Increasing Resistance to Vancomycin and Other Glycopeptides in Staphylococcus aureus.Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus au·re·us
A bacterium that causes furunculosis, pyemia, osteomyelitis, suppuration of wounds, and food poisoning.
Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus pyogenes continues to be a major cause of community-acquired and health-care related infections in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. and around the world (1,2). Approximately 20% of community-acquired and nosocomial nosocomial /noso·co·mi·al/ (nos?o-ko´me-il) pertaining to or originating in a hospital.
1. Of or relating to a hospital.
2. bacteremias in the United States are caused by S. aureus The aureus (pl. aurei) was a gold coin of ancient Rome valued at 25 silver denarii. The aureus was regularly issued from the 1st century BC to the beginning of the 4th century AD, when it was replaced by the solidus. (3-5). The emergence of high levels of penicillin resistance followed by the development and spread of strains resistant to the semisynthetic semisynthetic /semi·syn·thet·ic/ (-sin-thet´ik) produced by chemical manipulation of naturally occurring substances.
1. penicillins (methicillin methicillin /meth·i·cil·lin/ (meth?i-sil´in) a semisynthetic penicillin highly resistant to inactivation by penicillinase; used as the sodium salt.
n. , nafcillin nafcillin /naf·cil·lin/ (naf-sil´in) a semisynthetic, acid- and penicillinase-resistant penicillin that is effective against staphylococcal infections; used as the sodium salt. , and oxacillin oxacillin /ox·a·cil·lin/ (ok?sah-sil´in) a semisynthetic penicillinase-resistant penicillin used as the sodium salt in infections due to penicillin-resistant, gram-positive organisms. ), macrolides, tetracyclines Tetracyclines Definition
Tetracyclines are medicines that kill certain infection-causing microorganisms.
Tetracyclines are called "broad-spectrum" antibiotics, because they can be used to treat a wide variety of , and aminoglycosides has made therapy of staphylococcal staphylococcal
pertaining to Staphylococcus spp.
staphylococcal clumping test
used as a means of measuring the quantity of fibrinogen-split products in a sample of blood. disease a global challenge (1,6,7). In the 1980s, because of widespread occurrence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. See MARSA. ), empiric therapy Empiric therapy is a medical term referring to the initiation of treatment prior to determination of a firm diagnosis. It is most often used when antibiotics are given to a person before the specific microorganism causing an infection is known. for staphylococcal infections Staphylococcal Infections Definition
Staphylococcal (staph) infections are communicable conditions caused by certain bacteria and generally characterized by the formation of abscesses. (particularly nosocomial sepsis) was changed to vancomycin vancomycin (văn'kōmī`sĭn), antibiotic resembling penicillin in the way it acts. It is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces orientalis, which was isolated from soil of India and Indonesia. in many health-care institutions (8-12). Vancomycin use in the United States also increased during this period because of the growing numbers of infections with Clostridium difficile Clostridium difficile A common cause of bacterial colitis; it is the causative agent in 99% of pseudomembranous colitis, and 20-30% of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and coagulase-negative staphylococci staph·y·lo·coc·cus
n. pl. staph·y·lo·coc·ci
A spherical gram-positive parasitic bacterium of the genus Staphylococcus, usually occurring in grapelike clusters and causing boils, septicemia, and other infections. in health-care facilities (8,9). Thus, the early 1990s saw a discernible increase in vancomycin use. As a consequence, selective pressure was established that eventually led to the emergence of strains of S. aureus and other species of staphylococci with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin and other glycopeptides.
In 1997, the first strain of S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and teicoplanin was reported from Japan (13). Shortly thereafter, two additional cases from the United States were reported (14). While vancomycin therapy appeared to have failed in the patients infected with these organisms, debate was considerable about whether such strains should be designated as resistant to glycopeptides, since the levels of vancomycin required to inhibit the growth of the strains remained low (vancomycin MIC = 8 [micro]g/mL). Three years later, the debate continues. At the heart of the discussion are conflicting definitions of resistance and resistance breakpoints, a handful of nonstandardized laboratory methods, and a very small sample size of strains collected from the far corners of the world upon which to draw conclusions (15-17). We address this question of reduced susceptibility versus resistance.
Reduced Susceptibility Versus Resistance--Definitions and Interpretive Criteria
The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS NCCLS National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards ) defines staphylococci requiring concentrations of vancomycin of [is less than or equal to] 4 [micro]g/mL for growth inhibition Growth inhibition (GI) is a medical term pertaining to cancer therapy and the specific reduction in growth of tumors and oncogene cells by a chemical compound, mechanical therapy (e.g. as susceptible, those requiring 8 [micro]g/mL to 16 [micro]g/mL for inhibition as intermediate, and those requiring concentrations of [is greater than or equal to] 32 [micro]g/mL as resistant (18). Similarly, for teicoplanin (a drug not approved for use in the United States), staphylococci requiring inhibitory concentrations of [is less than or equal to] 8 [micro]g/mL are designated as susceptible, those requiring 16 [micro]g/mL for inhibition as intermediate, and those requiring concentrations of [is greater than or equal to] 32 [micro]g/mL as resistant. Thus, the acronyms VISA (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus) and GISA GISA Georgia Independent School Association
GISA German Information Security Agency
GISA Genealogiese Instituut van Suid-Afrika (South Africa)
GISA Global Institute for Student Aspirations (glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus) come directly from the interpretive criteria published by NCCLS. While GISA is technically a more accurate description of the strains isolated to date, since most are classified as intermediate to both vancomycin and teicoplanin, the term glycopeptide may not be recognized by many clinicians. Thus, the term VISA, which emphasizes a change in vancomycin MICs similar to vancomycin-resistant enterococci enterococci
bacteria in the genus Enterococcus. (VRE VRE
VRE Vancomycin-resistent enterococcus, see there ), may be a more effective way of communicating to clinicians the changes occurring in the susceptibility of staphylococci to vancomycin. Although NCCLS has also defined disk-diffusion criteria for interpretation of vancomycin results for staphylococci (19), this method is not sufficiently sensitive to detect decreased susceptibility to vancomycin in staphylococci and should not be used for routine testing of staphylococci (19,20).
In the United States, the term vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA VRSA Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Cf Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. ) is reserved for S. aureus strains for which the vancomycin or teicoplanin MICs are [is greater than or equal to] 32 [micro]g/mL, as is also true in France, where the Comite de l'Antibiogramme de la Societe Francaise Microbiologie has published breakpoints similar to those of NCCLS (21). However, using the interpretive criteria of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, strains for which the vancomycin MICs are [is greater than or equal to] 8 [micro]g/mL would be reported as VRSA (22). Interpretive criteria for vancomycin from these three organizations are shown (Table 1).
Table 1. Examples of vancomycin interpretive criteria used internationally Interpretive criteria for vancomycin ([micro] g/mL) Organization(a) Susceptible Intermediate NCCLS [is less than or equal to] 4 8-16 CA-SFM [is less than or equal to] 4 8-16 BSAC [is less than or equal to] 4 -- Interpretive criteria for vancomycin ([micro] g/mL) Organization(a) Resistant NCCLS [is greater than or equal to] 32 CA-SFM [is greater than or equal to] 32 BSAC [is greater than or equal to] 8 (a) NCCLS, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; CA-SFM, Comite de l'Antibiogramme de la Societe Francaise Microbiologie; BSAC, British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
The term VRSA also has been used by Japanese investigators to denote strains of S. aureus that grow on a brain heart infusion screening (BHI BHI Baker Hughes Incorporated
BHI Brain Heart Infusion (agar)
BHI Better Hearing Institute
BHI British Horological Institute (UK)
BHI Boots Healthcare International
BHI Branch If Higher ) agar plate An agar plate is a sterile Petri dish that contains a growth medium (typically agar plus nutrients) used to culture microorganisms. Selective growth compounds may also be added to the media, such as antibiotics. containing 4 [micro]g/mL of vancomycin within 24 hours, provided that the vancomycin broth microdilution MIC is at least 8 [micro]g/mL (23). Those strains that produce colonies on vancomycin-containing BHI agar with vancomycin MICS of [is less than or equal to] 4 [micro]g/mL are termed heteroresistant VRSA or hetero-VRSA. By population analysis, subpopulations can be detected in hetero-VRSA strains, often representing only 1 in 100,000 daughter cells, for which the vancomycin MICs are 8 [micro]g/mL. Such strains were first reported from Japan in 1996 (13). The prototype strain is S. aureus Mu3, for which the vancomycin MIC range (by standard broth microdilution testing) is 1 [micro]g/mL to 2 [micro]g/mL. Often the vancomycin MICs reported for hetero-VRSA isolates in the literature are those obtained from colonies preselected on vancomycin-containing media and are not those of the original isolate. As Howe et al. point out, this process may, in fact, be selecting for resistance in vitro in vitro /in vi·tro/ (in ve´tro) [L.] within a glass; observable in a test tube; in an artificial environment.
In an artificial environment outside a living organism. rather than screening for it (24). Whether the isolation of such hetero-VRSA strains from patients explains the apparent failure of vancomycin therapy remains controversial. While some of the isolates, such as those from Hong Kong Hong Kong (hŏng kŏng), Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Guangdong prov. (25), have been associated with therapeutic failures with vancomycin, many hetero-VRSA strains (or hetero-VISA strains, as they are also known) were detected through retrospective laboratory screening of MRSA isolates, and the clinical significance of the isolates is unknown (26-28).
Epidemiology of VRSA and VISA Strains
Strains of VISA (vancomycin MIC = 8 [micro]g/mL) have been reported from Japan (13), the United States (29-31), France (32), United Kingdom (24), and Germany (26). Most of these isolates appear to have developed from preexisting pre·ex·ist or pre-ex·ist
v. pre·ex·ist·ed, pre·ex·ist·ing, pre·ex·ists
To exist before (something); precede: Dinosaurs preexisted humans.
v.intr. MRSA infections. Hetero-VRSA strains have been reported from Spain (33), Scotland (34), Hong Kong (25), Germany (26,28), and Greece, among other countries (27). Most of these isolates were detected during retrospective testing surveys using BHI agar containing 4 [micro]g/mL of vancomycin. For example, a hetero-VRSA isolate from Egypt, first isolated in 1981, was not identified until 1998 during a retrospective review retrospective review,
a posttreatment assessment of services on a case-by-case or aggregate basis after the services have been performed. of MRSA strains by Bierbaum et al. (26).
Evidence from the few affected U.S. patients investigated to date suggests that infections caused by VISA, for which the vancomycin MICs are 8 [micro]g/mL, are refractory to vancomycin therapy (29). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. (CDC See Control Data, century date change and Back Orifice.
CDC - Control Data Corporation ) has received reports of several other infections caused by S. aureus for which the vancomycin MICs were 4 [micro]g/mL, which suggests that some of these patients did not improve on appropriate vancomycin therapy. Data from rabbit endocarditis endocarditis (ĕn'dōkärdī`tĭs), bacterial or fungal infection of the endocardium (inner lining of the heart) that can be either acute or subacute. models presented by Climo et al. (35) also suggest that vancomycin monotherapy is not adequate for VISA strains. However, the combination of oxacillin and vancomycin is synergistic both in vitro and in vivo in vivo /in vi·vo/ (ve´vo) [L.] within the living body.
Within a living organism.
in vivo adv. in the endocarditis model (35). Similar data on the synergy of beta-lactams and vancomycin for VISA strains were reported by Sieradzki et al. (36). However, the accumulated experience from humans and animals is too small for firm conclusions regarding a loss in the effectiveness of vancomycin for such infections, particularly those caused by strains of S. aureus that are heteroresistant to glycopeptides. Our inability to differentiate in the laboratory between vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus strains (i.e., those for which the vancomycin MICs are [is less than or equal to] 2 [micro]g/mL) that have vancomycin-resistant subpopulations versus those vancomycin-susceptible strains that do not have such subpopulations hinders our efforts to clarify the effectiveness of vancomycin for staphylococcal infections.
Mechanisms of Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin
The mechanisms by which S. aureus isolates become more resistant to vancomycin are poorly understood. However, many of the clinical and laboratory-derived strains with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin share unique features. For example, most VISA strains for which the vancomycin MICs are 8 [micro]g/mL show longer doubling times, decreased lysostaphin susceptibilities, and reduced autolytic au·tol·y·sis
The destruction of tissues or cells of an organism by the action of substances, such as enzymes, that are produced within the organism. Also called self-digestion. activity (37,38). Studies conducted at CDC with Mu50 and the Michigan and the New Jersey VISA strains used changes in redox redox (rē`dŏks): see oxidation and reduction. potential over time as an indicator of bacterial growth Bacterial growth
The processes of both the increase in number and the increase in mass of bacteria. Growth has three distinct aspects: biomass production, cell production, and cell survival. measured by using a Cytosensor Microphysiometer System (Molecular Devices Molecular Devices Corporation is a leading supplier of high-performance bioanalytical measurement systems that accelerate and improve drug discovery and other life sciences research. Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA). These studies showed dramatically longer doubling times for the VISA strains (Figure 1, three curves on right) compared with the methicillin- and vancomycin-susceptible control strain S. aureus ATCC ATCC American Type Culture Collection, see there 25923 and two MRSA control strains obtained from CDC (3 curves on left side of Figure 1). However, several authors have noted that the vancomycin MICs for VISA strains are not stable and decrease over time in the absence of selective pressure (35,37,38).
[Figure 1 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
Hanaki et al. reported that hetero-VRSA produced three- to five-fold greater quantities of penicillin-binding proteins 2 and 2' and increased quantities of cell-wall precursors, which presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. trap vancomycin extracellularly (39). In addition, amidation of glutamine glutamine (gl`təmēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. residues in cell-wall muropeptides has been reported, which presumably reduces the cross-linking within the cell walls, thereby also reducing the number of intracellular vancomycin target molecules (40). Geisel et al. reported similar biochemical changes biochemical changes (bī·ō·keˈmik· in seven MRSA isolates with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (hetero-VISA) isolated from patients from three hospitals in Dusseldorf, Germany (28). Two of the patients had received vancomycin before the hetero-VISA strains were isolated. All seven isolates, obtained in 1998, had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis gel electrophoresis
Electrophoresis performed in a gel composed of agarose, polyacrylamide, or starch. profiles identical to that of the northern Germany Northern Germany is the geographic area in the north of Germany. The native German concept of northern Germany is called Norddeutschland. Northern German States
Norddeutschland is the geographic area of five German states:
Laboratory Detection of VISA
Most VISA isolates initially appear mixed, demonstrating two distinct colony types; however, both colony types yield identical antimicrobial susceptibility test susceptibility test Antimicrobial susceptibility test, see there results (Figure 2). Decreased susceptibility to vancomycin (i.e., an MIC of vancomycin of 8 [micro]g/mL) was detected in the S. aureus isolates from Michigan and New Jersey by broth microdilution when incubated for 24 hours Adv. 1. for 24 hours - without stopping; "she worked around the clock"
around the clock, round the clock at 35 [degrees] C (20). On the other hand, the isolate from New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of often demonstrated a vancomycin MIC of 4 [micro]g/mL by broth microdilution but an MIC of 6 [micro]g/mL by Etest methods. Thus, a single MIC test method may not be accurate enough to detect all VISA strains. CDC has adopted three criteria to identify VISA strains (Table 2), broth microdilution vancomycin MICs of 8-16 [micro]g/mL, Etest (AB Biodisk, Piscataway, NJ) vancomycin MICs of [is greater than or equal to] 6 [micro]g/mL, and growth on commercial BHI agar screen plates containing 6 [micro]g/mL of vancomycin within 24 hours.
[Figure 2 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
Table 2. Key techniques for recognizing 7-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains(a) Technique Results Comment Broth microdilution(b) Vancomycin MIC = Hold test for 8-16 [micro]g/mL in full 24 hours Mueller-Hinton broth Brain heart infusion Growth in 24 hours One or more colonies agar containing is a positive 6 [micro]g/mL of result; use S. vancomycin aureus ATCC 25923 obtained from a as negative control, commercial and Enterococcus source(c) faecalis ATCC51299 as positive control Etest Vancomycin MIC Hold test for full 24 [is greater than or hours equal to] 6 pg/mL on Mueller-Hinton agar (a) All three criteria must be met before an organism is defined as a glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus. (b) CDC uses inhouse-prepared MIC plates; however, any full dilution range broth microdilution plates, such as MicroScan conventional panels or PASCO frozen MIC panels, if incubated at 35 [degrees] C for a full 24 hours, can be used. (c) See reference 34 for explanation.
VISA isolates are not reliably distinguished from vancomycin-susceptible isolates by the rapid automated methods, such as MicroScan (Dade MicroScan, West Sacramento, CA) rapid panels (20). NCCLS disk-diffusion method and the Stokes method are not accurate predictors of reduced vancomycin susceptibility in staphylococci (20,41). Recent changes in Vitek (Biomerieux, Hazelwood, MO) software (version 7.01) may have improved VISA detection (CDC, unpub. obs.).
The clinical significance of heteroresistance is an issue of considerable controversy regarding the emergence of decreased susceptibility of staphylococci to vancomycin. Staphylococcal isolates with vancomycin MICs of 1 [micro]g/mL to 4 [micro]g/mL can be heterogeneous, that is, only small subpopulations of the isolates will grow in the presence of vancomycin concentrations of 8 [micro]g/mL to 16 [micro]g/mL, often 1 daughter cell in [10.sup.5] CFU CFU
see colony-forming units. . Identifying isolates with subpopulations demonstrating heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin is difficult. CDC has chosen to use an inoculum inoculum /in·oc·u·lum/ (-ok´u-lum) pl. inoc´ula material used in inoculation.
n. pl. of [10.sup.6] CFU/mL on BHI containing 6 [micro]g/mL of vancomycin for screening. All the isolates for which the vancomycin MICs are 8 [micro]g/mL grow on these screening plates. Mu3, the heteroVRSA strain from Japan, does not grow on this medium (20). Hiramatsu et al. (23) suggest using an inoculum of [10.sup.8] CFU/ mL on BHI agar containing 4 [micro]g/mL of vancomycin and cell-wall precursors (called Mu3 supplement) to screen for hetero-VRSA. Others have used this approach, omitting the supplements (26). Bierbaum et al. reported that 23 of 25 isolates showing growth on BHI agar containing 4 [micro]g/ml of vancomycin were classified as susceptible by NCCLS criteria (vancomycin MICs [is less than or equal to] 4 [micro]g/mL) even after growth on agar containing 4 [micro]g/mL vancomycin. For the remaining two isolates, the vancomycin MICs were 8 [micro]g/mL; however, the inoculum for the test was taken from vancomycin-containing agar. In our experience (42), growth of a variety of S. aureus isolates on screening plates with concentrations of 4 [micro]g/mL of vancomycin is not unusual, but rarely do such strains have elevated vancomycin MICs. Thus, the clinical significance of such isolates remains unclear. Until further clinical data are available to assess the significance of heteroresistance, routine screening of S. aureus isolates for vancomycinheteroresistant subpopulations is not warranted in the United States. Such screening may be undertaken as part of research protocols, but results generated using screening agars with low concentrations of vancomycin, the Etest method with a high inoculum ([10.sup.8] CFU/mL) on BHI agar with prolonged incubation, or vancomycin high-salt agar should not be reported as VRSA on a patient's medical record.
Surveillance for VISA
A recent survey of laboratories participating in CDC's Emerging Infections Program indicated that many are not using methods that can detect VISA strains (43). Yet, it is crucial that laboratories develop an algorithm for identifying VISA in their institutions if our understanding of how to treat these infections is to improve. Screening all isolates of S. aureus is neither cost-effective nor prudent at this time, given the low prevalence of such strains. Rather, focusing screening efforts on MRSA isolates is likely to be more successful since most VISA and hetero-VRSA isolates to date have been MRSA. With regard to surveillance of patient populations, hemodialysis and chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritoneal dialysis
The removal of soluble substances and water from the body by transfer across the peritoneum, utilizing a solution which is intermittently introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity. patients are known to be at high risk for developing MRSA infections since they frequently are carriers of MRSA (44) and often receive long-term glycopeptide therapy. Such patients may be monitored for emerging VISA infections as should other patients who are predisposed pre·dis·pose
v. pre·dis·posed, pre·dis·pos·ing, pre·dis·pos·es
a. To make (someone) inclined to something in advance: to MRSA infections and receive vancomycin.
Infection Control Issues
The most prudent approach to curtailing the spread of VISA infections is still a matter of opinion. CDC has issued interim guidelines to aid hospitals in establishing programs for control of staphylococci with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (45), and CDC's Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee has published guidelines for prudent vancomycin use (46). Others have suggested alternative approaches (47). The transfer of VISA strains beyond the source patient has not been documented in the United States, perhaps because the patients reported in Michigan and New Jersey were already in isolation because of pre-existing MRSA or vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections (29). Identification of a VISA infection in a healthcare setting should prompt a careful epidemiologic investigation. Since MRSA are known to be highly transmissible transmissible /trans·mis·si·ble/ (trans-mis´i-b'l) capable of being transmitted.
Capable of being conveyed from one person to another. in health-care settings, it is reasonable to assume that VISA isolates would be no less transmissible given the opportunity.
The antibiograms of U.S., German, and French VISA isolates (Table 3) show that isolates remained susceptible to at least some common antimicrobial agents Antimicrobial agents
Chemical compounds biosynthetically or synthetically produced which either destroy or usefully suppress the growth or metabolism of a variety of microscopic or submicroscopic forms of life. , such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, as well as to newer agents, such as linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin (20). However, the possibility that newer VISA isolates will be resistant to all common drugs in addition to glycopeptides has to be considered. Several of the patients with VISA isolates from Japan and the United States responded to alternate therapies that included arbikacin and ampicillin-sulbactam, gentamicin gentamicin /gen·ta·mi·cin/ (jen?tah-mi´sin) an aminoglycoside antibiotic complex isolated from bacteria of the genus Micromonospora, , and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Whether the next VISA isolate will have a more resistant antibiogram is a matter of considerable speculation.
Table 3. Resistance patterns of staphylococcal study isolates to commonly tested antimicrobial agents(a) Resistant or Isolate (source) intermediate(b) Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Cd, Cip, E, Gm, C, L, Q-D, Rif, (Michigan) Ox, P SXT, T S. aureus (New Jersey) Cd, Cip, E, Ox, C, Gm, L, Q-D, P, Rif SXT, T S. aureus (New York) Cip, E, Ox, P, Rif C, Cd, Gm, L, Q-D, SXT, T S. aureus (Illinois) Cip, Cd, Cip, E, L, Q-D, SXT, T Ox, P, Rif S. aureus (Germany) Ak, Cd, Cip, E, Fu, Ne Gm, Ox, P, Te S. aureus C, Cd, Cip, E, Ox, C, L, Q-D, SXT (France, LIM-2) P, Rif, Te (a) As determined using the broth microdilution reference method. (b) Abbreviations: C: chloramphenico]; Cd: clindamycin; Cip: ciprofloxacin; E: erythromycin; Fu, fusidic acid; Gm: gentamicin; L: linezolid; Ne: netilmycin; Ox: oxacillin; P: penicillin; Q-D, quinupristin-dalfopristin; Rif: rifampin; SXT: trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole; T: tetracycline. (I): intermediate. Based on data presented in references 20, 26, 32, and unpublished observations from CDC.
To date, staphylococci harboring the vancomycin resistance genes from enterococci have not been isolated from clinical samples, although some investigators have specifically looked for them (20,38,48). However, isolates of staphylococci appear to have achieved clinically relevant levels of resistance that lead to treatment failures even without the vancomycin resistance genes from enterococci. While CDC recommends that enhanced infection control efforts be initiated for S. aureus isolates for which the vancomycin MICs are 8 [micro]g/mL (45), the need for such precautions for strains with MICs of 4 [micro]g/mL is under debate. Such strains of staphylococci, including species other than S. aureus (49,50), will continue to emerge, particularly in patients who receive long-term vancomycin therapy. Thus, efforts to contain VISA infections before they become truly resistant to all available antimicrobial agents should be an infection control priority.
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(24.) Howe RA, Bowker KE, Walsh TR, Feest TG, MacGowan AP. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus VRSA Infectious disease A long anticipated bacterium first identified in a clinical specimen in mid-2002; the isolate was susceptible to chloramphenicol, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, T-S. . Lancet 1998;351:602.
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1. Relating to or lasting for ten years.
2. Occurring every ten years.
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(45.) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim guideline for prevention and control of staphylococcal infection Staphylococcal infection
An infection caused by any of several pathogenic species of staphylococcus, commonly characterized by the formation of abscesses of the skin or other organs.
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(48.) Franchi D, Climo MW, Wong AHM AHM Automated Hacking Machines
AHM All Hands Meeting
AHM Academy for Healthcare Management
AHM Atom Heart Mother (Pink Floyd album)
AHM Airport Handling Manual
AHM Acutely Hazardous Material
AHM Anti-Helicopter Mine , Edmond MB, Wenzel RP. Seeking vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:1556-8.
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Fred C. Tenover,(*) James W. Biddle,(*) and Michael V. Lancaster([dagger])
(*) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; and ([dagger]) Bright Ideas, Monterey, California, USA
Dr. Tenover is associate director for laboratory science, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion in the National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, and director of the World Health Organization's Collaborating Centre on Global Monitoring of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents. His research interests include the molecular basis of antimicrobial-drug resistance in bacteria and development and implementation of bacterial strain typing strategies.
Address for correspondence: Fred C. Tenover, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Mailstop G08, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; fax: 404-639-1381; e-mail: FTenover@cdc.gov