Printer Friendly

Influence of locus of control and job satisfaction on organizational commitment: a study of medical records personnel in University teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

Introduction

Modern health care is mainly delivered through hospitals that are established to meet the needs of patients. Willan (1990) defines hospital as "a diagnostic and treatment facility providing board and lodging medical care and continuous nursing care for alleviation or care of diseases, illness or injury to in-patients and may be also, outpatients and emergency patients." He adds that the facility must have at least one physician on the permanent staff, make provision for in-patients to remain at least 24 hours and maintain clinical records on all patients.

Medical records are very important in the management and treatment of patients. Huffman (1994) defines medical records "as a compilation of pertinent facts of a patient's life and history including past and present illness(es) and treatments written by health professionals contributing to that patient care." He also states that medical records must be compiled in a timely manner and should contain sufficient data to identify the patient, support the diagnosis or reason for health care encounter, justify the treatment, and accurately document the results.

In addition, Mogli (2001) defines medical records as "an orderly written document encompassing the patient's identification data, health history, physical examination findings, laboratory reports, diagnosis, treatment and surgical procedures and hospital course." According to him the purposes of medical records are:

* To provide a means of communication among physicians, nurses and other allied health care professionals

* To serve as an easy reference for providing continuity in patient care

* To furnish documentary evidence of care provided in the health care facility

* To serve as an informational document to assist in the quality review of patient care

* To protect the patient, physician, and health care institution and its employees in the event of litigation

* To render clinical and administrative data required for budgeting, management service development, planning review, medical education, and medical research

* To supply pertinent patient care information to authorized organizations and third party payers

Medical records personnel play a vital role in the care of patients by ensuring the effective management of medical records in various health care facilities. For them to give in their best service, they must be highly committed to the organization where they are employed.

Organizational commitment has been defined as the degree to which employees believe in and accept organizational goals and desire to remain with the organization (Mathis & Jackson, 2000). Similarly, Wright and Noe (1996) defined organizational commitment as "the degree or extent to which employees strongly identify with the organization and feel attached to it."

Studies have shown that organizational commitment among employees promotes organizational effectiveness through job performance and quality and low levels of tardiness, absenteeism, and turnover (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990, Randall, 1990).

The development of organizational commitment among employees can be influenced variables such as age, marital status, gender, locus of control, and job satisfaction. For the purpose of this study, the influence of locus of control and job satisfaction on organizational commitment will be considered.

Locus of control is a personality variable which refers to individuals' perception of the main causes of events in life. Locus of control can be divided into internal locus of control and external locus of control. Individuals with internal locus of control are called internals. They believe that they have control over their destinies. They tend to be convinced that their own skills, abilities, and efforts determine the bulk of their life experiences. Individuals who have external locus of control are called externals. They believe that their destinies are controlled by external forces such as luck, chance, fate, or powerful others (Rotter, 1966).

Few studies have been done on the influence of locus of control on organizational commitment. Spector (1982) revealed that those who have internal locus of control are more committed to their respective organizations than those who have external locus of control. Similarly, Kinick and Vecchio (1994) reported that individuals who have internal locus of control are likely to be more committed to their organization than those who have external locus of control.

Another variable that is important to this study is job satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be described as a positive emotional state resulting from evaluating one's job experiences and job dissatisfaction occurs when these expectations are not met (Mathis & Jackson, 2000).

Robbins (1998) described job satisfaction as an individual's general attitude towards the job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes towards the job. Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as employee's affective response to various aspects of the job or job situations.

Studies have shown that job satisfaction and organizational commitment are different but related. Luthans (2002) highlights the differences by stating that job satisfaction is mainly concerned with the employee's attitude toward the job, while organizational commitment is mainly concerned with employees' attitude toward the organization.

Tett and Meyer (1993) report that a strong relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This implies that job satisfaction and organizational commitment are capable of influencing each other. This finding suggests that workers who are relatively satisfied with their jobs may likely be committed to their organization, while on the other hand, workers who are relatively committed to their organization are more likely to have greater job satisfaction. The decision to remain with or leave an organization ultimately, is reflected in employees' absenteeism and turnover statistics. Individuals who are not satisfied with their jobs or who are not committed to the organization are more likely to withdraw from the organization either occasionally through absenteeism or permanently through turnover.

Luthans (2002) is of the opinion that there is no strong relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. He argues that there are many employees who are satisfied with their jobs but dislike the organization they work for. He stated further that there are others who may be dissatisfied with their current jobs, but are very committed to the organization they work for.

Statement of the Problem

Medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria face problems like inadequate staff development/training opportunities, inadequate space for the storage of medical records, poor remuneration, and other adverse conditions of service. It is generally assumed that these problems could negatively affect their level of commitment to the university teaching hospitals that employ them.

This study investigates the influence of locus of control and job satisfaction on the organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are to:

1. Ascertain the influence of work locus of control on the organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

2. Determine the influence of job satisfaction on the organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

3. Determine whether the combination of work locus of control and job satisfaction could significantly influence the organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

Research Hypothesis

The research hypothesis for this study are:

1. There is no significant relationship between work locus of control and organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

2. There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

3. A combination of work locus of control and job satisfaction does not have significant influence on organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

Literature Review

Organizational commitment has variously been defined by different authors and researchers. In general terms, organizational commitment could be described as the level of attachment felt towards the organization in which one is employed. Studies have shown that early researchers treated organizational commitment as a one-dimensional construct. (Mowday, Steers & Porter, 1982; Wiener, 1982; Brown, 1996). Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1982) define organizational commitment as the relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in a particular organization. They stated that organizational commitment has three characteristics: strong belief in an acceptance of the organization's goals and values; a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization; and, a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization. This definition suggests that organizational commitment is an affective or emotional attachment of employee to the employing organization.

