.
 or Web), or other technologies.


Unless teachers take the time to get acquainted with the use of technologies, all the good reasons which have been illustrated until now (Owston Owston may refer to a place in England:
  • Owston, Leicestershire
  • Owston Ferry, a village in Lincolnshire.
  • Owston, South Yorkshire
, 1997), and until a rationale rationale (rash´nal´),
n the fundamental reasons used as the basis for a decision or action.
 approach is developed, the use of IT in classrooms will stay a sparse sparse - A sparse matrix (or vector, or array) is one in which most of the elements are zero. If storage space is more important than access speed, it may be preferable to store a sparse matrix as a list of (index, value) pairs or use some kind of hash scheme or associative memory. , occasional, and a personal choice. Although in Europe Europe (yr`əp), 6th largest continent, c.4,000,000 sq mi (10,360,000 sq km) including adjacent islands (1992 est. pop. 512,000,000).  we are used to always being behind the level of information technology literacy of western countries, at present the situation of the integration of computer technology in the classrooms is encountering the same obstacles all over the world. Following debates on the Internet Internet

Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the
 newsgroups This is a list of newsgroups that are significant for their popularity or their position in Usenet history.

As of October 2002, there are about 100,000 Usenet newsgroups, of which approximately a fifth are active.
, it was found that the principle issues of "faculty development" are well synthesized syn·the·sized  
1. Relating to or being an instrument whose sound is modified or augmented by a synthesizer.

2. Relating to or being compositions or a composition performed on synthesizers or synthesized instruments.
 in the following quotations:

These aspects can be summarized in two main classes of problems whose solutions, are respectively the concern of teachers and institutions:

* Teacher related factors:

-lack of time

-computer avoidance

-lack of motivation

* Institution related factors:

-lack of knowledge of IT benefits in the classroom

-necessity to define new "teacher standards" (required skills, related - compensation, etc.)

-lack of continuous development opportunities

-lack of ongoing support

An important issue when dealing with training faculty for the use of new technologies in their education, is the compensation. IT requires extra work for faculty, more responsibilities, and a great deal of extra time. If institutional policy stayed the same, and no support were provided, issues of equity, measurement, quality, cost, and revenue, would become preeminent pre·em·i·nent or pre-em·i·nent  
Superior to or notable above all others; outstanding. See Synonyms at dominant, noted.

[Middle English, from Latin prae
. There is, in fact, no question that on a course-to-course comparison, a course formatted to be improved by IT features, requires much more time, thought, creativity, and effort than a similar traditional course. For this reason, the role of the faculty has to be re-discussed, introducing new "teacher standards" to define the new tasks as part of the basic teaching load, or as an overload See information overload and overloading. , or as a form of service subject to supplemental compensation. The natural follow up of this trend is the definition of diversified diversified (di·verˑ·s  teachers roles, according to the skills and competencies developed. At present, more and more projects around the world are con cerned with faculty development. However, as far as we know, the majority of these projects just give a collection of resources instead of giving the possibility to carry on real activities. We strongly believe that in the phase of faculty development, teachers and tutors should be trained with the new technologies, with proper cognitive activities as they would themselves develop special skills to support students in their turn. Many programs exist, and we have collaborated in developing some of them [1], as well as in delivering seminars and "teacher' day" to make faculty aware of this issue, but the effectiveness of these activities, except for an initial enthusiasm, is useless. For these reasons, the personal commitment of teachers to this theme is not enough; universities and institutions have to support them with special competence centers and invest resources in this direction. The investment in providing faculty with the right answers vary according to many factors such as the expertise, the subject t aught, and the level of integration of IT in the curriculum.


The conception of new educational systems requires a multi-phase project, starting with the conception, and continuing to the implementation and evaluation of the same system. The scheme is similar to the one foreseen fore·see  
tr.v. fore·saw , fore·seen , fore·see·ing, fore·sees
To see or know beforehand: foresaw the rapid increase in unemployment.
 for the Instructional Design Model (IDM (1) See identity management.

