Indonesian component industry lagging behind.
The market of automotive components in Indonesia has grown in he past several years to follow the trend of motor vehicle production. According to the Association of Car and Motorcycle Equipment Industries (GIAMM), total value of component sales recorded by its members in 2007 reached Rp55.74 trillion or an increase of 35.9% from 2006's Rp41 trillion. The increase followed the growing sales of motor vehicles.
However, locally produced components are facing tight competition from counterfeited products. In addition, the small and medium producers that dominate the component industry in the country could not yet fully utilize the market opportunities which require high standards and specifications. Based on data at the Industry ministry, exports of automotive components by small and medium producers in 2006 reached US$ 908.5 million with export destinations including the Philippines, Britain, Vietnam, Japan, Taiwan, Brazil, Malaysia, China, etc.
In 2009, sales of automotive components especially for use as original equipment by motor vehicle factories (OEM), is feared to be heavily depressed under the global financial crisis. Sales of motor vehicles are forecast to decline. Car sales are predicted to fall to only 450,000 units from 603,779 units last year and sales of motorcycle are expected to reach only less than 6 million units. Orders from the market including from factories for use as original equipment and from market for use as replacement have declined. The decline is sharper in order from factories. The impact is not as sharp in after market as the population of cars remain large. Demand from after market is larger.
Producers and production capacity
Large automotive component factories in the country are joint ventures between local companies and world automotive principals such as Honda, Suzuki, Mitsubishi, Toyota, etc. Without partnership with the foreign principals, local companies could not expand. Even with partnership with the foreign principle, the country's component industry could not yet meet the domestic requirement. Local products of component industry are used mainly by car or motorcycle assembling industries.
Some products of major automotive component producers such as those of Dies, Jig & Stamping are produced by a number of companies like PT Dharma Precision Part, PT Fuji Technical Indonesia, PT Kyoda Mas Mulia, etc. The products are used by Astra Otopart, PT Ichikoh Indonesia and PT Indo Safety Sentosa and PT IRC Inoac Indonesia.
The car industry of the Astra Group is supported by tens of non Astra component producers that produce various types of component from engine electrical system, engine system, power trains, brake system to plastic products.
Based on data at GIAMM, currently the domestic market of automotive components is competed by around 350 companies with a total investment value of Rp7.5 trillion employing 120,000 workers.
Most producers of components are small and medium industries that could not fully meet the standard quality and specifications.
The domestic market is potential for automotive components with the continued increase in the production of motor vehicles. GIAMM said the sales of 10 products of main components produced by GIAMM members were valued at Rp34.95 trillion in 2007 or a surge of 75% from Rp19.97 trillion in he previous year.
Altogether, the total value of component sales by GIAMM members in 2007 was Rp55.74 trillion or an increase of 35.9% from Rp41 trillion in 2006. In 2008, sales were around at Rp 72.46 trillion.
Astra and Indomobil Groups largest producers of components
Major automotive companies--the Astra Group and Indomobil Group--dominate component industry in Indonesia.
PT Astra Otoparts, which constitutes a network of component industry of the Astra Group, consists of 28 companies producing and marketing core spare parts needed by the Astra Group and other car makers.
Astra Otoparts has established distribution channel through retail outlets named Shop & Drive and Super Shop & Drive that deal with consumers. Shop & Drive concentrates on the sales of storage battery, lubricating oil, shock breaker and fast moving accessories. The retail network of Shop & Drive operates as franchise for medium scale business people with a relatively small investment. Currently there are 45 outlets of Shop & Drive in Indonesia.
Super Shop & Drive is more complex selling not only Astra spare parts but also tires, brake, and wheel rims and offering balancing and spooring service. Astra Otoparts has a 20% share of the market of automotive components in Indonesia. In addition, production of Astra components is also sold to replacement market and export markets.
Astra Otoparts has expanded operations to Vietnam by building factory producing motorcycle components in Hanoi with an investment of Rp20 billion. The component factory started operation late 2007 in cooperation with local investor to produce rubber parts.
In 2008, Astra Otoparts spent Rp300 billion in loan and equity to expand its production capacity.
Meanwhile, Astra Honda Motor (AHM) which produces Honda motorcycles chalked up Rp1.4 trillion in the sales of spare parts in 2008. This year the company hopes to increase sales by 21% to Rp1.7 trillion. Sales of spare parts increase as under the present condition, consumers tend to restrain from buying new motorcycles by choosing to maintain old ones that would need more spare parts. Fast moving parts, like brake canvass, sparkplugs, gasoline filter, lubricant oil filter, etc. Fast moving parts contribute 70% to the total sales of Honda motorcycle spare parts.
Meanwhile, in 2008 Toyota Astra Motor (TAM) built spare part center in the Cikarang Barat Industrial Estate with an investment of Rp249 billion. The spare part center is the second owned by the company after one in Sunter, North Jakarta. The spare parts center could receive, store, and distribute more than 100,000 spare parts of Toyota to 30 countries, 193 branches and 166 workshops all over Indonesia. The spare parts center is expected to be able to meet demand until 2015.
Around 65% of the more than 100,000 spare parts are supplied by 150 local component producers and 35% are imported from Thailand and Japan. Spare parts imported from Japan are only those which arte produced with high technology. Spare parts from Thailand are mainly ones which are part of Completely Build Up (CBU) cars such as Toyota Camry.
The Cikarang Spare Part Center supplies spare parts for cars produced by PT Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia (TMMIN) for exports such as Kijang Innova and Fortuner, Toyota Avanza and Toyota Rush, which is produced by PT Astra Dhaihatsu Motor. Part of Toyota cars produced in Indonesia are exported to Thailand, Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, Mexico and Venezuela, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and South Africa. Sales of spare parts from the Center in Cikarang recorded a turnover of Rp1 trillion in 2008 including 16% in exports. In 2009, the turnover is predicted to rise to Rp 1.2 trillion.
Similarly the Indomobil Group is backed up by a number of component producing subsidiaries like PT Indo Vido Instrument, PT Jideco Indonesia, PT Kotobukiya Indo Classic Industries, PT Nihon Plast Indonesia, PT Sumi Indo Wiring Systems, PT Yamatogomu Indonesia, etc.
Currently there are 180 automotive component companies and 135 of them are members of GIAMM. Like automotive industry, component industry in the country is also dominated by Japanese companies.
According to the Jakarta office of Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), there are 62 Japanese companies operating in business related to component industry in Indonesia representing major Japanese brands like Denso, Toyota Tsusho, Aisin Seiki, Bando Electric, Izumi Industries, Nittan Valve, Kayaba Industries, Sanden, Yuasa Corp. etc. Among the 135 members of GIAMM, 76 are foreign companies (PMA) and 59 domestic (PMDN) companies.
Import duties on component basic material 5%-20%
After the end of the policy of zero import duty in May, 2008, component basic materials are slapped again with an import duty of 5% to 20%. In 2007, the competitiveness of automotive component industry was relatively strong with the incentive provided by the government in the form of import duty exemption with a regulation of the finance minister No. 34/PMK.011/2007. The zero import duty policy which was effective for 12 months ended on May 4, 2008.
GIAMM said the re-imposition of the import duties of 5%-20% could weaken sales and result in slowdown in production of components. Meanwhile, automotive industrialists said the import duties are very much not in harmony with the 0% import duty on automotive components. The policy will hamper development of the country's component industry, which still depends on imports for basic materials.
Based on data at the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS), imports of components of cars and motorcycles rose 10.24% in 2007. The increase showed dependence of the country's automotive industry on imports for components. The value of imports of components in HS 87 totaled US$ 2,41 billion in 2007 up from US$2.16 billion in 2006.
The country's automotive industry is still heavily dependent on imports for components mainly as the local producers are bound by the policy of their foreign principals in the use of basic material, technology and marketing. For example, Honda Prospek Motor, the producers of Honda cars the country uses local component making up only 40% of the total components.
Astra Daihatsu Motor, the producer Daihatsu cars with a higher local content of 70% with imported components which are not produced in the country making up the remaining 30%. Components like interior automatic electrical and a number of base steel commodities are not yet produced locally.
Meanwhile, in order to maintain competitiveness, automotive producers have to increase their quality to meet the standard quality.
In May, 2008, the standard guaranteeing the quality of automotive spare parts called Q-Seal was announced by three automotive organizations--The Indonesian Association of Automotive Technical Experts (IATO), Indonesian Automotive Center (SOI), and the Indonesian Association of Vehicle Workshops (Asbekindo). IATO SAE Indonesia is a non profit organization. Currently around 75% of motor vehicles in the country are locally assembled.
The issuance of the quality seal, is expected to encourage the country's component industry to improve their quality.
Spare parts account for 60% operating cost of public transport vehicles
Spare parts constitute the main components for vehicles. Spare parts, therefore, contribute considerably to the operating cost of public transport vehicle. According to the West Java Land Transport Organization (Organda), spare parts account for 60% of the production.
Meanwhile, around 20%-30% of the income is used to cover operating cost. Generally, in the first three years of operation, spare part cost makes up 20% of the total operating cost. In the following years the percentage may rise to 60%. In addition to oil fuel (BBM), the tariff of public transport is set on a number of cost components including lubricant oil, brake fluid, tires, maintenance cost, driver salary, spare parts, terminal fee, etc.
Indirect costs include depreciation of vehicle, vehicle tax, route license, fee for test to determine if the vehicle is fit for operation, illegal levies, etc.
Ideally, indirect cost is not more than 16% of the total cost and direct cost is around 50%. Around 22% of the direct cost is for spare parts.
The main distributors determine the prices of spare parts in the regions. Local traders use the price list from the producers as reference in setting their selling prices in the regions generally with a profit margin of at least 10% of the selling price. As a result the selling prices of spare parts set by local traders could be 60% higher than the original price from factory.
Spare part incentives
The price of spare parts has increased 20% since December, 2008. The price hike could not be controlled by the government as they depend much on the rupiah value against the U.S. dollar. Traders bought spare parts six months earlier when the dollar price was lower and they maintain the price in dollar equivalent at the time of purchasing.
Organda and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry urged for a cut in the prices of spare parts. They also asked the government to allow imports of used spare parts.
So far import tax facility has been given only to operators public transport service. Edy Putra Irawady, a deputy at the office of the chief economics minister, said the government will provide incentive in the form of spare part import duty cut worth Rp79 billion. The incentive is offered in a bid to cut transport fare.
Controversy in the transport tariff
In the period from December, 2008 to January, 2009, the government three times cut the prices of BBM--the price of premium gasoline was cut from Rp5,000 to Rp4,500 per liter and the price of automotive diesel oil was cut from Rp4,800 to Rp4,500 per liter.
A number of provinces have adjusted their transport tariffs to the government policy of cutting the BBM prices. In West Java the inter city transport tariff has been reduced 8%-10% and city transport tariff is reduced 10%-11%.
Organda, however, said transport companies still face problem with the high prices of spare parts. Transport service operators also complain about rampant illegal levies. Although the prices of BBM have been reduced to the level the same as in May 2008, the transport tariff could not be immediately cut because of the high prices of spare parts and illegal levies.
Table--1 Producers of automotive components and production capacity -- 2007 Types of Producers Production Component capacity Dies, Jig & PT Dharma Precision Parts -- Stamping PT Fuji Technica Indonesia 500,000 units PT PT Kyoda Mas Mulia -- PT Metindo Era Sakti 90,000 units PT Waja Kamajaya Sentosa -- Frame/Chasis PT Gemala Kempa Daya 35,180 units PT Yudistira Utama 9,000 units Indonesia Axle PT Hidraxle Perkasa 5,000 units PT Inti Ganda Perdana 365,000 units PT Waja kamajaya Sentosa 150,000 units Shock Absorber PT Ionuda 600,000 pcs PT Kayaba Indonesia 2,400,000 pcs PT Showa Indonesia Mfg 1,000,000 pcs Leaf & Coil PT Chuhatsu Indonesia 15,000 tons Spring PT Indo Spring Tbk 30,000 tons PT Muara Teweh Spring 6,960 tons Brake System PT AT Indonesia 660,000 pcs PT Bakrie Tosanjaya 8,400 pcs PT Braja Mukti Cakra 5,000,000 PT Chemco Harapan units Nusantara 400,000 sets PT Indo Prima Gemilang 9,000 sets PT Indofacing Indonesia 9,000 sets PT MK Prima Indonesia -- PT Pakarti Riken Indonesia 3,600,000 pcs PT Sanoh Indonesia 29,000 tons PT Selamat Sempurna Tbk 400,000 pcs PT Tri Dharma Wisesa 400,000 pcs PT Waja Kamajaya Sentosa 525,000 pcs AC,Compressor, PT Denso Indonesia 370,000 units Evaporator PTSelamat Sempurna Tbk -- Safety Belt PT Autoliv indonesia 500,000 units PT Sungwoo Indonesia 260,000 units Engine Part/ PT AT Indonesia -- Assy PT Astra Daihatsu motor 80,000 units PT Astra Otopart-div.Nusa -- metal PT Bakrie Tosanjaya 2,250 tons PT Baninusa Indonesia /month PT Edico utama 6,000,000 pcs PT Federal Izumi 400,000 pcs Manufacturing 30,000 pcs PT Federal nttan Industries PT Honda Prospect Motor 26,370 units PT Jibuhin Bakrie Indonesia 300,000 units PT Mitsubishi Krama Yudha 420,000 pcs Motor Mfg 156,000 units PT Pakarti Riken Indonesia PT Toyota Motor -- Manufactring Indonesia 170,000 units PT Wahana Eka Paramitra 320,000 units Clutch & Clutch PT Aisin Indonesia 1,850,000 pcs Facing PT Exidy Indonesia -- PT Indo Facing Indonesia -- Filters PT PT Andhi Chandra 4,000,000 pcs Aotomotive PT Buanatama Metalindo 1,800,000 pcs PT Denso Indonesia 300,000 pcs PT Duta Nichirindo Pratama 1,800,000 pcs PT HRL International -- PT Panata Jaya Mandiri 100,000 pcs PT Selamat Sempurna Tbk 5,000,000 pcs Gasket PT HRL International -- PT NHK Gasket 29,200,000 PT Nichias Leakless pcs Telison Gasket 10,000 units PT Nichias Rockwool Indonesia 876,000 pcs PT Partuni Perdana 1,310,000 sets Exhaust Pipe PT Cipta Saksama 750,000 units & Muffler Indonesia 500,000 units PT Ionuda -- PT Pamindo Tiga T 3,120,000 PT Selamat Sempurna Tbk units Body/Pressed PT Astra Daihatsu Motor 70,000 units Part & PT Dharma Polimetal -- Component PT General Motors 30,400 units Indonesia 30,000 units PT Honda Prospect Motor 70,000 units PT Inti Pantja Press Industri -- PT Inti Polymetal -- PT kyoda mas Mulia 15,000 units PT Mekar Armada Raya 120,000 units PT Mitsubishi Krama Yudha Mfg 850,000 m2 PT Pamindo Tiga T 53,892,000 PT Subur Djaja Teguh pcs PT Sugity Creative 14,400 units PT Waja Kamajaya Sentosa -- PT Yudistira Utama 9,000 units Indonesia Rubber Parts PT Arai Rubber Seal 250,000,000 Indonesia pcs PT IRC Inoac Indonesia 16,600 tons PT Indokarlo Perkasa -- PT Pong Codan Indonesia -- PT Yamatogumu Indonesia 180 tons PT Bando Indonesia 8,000,000 pcs PT Kotobukiya Indo Classic 42,000 sets Industries Wheel Rim/ PT Bangun Sarana Alloy 423,000 pcs Alloy PT Exel Metal Indonesia 180,000 pcs PT Pakoakina 105,000 pcs PT palingda nasional 900,000 pcs PT Mesindo Alloy Wheel 240,000 pcs Corp. Speedometer PT Indo VDO Instrument -- Spark plug PT Denso Indonesia 14,000,000 PT Multi Prima Sejahtera pcs PT NGK Busi Indonesia 55,000 units 18,000,000 pcs Radiator PT Central Karya Megah -- utama PT Denso Indonesia 40,000 units, PT Selamat Sempurna Tbk 1,120,000 PT Three star Indonesia units 250,000 units Transmission PT Honda Prospect Motor -- PT Wahana Eka Paramitra 320,000 units Wiring PT EDS Manufacturing 400,000 sets Harness Indonesia PT Delphi Automotive -- System 60,000 sets PT Indo Prima Gemilang 1,200,000 sets PT Sumi Indo Wiring Systems Electrical PT Denso Indonesia 200,000 pcs Componen PT Ekamitra Jayatama 750 tons PT Hamaden Indonesia Mfg 5,000,000 pcs PT Ichikoh Indonesia 200,000 pcs PT Indoniles Electric parts 9,000,000 pcs PT Jideco Indonesia -- PT Kyoda Mas Mulia -- PT Lippo Melco Auto Parts 200,000 units PT Mitsuba Indonesia -- PT Nikko Cahaya Electric 102,000 units Seat & Interior PT Abadi Barindo Autotech -- Componen PT Ateja Multi Industri -- PT Indo Safety Sentosa 120,000 sets Industry PT Karya Bahana Berlian 200,000 units PT Meiwa Indonesia 4,250 tons PT Mastrotto Indonesia -- Plastic parts PT Astra Otopart 48,000 sets /Accessories Div.Adiwira Plastik PT Cipta Kreasi Prima 2,400,000 pcs Muda 100,000 pcs PT Dasa Windu Agung 750 tons PT Ekamitra Jayatama -- PT Frina Lestari Nusantara 200,000 pcs PT Ichikoh Indonesia 1 billion pcs PT 3 M Indonesia 4,250 tons PT Meiwa Indonesia 4,600 units PT Sugity creative 5,660 tons PT Usra Tampi Indonesia 1,000 tons PT WIKA In-Trade Steering PT Astra Otopart Div. -- System Adiwira Plastik PT Dasa Windu Agyung 10,000 pcs PT Honda Prospect Motor -- PT Nihon Plast Indonesia 120,000 pcs PT Showa Indonesia Mfg. 360 pcs Battery PT Century Batteries 200,000 pcs Indonesia PT GS Battery 1,400,000 pcs PT Niprest Tbk -- PT Trimitra Batterai prakasa 1,100,000 pcs PT Tri Mega Baterindo 180,000 pcs PT Yuasa Battery Indonesia 1,800,000 pcs Others PT Garuda Metalindo 12,000 tons PT Garuda Metal Utama 2,500 tons PT Hi-lex Indonesia -- PT Hilex Parts company 46,000,000 PT Indobaja prima Murni pcs PT Jakarta -- Martenlogamindo 10,000 tons PT Kyoda Mas Mulia -- PT Menara Terus Makmur 630 tons PT Morita Tjokro Gearindo 1,500 tons Types of Users Component Dies, Jig & Astra Otoparts, Suzuki, Astra Stamping Daihatsu, Nissan Motor, Stanley Electric, Honda Lock, Hilex Indonesia, Mitsubishi, Honda, Ichikoh Indonesia, Indo safety sentosa, IRC Inoac Frame/Chasis Astra Otoparts, General Motor Indonesia Axle Toyota, Daihatsu, Shock Absorber General Motor Indonesia, Isuzu, Nissan Diesel, Hyundai, Kancil, Futaba Nusantara. Leaf & Coil Toyota, Isuzu, Hino, Nissan, Spring Mitsubishi. Brake System Toyota, Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Suzuki, Isuzu, Hino,Nissan Diesel, Yanmar diesel,Exedy Indonesia, Aisin Group, Honda, Daimler Chrysler, Nissan, Prapat Tunggal Cipta, Akebono Corp. Asia, Astra Otopart. AC,Compressor, Toyota, Daihatsu, Suzuki, Evaporator Mitsubishi, Nissan, Isuzu, Hino, Dailer Chrysler. Safety Belt Toyota Engine Part/ Toyota, Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Assy Suzuki, Astra Group, Isuzu, Hino, Nissan Diesel, Yanmar, Honda. Clutch & Clutch Astra Group, Mitsubishi, Facing Suzuki, Daihatsu, Isuzu, Toyota, Nissan, Honda, Ford, Hyundai, Aisin Group, Exidy Indonesia Filters Isuzu, Hino, Suzuki, Daihatsu, Nissan, Hyundai, Mitsubishi, Toyota Honda, Units ed Tractor, Hexindo Aditama, Daimler Chrysler, Nissan diesel. Gasket Toyota, Daihatsu, Pantja Motor, Suzuki, Astra Group. Exhaust Pipe Hyundai, General Motor & Muffler Indonesia, Isuzu, kancil, Mitsubishi, Honda, Daimler Chrysler, Nissan, Hino. Body/Pressed Suzuki, Daihatsu, Kayaba, Part & Showa manufacturing Component Indonesia, Tri Dharma Wisesa, Honda, Isuzu, Stanley Electric, Mitsuba Indonesia, Nippon Seiki, Ichikoh Indonesia, Mitsubishi, Denso Indonesia, Toyota, General Motor Indonesia Rubber Parts Isuzu, Honda, KIA, General Motor Indonesia, Daihatsu, Toyota, Mitsubishi, Suzuki, Nissan Motor, Hyundai. Wheel Rim/ Speedy Corp-Australia, Partex Alloy Trading UEA, Toyota, daihatsu, Hyundai, Isuzu, Suzuki, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Hino. Speedometer Suzuki Spark plug Toyota, Daihatsu, Suzuki, Mitsubishi Nissan, Mazda, Ford. Radiator Toyota, Daihatsu, suzuki, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Isuzu, Hino, Daimler Chrysler. Transmission Honda, Astra Group Wiring Isuzu Japan, General Motor Harness Thailand, General Motor North America, Mitsubishi Cable Industry japan, Jurid Werke Germany., Honda, Nissan, Suzuki, Toyota. Electrical Toyota, Daihatsu, Suzuki, Componen Mitsubishi Nissan, Isuzu, Hino,Nissan\, Nissan Diesel, Stanley Electric, PT Hilex Indonesia, IRC Noac Indonesia Seat & Interior Toyota, Nissan, Suzuki, Componen Daihatsu, Honda, Mitsubishi. Plastic parts Toyota, Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, /Accessories Isuzu, PT Trimitra, PT Sinar Terang, Suzuki, Hino, Honda, Kia, Nissan. General Motor, PT Denso Indonesia. Steering Toyota, Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, System Isuzu, Suzuki, Honda. Battery Astra Group, Toyota, Daihatsu, Isuzu, Mitsubishi, Honda, Suzuki, Honda, Hino. Others Toyota, Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Hino, Isuzu, Nissan Diesel, Honda, Suzuki, Mercedes Benz, Ford, Mazda, Nissan, PT Indospring, Stanley Elwctric, PT Indosafety Sentosa, Ichikoh Indonesia, PT Mitsuba Indonesia, IRC Inoac Indonesia. Source: GIAMM Table--2 Value of sales of component products, 2006-2008 Sales Growth Year (Rp trillion) (%) 2006 41.00 -- 2007 55.74 35.9 2008 72.46 30.0 Average growth 32.95 Source: GIAMM Table--3 Number of companies and types of component products, 2007 Types of Component PMA PMDN Total Engine component 30 18 48 Engine manufacturing 7 1 8 Filter 2 6 8 Battery 3 3 6 Gasket 4 2 6 Alternator 5 0 5 Starter motor 5 0 5 Radiator 2 2 4 Source: GIAMM Table--4 Import duty on component basic materials Types of cars Parts/Components April 2007 May 2008 Passenger Cars Material for component 0% 5%-20% Minibus production Jeep (4x4) Blank (excluding precious 0% 5%-20% metals) IKD component (pistons s, 0% 5%-20% Gear boxes) Other component (maximum 0% 5%-20% Rates Drive) Source: Finance Ministry, Industry ministry Table--5 Components of tariff of transport cost Description % a. Direct costs 50 --BBM cost, lubricant oil cost, --brake fluid and tire costs --maintenance cost --spare part cost driver' salary --Terminal fee b. Indirect cost 16 --vehicle depreciation --vehicle tax --Route license, fit for operation test --operating administration --illegal levies, etc. c. Other costs 34 Total 100 Source: ICN
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Indonesian Commercial Newsletter|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2009|
|Previous Article:||Imora Group.|
|Next Article:||Jakarta has excess of taxi supply.|