Inconsistencies in reporting the occurrence and timing of first intercourse among adolescents.
Surveys of adolescent sexual behavior
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene issues. Age at first (heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex. ) intercourse INTERCOURSE. Communication; commerce; connexion by reciprocal dealings between persons or nations, as by interchange of commodities, treaties, contracts, or letters. is commonly used to classify clas·si·fy
tr.v. clas·si·fied, clas·si·fy·ing, clas·si·fies
1. To arrange or organize according to class or category.
2. To designate (a document, for example) as confidential, secret, or top secret. adolescents who are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unintended pregnancy, and other social and health consequences of sexual activity. The accuracy of self-reported behaviors is an enduring concern among researchers. Findings from numerous methodological studies suggest that reporting inconsistencies are not random, but rather are associated with a variety of factors. These factors include the sociodemographic attributes of the respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. (Alexander, Somerfield, Ensminger, Johnson, & Kim, 1993; Catania, 1999; Lauritsen & Swicegood, 1997; Wu, Martin, & Long, 1999), the ability and motivation of the respondent (Catania, 1999; Weinhardt, Forsyth, Carey, Jarworski, & Durant, 1998), survey design, interview modality modality /mo·dal·i·ty/ (mo-dal´i-te)
1. a method of application of, or the employment of, any therapeutic agent, especially a physical agent.
2. , and setting (Catania, Gibson, Chitwood, & Coates, 1990; Gribble grib·ble
Any of several small wood-boring marine isopod crustaceans of the genus Limnoria, especially L. lignorum, which often damage underwater wooden structures. , Miller, Rogers, & Turner, 1999; Turner et al., 1998; Wu et al., 1999). Much of this research, however, investigates reporting problems using adult samples or adolescent samples reinterviewed during adulthood. Fewer studies have specifically examined reports by adolescent samples at two points in time (for exceptions see Alexander et al., 1993; Capaldi, 1996; McFarlane & St. Lawrence, 1999; Mott, 1985; Newcomer & Udry, 1988; Rogers, Billy, & Udry, 1982).
Self-reports of sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. cannot be easily checked against more objective data--that is, externally validated val·i·date
tr.v. val·i·dat·ed, val·i·dat·ing, val·i·dates
1. To declare or make legally valid.
2. To mark with an indication of official sanction.
3. against a gold standard. Consequently, research has focused on assessing the consistency of self-reports. In cross-sectional studies cross-sectional study
See synchronic study.
n the scientific method for the analysis of data gathered from two or more samples at one point in time. , consistency can be examined by comparing responses across different questions that ask for similar sensitive information (Rogers et al., 1982; Wislar & Fendrich, 2000). Longitudinal studies longitudinal studies,
n.pl the epidemiologic studies that record data from a respresentative sample at repeated intervals over an extended span of time rather than at a single or limited number over a short period. provide the additional opportunity to identify logical inconsistencies in reporting behavior over time: specifically, adolescents who report they are sexually experienced at one point in time and subsequently deny being experienced at a later point in time (Alexander et al., 1993; McFarlane & St. Lawrence, 1999; Rogers et al., 1982). Longitudinal studies also have the ability to identify inconsistencies in age (or date) of sexual experiences across panels of data when event-history data are collected (Lauritsen & Swicegood, 1997; Wu et al., 1999).
In this paper, we use information obtained from both waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (also called Add Health) is the first and only nationally-representative study of adolescent sexuality, which has spawned over one thousand peer-reviewed publications on many issues related to adolescent health and (Add Health) to assess the consistency in the reporting of virginity Virginity
See also Chastity, Purity.
patron saint of virgins. [Christian Hagiog.: Brewer Dictionary, 16]
Indian maiden learns too late she can be released from her vow to remain a virgin. [Fr. Lit. status and the date of first sexual intercourse sexual intercourse
or coitus or copulation
Act in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract (see reproductive system). among adolescents. The work contributes to the evaluation of self-reported sexual behaviors using sample surveys in several ways. First, we examine the reporting problems in a nationally representative sample of a contemporary cohort cohort /co·hort/ (ko´hort)
1. in epidemiology, a group of individuals sharing a common characteristic and observed over time in the group.
2. of both boys and girls boys and girls
mercurialisannua. , using information obtained from two panels of data. Second, we expand on the race and ethnic groups that have been previously studied and provide some of the first national estimates of reporting problems for Hispanic and Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.
A youth. Third, we investigate two separate types of inconsistent reporting: (a) those pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to inconsistent event occurrence (i.e., reclaimed re·claim
tr.v. re·claimed, re·claim·ing, re·claims
1. To bring into or return to a suitable condition for use, as cultivation or habitation: reclaim marshlands; reclaim strip-mined land. virginity status), and (b) those pertaining to inconsistent timing of the event (i.e., different dates of first intercourse). Lastly, we develop seven strategies for addressing inconsistent reporting in longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. data and present findings for each strategy.
MEASURING ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
Much of what is known about adolescent (1) sexual behavior is understood in the context of heterosexual vaginal vag·i·nal
1. Of or relating to the vagina.
2. Relating to or resembling a sheath.
pertaining to the vagina, the tunica vaginalis testis, or to any sheath. intercourse. This emphasis reflects the long-standing public health concerns of the social and health consequences of that behavior: unintended pregnancy, adolescent childbearing child·bear·ing
Pregnancy and parturition.
childbearing adj. , and STI STI systolic time intervals. infection and sequelae sequelae Clinical medicine The consequences of a particular condition or therapeutic intervention (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2000). Conceptually, first heterosexual intercourse has been viewed as a highly salient event for adolescents and used as one marker in the transition to adulthood (Elder, 1997). Empirically, younger ages of first intercourse are associated with increased risks for these social and health consequences (Alan Guttmacher Alan Frank Guttmacher (1898-1974) was an American physician.
