Influence of conditioning diet and spawning frequency on variation in egg diameter for Greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata.ABSTRACT Both nutrient nutrient /nu·tri·ent/ (noo´tre-int)
1. nourishing; providing nutrition.
2. a food or other substance that provides energy or building material for the survival and growth of a living organism. provisioning of eggs, during development within the ovary ovary, ductless gland of the female in which the ova (female reproductive cells) are produced. In vertebrate animals the ovary also secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the development of the sexual organs and the secondary sexual , and egg diameter are believed to be important factors governing the development and survival of invertebrate invertebrate (ĭn'vûr`təbrət, –brāt'), any animal lacking a backbone. The invertebrates include the tunicates and lancelets of phylum Chordata, as well as all animal phyla other than Chordata. larvae Larvae, in Roman religion
Larvae: see lemures. . The diet of female broodstock and the conditioning regimen are likely to influence these parameters. In this study we examine the effect nf broodstock diet (three formulated diets differing in levels of the fatty acid fatty acid, any of the organic carboxylic acids present in fats and oils as esters of glycerol. Molecular weights of fatty acids vary over a wide range. The carbon skeleton of any fatty acid is unbranched. Some fatty acids are saturated, i.e. , Arachidonic acid arachidonic acid /arach·i·don·ic acid/ (ah-rak?i-don´ik) a polyunsaturated 20-carbon essential fatty acid occurring in animal fats and formed by biosynthesis from linoleic acid; it is a precursor to leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and [ARA Ara or Arrah (both: ŭ`rə), city (1991 pop. 157,082), Bihar state, NE India, on the Son Canal. A major road and rail junction, it is the administrative center for a district that produces grain, sugarcane, and oilseed. ], and a red seaweed seaweed, name commonly used for the multicellular marine algae. Simpler forms, consisting of one cell (e.g., the diatom) or of a few cells, are not generally called seaweeds; these tiny plants help to make up plankton. diet) and spawning frequency on egg diameter variability both within a batch of eggs spawned from one female and between batches of eggs. Greenlip abalone abalone (ăbəlō`nē), popular name in the United States for a univalve gastropod mollusk of the genus Haliotis, members of which are also called ear shells, or sea ears, as their shape resembles the human ear. broodstock were spawned at the beginning of the experiment and again every 16 wks (1131[degrees]C days effective accumulative LEGACY, ACCUMULATIVE. An accumulative legacy is a second bequest given by the same testator to the same legatee, whether it be of the same kind of thing, as money, or whether it be of different things, as, one hundred dollars, in one legacy, and a thousand dollars in another, or whether temperature [EAT]) using commercial hatchery hatchery
a commercial establishment dedicated to the hatching of bird eggs to provide day old chicks and poults to the poultry industry.
the contents of unfertilized eggs. Used in petfood manufacture. practices. The variability of egg diameter within batches spawned from the same female over three consecutive spawning rounds and within diet treatments was determined. Cytoplasm cytoplasm: see protoplasm.
Portion of a eukaryotic cell outside the nucleus. The cytoplasm contains all the organelles (see eukaryote). diameter, vitelline vitelline /vi·tel·line/ (vi-tel´in) pertaining to or resembling a yolk.
Of, relating to, or associated with the yolk of an egg.
The yolk of an egg. layer and jelly coat thickness of unfertilized Adj. 1. unfertilized - not having been fertilized; "an unfertilized egg"
infertile, sterile, unfertile - incapable of reproducing; "an infertile couple" eggs were also compared between eggs spawned from individual females and between females. In addition, the relationships between broodstock parameters (weight and shell length) and egg diameter were explored. Eggs spawned from females feeding on a red seaweed diet were smaller than eggs from the low ARA treatment. Depending on spawning frequency, broodstock diet can influence the cytoplasm diameter and jelly coat thickness. No relationship between egg diameter and broodstock parameters was found. However, batches spawned from the same female abalone became more variable over time with a shift in size frequency distribution. Results indicate that the variability of egg diameter within a batch changes from female to female and highlights the importance of selecting successful broodstock for conditioning at commercial hatcheries.
KEY WORDS: abalone, Haliotis laevigata, diets, egg diameter, arachidonic acid
One of the crucial factors controlling the development of the Australian abalone aquaculture aquaculture, the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production. industry is the successful conditioning of broodstock because the supply of suitable wild broodstock has at times been limiting. Gonad gonad /go·nad/ (go´nad) a gamete-producing gland; an ovary or testis.gonad´algonad´ial
indifferent gonad the sexually undifferentiated gonad of the early embryo. conditioning provides flexibility in production cycles and more economical use of hatchery resources (Lleonart 1992) as well as allowing genetic improvement programs.
Abalone larvae are lecithotrophic and rely heavily on yolk yolk (yok) the stored nutrient of an oocyte or ovum.
The portion of the egg of an animal that consists of protein and fat from which the early embryo gets its main nourishment and of reserves provided by the egg to fuel development (Jaeckle & Manahan 1989). Previous studies have indicated that smaller eggs have improved fertilization fertilization, in biology, process in the reproduction of both plants and animals, involving the union of two unlike sex cells (gametes), the sperm and the ovum, followed by the joining of their nuclei. rates and contain more total lipid than larger eggs (Daume & Ryan 2004). However, it is widely considered for invertebrates, that larger eggs produce larger offspring with a greater chance of survival (Levitan 2000), and that fertilization is increased at lower sperm concentrations for larger eggs (Levitan 1996, Marshall et al. 2002).
It has been proposed that the most appropriate method of determining reproductive cycles reproductive cycle
The cycle of physiological changes that begins with conception and extends through gestation and parturition. in molluscs and echinoderms is to measure oocytes (Grant & Tyler 1983). However, egg diameter, post spawning, is believed to be a key determinant determinant, a polynomial expression that is inherent in the entries of a square matrix. The size n of the square matrix, as determined from the number of entries in any row or column, is called the order of the determinant. of reproductive performance (Brooks et al. 1997) and small differences in egg diameter are considered to have significant biological consequences (George 1999). The ratio of cytoplasm to egg diameter is considered to be useful for assessing reproductive performance in blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra Leach, (Littay & De Silva 2001) and to provide a measure of optimal egg size for fertilization experiments without the need for histological his·tol·o·gy
n. pl. his·tol·o·gies
1. The anatomical study of the microscopic structure of animal and plant tissues.
2. The microscopic structure of tissue. examination.
Earlier research on broodstock conditioning with greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata, Donovan) showed evidence of nutrient depletion of eggs during lengthy conditioning periods and high spawning induction frequency (Daume & Ryan 2004, Freeman et al. submitted).
Thus nutrient provisioning of eggs and egg diameter are important factors governing the development and survival of larvae. The diet of female broodstock and the conditioning regimen are likely to contribute to the quality of abalone eggs. A crucial step in successful abalone aquaculture is selecting female broodstock that exhibit high fecundity fecundity /fe·cun·di·ty/ (fe-kun´dit-e)
1. in demography, the physiological ability to reproduce, as opposed to fertility.
2. ability to produce offspring rapidly and in large numbers. and produce high quality eggs over consecutive spawnings. This reduces the need to hold large groups of females and minimizes the amount of hatchery resources, such as feed, needed to maintain the broodstock.
This study examined the effect of diet (three formulated diets with differing levels of the fatty acid, ARA and a red seaweed diet) and spawning frequency on the variability in egg diameter within a batch of eggs spawned from one female and between batches and is part of a larger study of the influence of these diets on fecundity, egg quality and larval larval
1. pertaining to larvae.
see cutaneous and visceral larva migrans. success.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, were collected in August 2003 from Augusta (115[degrees]16'E; 34[degrees]32'S) and Hopetoun (120[degrees]13'E; 33[degrees]95'S), Western Australia Western Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,409,965), 975,920 sq mi (2,527,633 sq km), Australia, comprising the entire western part of the continent. It is bounded on the N, W, and S by the Indian Ocean. Perth is the capital. and held indoors at Great Southern Marine Hatcheries, Albany, Western Australia Albany (IPA: /æl'bənɪ/) is the largest regional city in Western Australia, situated around a port on its southern coast. .
Broodstock were randomly assigned to spawning groups (A to D), and within each spawning group there were 12 round 60 L plastic tubs of females and two tubs of males, with each tub containing 3 animals.
Broodstock were exposed to a photoperiod photoperiod /pho·to·pe·ri·od/ (fo´to-per?e-od) the period of time per day that an organism is exposed to daylight (or to artificial light).photoperiod´ic
n. of 12L:12D at ca. 100 lux (measured at the bottom of tubs). The conditioning system received flow through, temperature controlled seawater seawater
Water that makes up the oceans and seas. Seawater is a complex mixture of 96.5% water, 2.5% salts, and small amounts of other substances. Much of the world's magnesium is recovered from seawater, as are large quantities of bromine. (average temperature, 17 [+ or -] 0.2[degrees]C).
Broodstock (average length 132.5 [+ or -] 3.5 mm; average weight 352.2 [+ or -] 27.6 g) were spawned prior to treatment conditioning and again every 16 wks, (i.e., every 1131[degrees]C-days EAT). The study was conducted from October 2003 to October 2004 including a natural spawning season.
EAT was calculated using the formula (Kikuchi & Uki 1974):
[Y.sub.n] = [n.summation summation n. the final argument of an attorney at the close of a trial in which he/she attempts to convince the judge and/or jury of the virtues of the client's case. (See: closing argument) ove i=1] ([t.sub.i] - [theta Theta
A measure of the rate of decline in the value of an option due to the passage of time. Theta can also be referred to as the time decay on the value of an option. If everything is held constant, then the option will lose value as time moves closer to the maturity of the option. ])
where [Y.sub.n] ([degrees]C days) = EAT, n (days) = number of days since water temperature rose above [theta], [t.sub.i] ([degrees]C) = daily water temperature in which the animal was reared, and [theta] ([degrees]C) = biological zero point for gonad maturation maturation /mat·u·ra·tion/ (mach-u-ra´shun)
1. the process of becoming mature.
2. attainment of emotional and intellectual maturity.
3. (6.9[degrees]C for H. laevigata; Grubert & Ritar 2003). Spawning dates were October 2003 for the spawn To launch another program from the current program. The child program is spawned from the parent program.
(operating system) spawn - To create a child process in a multitasking operating system. E.g. out, January/February 2004 for the first, May/June 2004 for the second and September 2004 for the third spawning (Table 1).
Within each spawning group (Table 1), 36 females (9 females per treatment) and 6 male greenlip abalone were individually induced to spawn using a combination of desiccation des·ic·ca·tion
The process of being desiccated.
desic·ca for 1 h, heat stress at 21[degrees]C and UV treated seawater.
Female broodstock were conditioned on four different diets, with three replicated tubs (9 animals in total) per diet treatment and per spawning group. One set of females were fed a formulated diet with a low enrichment level of arachidonic acid (EPA EPA eicosapentaenoic acid.
n.pr See acid, eicosapentaenoic.
n. : ARA = 3:8; 1% of total fatty acids), the second set was fed a formulated diet containing a high level of ARA (EPA: ARA = 1:16; 2% of total fatty acids). A third set was fed a formulated diet containing no arachidonic acid (EPA: ARA = 6:0, 0% of total fatty acids). The formulation of the diet is proprietary. The fourth set of females was fed a mixed red seaweed diet (e.g., Plocamium mertensii, Gracilaria sp.). The mixed red seaweed was collected from the Southern Ocean mainly around Albany (117[degrees]95'E; 34[degrees]90'S); the Gracilaria sp. was collected from Hopetoun (120[degrees]13'E; 33[degrees]95'S). Animals were cleaned and fed ad libitum ad libitum
ad libitum feeding
food available at all times with the quantity and frequency of consumption being the free choice of the animal. daily. Feed intake was monitored daily.
Unfertilized egg samples were collected within 30 min of the female spawning and immediately fixed in 10% formalin formalin /for·ma·lin/ (for´mah-lin) formaldehyde solution.
An aqueous solution of formaldehyde that is 37 percent by weight. . Thirty eggs were then measured using an eyepiece Eyepiece
A lens or optical system which offers to the eye the image originating from another system (the objective), at a suitable viewing distance. The image can be virtual. graticule Grat´i`cule
n. 1. A design or draught which has been divided into squares, in order to reproduce it in other dimensions.
Noun 1. on an inverted microscope An inverted microscope is a microscope with its light source and condenser on the top above the stage pointing down, and the objectives and turret are below the stage pointing up. . Cytoplasm diameter, vitelline layer and jelly coat thickness were compared between individual females, diet treatments and across consecutive spawnings (Fig. 1). The variability of egg diameter within batches spawned from the same female over three consecutive spawning rounds and within diet treatments were determined. Egg diameter includes the vitelline and cytoplasm components of the egg. The ratio of cytoplasm to egg diameter was calculated as the cytoplasm measurement divided by the egg diameter. Eggs were classed as primary eggs when the jelly coat and vitelline layer was absent and the total egg diameter was on average 111.51 [+ or -] 10.54 [micro]m.
All data analyses were carried out using Statistica software (version 6.0. StatSoft, Inc. 2002). Normality normality, in chemistry: see concentration. of all data was checked graphically using boxplots and with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test In statistics, the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (often called the K-S test) is used to determine whether two underlying one-dimensional probability distributions differ, or whether an underlying probability distribution differs from a hypothesized distribution, in either .
Comparisons of egg parameters (cytoplasm, vitelline layer and jelly coat thickness), and comparisons of broodstock parameters with batch and egg size, were carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there ) with Tukey post hoc post hoc
adv. & adj.
In or of the form of an argument in which one event is asserted to be the cause of a later event simply by virtue of having happened earlier: comparisons. Repeated measure analyses could not be performed, because different individuals spawned successfully during each of the three attempted spawnings.
Weight and shell length data in relation to weight loss were investigated using repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post hoc comparisons. The relationship between broodstock parameters (length and weight) and egg diameter were explored with a simple regression Noun 1. simple regression - the relation between selected values of x and observed values of y (from which the most probable value of y can be predicted for any value of x)
regression toward the mean, statistical regression, regression analysis (P < 0.05).
Size-frequency distribution of egg diameter were compared over time and between treatments where appropriate using descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. (minimum, maximum, size range, first and third quartile Quartile
A statistical term describing a division of observations into four defined intervals based upon the values of the data and how they compare to the entire set of observations.
Each quartile contains 25% of the total observations. ). Interquartile differences between the first and third quartile were used as a measure of spread of the size-frequency distributions.
Influence of Diets on Cytoplasm Diameter, Vitelline Layer and Jelly Coat Thickness, Egg Diameter and the Ratio of Cytoplasm to Egg Diameter of Abalone Eggs over Three Consecutive Spawnings
During the first spawning, diet had a significant effect on cytoplasm diameter and jelly coat thickness (df = 9, F = 2.13, P = 0.03), however there was no significant difference in vitelline thickness between treatments (Table 2). Eggs obtained from females fed the red seaweed diet were smaller in cytoplasm diameter than the low ARA treatment (post hoc = 0.005). Jelly coat diameter was largest in the red seaweed treatment and significantly larger than in the low ARA treatment (post hoc = 0.007).
Diet treatments were found to have no significant effect on cytoplasm diameter, vitelline layer or jelly coat thickness of eggs obtained from the second (df = 9, F = 1.102, P = 0.38) and third consecutive spawning (df = 9, F = 1.12, P = 0.35).
Across all spawnings, diet significantly influenced egg diameter (df = 3, F = 3.24, P = 0.023). Egg diameter in the red seaweed diet was significantly smaller than egg diameter in the low ARA (post hoc = 0.015), but did not differ significantly from the high ARA or control diet.
In all four diet treatments, the ratio of cytoplasm to egg diameter decreased between the first and third spawning rounds. The ratio was highest in the low ARA treatment during the first spawning round and decreased to 0.88 in the third spawning round. Similarly the ratio in the high ARA treatment decreased to 0.88 in the third round, from 0.92 in the first round and 0.90 in the second round.
The occurrence of primary eggs in batches spawned by females fed the red seaweed diet increased over the three consecutive spawning rounds (Table 2). However, primary eggs occurred more frequently in the three formulated diet treatments, particularly during the first spawning round.
Relationship Between Diet, Shell Length, Weight and Weight Change of Female Broodstock over Three Consecutive Spawning Rounds
Table 3 shows the shell length, weights and weight changes of all female broodstock at each individual spawning including the initial spawn out. Over the whole experimental period, all animals lost weight and time had a significant effect on weight loss (df = 3, F = 11.78, P = 0.00). Broodstock weight at spawnout was significantly higher than weight during the first (post hoc P < 0.001), second (post hoc = 0.000133) and third (post hoc P < 0.001) spawnings.
Size Frequency Distribution of Eggs Spawned by the Same Female over three Consecutive Spawning Rounds
Eggs spawned by female one during the first spawning ranged between 208-229 [micro]m, with 75% (3rd quartile) of the eggs being within 210 and 224 [micro]m in diameter (Table 4, Fig. 2a). The spread of data became slightly more variable during the second spawning increasing to an interquartile difference of 7.23 from 5.26 during the first and third spawning. For the second female, variability in egg size decreased from the first to the second spawning and then increased slightly during the third spawning (Interquartile difference 7.23, 2.63 and 5.92 respectively). The spread of data for the third female was more consistent over all three spawnings with the interquartile difference remaining at 5.26. Egg diameter ranged between 210-230 [micro]m.
Eggs obtained from this female fed the high ARA formulated feed were less variable over time, with eggs ranging between 203-221 [micro]m during the first spawning and between 210-230 [micro]m and 210 and 229 [micro]m in the second and third spawnings, respectively (Table 4, Fig. 2b). The interquartile difference stayed constant at 5.26 during all three spawnings.
The size frequency distribution of eggs obtained from the first female were highly variable between the first and second spawnings, with the distribution shifting from between 200-253 [micro]m, respectively (Table 4, Fig. 2c). The interquartile difference increased from 2.63-15.78 from the first to the second spawning and decreased to 6.57 during the third spawning. The second female only spawned during the first and second spawning, however the size variability was smaller and ranged from 210-239 [micro]m.
Control Diet (No ARA)
During the first spawning round eggs obtained from the first female ranged between 204-228 wm with 75% (3rd quartile) of the eggs within 205 and 218 [micro]m in diameter (Table 4, Fig. 2d). The interquartile difference decreased slightly from 6.25-5.26 during the second spawning round, and was highest at 11.84 during the third spawning round. The eggs spawned by the second female were less variable during the first and third spawning. The interquartile difference was lowest during the first spawning (5.59) and increased to 7.89 and 7.56 during the second and third spawning respectively. The third female spawned during only the first and second spawning however, egg size decreased over these time periods with eggs ranging from 210-224 over the first and second rounds, respectively.
Influence of Diets on Broodstock Parameters and Egg Parameters
The results of this study suggest that diet is not the only factor controlling the size of the eggs produced. Over all three consecutive spawnings, egg diameter in the red seaweed treatment differed significantly from only the low ARA diet, and relative differences varied with spawning rounds. During the first spawning round, eggs spawned by females fed the red seaweed diet were significantly smaller in cytoplasm diameter and had significantly larger jelly coats than those in the low ARA treatment. However, during the second and third consecutive spawnings there was no significant effect of diet on cytoplasm diameter, vitelline layer thickness or jelly coat thickness. Previous studies have indicated that diet directly influences egg quality in marine invertebrates (Jaeckle 1995). On the other hand, Nevejan et al. (2003) found that the total lipid content of eggs and the size of the eggs spawned by the scallop scallop or pecten, marine bivalve mollusk. Like its close relative the oyster, the scallop has no siphons, the mantle being completely open, but it differs from other mollusks in that both mantle edges have a row of steely blue "eyes" and , Argopecten purpuratus were independent of diet. Similarly Caers et al. (2002) found there to be no significant effect of diet on the egg size of the oyster oyster, edible bivalve mollusk found in beds in shallow, warm waters of all oceans. The shell is made up of two valves, the upper one flat and the lower convex, with variable outlines and a rough outer surface. , Crassostrea gigas.
The role of diet in this study is unclear. Whether the increase in egg diameter in the low ARA treatment is correlated with the ARA content of the eggs will be determined after subsequent biochemical analysis of the eggs. It is likely however that the maternal condition of the female broodstock during the second spawning was negatively influenced by some other factor like overall animal nutritional condition. All animals lost weight during the experiment particularly when feeding on the formulated diet at the start of the experiment. It could be suggested that animals needed a weaning weaning,
n the period of transition from breast feeding to eating solid foods.
the act of separating the young from the dam that it has been sucking, or receiving a milk diet provided by the dam or from artificial sources. period to get used to the new diets because weight loss was less apparent on the natural diet and decreased on the formulated diets after the first spawning.
If measurements of egg diameter are an accurate representation of egg ripeness, because larger eggs are more ripe than smaller eggs, then those eggs obtained from the low ARA formulated feed treatments were more ripe than those obtained from the red seaweed treatment. On the other hand the low ARA diet showed the highest percentage occurrence of primary eggs. It is possible that these larger eggs contained more moisture as found by Daume and Ryan (2004) and were thus not a true reflection of ripeness. It may also be that the micronutrient mi·cro·nu·tri·ent
A substance, such as a vitamin or mineral, that is essential in minute amounts for the proper growth and metabolism of a living organism. content of the formulated feeds may be lower than optimal. The red seaweed diet is a mixed species diet and subsequently may be lacking in some macronutrients This is a list of macronutrients. Minerals
The decrease in the ratio of cytoplasm to egg diameter across all treatments may suggest that egg quality deteriorated over the consecutive spawnings. Littay and De Silva (2001) reported for blacklip abalone, that a ratio of yolk (equivalent to cytoplasm in this study) to total egg diameter between 0.83-0.87 was ideal for this species and provided the highest fertilization rate. These authors suggested that any deviation from this range (0.83-0.87) indicates overripe o·ver·ripe
1. Too ripe.
2. Marked by decay or decline.
over·ripe eggs or declining egg biochemical status. The ratios found in our study were much higher than those found by Littay and De Silva (2001) however that might be attributable to the different species investigated in this study.
Size Frequency Distribution of Eggs
The descriptive statistics of the size frequency distributions of eggs spawned from individual females suggest that the eggs within the gonad are not uniform in size and display high variability between consecutive spawnings. This may be directly related to conditioning time, with the broodstock needing a longer conditioning period to produce eggs of similar size and quality.
Huchette et al. (2004) found that development of blacklip abalone oocytes within the gonad was not uniform and resulted in eggs that were variable in size. Clavier (1992) suggested that only the largest and ripest oocytes within the gonad are released during a spawning. However, in this study egg size was very variable over single spawnings for some females. Broodstock may have responded to nutritional stress, resulting in resorption resorption /re·sorp·tion/ (re-sorp´shun)
1. the lysis and assimilation of a substance, as of bone.
n. of ripe gametes. Martinez et al. (1992) concluded that a reduction in the gonad index of a hatchery-reared scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, was caused by resorption of ripe gametes because the broodstock were under nutritional stress.
In this study, egg diameter was measured as total egg diameter including the vitelline layer and the cytoplasm. However, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Grant and Tyler (1983), the most appropriate method of determining reproductive cycles in molluscs and echinoderms is to measure oocytes. On the other hand, egg diameter is believed to be a key determinant of reproductive performance in fish (Brooks et al. 1997) and small differences in egg diameter are considered to have significant biological consequences (George 1999). Measuring egg diameter of unfertilized eggs (post spawning) is a relatively quick and simple means of gaining reproductive information about broodstock without the need of culling culling
removal of inferior animals from a group of breeding stock. The removal is premature, i.e. before completion of its life span, disposal of an animal from a herd or other group. broodstock to measure oocytes.
In this study we showed that the egg diameter varied between eggs spawned from females (14. laevigatu) feeding on a red seaweed compared with the low ARA diet. Depending on spawning frequency, broodstock diet can also influence the cytoplasm diameter and jelly coat thickness. Egg parameter measurements and ratios of cytoplasm to egg diameter may be useful parameters for assessing reproductive performance in greenlip abalone. Studies are needed to further investigate the influence of broodstock diets on egg variability and ultimately on larval survival. Combination diets, where broodstock are fed a formulated feed for the better part of the conditioning period, and then a suitable red seaweed species will be tested.
The authors thank Great Southern Marine Hatcheries, Australia for hosting this part of the study and their staff and Kylie Noun 1. kylie - an Australian boomerang; one side flat and the other convex
boomerang, throw stick, throwing stick - a curved piece of wood; when properly thrown will return to thrower Freeman, Mathieu Castex and Misty mist·y
adj. mist·i·er, mist·i·est
1. Consisting of or marked by mist: a misty rain; a misty night.
2. Shipway for helping with spawnings and abalone egg measurements. Drs Greg Maguire and Anthony Hart provided useful editorial input. This study was funded as part of an FRDC FRDC Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Australia)
FRDC Food Research and Development Centre (Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada)
FRDC Florida Research and Development Center project (2003/203). Dr Brett Glencross formulated the broodstock diets and he and Wayne Hawkins Wayne Hawkins (born 1938) was an American college and professional football player from the University of the Pacific. Drafted as an offensive guard in the American Football League's first draft by the Denver Broncos in their "First Selection round", he joined the Oakland Raiders produced the diets.
Brooks, S., C. R. Tyler & J. P. Sumpter. 1997. Egg quality in fish: what makes a good egg? Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 7:387-416.
Caers, M., S. D. Utting, P. Coutteau, P. Millican & P. Sorgeloss. 2002. Impact of the supplementation of a docosahexaenoic acid-rich emulsion emulsion: see colloid.
Mixture of two or more liquids in which one is dispersed in the other as microscopic or ultramicroscopic droplets (see colloid). Emulsions are stabilized by agents (emulsifiers) that (e.g. on the reproductive output of oyster broodstock, Crassostrea gigas. Mar. Biol. 140:1157-1166.
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Freeman, K., S. Daume, M. Rowe, G. Maguire, S. Parsons Parsons, city (1990 pop. 11,924), Labette co., SE Kans.; inc. 1871. It is a shipping point for dairy products, grain, and livestock. Manufactures include ammunition, wire and paper products, plastics, and appliances. & R. Lambert. A broodstock conditioning trial with greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigam Donovan) in Western Australia. J. Shellfish Res. (submitted). (same issue)
George, S. B. 1999. Egg quality, larval growth and phenotypic plasticity The ability of an organism with a given genotype to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment is called phenotypic plasticity. Such plasticity in some cases expresses as several highly morphologically distinct results; in other cases, a continuous norm of in a forcipulate seastar. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 30(2):203-224.
Grant, A. & P. A. Tyler. 1983. The analysis of data in studies of invertebrate reproduction. 2. The analysis of oocyte oocyte /oo·cyte/ (-sit) the immature female reproductive cell prior to fertilization; derived from an oogonium. It is a primary o. prior to completion of the first maturation division, and a secondary o. size/frequency data, and comparison of different types of data. Int. J. Invertebr. Reprod. 6:271-283.
Grubert, M. A. & A. J. Ritar. 2003. The effect of temperature and conditioning intervals on the spawning success of wild-caught blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and greenlip (H. laevigata) abalone fed an artificial diet. In: A. E. Fleming, editor. Proceedings of the 10th Annual Abalone Aquaculture Workshop, November 19-21, 2003. Port Lincoln, Australia. Abalone Aquaculture Subprogram sub·pro·gram
A computer program contained within another program that operates semi-independently of the encasing program.
Noun 1. , Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, Australia.
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larva, independent, immature animal that undergoes a profound change, or metamorphosis, to assume the typical adult form. Larvae occur in almost all of the animal phyla; because most are tiny or microscopic, they are rarely seen. : uptake of dissolved amino acids amino acid (əmē`nō), any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins. from seawater by lecithotrophic larvae of the gastropod gastropod, member of the class Gastropoda, the largest and most successful class of mollusks (phylum Mollusca), containing over 35,000 living species and 15,000 fossil forms. Haliotis rufescens. Mar. Biol. 103:87-94.
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n. pl. dis·ci
A flat circular surface; a disk.
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FIONA GRAHAM Fiona Graham is an anthropologist and producer and director of anthropological documentaries. She has directed and produced a number of programmes for NHK – Japan’s national broadcaster - and has also worked on programmes for National Geographic, Channel 4, and BBC. , (1) * TAHRYN MACKRILL, (1,2) MARK DAVIDSON For the baseball player, see .
Mark Anthony Davidson (2 May 1869 – 9 January 1949) was an Australian politician.
Davidson was born in Sydney and left school at 12 to work on a coastal vessel trading with the Pacific islands. (1,2) AND SABINE DAUME (1)
(1) Research Division, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, PO Box 20, North Beach, WA 6920, Australia; (2) c/o Great Southern Marine Hatcheries, PO Box L34, Little Grove, Albany WA 6330, Australia
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TABLE 1. Spawning dates for each spawning group. Spawning groups Spawning events A B C D Spawn out 07.10.03 15.10.03 22.10.03 29.10.03 First spawning 26.01.04 03.02.04 11.02.04 18.02.04 Second spawning 19.05.04 23.05.04 31.05.04 08.06.04 Third spawning 08.09.04 14.09.04 22.09.04 29.09.04 TABLE 2. Influence of diet on cytoplasm diameter, vitelline layer and jelly coat thickness of abalone, Haliotis laevigata, eggs and the presence of primary eggs over three consecutive spawning periods (1, 2 and 3). (Data are means ([micro]m) [+ or -] SE) Spaw- Diet ning Cytoplasm Vitelline Red 1 194.39 [+ or -] [1.52.sup.a] 18.17 [+ or -] 0.90 sea- 2 202.57 [+ or -] 1.02 22.10 [+ or -] 0.57 weed 3 202.18 [+ or -] 2.14 24.47 [+ or -] 0.73 High ARA 1 196.73 [+ or -] [1.55.sup.ab] 18.34 [+ or -] 1.37 2 201.98 [+ or -] 1.31 27.28 [+ or -] 1.54 3 200.34 [+ or -] 1.24 26.08 [+ or -] 0.87 Low ARA 1 204.34 [+ or -] 1.816 18.50 [+ or -] 1.27 2 207.24 [+ or -] 1.08 18.11 [+ or -] 0.76 3 201.25 [+ or -] 1.96 26.71 [+ or -] 0.93 Control 1 196.53 [+ or -] [1.50.sup.ab] 17.44 [+ or -] 1.23 2 202.36 [+ or -] 0.79 21.52 [+ or -] 0.66 3 203.38 [+ or -] 1.76 24.15 [+ or -] 0.86 Egg Spaw- diameter Diet ning Jelly coat ([micro]m) Red 1 117.53 [+ or -] [3.89.sup.c] 212.52 [+ or -] 0.90 sea- 2 113.40 [+ or -] 1.37 219.67 [+ or -] 1.00 weed 3 128.80 [+ or -] 7.77 224.49 [+ or -] 2.27 High ARA 1 103.92 [+ or -] [3.78.sup.cd] 215.06 [+ or -] 1.36 2 123.51 [+ or -] 3.16 224.88 [+ or -] 2.03 3 118.08 [+ or -] 4.25 226.61 [+ or -] 1.77 Low ARA 1 92.39 [+ or -] [4.3.sup.d] 218.52 [+ or -] 1.27 2 115.10 [+ or -] 1.35 231.28 [+ or -] 1.55 3 117.44 [+ or -] 4.58 227.96 [+ or -] 1.52 Control 1 103.68 [+ or -] [3.84.sup.cd] 213.98 [+ or -] 1.23 2 121.26 [+ or -] 0.96 222.27 [+ or -] 1.29 3 117.73 [+ or -] 9.70 227.10 [+ or -] 2.05 Ratio of Percent cytoplasm ccurrence Spaw- to egg of primary Diet ning diameter eggs (%) Red 1 0.92 0.18 [+ or -] 0.13 sea- 2 0.92 1.39 [+ or -] 1.39 weed 3 0.90 2.10 [+ or -] 0.90 High ARA 1 0.92 3.63 [+ or -] 1.23 2 0.90 0.53 [+ or -] 0.53 3 0.88 2.55 [+ or -] 1.30 Low ARA 1 0.94 5.55 [+ or -] 2.88 2 0.90 5.65 [+ or -] 3.10 3 0.88 1.49 [+ or -] 0.65 Control 1 0.92 3.90 [+ or -] 1.90 2 0.91 3.98 [+ or -] 2.36 3 0.90 3.05 [+ or -] 1.25 * Means, within a column, with different superscript letters are significantly different (p < 0.05). TABLE 3. Influence of diet and spawning round on shell length, weight and weight change of Haliotis laevigata. (Data are means [+ or -] SE) Shell Spawning length Diet round (mm) Red seaweed spawn out 130.28 [+ or -] 1.31 1 129.78 [+ or -] 1.27 2 129.39 [+ or -] 1.25 3 129.89 [+ or -] 1.23 High ARA spawn out 133.89 [+ or -] 1.37 1 133.44 [+ or -] 1.35 2 133.47 [+ or -] 1.44 3 133.69 [+ or -] 1.45 Low ARA spawn out 132.39 [+ or -] 1.40 1 131.97 [+ or -] 1.39 2 131.58 [+ or -] 1.38 3 131.62 [+ or -] 1.52 Control spawn out 133.33 [+ or -] 1.28 1 133.31 [+ or -] 1.10 2 133.17 [+ or -] 1.14 3 133.63 [+ or -] 1.15 Spawning Weight Diet round (g) Red seaweed spawn out 336.87 [+ or -] [12.00.sup.a] 1 328.50 [+ or -] [10.74.sup.b] 2 323.21 [+ or -] [10.95.sup.b] 3 323.03 [+ or -] [9.97.sup.b] High ARA spawn out 380.24 [+ or -] [16.11.sup.a] 1 363.47 [+ or -] [16.24.sup.b] 2 360.98 [+ or -] [16.19.sup.b] 3 352.57 [+ or -] [14.98.sup.b] Low ARA spawn out 352.26 [+ or -] [13.75.sup.a] 1 330.18 [+ or -] [14.94.sup.b] 2 331.53 [+ or -] [14.65.sup.b] 3 327.36 [+ or -] [14.69.sup.b] Control spawn out 360.77 [+ or -] [11.92.sup.a] 1 348.08 [+ or -] [10.03.sup.b] 2 355.55 [+ or -] [10.73.sup.b] 3 350.53 [+ or -] [10.61.sup.b] Weight Spawning change Diet round (g) Red seaweed spawn out 1 -8.36 2 -5.29 3 -0.18 High ARA spawn out 1 -16.77 2 -2.5 3 -8.41 Low ARA spawn out 1 -22.09 2 +1.35 3 -4.17 Control spawn out 1 -12.69 2 +7.46 3 -5.02 * Means, within a column, with different superscript letters are significantly different (p < 0.05). TABLE 4. Descriptive statistics of egg size frequency distributions spawned by 1-3 female abalone, Haliotis laevigata, per diet treatment over three consecutive spawning rounds. Female Treatment Spawning Quartile 1 2 3 Red seaweed 1 1. Quartile 218.29 213.69 213.03 3. Quartile 223.55 220.92 218.29 Interquartile 5.26 7.23 5.26 Min ([Lm) 207.77 210.40 210.40 Max (Rm) 228.81 223.55 228.81 2 1. Quartile 213.69 215.66 218.29 3. Quartile 220.92 218.29 223.55 Interquartile 7.23 2.63 5.26 Min ([micro]m) 205.14 210.40 210.40 Max ([micro]m) 223.55 230.13 226.18 3 1. Quartile 218.29 213.36 218.29 3. Quartile 223.55 219.28 223.55 Interquartile 5.26 5.92 5.26 Min ([micro]m) 210.40 210.40 210.40 Max ([micro]m) 231.44 231.44 230.13 High ARA 1 1. Quartile 210.40 3. Quartile 215.66 Interquartile 5.26 Min ([micro]m) 202.51 Max ([micro]m) 220.92 2 1. Quartile 213.03 3. Quartile 218.29 Interquartile 5.26 Min ([micro]m) 210.40 Max ([micro]m) 230.13 3 1. Quartile 218.29 3. Quartile 223.55 Interquartile 5.26 Min ([micro]m) 210.40 Max ([micro]m) 228.81 Low ARA 1 1. Quartile 207.77 221.58 3. Quartile 210.40 228.81 Interquartile 2.63 7.23 Min ([micro]m) 199.88 210.40 Max ([micro]m) 218.29 236.70 2 1. Quartile 220.92 223.55 3. Quartile 236.70 231.44 Interquartile 15.78 7.89 Min ([micro]m) 202.51 218.29 Max ([micro]m) 252.48 239.33 3 1. Quartile 216.98 3. Quartile 223.55 Interquartile 6.57 Min ([micro]m) 210.40 Max ([micro]m) 236.70 Control 1 l. Quartile 212.04 202.18 213.03 3. Quartile 218.29 207.77 220.59 Interquartile 6.25 5.59 7.56 Min ([micro]m) 203.83 194.62 210.40 Max ([micro]m) 227.50 216.98 226.18 2 1. Quartile 213.03 220.92 210.40 3. Quartile 218.29 228.81 215.66 Interquartile 5.26 7.89 5.26 Min ([micro]m) 205.14 194.62 202.51 Max ([micro]m) 226.18 244.59 223.55 3 1. Quartile 211.72 216.98 3. Quartile 223.55 224.54 Interquartile 11.84 7.56 Min ([micro]m) 186.73 193.31 Max ([micro]m) 243.28 240.65