(2) (Integrated Device Manufacturer) A company that performs every step of the chip-making process, including design, manufacture, test and packaging. Examples of IDMs are Intel, AMD, Motorola, IBM, TI and Lucent.
) (Andrews Noun 1. Andrews - United States naturalist who contributed to paleontology and geology (1884-1960)
Roy Chapman Andrews
 & Goodson Goodson refers to: Persons
  • Adrienne “Goodie” Goodson (b. 1966), American WNBA basketball player
  • Barbara Goodson (b. 1949), American voice actress
  • Charles Goodson-Wickes (b. 1945), British politician, MP for Wimbledon
  • Clarence Goodson (b.
, 1980; Edmonds, Branch, & Mukherjee 1994), whose aim is the realization of the individual or group training. Models for instructional design provide procedural frameworks for the systematic production of instruction. One model can be used for an entire course of instruction or elements of multiple models can be combined. All the instructional design models available in literature, although simple or complex, highlight the necessity of the following phases:

* Analysis (of users' needs, their learning styles, expected objectives, available material etc.),

* Design (of strategies and activities),

* Implementation (of instructional material, instructional strategy etc.), and

* Evaluation (whether final, intermediate, formative formative /for·ma·tive/ (for´mah-tiv) concerned in the origination and development of an organism, part, or tissue.  or summative Adj. 1. summative - of or relating to a summation or produced by summation

additive - characterized or produced by addition; "an additive process"

Clearly, there is no unique way to perform the Instructional Design process, and the "optimal solution" depends on the specific application. In the next paragraph, one possible model for the phases and corresponding roles involved in the development of a Web based Coming from a Web server. See Web application.  educational environment is illustrated. This model is derived from the one proposed by Tim Kilby in his public site [3]. Because of the delivery support, the whole process is conceived to take special care of usability How easy something is to use. Both software and Web sites can be tested for usability. Considering how difficult applications are to use and Web sites are to navigate, one would wish that more designers took this seriously. See user interface and usability lab.  and design.

WBT See Windows-based terminal.  PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

Table 4 shows the relationship between the tasks (and their aims) to be

accomplished in the IDM of the Web-Based Training, with respect to the professional responsibilities involved. This gives and overview of the complexity of skills required for the successful performing of the project development.

In this example, some professional roles which could be involved in the different development phases are pointed out:

* Project Manager

* Instructional Designer

* System Analyst

* Programmer (1) A hardware device used to customize a programmable logic chip such as a PAL, GAL, EPROM, etc. See PROM programmer.

(2) A person who designs the logic for and writes the lines of codes of a computer program.

* Usability Engineer

* Human Factor Expert

* Cognitive Psychologist psy·chol·o·gist
A person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and therapy.


* Subject Content Expert

* Media Designer

* Teacher

It appears evident that some or me defined profiles are general while others are specifically related to the content and to the subject to be taught. What is important to highlight, in this schema is the multidisciplinary approach multidisciplinary approach A term referring to the philosophy of converging multiple specialties and/or technologies to establish a diagnosis or effect a therapy  used for the successful realization of an educational product, regardless of the nature of the technology involved in the process. Since all the roles and responsibilities change substantially from those involved in traditional teaching, the need to create proper curricula, and to develop new skills, becomes prominent.


A common concern has been that suitable staff development and training for Network Learner Support (NLS) is not currently available within many institutions, because of different reasons such as severe resourcing constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.

["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)].
, and lack of strategic planning Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people.  for NLS at the organizational level. This means that Continuing Professional Development CPD is the means by which members of professional associations maintain, improve and broaden their knowledge and skills and develop the personal qualities required in their professional lives.  (CPD CPD citrate phosphate dextrose; see anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose solution, under solution.
Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) 
) needs are not yet being addressed. Within this context, the development of NLS requires new professional skills, partnerships, and role-perceptions on the part of a wide range of support and academic staff. The task is complicated by the fact that it is not a simple matter to identify one homogeneous The same. Contrast with heterogeneous.

homogeneous - (Or "homogenous") Of uniform nature, similar in kind.

1. In the context of distributed systems, middleware makes heterogeneous systems appear as a homogeneous entity. For example see: interoperable network.
 group of staff across the sector for whom training for NLS should be targeted. For information staff, computing computing - computer  staff, and new "hybrids" between the two, NLS was identified as an area of interest for staff in teaching and learning support positions related to promoting the networked learning environment. Thus, continuing professional development for NLS might be targ eted at a very wide variety of staff with different backgrounds and specializations, such as those described in Table 4. The nature of these positions varies substantially, but all have a role in NLS, even if their responsibilities and duties somehow overlap o·ver·lap
1. A part or portion of a structure that extends or projects over another.

2. The suturing of one layer of tissue above or under another layer to provide additional strength, often used in dental surgery.


The Market Demand of New Professionals

Once these competence areas are identified, it is interesting to analyze how the job market begins to look for new skills and professionals. The following tables illustrate the responsibilities, duties and qualifications of some professionals in Educational Technology fields. These characteristics are those sought by universities and enterprises according to job opportunities available at the time of this writing, in the Internet for five kinds of professionals:

* Instructional Designer

* Educational Technology Librarian (1) A person who works in the data library and keeps track of the tapes and disks that are stored and logged out for use. Also known as a "file librarian" or "media librarian." See data library.

(2) See CA-Librarian.

* Web-based curriculum developer

* Head of Media Services

* Tutor TUTOR - A Scripting language on PLATO systems from CDC.

["The TUTOR Language", Bruce Sherwood, Control Data, 1977].

The result of this quick and incomplete overview, is that the market itself is adapting to the integration of IT in education, and the profiles required are more and more qualified and skilled in interdisciplinary in·ter·dis·ci·pli·nar·y  
Of, relating to, or involving two or more academic disciplines that are usually considered distinct.

 domains, from technical, to pedagogical ped·a·gog·ic   also ped·a·gog·i·cal
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of pedagogy.

2. Characterized by pedantic formality: a haughty, pedagogic manner.
, to managerial. For these reasons the necessity to separate the roles, to affect tasks and functionalities, and to provide efficient development has arisen. An approach is proposed in the following paragraphs.

Required Skills and Competencies

The mix of competencies required for networked learner support indicates that the functions need to be shared among a team with complementary skills, which cross current boundaries between libraries and computing services, and between libraries and academic departments. Bringing these functions together is essentially a matter of redefining and reorganizing expertise to support learning and research through collaborative relationships working in the new and flexible educational space (Levy, 1997). It is clear, therefore, that learner support-roles are changing in response to network user needs, and new roles are emerging in many parts of institutions to support both staff and students. While information support for networked teaching and learning is central to the library's role, it is clear that information support-issues, including Continuing Professional Development, need to be seen within the wider, multi-disciplinary and converging con·verge  
v. con·verged, con·verg·ing, con·verg·es

a. To tend toward or approach an intersecting point: lines that converge.

 context of institutional support for networked learning. According to wh at has been presented in paragraph four, and on wider studies and interviews in the educational technology domain, the skills to be acquired for the NLS support can be grouped in four categories:

* Information Technology expertise: to enable development of open learning materials

* Information expertise: corresponds to the specialization A career option pursued by some attorneys that entails the acquisition of detailed knowledge of, and proficiency in, a particular area of law.

As the law in the United States becomes increasingly complex and covers a greater number of subjects, more and more attorneys are
 in the use and evaluation of networked information resources

* Educational skills for the networked learning environment: is related to the pedagogical skills relevant to the facilitation Facilitation

The process of providing a market for a security. Normally, this refers to bids and offers made for large blocks of securities, such as those traded by institutions.
 of open learning communication skills, instructional design and tutoring, curriculum design skills

* Team-work and change-management: corresponds to particular understanding and skills required for multidisciplinary mul·ti·dis·ci·pli·nar·y  
Of, relating to, or making use of several disciplines at once: a multidisciplinary approach to teaching. 