Organizational commitment has recently been widely acknowledged as a multidimensional construct (Allen & Meyer, 1990; Jaros, Jermier, Koehler & Sincich, 1993; Meyer & Allen 1984, 1991, 1997; Mayer & Schoorman, 1992, 1998; O'Reilly & Chatman, 1986). Meyer and Allen (1991) define organizational commitment as a psychological state that characterizes the employee's relationship with the organization and has implications for the decision to continue or discontinue membership in the organization. They divided organizational commitment into three different components. These are namely affective, continuance, and normative commitment respectively.

* Affective Commitment refers to "the employee's emotional attachment to identification with, and involvement in the organization. Employees with a strong affective commitment continue employment with the organization because they want to do so."

* Continuance Commitment refers to "an awareness of costs associated with leaving the organization. Employees whose primary link to the organization is based on continuance remain because they need to do so."

* Normative Commitment refers to "a feelings of obligation to continue employment. Employees with a high level of normative commitment feel that they ought to remain with the organization."

They state further that these are components of commitment rather than types, because all of them interact to influence the behavior of employees. This suggests that organizational commitment develops because of the interaction of all these three components.

Despite the fact that there have been many different conceptualization of the organizational commitment construct over the years, it is generally agreed that commitment is a psychological state that influences the employee's current relationship with the organization and subsequent action including the decision to remain with the organization (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Meyer & Allen, 1991).

Studies have shown that organizational commitment of employees could be influenced by a number of variables. These variables have been described as either determinants or antecedents of organizational commitment in the literature. For instance, Luthans (2002) highlighted the determinants of organizational commitment as personal, organizational, and non-organizational variables. He explains further that:

* Personal variables include age, tenure in the organization and dispositions, such as positive or negative affectivity or internal or external attribution.

* Organizational variables include job design, values, and the leadership styles of one's supervisor.

* Non-organizational variables refer to the availability of alternatives after making the initial choice to join an organization.

Dawley, Stephens, and Stephens (2005) explore the multi-dimensionality of organizational commitment of volunteer chamber of commerce board members using the Meyer and Allen (1997) organizational commitment scale. The effect of organizational commitment on desirable board members roles was also tested. The result of their study indicated that normative, affective, and continuance commitment based on low alternatives are the three distinct constructs applicable to volunteer employees, and that these components also have a positive effect on board member's role.

Popoola (2007) conducted a study on how work place, biographical, and motivational factors affect the organizational commitment of records officers in federal universities in Nigeria. The study revealed that there were significant differences in the organizational commitment of record officers in the federal universities in Nigeria based on their marital status, work motivation, and job tenure. However, there were no significant differences in the organizational commitment of records officers based on their places of work and religious beliefs.

Locus of Control

Locus of control is embedded within the Rotter's (1954) social learning theory of personality which postulates that behaviour is a function of expectancy and reinforcement value in a specific situation. In other words, a particular behavior is more likely to occur if it is associated with high reinforcement value and expectancy. Reinforcement value is the degree of preference for a particular reinforcement if various alternative reinforcements are available. Expectancy is the probability that the particular reinforcement will occur as a result of an individual's behavior (Rotter, Chance, & Phares, 1972). The potential for a particular behavior to occur therefore is a function of the expected occurrence of reinforcement following the behaviour (Rotter, 1954).

The term locus of control simply refers to the extent to which one believes that events in one's life are contingent on one's own behaviour. According to the internal-external locus of control construct, persons with internal expectancies for control of reinforcement believe that their own behaviour determine the reinforcement they receive. These persons are called internals. A person with internal locus of control attributes change to himself and to his actions. They believe and act as if they control their own futures and see themselves as effective agents in determining the occurrence of reinforcing events in life.

In contrast, a person who believes in external control of reinforcements attributes their outcomes to chance, luck, fate, powerful others, and so on. These people are called externals. A person with external locus of control attributes changes to external sources, and believes that powerful forces such as fate, luck, chance, powerful others, social constraints ,or instructions are important factors determining the occurrence of reinforcing events in his life. A person with external locus of control believes that reinforcement does not depend on his actions or behaviour, but is "the result of luck, chance, fate, as under the control of powerful others or is unpredictable because of great complexity of forces." (Rotter, 1966). The implication of this is that individuals with internal locus of control may likely change their behaviour following reinforcements than those individuals with external locus of control.

Rotter measured locus of control by the using the Internal/External (I-E)Scale on which high scores reflect external locus of control and low scores reflect internal locus of control (Rotter, 1966).

The study of locus of control in organizational studies have been dominated by the use of Rotter's (1966) Internal/External (I-E) Scale. However, this practice has been criticized by different scholars because of the inability of the instrument to measure work related variables adequately. For instance, Spector (1988) described the relationship between the Internal/External scale and work related variables as being rather modest. Similarly, Phares (1976) stated that the Internal-External Scale was a rough measure and advocated that researchers should develop domain-specific measures. Consequently, Spector (1988) developed the Work Locus of Control Scale (WLCS) that would be specifically concerned with the work domain. The scale was developed to measure generalized control beliefs in work settings.

Work Locus of Control and Organizational Commitment of Employees in Organizations

Spector (1988) described work locus of control as a personality variable. He defined it as "a generalized expectancy that rewards, reinforcements or outcomes in life are controlled either by one's own action (internality) or other forces (externality)". He explains that in organizational settings, rewards or outcomes include promotion, favourable circumstances, salary increases and general career advancement.

Studies relating work locus of control to organizational commitment are scarce. TColeman, Irving, and Cooper (1999) conducted a study on the relationship between work locus of control and organizational commitment. The results revealed that internal work locus of control was related to affective commitment, while external work locus of control was associated with continuance commitment.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is important to studies of organizational behaviour. According to Mullins (1999) job satisfaction is an attitude, an internal state. He states further that job satisfaction could be associated with personal feelings of achievement, either quantitative or qualitative. Luthans (2002) in defining job satisfaction, states that there are three generally accepted dimensions to job satisfaction;

Firstl, job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. It cannot be seen, it can only be inferred. Second, job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. For instance, if organizational participants feel that they are working much harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards, they will probably have a negative attitude toward the work, the boss, and or co-workers. If they feel they are being treated very well and are being paid equitably, they are likely to have a positive attitude toward the job. Third, job satisfaction represents several related attitudes about the most important characteristics of a job like the work itself, the pay, promotion opportunities, supervision, and the co-workers. Studies have indicated that job satisfaction could be influenced by some factors. These factors have been variously described in the literature as either causes or determinants or antecedents of job satisfaction as the case may be. For instance, Mullins (1999) highlights the factors influencing job satisfaction of workers:

* Individual factors such as personality, education, intelligence/abilities, age, marital status, orientation to work and so on.

* Social factors such as relationship with co-workers, group working and norms, opportunities for interaction and informal organization.

* Cultural factors such as underlying attitudes, beliefs and values.

* Organizational factors such as nature and size, formal structure, personnel policies and procedures, employee relations, nature of the work, technology and work organization, supervision and styles of leadership, management systems and working conditions.

Environmental factors such as economic, social, technical and governmental influences.

In addition, Mullins (1999) states that other factors that influence job satisfaction are Herzberg's hygiene and motivating factors. The Herzberg two-factor theory of job satisfaction highlights the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors leading to satisfaction include recognition for achievement, the work itself, and advancement. The factors that lead to dissatisfaction include organizational policy and administration, supervision, salary, and interpersonal relationships.

McShane and VonGlinow (2000) state that employees who are highly satisfied with their work are less likely to quit their jobs, be absent from work, or experience mental or physical health problems, and that employees who are dissatisfied are more likely to steal, deliberately sabotage company products, and engage in acts of violence against their supervisors or co-workers. They state further that employees who are dissatisfied with their pay or working conditions can join labour unions and go on strike.

Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Employees in Organizations

Although job satisfaction and organizational commitment are related, they do not mean the same thing. Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979) highlight the differences between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. They state that job satisfaction reflects employee response to the job or certain aspects of it, while organizational commitment is more global and reflects a response to the organization as a whole, including its values and goals.

Studies have shown different results as regards the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The most popular opinion in the literature is that job satisfaction leads to organizational commitment (Hrebiniak & Alutto 1972; Buchanen 1974; Steers, 1977; Reichers, 1985; O'Driscoll, Ilgen & Hildreth 1992; Testa, 2001). The literature has also shown that organizational commitment leads to job satisfaction (Bateman & Strasser 1984; Becker & Billings 1993; Vandenberg & Lance 1992). However Curry, Wakefield, Price, and Mueller (1986) did not find a causal effect in either direction between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. William and Hazer (1986) submitted that the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment is reciprocal.

Studies have also revealed that there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. For instance, studies conducted by Meyer, Allen, and Smith (1993) revealed that job satisfaction has positive relationship with normative and affective commitment but is negatively related with continuance commitment.

Busch, Fallan, and Peterson (1998) conducted a study to explore and reveal differences in performance indicators among faculty employees of the nursing teacher education, engineering, and business administration programmes in the college sector in Norway. The performance indicators studied were job satisfaction, self efficacy, goal commitment, and organizational commitment. The study revealed a positive correlation between organizational commitment and job satisfaction among faculty employees.

Niehoff (1997) conducted a study on the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees at a Catholic university. The study revealed a significant but small correlation existed between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees in the university. Sagie (1998) reported a high positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among 140 clerks in an Israeli municipality.

Al-Aameri (2000) conducted a study to find the relationship between job satisfactiosn and organizational commitment of nurses in public hospitals in Riyadh City. The result revealed a strong positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Cetin (2006) conducted a study into the relationship between job satisfaction, occupational, and organizational commitment of academics in education faculties at four state universities in Istanbul. The result revealed a strong positive relationship between job satisfaction of academic and their affective and normative commitment to both their organization and occupation.

Methodology

Research Design

This is an ex-post-facto study, because the researcher could not manipulate or control the independent variables which have already occurred. The independent variables in this study are work locus of control and job satisfaction, while the dependent variable is organizational commitment.

The Study Population

The study population of this study is the 558 medical records personnel in federal and state university teaching hospitals in Nigeria. The data is presented in Table 1

Sampling Technique and Sampling Size

A single stage random sampling technique was used in selecting 17 out of 20 university teaching hospitals in Nigeria. From these 17 sampled university teaching hospitals, the total sample size of 512 respondents was obtained. The data is presented in Table 2

Research Instrument

The research instrument that was used for the study is the questionnaire called Demographic factors, job satisfaction, work locus of control and organizational commitment scale. (DJWLCOCS)

Description of the Questionnaire

The questionnaire was divided into 4 sections:

Section A: Demographic factor scale

Section B: Job satisfaction scale

Section C: Work locus of control scale

Section D: organizational commitment scale

Section A: Demographic Factor Scale

The demographic factor scale is designed to elicit information on various demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, educational qualification and length of service.

Section B: Job Satisfaction Scale

The scale that was adopted to measure the job satisfaction of medical records personnel is the short form or a 20 item Minnesota satisfaction scale developed by Weiss, Dawis, England and Lofquist (1967). These items requested respondents to indicate the extent of their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with 20 jobs related factors e.g. variety, compensation, recognition, working conditions, supervision etc using a five--point likert type scale labeled (1 = very dissatisfied, 2 = dissatisfied, 3 = neutral, 4 = satisfied, 5 = very satisfied). The reliability coefficient of the scale was reported to be 0.90.

Section C: Work locus of control scale

The study adopted the work locus of control scale developed by Spector (1988) to measure the locus of control of employees in employment situation. Researchers have observed that it is more preferable to the general locus of control scale when investigating behaviours of workers in organizations. (Blau, 1993 Orpen, 1992 & Spector, 1988). Spector work locus of control scale is a 16--items scale. Typical examples of the items in the sub-scale are: " A job is what you make of it", "On most jobs, people can pretty much accomplish whatever they set out to accomplish", "If you know what you want out of a job, you can find a job that gives it to you", "If employees are unhappy with a decision made by their boss, they should do something about it" and so on.

Respondents were required to indicate the extent to which they agree with each item using a six point likert type scale labeled: 1 = disagreed very much, 2 = disagreed moderately, 3 = disagreed slightly, 4 = agree slightly, 5 = agreed moderately, 6 = agreed very much.

In consistent with the Rotter's (1966) general internal and external locus of control scale, the work locus of control scale also distinguishes the two dimension of the locus of control - externality and internality. High scores on the work locus of control scale indicate externality, whereas low scores on indicate internality. Spector (1988) reported that the scale has internal consistency (coefficient alpha) of 0.75 to 0.85.

Section D: Organizational commitment scale

The organizational commitment scale developed by Allen and Meyer (1990) was adopted to measure the commitment of employees to their organization. The scale consists of 24 items. The scale measures the three components of organizational commitment. These components include: affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment. The scale has eight items each on affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment. Typical example of items are "I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization", " I enjoy discussing my organization with people outside of it", "I really feel as if this organization's problems are my own" and so on. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree with each item using a 7 point likert scale labeled 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = moderately disagree, 3 = slightly disagree, 4 = neither agree or disagree, 5 = slightly agree, 6 = moderately agree, 7 = strongly agree. Allen and Meyer (1990) reported the reliability for each component scale coefficient alpha to be as follows: Affective commitment scale 0.87, continuance commitment scale 0.75 and normative commitment scale 0.79.

Validity and Reliability of the Instrument

The content validity of each scale in the questionnaire have been conducted by the original users. Weiss, Dawis, England and Lofquist (1967) for the Minnesota job satisfaction scale, Spector (1988) for the work locus of control scale and Allen & Meyer (1990) for the organizational commitment scale.

In addition, to determine the level of reliability of the questionniare, the researcher pre-tested it to 46 medical records personnel drawn from Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu and Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo who were not part of the sample population.

Using the Cronbach- alpha method, the reliability of each scale in the questionnaire was found to be 0.94 for job satisfaction scale, 0.87 for work locus of control scale, and 0.72 for organizational commitment scale.

Method of Data Collection

A total of 512 copies of the questionnaire were administered to all the medical records personnel in the federal and state university teaching hospitals in Nigeria. A total of 359 copies of the questionnaire representing a response rate of 70.12 percent were returned and analyzed. See Table 3

Method of Data Analysis

The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Research hypothesis were tested at the 0.05 level of significance. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Demographic Characteristics of Respondents:
Table 4: Distribution of Respondents by Gender

Gender    Frequency   Percentage

Male      177         49.3
Female    182         50.7

Total     359         100


The data in Table 4 indicates that 177(49.3%) of the respondents were males, while females were 182(50.7%).

The data in Table 5 indicates that 276 (76.9%) of the respondents were married, while 83(23.1%) of the respondents were single.

The data in Table 6 indicates that 123 (34.3%) of the medical records personnel lies between 41-50 years age group. While 34 (9.5%) of the medical records personnel are above 50 years of age.

The mean age of respondents was found to be 38.98 with a standard deviation of 9.07 years.

The data in Table 7 shows that 96 (26.7%) of the respondents have spent between 1 and 5 years in service. While 15 (4.2%) of the respondents have spent above 30 years in service. It could be inferred from the data that majority of medical records personnel are still young in service and have spent between 1 and 5 years in service. The mean of their length of service was found to be 14.18 years with a standard deviation of 9.71 years. This suggests that most of the medical records personnel still have many active years to spend in their respective hospitals because the maximum length of service in the public service in Nigeria is 35 years.

The data in Table 8 shows that 140 (39.0%) of the respondents are holders of higher national diploma in medical records while 22 (6.1%) of the respondents are holders of the preliminary certificate in medical records. Only 10 (2.8%) of the respondents are holders of master in health information.

The data in Table 9 indicates that 156(43.5%) of the respondents are medical records officers, 118(32.9%) of the respondents are medical records technicians, while 85(23.7%) of the respondents are medical records assistants.

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between work locus of control and organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria. To test this hypothesis, data collected on work locus of control and organizational commitments were subjected to Pearson product moment correlation analysis. The results are presented in Table 10

From Table 10 the correlation between work locus of control and organizational commitment is -.131 which is significant at 0.05 level (r = -.131, P < 0.05). This implies that there is a significant inverse relationship between work locus of control and organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria. Therefore the stated hypothesis 1 is rejected.

Hypothesis 2: This hypothesis states that there is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

To test this hypothesis, data collected on job satisfaction and organizational commitments were subjected to Pearson product moment correlation analysis. The results are presented in Table 11

From Table 11 the correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment is .340 which is significant at 0.05 level (r = .340, P < 0.05). This implies that there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria. Therefore the stated hypothesis 2 is rejected.

Hypothesis 3: This hypothesis states that a combination of work locus of control and job satisfaction do not have significant influence on organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

To test this hypothesis, data on work locus of control, job satisfaction and organizational commitment were subjected to a multiple regression analysis with organizational commitment as dependable variable. The result is presented in Table 12 and 13.

The data in table 12 indicates that the two variables, work locus of control and job satisfaction, when taken together yielded a Multiple Regression Coefficient (R) of

.350, a Multiple R Square (R2) of .123. This means that .123 or 12.3 percent of the total variance in the organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria can be explained by the combined influence of the two variables. The remaining unexplained 87.7 percent could be due to other factors that were not considered in this study.

In addition, the data in Table 13 shows that the analysis of variance of multiple regression yielded a F value of 24.900 which is significant at 0.05 level. This implies that work locus of control and job satisfaction jointly has a significant influence on the organizational commitment of medical records personnel in University teaching hospitals in Nigeria. Therefore the stated hypothesis 3 is rejected.

To determine the relative contribution of each independent variable (work locus of control and job satisfaction) to predict organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria, the two independent variables (work locus of control and job satisfaction) were entered into a multiple regression analysis with organizational commitment as dependent variable. The result is presented in Table 14

Dependent variable: Organizational commitment

The data in Table 14 indicates that out of the two independent variables (work locus of control and job satisfaction), only job satisfaction significantly predict the organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria (B =.532. t = 6.542, P < 0.05). As regards the contribution of each of the two independent variables (work locus of control and job satisfaction) to the development of organizational commitment of respondents, the data in the table reveals that job satisfaction made the highest contribution (Beta weight = .328 or 32.8%) and this was followed by work locus of control(Beta weight = -.085 or 8.5%).

Discussion of Findings

This section discusses the major findings of this study in respect of each of the stated research hypothesis.

Relationship between work locus of control and organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria

One of the major finding of this study is that there is a significant inverse relationship between work locus of control and organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria. This suggests that medical records personnel in university teaching hospital in Nigeria have external work locus of control beliefs and so their organizational commitment declines with increasing degree of externality. In other words, the more external the medical records personnel are in their work locus of control beliefs the less committed they become. This finding is in line with the results of earlier studies conducted by Kinicki and Vecchio (1994) who reported that individuals with external locus of control are likely to be less committed to their organization than those with internal locus of control.

The inverse relationship between work locus control and organizational commitment of the medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria can be explained in context of their control beliefs. They believe that events that occur to them in the hospitals like promotions, salary increases, praise, appointments, and general career development is not determined by their own actions and behaviour, but by external forces such as chance, luck, fate, good fortune or powerful others.

Relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria

Another major finding of this study is that there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria. The implication of this is that satisfied medical records personnel tend to have a high degree of commitment to their hospitals. This finding corroborated the result of previous studies conducted by Busch, Fallan and Petterson (1998) who reported a positive correlation between organizational commitment and job satisfaction among faculty employees in the college sector in Norway.

The influence of a combination of work locus of control and job satisfaction on organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria

Another major finding of this study is that the combination of work locus of control and job satisfaction have significant influence on the organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria. (F = 24.900, df = 2; 356, P < 0.05).

Conclusion

The study provides empirical evidence to show that work locus of control which is a personality variable, has a significant inverse relationship with organizational commitment.

The study also provides empirical evidence to support theoretical models which stipulates that job satisfaction has significant positive relationship with organizational commitment.

That is not all, the study also provide evidence to indicate that the combination of work locus of control and job satisfaction could significantly influence the organizational commitment of medical records personnel in university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made for the development of organizational commitment.

It is recommended that in the process of recruiting medical records personnel, the work locus of control orientation or beliefs of individual applicant should be taken into consideration. Preference should be given to those who have internal work locus of control orientation or beliefs.

Similarly, it is recommended that in the process of promoting medical records personnel who are already on the job, the work locus of control of individual employees should be taken into consideration. Those with internal work locus of control beliefs should be promoted. This is because internal work locus of control people have positive outlook towards their jobs and organization.

It is recommended that medical records personnel should be encouraged to cultivate internal work locus of control beliefs so that their organizational commitment could be enhanced. This can be done through the provision of counseling services by the management of the university teaching hospitals.

Finally it is recommended that the management of university teaching hospital should make policies that would enhance the job satisfaction level of medical records personnel. For instance, provision of regular on the job or in-service training for medical records personnel from time to time will not only make them more competent but will also enhance their job satisfaction. This could further led to an increase in their organizational commitment.

References

Al-Aameri, A. S. (2000). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment for nurses. Saudi Medical Journal, 21 (6) :531-535

Allen, N.J., & Meyer, J.P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1): 1 -18.

Angle, H.L., & Perry, J.L. (1981). An empirical assessment of organizational commitment and organizational effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26:1-13.

Bateman, T.S., & Strasser, S. (1984). A longitudinal analysis of the antecedent of the antecedent of organizational commitment. Academy of Management Journal, 27(1): 95-112.

Becker, T.E., & Billings, R.S. (1993). Profiles of commitment: An empirical test. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 14: 177-190.

Blau, G. (1993). Testing the relationship of locus of control to different performance dimensions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 66:125-138.

Brown, R.B. (1996). Organizational Commitment: Clarifying the concept and simplying the existing construct typology. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 49: 230-251.

Buchanan, B. (1974). Building organizational commitment: the sociliazation of managers in work organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19: 533-546.

Busch, T., Fallan, L., & Peterson, A. (1998). Disciplinary differences in job satisfaction, self efficacy, goal commitment and organizational commitment among faculty employees in Norwegian colleges: An empirical assessment of indicators of performance. Quality in Higher Education, 4(2):137-157.

Cetin, M.O. (2006) The relationship between job satisfaction, occupational and organizational commitment of academics. The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 8(1): 78-88.

Coleman, D. F., Irving, G.P., & Cooper, C.L. (1999). Another look at the locus of control, organizational commitment relationship; it depends on the form of commitment. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 20 (6): 995-1001.

Curry, J.P., Wakefield, D.S., Price, J.L., & Mueller, C.W. (1986). On the casual ordering of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 847-858.

Dawley, D. D., Stephens R.D., & Stephens, D.B. (2005). Dimensionality of organizational commitment in volunteer workers: Chamber of Commerce board members and role fulfillment. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 67(3): 511-525.

Hrebiniak, L.G., & Alutto, J.A. (1972). Personal and role-related factors in the development of organizational commitment. Administrative Science Quartely, 17, 55-572.

Huffman, E.K. (1994). Health information management (formerly Medical records management). 10th edi. Berwyin, Illinois: Physician Record Company.

Jaros, S.J., Jermier, J.M., Koehler, J.W., & Sincich, T. (1993). Effects of continuance affective and moral commitment on the withdrawal process: An evaluation of eight structural eight structural equation models. Academy of Management Journal, 6: 951-995.

Kinicki, A.J., & Vecchio, R.P. (1994). Influences on the quality of supervisor-subordinate relations: The role of time-pressure organizational commitment and locus of control. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 15, 75-82.

Locke, E.A. (1976). The nature and cause of job satisfaction. In M.D. Dunnette (Ed.) Handbook of Industrial and organizational psychology. Chicago: Rand MC Nally

Luthans, F. (2002). Organizational behavior. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill

Mathieu, J.E., & Zajac, D. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2): 171-194.

Mathis, R.L., & Jackson, J.H. (2000.) Human resource management. 9th ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: South Western College Publishing.

Mayer, R.C., & Schoorman, F.D. (1992). Predicting participation and production outcomes through a two dimensional model of organizational commitment. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 671-684.

Mayer, R.C., & Schoorman, F.D. (1998). Differentiating antecedents of organizational commitment: A test of March and Simon's model. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 19, 15-28.

McShane, S.L., & Von Glinow, M .A. (2000). Organizational behaviour. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. (1984). Testing the side-bet theory organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 372-378.

Meyer, J.P., & Allen, N.J. (1991). A three component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resources Management Review, 1 (1): 61-89

Meyer, J.P., & Allen, N.J. (1997). Commitment in work place: Theory, research, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Meyer, J.P., Allen, N.J., & Smith, C.A. (1993). Commitment to organization and occupations: Extension and test of a three component con conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4) : 538-551.

Mogli, G.D. (2001). Medical records organization and management. New Delhi: Jaypees Brothers Medical Publishers.

Mowday, R.T., Porter, L.W., & Steers, R. (1982). Organizational linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. San Diego: Academic Press.

Mullins, L. (1999). Management and organizational behaviour. 5th ed. London: Pearson Education.

Niehoff, R.L. (1997). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and individual and organizational mission values congruence: Investigating the relationships. (Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the National Catholic Educational Association 94th Minneapolis; MN, April 1-4 1997)

O'Driscoll, M.P., Ilgen, D.R., & Hildreth, K. (1992). Time devoted to job and off-job activities, interrole conflict, and affective experiences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77: 272-279.

O'Reilly, C.A., & Chatman, J. (1986). Organizational commitment and psychology attachment: The effects of compliance, identification and internalization on prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71: 492-499.

Orpen, C. (1992). The work locus of control scale as a predictor of employee attitude and behavior: A validity study psychology. Journal of Human Behaviour, 29: 35-37

Popoola, S.O. (2007). Workplace, biographical and motivation factors affecting organizational commitment of records officers in Nigerian Federal Universities. African Journal of Library Archival and Information Science, 17 (1): 33-44.

Randall, D.M. (1990). The consequences of organizational commitment: A methodological investigation. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 11: 361-378.

Reichers, A.E. (1985). A review and reconceptualization of organizational commitment. Academic of management Review, 10 (3): 465-476.

Robbins, S.P. (1998). Organizational behaviour. 8th ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Rotter, J.B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological monographs 80 (Whale No. 609).

Rotter, J.B., Chance, J.E., & Phares, E.J. (1972). Application of a social learning of personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Sagie, A. (1998). Employee absenteeism, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction: Another look. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 52(2):156-171.

Spector, P.E. (1982). Behaviour in organizations as a function of employee's locus of control. Psychological Bulletin, 91(3):482-497

Spector, P.E. (1988). Development of the work locus of control scale. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61: 335-340.

Steers, R.M. (1977). Antecedents and outcomes of organizational commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22: 46-56.

Testa, M.R. (2001). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction. and effort in the service environment. The Journal of Psychology, 135(2):226-236

Tett, R.P., & Meyer, J.P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analysis based on meta-analytic findings. Personal Psychology, Summers: 259-293.

Weiss, D.J., Dawis, R.V., England, G.W., & Lofquist, L.H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire. (Minnesota studies on Vocational Rehabilitation No. 22) Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Industrial relation centre.

Wiener, Y. (1982). Commitment in organizations: A normative view. Academy of Management Review, 7: 418-428.

Williams, L.J., & Hazer, J.T. (1986). Antecedents and consequences of sitisfation and commitment in turn over models: A reanalysis using latent variable structural equation methods. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(2): 219-231.

Willan, J.A. (1990). Hospital management in the tropics and subtropics. London: Macmillan.

World Health Organization. Constitution of the World Health Organization, Geneva, (1946).

Wright, P.M., & Noe, R.A. (1996). Management of organizations. Chicago: Irwin.

Bruno I. Igbeneghu

Department of Library, Archival, & Information Studies

University of Ibadan

Ibadan, Nigeria

S.O. Popoola

Department of Library, Archival, & Information Studies

University of Ibadan

Ibadan, Nigeria
Table 1: Population of Medical Records Personnel in University
Teaching Hospitals in Nigeria

                                                Medical    Medical
                                                Records    Records
                                                Officers   Technicians

1    Ahamdu Bello University, Zaria             11         29

2    Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano         5          6

3    University of Benin Teaching Hospital,
     Benin-City                                 4          9

4    University of Calabar Teaching Hospital,
     Calabar                                    23         5

5    University College Hospital, Ibadan        14         12

6    University of Ilorin Teaching hospital,
     Ilorin                                     12         30

7    Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos      3          3

8    Lagos University Teaching Hospital,
     Idi-Araba                                  29         --

9    University of Maiduguri Teaching
     Hospital, Maiduguri                        19         7

10   Nnamdi Azikwe University Teaching
     Hospital, Nnewi                            17         --

11   Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching
     Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife                 25         --

12   University of Port-Harcourt Teaching
     Hospital, Port-Harcourt                    14         3

13   Usmanu Dan Fodio University Teaching
     Hospital, Sokoto                           8          5

14   University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital,
     Enugu                                      3          21

15   University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo   12         12

16   Imo State University Teaching Hospital,
     Orlu                                       1          1

17   Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital,
     Irrua                                      2          10

18   Lagos State University Teaching
     Hospital, Ojoo                             10         --

19   Ladoke Akintola University Teaching
     Hospital, Osogbo                           8          11

20   Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching
     Hospital, Sagamu                           7          7

     Total                                      227        171

                                               Medical
                                               records      Total
                                               Assistants

1   Ahamdu Bello University, Zaria             15           55

2   Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano         35           46

3   University of Benin Teaching Hospital,
    Benin-City                                 13           26

4   University of Calabar Teaching Hospital,
    Calabar                                    11           39

5   University College Hospital, Ibadan        --           26

6   University of Ilorin Teaching hospital,
    Ilorin                                     9            51

7   Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos      32           38

8   Lagos University Teaching Hospital,
    Idi-Araba                                  --           29

9   University of Maiduguri Teaching
    Hospital, Maiduguri                        8            34

10  Nnamdi Azikwe University Teaching
    Hospital, Nnewi                            --           17

11  Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching
    Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife                 7            32

12  University of Port-Harcourt Teaching
    Hospital, Port-Harcourt                    14           31

13  Usmanu Dan Fodio University Teaching
    Hospital, Sokoto                           9            22

14  University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital,
    Enugu                                      --           24

15  University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo   2            26

16  Imo State University Teaching Hospital,
    Orlu                                       2            4

17  Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital,
    Irrua                                      --           12

18  Lagos State University Teaching
    Hospital, Ojoo                             --           10

19  Ladoke Akintola University Teaching
    Hospital, Osogbo                           --           19

20  Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching
    Hospital, Sagamu                           3            17

    Total                                      160          558

Table 2: Sample Population of the Study

     Names of university Teaching               Medical    Medical
     Hospitals                                  Records    Records
                                                Officers   Technicians

1    Ahamadu Bello University
     Teaching Hospital, Zaria                   11         29

2    Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano         5          6

3    University of Benin Teaching Hospital,
     Benin-city                                 4          9

4    University of Calabar Teaching Hospital,
     Calabar                                    23         5

5    University college Hospital, Ibadan        14         12

6    University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital,
     Ilorin                                     12         30

7    Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos      3          3

8    Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-
     Araba                                      29         --

9    University of Maiduguri Teaching
     Hospital, Maiduguri                        19         7

10   Nnamdi Azikwe University Teaching
     Hospital, Nnewi                            17         --

11   Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching
     Hospitals complex, Ile-Ife                 25         --

12   University of Port-Harcourt Teaching
     Hospital, Port-Harcourt                    14         3

13   Usmanu Dan Fodio University Teaching
     Hospital, Sokoto                           8          5

14   University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital,
     Enugu                                      3          21

15   University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo   12         12

16   Imo state University Teaching Hospital,
     Orlu                                       1          1

17   Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital,
     Irrua                                      2          10

     Total                                      202        153

     Names of university Teaching               Medical
     Hospitals                                  Records      Total
                                                Assistants

1    Ahamadu Bello University
     Teaching Hospital, Zaria                   15           55

2    Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano         35           46

3    University of Benin Teaching Hospital,
     Benin-city                                 13           26

4    University of Calabar Teaching Hospital,
     Calabar                                    11           39

5    University college Hospital, Ibadan        --           26

6    University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital,
     Ilorin                                     9            51

7    Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos      32           38

8    Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-
     Araba                                      --           29

9    University of Maiduguri Teaching
     Hospital, Maiduguri                        8            34

10   Nnamdi Azikwe University Teaching
     Hospital, Nnewi                            --           17

11   Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching
     Hospitals complex, Ile-Ife                 7            32

12   University of Port-Harcourt Teaching
     Hospital, Port-Harcourt                    14           31

13   Usmanu Dan Fodio University Teaching
     Hospital, Sokoto                           9            22

14   University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital,
     Enugu                                      --           24

15   University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo   2            26

16   Imo state University Teaching Hospital,
     Orlu                                       2            4

17   Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital,
     Irrua                                      --           12

     Total                                      157          512

Table 3: Administration and Collection of Questionnaire

     Names of University Teaching   Population of     No of
     Hospitals                      medical Records   Questionnaire
                                    personnel         Administered

1    Ahmadu Bello University,
     Zaria                          55                55

2    Aminu Kano Teaching
     Hospital, Kano                 46                46

3    University of Benin Teaching
     Hospital, Benin-City           26                26

4    University of Calabar
     Teaching Hospital, Calabar     39                39

5    University College Hospital,
     Ibadan                         26                26

6    University of Ilorin
     Teaching Hospital, Ilorin      51                51

7    Jos university Teaching
     Hospital, Jos                  38                38

8    Lagos University Teaching
     Hospital, Idi-Araba            29                29

9    University of Maiduguri
     Teaching hospital, Maiduguri   34                34

10   Nnamdi Azikwe University
     Teaching Hospital, Nnewi       17                17

11   Obafemi Awolowo University
     Teaching Hospitals complex,
     Ile-Ife                        32                32

12.  University of Port Harcourt
     Teaching Hospital, Port -
     Harcourt                       31                31

13   Usmanu Dan Fodio University
     Teaching Hospital, Sokoto      22                22

14   University of Nigeria
     Teaching Hospital, Enugu       24                24

15   University of Uyo Teaching
     Hospital, Uyo                  26                26

16   Imo state University
     Teaching Hospital, Orlu        4                 4

17   Irrua Specialist Teaching
     Hospital, Irrua                12                12

     Total                          512               512

     Names of University Teaching   No of
     Hospitals                      Questionnaire
                                    Returned

1    Ahmadu Bello University,
     Zaria                          42

2    Aminu Kano Teaching
     Hospital, Kano                 22

3    University of Benin Teaching
     Hospital, Benin-City           18

4    University of Calabar
     Teaching Hospital, Calabar     16

5    University College Hospital,
     Ibadan                         22

6    University of Ilorin
     Teaching Hospital, Ilorin      39

7    Jos university Teaching
     Hospital, Jos                  26

8    Lagos University Teaching
     Hospital, Idi-Araba            26

9    University of Maiduguri
     Teaching hospital, Maiduguri   33

10   Nnamdi Azikwe University
     Teaching Hospital, Nnewi       13

11   Obafemi Awolowo University
     Teaching Hospitals complex,
     Ile-Ife                        19

12.  University of Port Harcourt
     Teaching Hospital, Port -
     Harcourt                       24

13   Usmanu Dan Fodio University
     Teaching Hospital, Sokoto      15

14   University of Nigeria
     Teaching Hospital, Enugu       13

15   University of Uyo Teaching
     Hospital, Uyo                  18

16   Imo state University
     Teaching Hospital, Orlu        4

17   Irrua Specialist Teaching
     Hospital, Irrua                9

     Total                          359

Table 5: Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status

           Frequency   Percentage

Single     83          23.1
Married    276         76.9

Total      359         100

Table 6: Distribution of Respondents by Age

Ages            Frequently   Percentage

20-30           85           23.7
31-40           11.7         32.6
41-50           123          34.3
51 and above    34           9.5

Total           359          100

Table 7: Distribution of Respondents by Length of Service

Length of service    Frequency   Percentage

1-5                  96          26.7
6-10                 51          14.2
11-15                53          14.8
16-20                60          16.7
21-25                36          10.0
26-30                48          13.4
31 and above         15          4.2

Total                359         100

Table 8: Distribution of Respondents by Educational Qualifications

Educational Qualifications                   Frequency   Percentage

Preliminary Certificate In Medical Records   22          6.1
National Certificate In Medical Records      64          17.8
National Diploma In Medical Records          123         34.3
Higher National Diploma In Medical Records   140         39.0
Master in Health Information                 10          2.8

Total                                        359         100

Table 9: Distribution of Respondents by Categories of staff

Categories of Staff             Frequency   Percentage

Medical Records Officers        156         43.5
Medical Records Technicians     118         32.9
Medical records Assistants      85          23.7

Total                           359         100

Table 10: Correlation between Work Locus of Control and
Organizational Commitment of Respondents

                            N     Mean       Std.D     R       P

Work locus of control       359   51.41      8.5729
                                                       -.131   .013
Organizational commitment   359   112.8524   17.6631

Correlation is significant at P < 0.05

Table 11: Correlation between Job Satisfaction and Organization
Commitment of Respondents

                            N     Mean     Std.D   R      P

Job satisfaction            359   74.12
                                           10.88   .340   .000
Organizational commitment   359   112.85

Correlation is significant at P < 0.05

Table 12: Summary of Multiple Regression Analysis of Relationship
between work locus of control, Job satisfaction and Organizational
commitment of Respondents

Model    R      R Square      Adjusted   Standard Error
                ([R.sup.2])   R Square   of the Estimate

1        .350   .123          .118       16.406

Predictors: (constant) work locus of control and job satisfaction.

Dependent variable: Organizational commitment

Table 13: Analysis of Variance Showing the Relationship between Work
Locus of Control, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of
Respondents

                      Sum of            Mean
Model                 square      df    square     F        Sig

         Regression   13706.925   2     6853.462
1                                                  24.900   .000
         Residual     97984.251   356   275.237

         Total        111691.18   358

Predictors: (constant) work locus of control and job satisfaction

Dependent variable : Organizational commitment

Table 14: Relative Contribution of Independent Variables to
Organizational Commitment of Respondents

                         Unstandardized     Standardized
                         co-efficient       coefficient

Model                  B        Std. Error   Beta        t        P

        Constant       82.433   8.621                    9.561    .000
                                             -.085
1       work locus
        of control     -.176    .103                     -1.702   .090

        job
        satisfaction   .532     .081                     6.542    .000

Significant at P < 0.05

Dependent variable: Organizational commitment
COPYRIGHT 2011 University of Idaho Library
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Igbeneghu, Bruno I.; Popoola, S.O.
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Article Type:Case study
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Aug 1, 2011
Words:8771
Previous Article:A user survey of five women's college libraries in south campus, University of Delhi, India.
Next Article:Revisiting academic library design: a response to William T. Caniano's "Academic Library Design: a Commons or an Athenaeum".
Topics:

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters