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Industrial pollution and its control.

Industrial waste waters when discharged untreated into water bodies results in serious water pollution. Such wastes vary widely in composition and may contain plant or animal wastes, acids, alkalis, oils, and other organic or inorganic chemicals some of which may be toxic, synthetic detergents or radioactive substances. The industrial waste laden bodies of water are put to subsequent uses for many other purposes which include water supplies for municipal and industrial purposes, water contact or non-water or non-water contact recreation, commercial fishing and agricultural irrigation. This multiple usage of natural waters and their importance for wide-ranging human activities emphasize the needs for a serious attention to the water pollution problem.

For the economic development of a country industrialization plays a vital role. Industrialization revolution in many countries has brought about environmental degradation and deterioration of great magnitude. Pakistan is no exception to it. The present scenario of rapid industrialization in Pakistan although would prove to be economically useful but it would also pose a much more serious threat of unprecedented magnitude to the environment. To meet the objectives of such industrial development programmes without posing pollution threat industrial pollution aspect should be given due consideration. It is important because if the industry is developed with a very specific objective of producing a useful material without taking into account the proper disposal of wastes and emissions produced as a result of its production, it is going to have a detrimental impact on the environment.

Most of the industries developed in this country have unfortunately given little attention to the control and management of their industrial waste water and gaseous emissions because of lack of proper guidance from knowledgeable authorities and due to severe personal costs that control would bring. At present the liquid industrial wastes are either discharged into natural bodies of water without proper treatment or applied to land without scientific and technical considerations. Similarly, no control measures have been adopted in most cases on the emissions of harmful gases from the industries. This practice is resulting in the deterioration of the environment in Pakistan. This deterioration is further aggravated by the fact that even municipal wastewater are also being discharged to natural bodies of water either untreated or partially treated. In Pakistan, the fact remains that sewage treatment plants lag behind the provision of sewerage systems development.

Industrial waste waters when discharged untreated into water bodies results in serious water pollution. Such wastes vary widely in composition and may contain plant or animal wastes, acids, alkalis, oils, and other organic or inorganic chemicals some of which may be toxic, synthetic detergents or radioactive substances. The industrial waste laden bodies of water are put to subsequent uses for many other purposes which include water supplies for municipal and industrial purposes, water contact or non-water or non-water contact recreation, commercial fishing and agricultural irrigation. This multiple usage of natural waters and their importance for wide-ranging human activities emphasize the needs for a serious attention to the water pollution problem.

In view of the limited natural resources specially precious water any industrial pollution management activity must include resource recovery technology. This multiple, cascade, or sequential use of water minimizes the need for new water supplies. Repeated use or recycle of water for the same duty such as cooling is practiced widely by industry now in reducing its net water consumption and use. In addition to saving water and associated costs, both of these techniques minimize the volume of waste water that must be treated. A proper combination of these water recycle and reuse methods, coupled with the optimum conveyance and treatment facilities, may produce an economical closed-loop, zero discharge system that requires minimum make-up water function. The Institute of Environmental Studies and the Water Research Centre, University of Karachi has successfully developed technologies.

1. For domestic waste water recovery, recycle and reuse after treatment (The treated domestic waste water is being reuse for growing flowers of ornamental value and sold out in the market).

2. For protein and fat recovery for reuse in poultry feed and for soap manufacture.

Types of Pollutants

Floating Pollutants:

Oil, grease and materials lighter than water

Suspended Pollutants:

Either inorganic or organic

Dissolved Pollutants:

Acids, alkalis, heavy metals, insecticides, other organics.

Biological Pollutants:

Bacteria, Viruses, parasites etc.

Body Response to Toxic Chemicals

Hepato Toxic Agents (liver):

* Carbon tetrachloride

* Tetrachloroethane

Nephrotoxic Agents (Kidney):

* Halogenated

* Hydrocarbon

Hematopoietic Toxins (Blood:)

* Aniline

* Toluidine

* Nitrobenzene

* Benzene

* Phenols

Neurotoxic Agents (CNS):

* Methanol

* Carbon Disulphide

* Metals

* Organometallics

Anesthetics/Narcotics (Consciousness)

* Acetylene Hydrocarbon

* Ethyl Ether

* Isopropyl Ether

* Aliphatic Ketones

* Aliphatic Alcohols

* Esters

Industries and Pollution

Pulp & Paper Mills:

* BOD, COD, SS, DS, NH3, Biocides

Food Industry:

* BOD, COD, SS, DS, O&G, NH3, NO3

Sugar Industry:

* BOD, COD, SS, DS, NH3

Textile Mills:

* BOD, COD, SS, DS, O & G,

* Heavy metals

Soap & Detergent Manufacturing

* BOD, COD, SS, O & G,

Petroleum Refining

* BOD, COD, Phenol, NH3,

* Heavy metals, Oil, Sulphide.
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Copyright 1993 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
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Author:Altaf Khan, M.
Publication:Economic Review
Date:Sep 1, 1993
Words:814
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