The main idea is to conceive conceive /con·ceive/ (kon-sev´)
1. to become pregnant.

2. take in, grasp, or form in the mind.

1. To become pregnant.

 a modular training tool (Giuli et al., 1999; Pettenati et al., 1999), open and accessible also at a distance, to train the staff in the activities of conception, realization, delivery, and evaluation of information technology-based courses. The model proposed here [4] envisages two kinds of access to the training programs: one in which the knowledge is accessible through a thematic the·mat·ic  
1. Of, relating to, or being a theme: a scene of thematic importance.

 organization, adaptable a·dapt·a·ble  
Capable of adapting or of being adapted.

 to the individual progress and variations. The second type consist of a "job" organization, to let trainees explore the knowledge through a professional on-the-field practice (Weidenfeld & Leclet, 1998). Among all the professionalities mentioned, this schema of modular training foresees the development of five kinds of professional specialized spe·cial·ize  
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es

1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.

 in the use of IT:

* Teachers and Tutors

* Programmers This is a list of programmers notable for their contributions to software, either as original author or architect, or for later additions.

See also: Game programmer, List of computer scientists


* Technicians

* Managers

As is shown in Figure 1, the access to the formative modules is in a sequential way as shown by the arrows in the figure. When the competencies acquired with a module are already possessed and certified See certification. , access to the following modules is allowed. This program was conceived to offer the acquisition of competencies both in an isolated domain (technical, pedagogical, or management), or in a multidisciplinary domain. The modules accessible to all participants are organized to "equalize e·qual·ize  
v. e·qual·ized, e·qual·iz·ing, e·qual·iz·es
1. To make equal: equalized the responsibilities of the staff members.

2. To make uniform.
" the knowledge level in the educational technology field, in order to let trainees easily cooperate in the following "on the field" stages.

As shown in Figure 1, the formative modules give professionals the opportunity to acquire new skills to perform the design and delivery of network-based instructional material. In this sense, they will become respectively:

* IT Faculty and Tutors

* Instructional Designers

* IT System Technicians

* IT Project Managers

The persons involved in the courses can follow a personalized per·son·al·ize  
tr.v. per·son·al·ized, per·son·al·iz·ing, per·son·al·iz·es
1. To take (a general remark or characterization) in a personal manner.

2. To attribute human or personal qualities to; personify.
 path, depending on their knowledge. The modules will cover the following aspects:

* Computer science technology background: this module is accessible by teachers to give them a basic knowledge of technology and to free them from the "computer avoidance" feeling.

* Networked learner support: this module offers teachers the required skill to support the learner through the phases of curricula design and course access according to the competencies described in Table 6.

* Techniques for media development: this module is designed for programmers to let them develop the required skills to create media suitable for the instructional program as described in Table 7.

* Educational technologies: this is a module for technicians encompassing the knowledge in telecommunication telecommunication

Communication between parties at a distance from one another. Modern telecommunication systems—capable of transmitting telephone, fax, data, radio, or television signals—can transmit large volumes of information over long distances.
 and technologies, which can be used for education. The content aims at the acquisition of some of the competencies described in Table 5.

* Instructional design: addresses all professionals to give them some of the competencies described in Table 5, basic concepts of pedagogy and elements on evaluation and tutoring without focusing on the use of technology.

* Information technologies for education: this is a collective module, addressed to all participants, to equalize the level of IT knowledge, and set the stage for uniform collaborative team-work.

* Teaching methods and techniques: this module mainly addresses teachers and trainers and gives the required skills for the delivery of the IT based courses.

* IT-instructional design: addresses those who will become the Instructional Designers, (Table 5), focusing on the use of the available technologies.

* System techniques and methodology: this is addressed to system managers, to train them for the technical competence technical competence,
n the ability of the practitioner, during the treatment phase of dental care and with respect to those procedures combining psychomotor and cognitive skills, consistently to provide services at a professionally acceptable level.
 concerning the use of the whole technical educational system.

* If-system management: this is addressed to those who will become the IT-project managers, to train them for the competence described in Table 8.

* Interdisciplinary team-work: this is a module addressed to all the team, for real project development in a multidisciplinary context.

It is necessary to point out that this process of skill development is a schema, which can be further modified or adapted to match the specific requirement of the academic institutions or of private companies. The module contents themselves are to be defined in a collaborative environment, encompassing technical, pedagogical, and management aspects and based on the users' background level. Not only are the techniques to be used to be taught, but also the aspects of cognitive processes Cognitive processes
Thought processes (i.e., reasoning, perception, judgment, memory).

Mentioned in: Psychosocial Disorders
 and methodologies are to be accounted to insure Insure can mean:
  • To provide for financial or other mitigation if something goes wrong: see insurance or .
  • Or you may be looking for ensure or inshore.
 a successful program.


Preparing faculty for teaching in a variety of technology settings with a variety of communication media requires both common and unique methods. While traditional faculty roles have included course conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize  
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way:
, course delivery, course management, and evaluation, it is not necessary that all faculty perform all these tasks. Collaborative efforts, focused on differentiated staffing emphasizing individual strengths may indeed be one advantage of technology-facilitated education. Moreover, too many expectations for faculty, without appropriate training and support, can create a significant barrier to faculty use of technology. From the review of some available faculty development systems, it clearly stands out that there is still a need for well organized, living, interactive environments, where teachers are encouraged and supported in becoming technology-users, able to retrieve pertinent PERTINENT, evidence. Those facts which tend to prove the allegations of the party offering them, are called pertinent; those which have no such tendency are called impertinent, 8 Toull. n. 22. By pertinent is also meant that which belongs. Willes, 319.  information, and able to set up and organize effective instructional activities and resources. Faculty should particip ate as learners, observers, and active practitioners in setting the educational strategies, then contribute information or lessons, to go through all the steps involved in the instructional design. However, such a system cannot be the result of private initiatives; institution should provide convenient and supportive faculty development opportunities aimed at high quality educational experiences. The discussion in this article led to identifying some new skills and roles required to perform effective activities in educational technology. These new roles have already found their professional opportunities in the new emerging job market, as is seen by the presence of the job opportunities in the IT field already available on the Internet. In this article, the issues of staff development for the use of IT in education was also discussed, this has proven to be an essential starting point for the educational technology applications. The argument has led to a referential model for the staff involved in the developm ent of networked-based courses or activities. This model highlights a schema of potential modules to train a team following a scheduled time-line. The aim of this training is to cover all the necessities of a networked-based course development, including real team-work and on-the-field experiences.


(1.) FACILE (language) Facile - A concurrent extension of ML from ECRC.

["Facile: A Symmetric Integration of Concurrent and Functional Programming", A. Giacalone et al, Intl J Parallel Prog 18(2):121-160, Apr 1989].
 EU project,, TRIO-TELEFOR Tuscany regional project.

(2.) Web Based Training site, http://www.filename file·name also file name  
A name given to a computer file to distinguish it from other files, often containing an extension that classifies it by type.

(3.) This training program has been implemented from January 2000 to March 2001 in the framework of TRIO-TELEFOR Tuscany project, and it has been developed in collaboration Working together on a project. See collaborative software.  with the University of Educational Sciences in Firenze, Italy.


Andrews, D.H. & Goodson, L.A., (1980) A comparative analysis of models of instructional design. Journal of Instructional Development, 3(4), 2-16.

Edmonds, G.S., Branch, R.C., & Mukherjee, P. (1994). A conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .

A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project.
 for comparing instructional design models. Educational Research and Technology, 42(2), 55-72.

Fowell, S., & Levy, P. (1995). Developing a new professional practice: A model for networked learner support in higher education higher education

Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art.
. Journal of Documentation, 51(3), 27 1-280. [Online]. Available: 1995/sep/4.html

Giuli, D., Pettenati, M.C., Baldini, L., & Palmisano, E. (1999, May). Deployment of new professions for NICT NICT National Incident Coordination Team (EPA)
NICT New Information and Communication Technology/Technologies
 based training. In the 10th EAEEIE EAEEIE European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering , (pp. 42-47), Capri, Italy.

Levy, P. (1997). Continuing professional development for networked learner support: Progress review of research and curriculum design. In the second International Symposium symposium

In ancient Greece, an aristocratic banquet at which men met to discuss philosophical and political issues and recite poetry. It began as a warrior feast. Rooms were designed specifically for the proceedings.
 on Networked Learner Support, New services, roles and partnerships for the on-line learning environment, Sheffield: England. [Online]. Available: http:f/

Owston, D.R. (1997). The World Wide Web: A technology to enhance teaching and learning? Educational Researcher, 26(2), 27-33.

Pettenati, M.C., Giuli, D., Baldini, L., & Palmisano, B. (1999, August). Management and skills development of professional roles involved in distance learning. In NLT NLT
night letter
 '99--2nd International Conference on New Learning Technologies, Berne, Switzerland.

Weidenfeld, G., & Leclet, D. (1998). Open and distant training to multimedia for trainers and teachers. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, (pp. 95-98). Washington, DC. [Online]. Available:

Table 1

Anne Jolly's Opinion

I do know teachers who regularly attend workshops and take coursework coursework

work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course

Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's
 to learn how to use computers effectively in their classrooms. Some of these courses are good, some are hopelessly hope·less  
1. Having no hope; despairing. See Synonyms at despondent.

2. Offering no hope; bleak.

3. Incurable.

4. Having no possibility of solution; impossible.
 outdated out·dat·ed  
Out-of-date; old-fashioned.


old-fashioned or obsolete

Adj. 1.
, but in either case, no follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.



follow-up plan
 is provided. If the idea is to impact teaching and learning, then one-shot One-Shot Heart surgery A device for automatic anastomosis of vessels–eg, coronary arteries in < 2 mins, used with Mini-CABG instruments, which places 12 vascular clips for a complete closure. See Coronary arterial bypass graft.  courses are simply not sufficient to prepare teachers to change the way they teach, especially as they are in the process of teaching. Keep in mind that little technology actually available in most classrooms. In only a few schools is someone available on-site to assist with technological glitches, much less provide quality assistance into incorporating technology in a meaningful, appropriate way into the curriculum being taught, which is, after all, the real purpose for using the computers in school. The worst culprit to the utilization of technology in the classroom, however, is the issue of time. Teachers generally teach all day, no time to plan or prepare.

Anne Jolly - ITFORUM participant -

Table 2

John Pate's Opinion

In the past 10 months I have worked with over 70 school districts throughout the state of Illinois Illinois, river, United States
Illinois, river, 273 mi (439 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers, NE Ill., and flowing SW to the Mississippi at Grafton, Ill. It is an important commercial and recreational waterway.
 and assuming this cross section is a representational rep·re·sen·ta·tion·al  
Of or relating to representation, especially to realistic graphic representation.

 group, I estimate that approximately 10% of the public educators show signs of computer anxiety. If nothing else, colleges and universities could step into the gap here, and become a real player in the drive toward higher standards. In the State of Illinois new standards for teachers have been developed that require teachers to use technology in the classroom. We could get there faster with cutting-edge college programs that go beyond traditional coursework, and provide ongoing support and guidance in a systematic manner.

John Pate - ITFORUM participant -

Table 3

Bill Bianchi's Opinion

I don't believe we need a wave of comparative studies: computers vs "Typical classroom teacher," but when introducing anything new, the advocates must explain the benefits of the new product or service. When more time and effort is given to explaining and demonstrating how computer based learning will improve classroom instruction, then problems like computer avoidance will diminish rapidly.

Bill Bianchi -- ITFORUM participant -
Table 4
Tasks & Roles for the Web-based Instructional Design
Task                         Aim
Analysis of client's need    Corresponds to the
                             identification of the explicit
                             needs of the project,
                             and the characteristics
                             of the final product
Analysis of the final users  Users are classified on
                             the basis of their character-
                             istics, their background, etc
                             in order to choose the
                             support, and the kind of
                             technology to be used
Technical analysis           Definition of technical
                             resources and skills
Design of the Interfaces     Build interfaces according
                             to user-centered approach
Usability testing            Assess at different stages
                             of the interface design
                             and building process, the
                             quality of the interfaces
Instructional design         Presenting the content in
                             such a way to satisfy
                             user's needs and relating
                             to teaching methods and
                             technologies used
Creation of the media        Contents realization in the
                             different media (text, audio,
                             graphics, movies, etc.)
Evaluation and Updating      Evaluation of the impact
                             and the effectiveness of
                             the educational system,
                             assessment of the quality
                             of the product, corrections
                             and revisions
Task                         Responsibility
Analysis of client's need    Project Manager and
                             Instructional Designer
Analysis of the final users  Project Manager and
                             Instructional Designer
Technical analysis           Project Manager,
                             System Analyst and
Design of the Interfaces     Project Manager,
                             System Analyst
                             and Programmer
Usability testing            Usability Engineer,
                             Human Factor Expert
                             and Cognitive
Instructional design         Instructional Designer
                             and Subject Content
Creation of the media        Instructional Designer,
                             Media Designer and
Evaluation and Updating      Teacher, Cognitive
                             Psychologist, and
                             Instructional Designer
Table 5
Instructional Designer Profile
Instructional Designer
Responsibilities & Duties            Qualifications
- To provide vision, leadership,     - Master's degree, experience
and coordination for the design and  in instructional design, the
development of technology-based      World Wide Web, distance
educational products, including      learning curriculum design,
World Wide Web sites for courses     and continuing education.
delivered on and off campus, exten-  - Strong computer skills with
sion and outreach educational        ability to work and design for
products, and public information.    cross-platform applications.
- To work collaboratively as part    - Experience in the use of
of a multimedia and Web/instruction  instructional technologies and
technology applications development  media such as linear and
team.                                nonlinear computer-based
                                     teleconferencing, computer
                                     grpahics and animation,
                                     presentation systems, and
                                     digital video and audio
- To refine identified goals and     - Experience working in higher
instructional strategies, select     education advising faculty and
and develop appropriate curricula,   staff on the appropriate use
modules, distance learning           of computer-based programs
products, and materials for the
specific needs of target audiences,
- Incorporate contemporary learning
teaching methods and styles,
techniques, and state-of-the-art
instructional technologies into new
curricula for credit and non-credit
- Provide leadership to the Web/ID team in the
techniques and methods of developing curriculum
and instruc tional materials, modules, and units.
- Help prepare estimates, budgets, and costs
associated with Web/JD team projects.
- Assist in the analysis of new and emerging
technologies for instruction, distance leaming,
and other institutional technology needs and
potential applications.
Table 6
Educational Technology Librarian Profile
Educational Technology Librarian
Responsibilities & Duties              Qualifications
- Assist faculty in integrating        Master's degree, experience in
new strategies for teaching and        higher education.
learning using present and emerging    - Evidence of highly developed
information and instructional          communication, organizational,
technologies (integrating electronic   and interpersonal skills
information resources into courses,    and the ability effectively
including creating guides, tutorials,  convey complex technical
                                       concepts to lay persons.
and bibliographies).                   - Educational background
- Encourage, develop, and support      or experience in teaching,
faculty projects using multimedia      training, and learning styles.
and information technology in          Demonstrable record of
classroom teaching.                    experience in using a range
- Assist curriculum development        ofinstructional technologies.
teams in identifying appropriate
information resources, and
participate in the creation and
ongoing development of course and
instructional Web sites
- Identify, evaluate, and recommend
information technology software and
hardware based on user-defined needs
and currently available technology.
- Maintain an up-to-date knowledge
 of the techniques for assessing the
impact of technology use on
teaching and learning, a familiarity
with current research on the
effectiveness of various uses of
Table 7
Web-Based Curriculum Developer
Web-based Curriculum Developer
Responsibilities & Duties          Qualifications
- Consult with faculty and         - Strong academic background as
academic staff on the development  well as technical expertise in
of Web-based curriculum.           the use of the Web.
- Assist in the development of     - Master's degree in instructional
web-based courses and programs.    design/technology Experience as an
- Conduct training for faculty     instructional designer, educator,
and staff on techniques and        university instructor, trainer or
methodologies of Web-based         combination of the above.
curriculum development, Review     - Knowledge of instructional
and make recommendations on        design principles, distance
current off-the-shelf Web          learning methods, Web page design
development products.              and production, visual interface
Administer the academic web        design, multimedia authoring
site server.                       tools, and digital graphics,
                                   audio, and video production.
                                   - Experience in Web site/Web
                                   server administration Conclusion
Table 8
Head of Media Services Profile
Head of Media Services
Responsibilities & Duties              Qualificatians
- Responsible for library and          - Bachelor's degree and an
university instructional               advanced degree in a relevant
technology                             field
- Management of staff in working       - Experience in a highly
with university automated              automated, technically
information  resources, the campus     advanced  academic environment
Interactive Video Network and          - Extensive technical
universitity                           background
-wide instructional media              in computers and media.
equipment delivery, set-up,            - Practical experience
training and                           with audio Video, multimedia,
- Assist faculty in identifying        and computers in instruction.
appropripriate uses of technology      Knowledge of technical issues
in their instruction.
- Plan, formulate and publicize        in telecommunications,
media policies Evaluate current        library
and emerging information and media     digital media, video and
technologies in order to make sound    general audiovisual operations.
recommendations to campus units on
upgrading and adding media equipment.
Table 9
Tutor's Profile
Responsibilities & Duties             Qualifications
- Provide advice to end users for     - Master's degree and experience
the optimal use of the system and     in education
to aid the user to select optimal     - Knowledge in learning process
individual curricula.                 and style
- Support for curriculum development  - Extensive technical background
and delivery; liaison and advice to   (creation of media, Web searching
academics in the information and      and publishing capabilities, use
communication resource aspects of     of distance learning technologies)
curriculum design (available          - Patience
resources, etc.)
- User education and information/     - A sense of humor
publishing skills training;
information skills training to all
categories of end-user
- Reference enquiry work; online
assistance to users in searching
available curricula, courses,
bibliography and other resources
Guide choices for training employees
and entrepreneurs.
COPYRIGHT 2001 Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2001, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:professionals involved in the field of educational technology
Publication:Journal of Technology and Teacher Education
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 22, 2001
Previous Article:A Qualitative Evaluation of Utilizing Dynamic Quad Screen Technology for Elementary and Middle School Teacher Preparation.
Next Article:Building a Cyber Training Center for Teachers in Korea.

Related Articles
Learning from teachers: applying education principles to camp.
Planting Seeds.
Professional Development in Technology: Catalyst for School Reform.
IT Certification Pays Off. (Education).
Technology professional development: a case study.
A factor analysis of the NETS performance profiles: searching for constructs of self-concept and technology professionalism.
Use of technology in delivering career services worldwide.
Latino cultural competence among Health Educators: professional preparation implications.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters