Indonesia's electricity industry.
The country's electricity sector has grown over the past years although not as fast as the leapfrogging increase in demand for power. In the past five years, power production of the state electricity company PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) as the power procurement agency totaled 133,109 GWh in 2006, up to 160,786.21 GWh in 2010.
Meanwhile, the country's power requirement has increased 7% a year on the average. Shortages in power supply both in Java and other islands have caused frequent blackouts especially outside Java. The government has taken a big step to cope with the problem by launching crash program building power plants with a total capacity of 10,000 megawatts. The program succeeded in reducing blackouts notably in Java. According to plan, new power plants with a total capacity of 2,400 MW were to be completed in 2010 bringing the additional capacity to 4,300 MW from the coal-fired power plants on stream by that year to be built under the program.
However, PLN and its contractors found difficulties in meeting the target in 2010. Completion of a number of power generating projects were delayed such as PLTU Labuan Units 2, PLTU Rembang (Units 1 and 2), and PLTU Indramayu Units 1.
The country's electricity generation in the country is hampered by problem in supply of fuel especially coal and gas. With the soaring prices of oil, PLN has increased the use of coal and gas as the main fuels. However, gas supply is also a problem although the country is known to be one of the world's largest producers of gas In 2010, there were problems in gas supplies from Kalila to the PLTGU Teluk Lembu, from PGN to PLTGU Muara Tawar and PLTGU Talang Duku, from Pertamina to PLTGU Belawan and from SEMCO to PLTGU Semberah, forcing PLN to use more oil fuels.
In 2010, PLN has a total installed capacity of 26,895 MW. The largest in capacity is from coal-fired power plants (PLTU) with a total capacity of 9,452 MW, followed by steam and gas power plants (PLTGU) contributing 6,951 MW to PLN's total capacity, hydropower plants (PLTA) accounting for 3,523 MW of the total capacity , etc. PLN has 5,541 power generating units with diesel power plant (PLTD) contributing the largest number of 4,637 units or 83.7%, followed by PLTA 381 units (6.9%), PLTG 178 units (3.2%), PLTU 161 units (2.9%) , etc.
With the country's economy expanding 6%-7% annually in the past several years, as against power production growth of only 6.28% new power plants are needed to increase the capacity to prevent shortage in supply that will hamper the economic development. Demand for electricity is expected to grow faster with the economic growth especially industrial growth and growing population.
In the past several years, there are many hurdles delaying implementation of power generating projects notably shortage of gas supply to fuel the facilities. Many power plants after having their fuel converted from oil to gas have to use the expensive oil fuel again.
In a bid to cope with shortage of power supplies, in 2006 the government launched what is called crash program to build coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 10,000 MW. A number of new power plants were already operational in 2009 under the first program. The rest are to be completed by 2011.
The energy and mineral resources minister has said Indonesia still needs 35,000 MW of electric energy 35.000 MW until 2015. In order to forestall electricity crisis, PLN has launched a program to boost investment in power generating plants using renewable fuel. Independent Power Producer (IPP) is also urged to speed up implementation of their power projects.
Management of electric power systems in Indonesia
In line with the Law no 15/1985, PLN is the authority in the electricity sector. The state company is responsible for the procurement of electricity in the country. Electricity systems in the country are divided into a number of interconnections areas--Java-Bali system, Southern Sumatra systems (Riau, West Sumatra, Jambi, South Sumatra and part of Riau), Northern Sumatra systems (North Sumatra and Aceh). Other areas have no interconnections systems yet.
Java-Bali electricity systems
Java-Bali system is the largest electricity system in Indonesia supporting by a number of large power generating plants and load centers on the islands of Java, Madura and Bali. These systems have a number of power plants with a total capacity of. 22,236 MW connected with extra high voltage transmission lines of up to 500KV and high voltage transmission lines of 150 KV and 70 KV.
Transmission networks having extra high voltage of 500 KV have linked all power plants in Java with transmission networks along the northern coats of the island and are supported by transmission networks in the southern part of the island. The Java-Bali Interconnection system is operated by PLN Penyaluran (distribution) and load regulator center Pusat Pengatur Beban (PLNP3B) Java Bali.
All power plants in Java are put under PLN's subsidiaries--PT Indonesia Power and PT Pembangkit Jawa Bali (PT PJB)
PT. Indonesia Power has 8 power generating business units Suryalaya (3,400 MW), Priok (1,248.08 MW), Semarang (1,469.16 MW), Perak (864.08 MW), Bali (427.63 MW), Kamojang (375 MW), Mrica (306.44 MW), and Saguling (797.35 MW).
The Suralaya business units operate 7 units of coal-fired power plants (PLTU) including Units 1 to 4 each with a capacity 400 MW and units 5 to 7 with a capacity of 600 MW each bringing the total capacity of the business unit to 3,400 MW.
PT Pembangkitan Jawa-Bali (PJB) was established in 1995. PJB has 10 power generating units with installed capacity of 9,007.14 MW and assets valued at Rp 41.5 trillion. It has 2,203 workers. PJB has grown to become a world class electric energy producer in capacity, quality and effectiveness and services that meet the international standards. It units include PLTGU Gresik (2,259.18 MW), Muara Karang (1,208.58 MW), Paiton (800 MW), Paiton Baru (660 MW), Muara Tawar (920 MW), Cirata (1,008 MW), Brantas (281.38 MW), Indramayu (990 MW), Rembang (630 MW) and Pacitan (250 MW).
Sumatra's electric power systems integrated
With the completion of a 150-kV transmission line between Rantau Prapat-Kota Pinang-Bagan Batu 102 km long in July 2007 the electricity systems in northern Sumatra have been connected by a subsystem with the central and southern Sumatra's systems.
The electricity systems of the central-southern Sumatra will supply power up to 70 MW to the northern systems. The central-southern systems have a surplus of around 100 MW at day time.
With the connection between the northern and central-southern systems in Sumatra, the 150 kV high voltage transmission systems (SUTTI) are connected between Bandar Lampung and Banda Aceh, spanning a distance of 3,000 kilometers. The distribution of power in Sumatra, therefore, has improved.
The transmission of power through a 150kV transmission line from Kota Panjang Riau to Kota Pinang Rantau Prapat covers quite a long distance of 400 km. The transmission of the energy is not easy because the distance as the distance has effect on the voltage that when it reaches the northern Sumatra the voltage is only 70kV left.
Therefore, the Sumatra interconnection has not solved all problem of deficit in supply in the northern part of Sumatra.
Electricity systems in other islands
Interconnections in Kalimantan cover Central and South Kalimantan. Connection between South and East Kalimantan is still in the process. In long term target, there will be interconnections between West and East Kalimantan that one region could support other provinces when there is deficit in one region such as because of maintenance or other causes.
The electricity system in West Kalimantan is left behind in development. Currently Pontianak, the provincial city, is building a circular network that if any problem in one transmission line, power could be supplied from other transmission lines in the loop. Similar system is planned for other areas in West Kalimantan before interconnections are built in Kalimantan.
In East Kalimantan, there are a number of electricity systems. The largest is the Mahakam system covering Samarinda, Balikpapan, and Tenggarong, the municipal city of Kutai Kartanegara.
Apart from the Mahakam system, PLN has electricity networks of Bontang-Sangatta in the northern part of that province, the Melak system and Kota Bangun system for area around Kutai Barat and Kutai Kartanegara, and the Petung and Tanah Grogot systems serving customers in southern part of East Kalimantan. The largest the Mahakam system has 330,000 subscribers using 171.5 MW of electric power. The gas and steam powered electric plant of PLTGU Tanjung Batu is one of six power generating plants supporting the Mahakam systems supplying 180 MW for subscribers. Five other power generating units are diesel power plants.
Condition of power generating plants
In the five year period ending in 2010, PLN's installed capacity grew 2% per year on the average. In 2006, PLN's installed capacity totaled 24,846 MW, up to 26,895 MW.
According to the general plan of development of electricity 2010, there will be additional capacity of 6,248 MW from new plants bringing the total installed capacity of PLN to 32,388 MW in 2011.
The largest in capacity in 2010 were PLTU with capacity totaling 9,452 MW, followed by PLTGU 6,952 MW, PLTA 3,523 MW, PLTD 3,268 MW and PLTG 3,224 MW.
Installed capacity of PLN in the Java-Bali systems grew to 18,534.27 MW in 2009. Additional capacity came from the Unit I of PLTU Labuan in Banten with a capacity of 300 MW, the Unit II of PLTU Indramayu in West Java with a capacity of 330 MW.
Meanwhile, in other systems, additional capacity came from a number of new power plants such as in Kalimantan increasing the capacity of the systems outside Java-Bali to 7,102.43 MW in 2009.
Development of power plants
Number of power plants
The number of power generating plants has continued to increase to keep pace with growing requirement. In the five year period ending in 2010, the number of power plants rose from 5,039 units in 2006 to 5,541 units in 2010.
In March 2010, PLTU nit staring operation was PLTU Suralaya with a capacity of 625 MW, followed by the Unit I of PLTU Indramayu and the Unit 2 of PLTU Rembang in June that year. In December, 2010, PLTU Paitons with a capacity of 600 MW and Units 2 and 3 of PLTU Indramayu came on line.
PLTD is the largest in number totaling 4,637 units making up 83.7% of the total number of power generating plants, followed by PLTA totaling 381 units (6.9%), PLTG 178 units (3.2%), PLTU 161 units (2.9%), PLTGU 119 units (2.1%), PLTMG 43 units (0.8%) and PLT Bayu 3 units (0.05%).
Condition of Transmission Systems
The following table shows the capacity of distribution voltage regulators and distribution facility of the Java-Bali system in the past five years.
The capacity of voltage regulators of 70/20 KV has remained almost unchanged as 150 kV transmission networks are used more widely instead of 70 kV transmission networks.
In the past five years the length of 70 kV transmission lines has continued to decline with the replacement with ones of 150 kV which is higher in quality.
The balance in capacity between power plants and Transformer (IBT) and distribution transformers by voltage--500, 150 and 70 kV in the past five years in shown in the following table.
Transmission and distribution systems outside the Java-Bali interconnections have improved in the past five years notably in Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi with the completion of a number of transmission projects. Other systems such as in Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, and Papua, however, have no transmission line yet.
Growth of electric power sector
Production of electricity up 6.28% per year
PLN's production of electricity including from its own power plants and power bought from Independent Power Producer (IPP) grew 6.28% per year on the average in the past five years.
In 2006, power production was recorded at 133,109 GWh, up to 169,786.21 GWh in 2010. The highest growth was recorded in 2010 when power production rose 8.28% from the previous year. Power production from diesel power generators rented to cope with short term problem in shortage of power supply contributed to the increase in power production in 2010.
PLN's program of renting power generators is a short term strategy to meet power requirement in certain areas.
In 2011, there are a number of such steps taken by PLN including renting PLTU from private investors mainly outside Java. PLN provides location coal fuel and transmission lines for the rented PLTU. The private investor provides power generator and operates it. PLN will buy he power produced by the generator.
Sales of electric power up 6.96% per year
Sales of electric power in Indonesia has increased 6.96% a year on the average in the past five years to follow the progress made in the country's economic development..
In 2006, sales totaled 121,609.84 Giga Watt hours (GWh),--up to 147,297 GWh in 2010. The increase followed growing number of subscribers. In 2010, the number of PLN's subscribers rose by 2,317,702 to 42.4 million. The increase in sales was also attributable to improved economic condition.
In the first half of 2011, PLN sets power sales target at 76,867.53 GWh.
Number of subscribers
The number of PLN's subscribers in the period of 2006--2010 grew 4.25% per year. In 2006, the number of subscribers totaled 35.9 million, up 4.86% to 37.7 million in 2007 to 38.6 million in 2008, to 40.1 million in 2009 and to 42.4 million in 2010.
Households were the largest in number among the subscribers in 2010. That year, there were 39.3 million household subscribers or 92.7% of the total number of subscribers. The second largest was the business sector totaling 1.9 million (4.5%), followed by social sector 2.1%, government offices 0.31%, street light 0.31% and industry 0.08%.
Electrification ratio is the ratio of houses in number to already having electric light to the total number of houses in the country. The ratio is still low at present although rising from 60.1% in 2006 to 66.1% in 2010. In Java the ratio is 72.2% higher than outside Java of 60.4%.
This year the ratio target is set at 70.4% for which PLN plans additional capacity of its power plants by 6,248 MW, under its crash program of building power plants with a total capacity of 10,000 MW.
Electricity crisis not yet over
Ideally peak load is not more than 70% of capacity or at the most the same as the capacity of the largest power plant, that when a 30% reserve is always available to forestall problem besetting a one of the largest power plants. However, it would not be easy to maintain an ideal position. The threats of blackout continue whenever a major power plant is out of function or under routine maintenance.
Despite the increase in power generating capacity in Java and outside Java, the threat of crisis in power supply is not yet entirely over. . In Java-Bali system the peak load rose to 19,486 MW in 2010 from 17,671 MW in 2009. The supplying capacity in 2010 was 19,000 MW down from 21,794 MW in 2009.
The condition of electricity systems in Java-Bali was in crisis in 2010 marked with the high peak load that reached 97.5 % of the supplying capacity. This means at the time of peak load, PLN could not meet power requirement that blackouts were needed by turn.
Meanwhile, outside Java-Bali the total installed capacity electricity systems in the past five years was 7,102.43 MW, the supplying capacity was 5,059.15 MW, and peak load was 6,220.04.MW.
Losses in Networks and Load Factor
In the five years period ending 2010, PLN's losses in networks declined. In 2010, the losses declined to only 9.7% from 9.93% in 2009. Meanwhile, load factor per year was between 64.15% and 80.8%.
Coal becomes the main fuel
The soaring prices of oil in the world market give greater importance to non oil sources of energy including coal, geothermal, natural gas, etc.
Coal requirement has increased sharply over the past several years--from 25.9 million tons in 2006, up 47.5% to 38.2 million tons in 2010.
However, dependence on oil fuel (BBM) has not been entirely over. Use of BBM fluctuates--from 9.1 million kiloliters in 2006, up to 10.4 million kiloliters in 2008, but down to 9.2 million kiloliters in 2010. PLN has to some extended succeeded in reducing the use of the expensive BBM by using more coal or other non BBM fuels. BBM consumption, however, remains high.
In 2010 consumption of BBM by PLN reached 9.2 million kiloliters far exceeding the target of 6.4 million kiloliters. Its coal consumption was lower than expected. Originally, PLN set coal consumption target at 38 million tons, but realization was only 34.2 million tons. Its gas consumption in 2010 reached 233,611 MMSCF.
In 2011, BBM requirement for diesel power plants is estimated to reach 10.38 million kiloliter or 21% of the fuel requirement. Meanwhile, PLN's coal requirement is forecast to reach 36.48 million tons or 46% of its fuel requirement. Gas requirement is estimated to reach 327.59 million terra British thermal units (BTU) or 21 % of its total fuel requirement.
In 2011, PPLN hopes to reduce the use of BBM for its power plants to reduce production cost. It's planned to cut BBM consumption by 1.5 million kiloliters from 10.38 million kiloliters in 2010. Actually PLN already reduced the use of BBM since 2009 by using more coal. Apart from saving funds, coal is environmentally friendlier than oil.
So far coal accounts for 40% of the total consumption of primary energy sources by PLN. It is expected the use of coal will continue to increase by PLN for its power generating plants. More coal will be needed in line with the additional supply of electricity by 5,000 MW planned in Java in 2011.
Program of diversification of primary energy
Based on the 2010-2019 RUPTL, 10 new power plants will be built for the Java-Bali system and 30 more units outside the systems. The 30 units outside Java-Bali include 14 units under main program and 16 units for reserves. If the private sector failed to carryout their plans as scheduled. In 2015, therefore, BBM generated power would not be more than 5% of the total production of electric energy.
In line with the government policy of seeking to reduce the use of BBM and possible delay in the operation of new gas fired power plants amid the shortage of gas supply for domestic consumption, the government has sought to diversify sources of energy with larger use of coal, and geothermal.
So far the operating cost of PLN has been determined more by the oil prices in the world market as coal prices also follow the oil price developments.
Outside Java-Bali, projects included in the program are planned power requirement in 2010 and 2011.
Subsidies provided by the government
The electricity tariff set by the government has always been below the operating cost of PLN. The tariff is always below expectation of PLN; therefore, PLN has always needed subsidy from the government. PLN as a the authority in electricity sector (PKUK) based on the Law No. 15/1985 and a state company, has what is called PSO (Public Service Obligation). With the selling price of electricity below production cost, the government has to provide subsidy. Subsidy for PLN every year has to be approved by the House of Representatives. The subsidy for PLN has increased form year to year to follow the growing power consumption in the country.
PLN said in its annual report in 2010, electricity subsidy in 2010 as set by the Law No 2 in 2010 based on the revised state budget for that year was set at Rp 53,606,300 million giving PLN a 8% margin. Realization of the subsidy, however, was larger at Rp 58,108,418 million.
The increase in realization was because power requirement was larger than expected. Delay in the completion of some projects under the 10,000 MW crash program resulted in largest use of BBM than expected. In addition here was problem cause by shortage in gas supply to some power plants
PLN also still had Rp 4.6 trillion not yet received in payment for the public service obligation it provided in 2009.
In 2011, subsidy on electricity is set at Rp 66.33 trillion. The subsidy was calculated on assumption that a US dollar was equivalent to Rp 9,200 and the price of Indonesian Crude Oil (ICP) was USD 85 per barrel
Power generating plants of IPP
Until the end of 2010, there were 24 power plants of independent power producers (IPP) already operational with a total capacity of 4,761 MW, or around 17.70% of the country's total installed capacity of 26,895 MW. Among the power plants of IPP, 10 units are in the Java-Bali systems with a total capacity of 3,997 MW, 5 units in Sumatra with a total capacity of 253 MW, 1 unit in Kalimantan with a capacity of 45 MW, 5 units in Batam with a total capacity of 181 MW, and 3 units in Sulawesi with a total capacity of 285 MW.
IPP projects delayed
Construction of a number of powers generating project shelved earlier was resumed after renegotiations. Meanwhile with the soaring prices of oil in the world market, big program was launched to build coal-fires and geothermal power plants. The government encouraged development of the country's huge geothermal reserves and construction of geothermal power plants by offering incentives. However, implementations of a number of major projects of IPP were delayed until 2011.
Projection of electric power requirement, 2011-2016
Every tear the government prepares National Electricity General Plan (RUKN) which include estimates of power requirement and provision, investment policy and sources of funds and policy in development of renewable energy sources.
Based on the RUKN, PLN prepares its own plan in the electricity sector as contained in its Electric Power Provision General Plan (RUPTL), which contains plans for development of power plants, transmission networks and distribution systems. The plan was drafted based on power requirement and the capacity of the existing power plants.
According to the RUPTL of 2010-2019, the country's electric energy requirement will increase from 161.1 TWh in 2011 to 233.7 TWh in 2015 or an annual growth of 9.75% on the average. Peak load is forecast to reach 28,796 MW in 2011 to rise to 41,916 MW in 2015 or an annual growth of 12.5% on the average.
Projection of power requirement is calculated on assumption of the country's economic growth in the period of 2011--2015 using the figures released by the National Development Planning Board (Bappenas). The country's economy was predicted to grow 6.2% annually in the next five years as shown in the following table.
The number of PLN's subscribers is forecast to reach 44.3 million in 2011, up to 54.5 million in 2015 or an annual growth of 5.3% on the average--growing 2.04 million per year. The increase in the number of subscribers will push up the ratio of electrification from 70.4% in 2011 to 79.5% in 2015. The country's population is predicted to grow from 238.2 million in 2011 to 248.3 million in 2015.
The ratio is 0.3 percentage point higher than the government's target as given in the RUKN in 2015. Based on the RUKN, electrification ratio is only 79.2% in 2015.
In the period of 2011-2015, power requirement in the Java-Bali system is forecast to rise from 125.2 TWh to 179 TWh or an annual growth of 14.3% on the average. The requirement in the eastern part of Indonesia is forecast to rise from 12.6 TWh to 19.1 TWh or an annual growth of 17.2 %.
Estimated of power requirement, according to the RUKN is lower. According to RUPTL of 2010-2016 growth of demand in the next ten years is forecast to rise from 8.8% to 9.4% in 2015.
Indonesia's per capita GDP has continued to increase--up 6%-7% a year resulting in an annual increase of 9.2% of power consumption. The increase in consumption necessitates additional power plants with a total capacity of 3,000 MW per year. In order to cope with the limited supply of power, PLN plans to build more power plants in the next five years to meet 75% of the country's total requirement with 25% of the requirement expected to be provided by IPPs. PLN also needs fund to build transmission and distribution networks.
The electrification ratio of 66.1% in 2010, shows that a considerable number of the people have not enjoyed electric illumination and energy. PLN and Pips, therefore, still need to build more electricity infrastructure.
In 2010, the country had power generating plants with a total installed capacity of 26,895 MW, including PLTU with a total installed capacity of 9,452 MW, PLTGU 6,951 MW, PLTA 3,523 MW and etc. The number of power plants totaled 5,541 units including PLTD 4,637 units accounting for 83.7% of the total number, PLTA 381 units (6.9%), PLTG 178 units (3.2%), PLTU 161 units (2.9%) and etc.
Soaring prices of BBM and the fact that the country still uses many oil-fired power plants result in high production cost that necessitates larger subsidies to be provided by the government if the selling prices are not raised. With the government's decision not to raise the electric rate in 2011, the electricity subsidy is estimated to reach Rp 66.33 trillion, up from Rp 53.6 trillion last year.
High BBM prices force PLN to use more gas as fuel, but the problem is there is no guarantee of gas supply causing interruption in the process of power production at PLTGU Teluk Lembu, PLTGU Muara Tawar and PLTGU Talang Duku, PLTGU Belawan and PLTGU Semberah. PLN, therefore, has to use more BBM.
In order to help cope with shortage of power supply the government is seeking to build power plants with cheaper operating cost? The government launched a crash program to build coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 10,000 MW. The program is to be followed by a second crash program with the same total capacity. The first program is still in progress and completion has been delayed since 2010. Until 2010, a number of projects were not yet completed such as PLTU Labuan Units 2, PLTU Rembang (Units 1 and 2), and PLTU Indramayu Units 1.
Table--1 Development of PLN's installed capacity, 2006-2010 Year Installed capacity (MW) Growth (%) 2006 24,846 -- 2007 25,222 1.5 2008 25,571 1.4 2009 25,607 0.1 2010 26,895 5.0 Rata-rata pertumbuhan 2.0 Source: RUPTL 2010 Table--2 Types of power plant and capacity (MW) Types of power plants 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 PLTA 3,529 3,501 3,504 3,508 3,523 PLTD 2,954 2,968 3,020 2,980 3,268 PLTG 2,727 2,783 2,496 2,570 3,224 PLTGU 7,021 7,021 7,370 7,370 6,951 PLTP 395 415 415 415 439 PLTU 8,220 8,534 8,764 8,764 9,452 Total 24,846 25,222 25,571 25,607 26,895 Source : PLN's annual report 2010 Table--3 Installed capacity of power plants in Java-Bali systems And other systems, 2009 Capacity Islands PLN units (MW) Java 18,534.27 Sumatra NAD 155.20 North Sumatra 15.66 West Sumatra 34.40 Sumatra Riau and Riau islands 167.53 Bangka Belitung 101.13 S2JB 54.20 Lampung 8.03 Batam 132.32 Plants in northern Sumatra 1,903.05 Plants in southern Sumatra 1,859.20 Kalimantan West Kalimantan 293.75 South Kalimantan and Central 394.27 Kalimantan East Kalimantan 461.23 Tarakan 38.22 Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, Central 358.03 Maluku, Papua Sulawesi, Gorontalo South Sulawesi, West 517.93 Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi Maluku, North Maluku 182.21 Bali Bali Distribution 3.69 Nusa Tenggara West Nusa Tenggara 139.58 East Nusa Tenggara 112.09 Papua Papua 170.71 Total 25,636.70 Source: RUPTL 2008 Table--4 Number of units of power generating plant, 2006-2010 (Units) Types of power plant Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 PLTA 203 196 189 201 381 PLTU 43 45 48 49 161 PLTG 60 54 58 63 178 PLTGU 53 60 61 59 119 PLTD 4,670 4,705 4,635 4,626 4,637 PLTP 8 9 9 9 19 PLTMG 2 2 2 4 43 PLT Bayu -- 1 4 3 3 Total 5,039 5,072 5,006 5,014 5,541 Source: PLN Table--5 Development of the capacity of distribution voltage regulators of Java-Bali system, 2007-2010 Description 2007 2008 2009 2010 150/20 (MVA) 26,790 29,010 30,060 31,040 70/20 (MVA) 2,918 3,038 3,078 3,248 Total (MVA) 29,708 32,048 33,138 34,288 Peak load (MW) 16,743 16,310 17,210 19,486 Source: Statistics of PT PLN (Persero) Table--6 Transmission lines of PT PLN (Persero) P3B, 2007-2009 Description 2007 2008 2009 500 kV (kms) 3,763 5,092 5,092 275 kV (kms) 781.38 782.25 1,011.39 150 kV (kms) 22,475 23,678.60 24,191.60 70 kV (kms) 3,425 4,619.03 4,642.18 Sources: Statistics 2009 of PT PLN (Persero) Table--7 Capacity of power plants and IBT transformers, 2006-2010 Voltage Unit 2006 2007 2008 2009 Kit 500 KV MW 12,970 12,970 12,970 12,970 Transformers 500/150 kV MVA 17,000 17,000 17,000 17,500 Power plants 150 KV MW 8,890 8,990 9,010 10,110 Transformer 150/70 kV MVA 3,580 3,500 3,580 3,820 Power plant 70 KV MW 270 270 270 270 Transformers 150/20 kV MVA 25,300 26,070 26,150 26,330 Transformers 70/20 kV MVA 2,880 2,800 2,750 2,740 Sources: RUPTL 2010 Table--8 PLN's power production growth, 2006-2010 Year Production (GWh) Growth (%) 2006 133,109.00 -- 2007 142,440.00 7.01 2008 149,437.00 4.91 2009 156,797.25 4.93 2010 169,786.21 8.28 Growth per year 6.28 Sources: PLN Table--9 PLTU rented by PLN, 2011 Power plants Capacity (MW) Location PLTU Tarahan 2 x 150 Lampung PLTU NTB 4 x 30 West Nusa Tenggara PLTU Timika 2 x 15 Papua PLTU Riau 2 x 150 Riau PLTU Kuala Tanjung 3 x 150 North Sumatra PLTU Teluk Balikpapan 2 x 150 East Kalimantan PLTU Asam-Asam 3 x 65 South Kalimantan PLTU Air Anyer * 2 x 30 Bangka PLTU Barru * 2 x 150 South Sulawesi PLTU Amurang * 2 x 30 North Sulawesi Sources: ICN processed Note : * auction was not yet in progress Table--10 Electric power sales by PLN, 2006-2010 Year Sales (GWh) Growth (%) 2006 112,609.84 -- 2007 121,241.83 7.67 2008 129,018.81 6.41 2009 134,581.98 4.31 2010 147,297.47 9.44 Average growth 6.96 Sources: Statistics of PLN Table--11 Number of PLN's subscribers by groups, 2006-2010 Social Year Households Industry Business sector 2006 33,441,512 58,717 1,513,592 744,626 2007 35,069,525 61,570 1,587,152 780,814 2008 36,025,071 47,536 1,716,045 838,129 2009 37,099,830 47,900 1.879,429 861,067 2010 39,324,000 49,000 1,912,000 884,316 Average growth Government Street Growth Year institutions Illumination Total (%) 2006 93,087 79,466 35,931,000 -- 2007 97,611 83,328 37,680,000 4.86 2008 103,821 113,483 38.622.376 2.50 2009 114,971 114,488 40,117,685 3.87 2010 133,171 132,900 42.435.387 5.78 Average growth 4.25 Sources: Statistics of PLN, 2009 Table--12 Household electrification ratio, 2006-2010 Description 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Indonesia 60,1 61,6 63,3 65,8 66,1 Java-Bali 64,3 65,7 67,5 69,5 72,2 Sumatra 53,0 54,5 56,3 54,9 60,4 Sources: Statistics of PLN, DJLPE Table--13 Growth of peak load in the Java-Bali systems, 2010 Description Java-Bali Systems system outside Java-Bali * Installed capacity MW 21,601 7,102.43 Supplying capacity MW 19,000 5,059.15 Peak load MW 19,486 6,220.04 Ratio of peak load to supplying capacity % 97.5 81.3 Sources: PT PLN (Persero) * in 2009 Table--14 Losses in networks and load factor PLN. 2006-2010 (%) Description 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Load Factor 64,15 76,5 80.8 77,7 70,7 Losses 11,45 11,08 10,67 9,93 9,7 Sources: Statistics of PLN 2010 Table--15 PLN's fuel consumption, 2006-2010 BBM (kiloliters) Natural Coal gas YEAR HSD IDO MFO Total (Tons) (MMSCF) 2006 6,967,428 34,504 2,062,068 9,084,000 25,963,000 227,000 2007 3,968,809 45,920 1,146,271 5,161,000 31,415,000 296,000 2008 8,300,000 -- 2,140,000 10,440,000 26,481,000 425,000 2009 6,365,116 11,132 3,032,656 9,408,904 21,604,463 266,538 2010 6,068,500 -- 3,131,500 9,200,000 34,200,000 233,611 Sources: RUPTL 2010 Table--16 New non oil fired power generating projects in Java-Bali, 2009 and 2010 Power plants Locations Capacity (MW) COD Units Size Total 2009 2010 PLTU Labuan Banten 2 x 300 600 300 300 PLTU Teluk Naga Banten 3 x 300 900 600 300 PLTU Jabar Selatan West Java 3 x 300 900 300 600 PLTU Jabar Utara West Java 3 x 300 900 300 600 PLTU Jatim Selatan East Java 2 x 300 600 300 300 PLTU Tj Awar-Awar East Java 2 x 300 600 -- 600 Sources: RUPTL 2006 Table--17 New non-oil fired power generating projects outside Java-Bali, 2010 Power plants Locations Capacity (MW) Units Size Total PLTU Meulaboh NAD 2 x 100 200 PLTU Pesisir Selatan West Sumatra 2 x 100 200 PLTU Air Anyer Bangka Belitung 2 x 10 20 PLTU Bengkalis Riau 2 x 7 14 PLTU Selat Panjang Riau 2 x 5 10 PLTU Lombok Baru NTB 2 x 25 50 PLTU Ambon Baru Maluku 2 x 15 30 PLTU Ternate North Maluku 2 x 17 14 PLTU Timika Papua 2 x 7 14 PLTU Amurang Baru North Sulawesi 2 x 25 50 PLTU Medan Baru North Sumatra 2 x 100 200 PLTU Sulut Baru North Sulawesi 2 x 25 50 PLTGU Keramasan Palembang, South Sumatra 2 x 43 86 PLTU Tarahan Lampung 2 x 50 100 PLTP Ulubelu Lampung 55 Power plants COD 2009 2010 2011 PLTU Meulaboh -- 200 -- PLTU Pesisir Selatan 100 100 -- PLTU Air Anyer -- 20 -- PLTU Bengkalis -- 14 -- PLTU Selat Panjang -- 10 -- PLTU Lombok Baru 25 25 -- PLTU Ambon Baru 15 15 -- PLTU Ternate 7 7 -- PLTU Timika 7 7 -- PLTU Amurang Baru 25 25 -- PLTU Medan Baru 100 100 -- PLTU Sulut Baru 25 25 -- PLTGU Keramasan -- -- 86 PLTU Tarahan -- -- 100 PLTP Ulubelu -- -- 55 Sources: RUPTL 2010 Table--18 Subsidy on electricity, 2010 Description Value (Rp billion) Subsidy in 2010 fiscal year 53,606 Shortage in subsidy in 2009 4,600 Total subsidy 2010 58,206 Carry over in 2011 4,894 Total 63,100 Sources : PLN Table--19 Power plants of IPP in operation Capacity Names of company Locations Fuels (MW) PT. Cikarang Listrindo Cikarang, West Java Gas 150 PT Energi Sengkang Sengkang, South Gas 198 Sulawesi Chevron Geothermal Salak, West Java Geothermal 165 Salak Ltd and Dayabumi Salak Pratama Ltd PT Makassar Power Pare-pare, South MFO 60 Sulawesi PT Paitons Energy Coal Paitons I, East Java Coal 1.230 Pertamina, Chevron Drajat, West Java Geothermal 180 Drajat Ltd. Texaco Drajat Ltd. and PT Drajat Geothermal Ind. Pertamina and Magma Wayang Windu, West Geothermal 220 Nusantara Limited Java PT Geo Dipa Energy Dieng, Central Java Geothermal 60 PT Asrigita Prasarana Palembang, South 150 Sulawesi PT Sources Segara Cilacap, Central Java Coal 562 Primadaya Coal Coal PT Dalle Energy Batam Panaran, Batam Gas 55 PT Mitra Energi Batam Panaran, pulau Panaran, Batam Batam Gas 55 Gas PT Indo Matra Power Industrial Estates of Gas 17 Kabil, Batam PT Jembo Energindo Panaran, Batam Gas 24 PT Metaepsi Pejebe Gunung Megang, South Gas 80 Power Generation Sumatra PT Pusaka Jaya Palu Palu, Central Sulawesi Coal 27 Power PT Pertamina Kamojang, West Java Geothermal 60 Geothermal Energi PT Cahaya Fajar Kaltim Embalut, East Coal 45 Kalimantan PT Dizamatra Powerindo Sebayak, North Sumatra Geothermal 10 PT Bajradaya Sebayak, North Sumatra Water 10 Sentranusa energy PT CIpta Daya Mobuya, North Sulawesi Water 3 Nusantara energy Perum Jasa Tirta Purwakarta, West Java Water 150 - energy Aggreko International Batam Gas 30 Project Ltd. Total 4,761 Names of company AF (%) Period PT. Cikarang Listrindo 72 1998-2018 PT Energi Sengkang 85 1999-2028 Chevron Geothermal 90 1997-2027 Salak Ltd and Dayabumi Salak Pratama Ltd PT Makassar Power 80 1998-2013 PT Paitons Energy Coal 85 2000-2040 Pertamina, Chevron 95 2000-2030 Drajat Ltd. Texaco Drajat Ltd. and PT Drajat Geothermal Ind. Pertamina and Magma 90 2000-2042 Nusantara Limited PT Geo Dipa Energy 85 2002-2044 PT Asrigita Prasarana 85 2004-2024 PT Sources Segara 80 2007-2037 Primadaya Coal Coal PT Dalle Energy Batam 80 2005-2016 PT Mitra Energi Batam Panaran, pulau 2005-2016 Batam 84 Gas PT Indo Matra Power 90 2005-2017 PT Jembo Energindo 65 2008-2011 PT Metaepsi Pejebe 80 2005-2025 Power Generation PT Pusaka Jaya Palu 80 2007-2032 Power PT Pertamina 90 2008-2038 Geothermal Energi PT Cahaya Fajar Kaltim 72 2008-2038 PT Dizamatra Powerindo 90 2008-2038 PT Bajradaya 90 2008-2038 Sentranusa PT CIpta Daya 80 2007-2027 Nusantara Perum Jasa Tirta 2006-2011 Aggreko International 80 2008-2011 Project Ltd. Total Sources : Annual reports of PLN, 2010 Table--20 IPP projects delayed Name of power Capacity plants (MW) Location Developers PLTM Parluasan 2 x 21 Toba Samosir, PT. Inpola Meka North Sumatra Elektrindo PLTM Hutaraja 2 x 25 Humbang PT. Humbahas Hasudutan, Bumi Energi North Sumatra PLTA Silau-2 2 x 37,5 Simalungun, PT. Bersaudara North Sumatra PLTM Lau Gunung 2 x 50 Dairi, North PT. Inpola Meka Sumatra Elektrindo PLTM Lae Ordi 4 x 25 Pakpak, North PT. Bakara Bumi Sumatra Energi PLTM Lae Ordi-2 2 x 50 Pakpak, North PT. Bakara Bumi Sumatra Energi PLTA Pakkat 2 x 50 Humbang PT. Energi Hasudutan, Sakti Sentosa North Sumatra PLTM Batang Toru 100 Pahae regency, PT. Bumi North Sumatra Lestari Energi Total 667 PLTM Salido Kecil 300 Pesisir PT. Anggrek Selatan, West Mekar Sari Sumatra PLTM Manggani 116 Regency of 50 PT. Pelita Kota, West Prima Nusantara Sumatra PLTA Talun Berasap 2 x 40 Kerinci, Jambi PT. Mabruk Sarana Interbuana PLTM Batang Anai 2 x 10 Batang Anai, PT. Megatama West Sumatra Powerindo PLTM Muara Sako 4 x 10 Pesisir PT. Bergonia Selatan, South Sumatra PLTM Gumanti 2 x 50 Solok regency, Consortium of West Sumatra KDEB Malaysia and PT. Limaco PLTM Bayang A 2 x 30 Regency of PT. Pesisir, West Exabenar/PT. Sumatra Indo Energi Pekaprtama PLTM Terusan A 2 x 15 Regency of PT. Pesisir, West Exabenar/PT. Sumatra Indo Energi Pekaprtama PLTM Sinamar 2 x 75 Regency of 50 PT. Selo Kota, West Kencana Energi Sumatra PLTM Induring 2 x 7,5 Regency of PT. Bergonia Pesisir, West Sumatra Total 4,296 PLTA Lebong 2 x 30 Rejang Lebong, PT. Mega Power Bengkulu Mandiri PLTM Manna 2 x 20 South Bengkulu PR. Manna Energy Pratama PLTM Telanai 2 x 22 Telanai Banding PT. Lumada Banding Agung Agung, South sapta Mitra Sumatra PLTM Padang Guci 2 x 25 Bengkulu PT. Prima Mega Resource Total 194 PLTM Pancarek 8 Sambas regency, PT. Nusantara West Kalimantan Indo Energi Total 8 PLTM Cikotok 2 x 5 x 32 Cikotok, West PT. Bangun Bumi Java Bersatu PLTM Girimukti 2 x 40 Cianjur, West PT. Girimukti Javaa Energi PLTM 46 Lebak, West PT. Kutilang Leuwikopo Java Paksi Mas Total 446 PLTM 15 West Sumba, KUD Walkelosawah NTT Walkelosawah Total 15 PLTM Mobuya 30 Kotamubagu, PT. Cipta Daya North Sulawesi Nusantara PLTM 12,5 Luwuk, Central PT. Buminata Kalumpang Sulawesi Cita Banggai Energi PLTM Hanga- 25 Southeast PT. Buminata hanga II Sulawesi Cita Banggai Energi PLTA 200 Gorontalo PT. Binatek Randangan Reka Energi Total 267,5 PLTA Tangka 2 x 4,4 Sinjai, South PT. Sulawesi Sulawesi Mini Hydro Power PLTA Rantablela 2 x 1,2 Luwuk, South PT. Fajar Sulawesi Futura Indah Total 11,2 PLTM Goal 12 Halmahera, PT. Lestari North Maluku Abadi Total 12 Total number of 1.756 projects delayed Name of power plants Status COD Description PLTM Parluasan Construction 2010 Progress 75% PPA 21/3/2007 PLTM Hutaraja Construction 2011 Progress 85%, PPA 19/6/2007 developer demanding price adjustment PLTA Silau-2 Construction 2010 Progress 96%, PPA 7/4/2008 developer demanding price adjustment PLTM Lau Gunung PPA negotiations PLTM Lae Ordi PPA negotiation 2013 PLTM Lae Ordi-2 PPA negotiations 2013 PLTA Pakkat PPA negotiations 2013 PLTM Batang Toru PPA negotiations Total PLTM Salido Kecil Operational 2007 Demanding price adjustment PLTM Manggani Construction, 2010 Progress 100%. PPA 8/6/2008 Developer demands price adjustment PLTA Talun Berasap Halted Cancelled as no location approval from forestry ministry PLTM Batang Anai Proposal MOR expires PLTM Muara Sako Proposal Not resumed PLTM Gumanti Proposal MOU expires 9/ 10/2008 load renewed PLTM Bayang A Proposal MOU of PT. Exabenar expires. New application by PT. Indo Energi Rekapratama PLTM Terusan A Proposal MOU of PT. Exabenar expires. New application from PT. Indo Energi Rekapratama PLTM Sinamar Proposal MOU expires PLTM Induring MOU expires Total PLTA Lebong Construction, 2011 Progress 85% PPA 19/7/2007 PLTM Manna Construction 2010 No PPA PPA 19/7/2006 PLTM Telanai Construction Projects halted Banding Agung PPA 18/1/2009 PLTM Padang Guci No PPA revision Progress 5%, on yet 7/4/2008 land clearing phase Total PLTM Pancarek PPA AMDAL study, negotiations as location in protected forest area Total PLTM Cikotok 21/7/2008 2010 No PPA PLTM Girimukti 21/7/2008 Construction PPA 19/7/2006 PLTM 6/3/2009 2011 PPA reached Leuwikopo Total PLTM No MOU yet Walkelosawah Total PLTM Mobuya Operational 2007 Demanding price adjustment PLTM Operational 2005 Demanding Kalumpang price adjustment PLTM Hanga- Operational 2005 Proposing hanga II change in payment scheme PLTA PPA 2013 Randangan negotiations Total PLTA Tangka Construction, 2010 Demanding PPA 9/3/2007 price adjustment PLTA Rantablela Construction, 2010 Demanding PPA 21/3/2007 price adjustment Total PLTM Goal Construction, 2013 Progress 40%. PPA Demanding 31/7/2008 price adjustment Total Total number of projects delayed Sources : PLN's annual report 2010 Table--21 Economic growth, projection of electric power requirement and Peak load, 2011-2015 Description Units 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Economy % 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 Demand TWh 161.1 176.1 193.6 212.7 233.7 Peak load MW 28,796 31,692 34,813 38,206 41,916 Sources: PLN Table--22 Projection of population, growth number of subscribers and Electrification ratio, 2011-2015 Description Units 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Population Million 238.2 240.8 243.3 245.9 248.3 Subscribers Million 44.3 46.7 49.1 51.7 54.5 Electrification ratio. % 70.4 71.1 73.7 76.5 79.5 Sources: PLN Table--23 Estimate of power requirement and electrification ratio, 2011-2015 Description Units 2011 2013 2015 Energy Demand TWh Indonesia 160.5 192.7 230.8 Java-Bali 125.2 149.6 179 Eastern Indonesia 12.6 15.8 19.1 Western Indonesia 23.3 28.1 35.5 Growth Demand (%) Indonesia 9.1 9.6 9.4 Java-Bali 8.8 9.4 9.4 Western Indonesia 13.3 13.1 10.5 Eastern Indonesia 8.9 10.4 12.5 Electrification ratio (%) Indonesia 70.4 73.7 79.5 Java-Bali 74.8 80.5 86.9 Eastern Indonesia 50.5 55.1 60.2 Western Indonesia 66.3 71.3 80.5 Sources: RUPTL 2010 Table--24 Estimate of requirement in Indonesia, 2011-2016 Description 2011 2012 2013 Requirement GHW 125,199 136,807 149,618 Growth % 8.8 9.3 9.4 Production GWH 143,267 155,695 169,533 Peak load MW 21,379 23,541 25,804 Installed capacity (existing) MW 21,561 21,485 21,485 Total capacity of systems MW 30,169 32,926 34,851 Description 2014 2015 Requirement 163,688 179,053 Growth 9.4 9.4 Production 185,235 202,336 Peak load 28,194 30,797 Installed capacity (existing) 21,485 21,485 Total capacity of systems 40,448 41,478 Sources: RUKN 2010
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|Title Annotation:||INDUSTRY PROFILE|
|Publication:||Indonesian Commercial Newsletter|
|Article Type:||Company overview|
|Date:||May 1, 2011|
|Previous Article:||The government needs to expand fiscal space.|
|Next Article:||Profile of PT. PLN (Persero).|