He served as president of Planned Parenthood and vice-president of the American Eugenics Society, founded the Association for the Study of Abortion in 1964, was a member of the Association for Voluntary Institute, 1994). The current investigation draws from this overall approach. We recognize, however, that adolescent sexual expression is not limited to heterosexual intercourse or heterosexual contact alone. We argue that the assessment of reporting problems specific to heterosexual intercourse is a necessary first step, and that the behavior itself (although limited in scope) has important public health implications.
National prevalence estimates of sexual experience among teens are derived from surveillance data such as the Youth Risk Behavior Survey The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a biannual survey of adolescent health risk and health protective behaviors such as smoking, drinking, drug use, diet, and physical activity conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (YRBS YRBS Youth Risk Behavior Survey ), cross-sectional survey data such as the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG NSFG National Survey of Family Growth
NSFG Naked Stick Figure Guy ), and longitudinal survey data such as the National Survey of Adolescent Males (NSAM NSAM National Security Action Memorandum
NSAM National Survey of Adolescent Males
NSAM Naval School of Aviation Medicine (Pensacola, FL)
NSAM National Skills Academy for Manufacturing (UK) ) and, more recently, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). All of these databases (minimally) define adolescents as sexually experienced if they have ever had vaginal intercourse. In 1999, 49.4% of adolescents were sexually experienced, and the percentage varied by gender and race/ethnicity (Centers for Disease Control [CDC See Control Data, century date change and Back Orifice.
CDC - Control Data Corporation ], 2000). Over half (52.2%) of boys and 47.7% of girls have had heterosexual intercourse; 45.1% of White, 54.1% of Hispanic, and 71.2% of Black teens have had intercourse (CDC, 2000). These findings, along with those from other studies, are influential because they inform researchers and policy makers in setting priorities for health-related concerns for adolescents. Consequently, the degree of accuracy in reporting sexual behaviors impacts how risk groups are identified and how they are characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
When measuring sexual behavior, two types of information are often collected. Event-history type data require that the adolescent provide information on whether or not the event of interest occurred (i.e., ever had sexual intercourse) as well as the timing or date when the event occurred (i.e., month and year had sexual intercourse for the first time). Both of these measures are subject to reporting problems. Longitudinal studies allow one to assess reporting consistency across waves of data; in the case of the Add Health study, two waves of data are currently available. There are two possible transitions between Wave I and Wave II, but only one is logically inconsistent (i.e., sexually experienced at Wave I, not sexually experienced at Wave II). This subsample sub·sam·ple
A sample drawn from a larger sample.
tr.v. sub·sam·pled, sub·sam·pling, sub·sam·ples
To take a subsample from (a larger sample). is the focus of the first analysis. We note, however, that these teens represent only a portion of potential respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. providing unreliable information. Even among teens providing consistent reports, some may be consistent but false. Similarly, some who state that they transitioned to becoming sexually active between the two waves may be giving false information. The second type of inconsistency in·con·sis·ten·cy
n. pl. in·con·sis·ten·cies
1. The state or quality of being inconsistent.
2. Something inconsistent: many inconsistencies in your proposal. we examine pertains to the timing of first intercourse. In this case, the respondent is consistent with his/her sexual experience report, but inconsistent about when the first sexual intercourse experience occurred. This subsample is the focus of the second analysis.
Researchers utilizing survey data are commonly faced with problems of inconsistent responses that they must resolve prior to analysis. These decision rules are often based on standard data management procedures (e.g., imputation IMPUTATION. The judgment by which we declare that an agent is the cause of his free action, or of the result of it, whether good or ill. Wolff, Sec. 3. ) but are also based on how the researcher conceptualizes the underlying behavioral phenomenon she or he is investigating. In the case of sexual experience and age at first intercourse, one must decide which observations are to be counted as virgins versus nonvirgins. Also, among those observations that have multiple reports of the date of first intercourse, decisions must be made regarding which of these dates is the "truth." The current work allows for an assessment of the substantive implications of different strategies for resolving these problems.
Reporting inconsistencies have been found to systematically vary with the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents (Alexander et al., 1993; Catania, 1999; Lauritsen & Swicegood, 1997; Wu et al., 1999), their abilities and motivation (Catania, 1999), survey design, interview modality, and setting (Catania, et al., 1990; Gribble et al., 1999; Turner et al., 1998; Weinhardt et al., 1998; Wu et al., 1999). Studies investigating logical inconsistencies using adolescent samples have found between 5% and 12% of teens rescind To declare a contract void—of no legal force or binding effect—from its inception and thereby restore the parties to the positions they would have occupied had no contract ever been made.
rescind v. reports of sexual intercourse, and the percentage varies by gender and race/ethnicity (Alexander, et al., 1993; McFarlane & St. Lawrence, 1999; Mott, 1985; Rogers et al., 1982). In general, African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. boys are the most likely to give inconsistent reports and White girls the least; however, studies have been somewhat conflicting. Studies investigating reporting problems in age at first intercourse have found that between 25% to 66% of respondents provide inconsistent ages at first intercourse (Alexander et al., 1993; Capaldi, 1996; Lauritsen & Swicegood, 1997; Wu et al., 1999). Again, the findings have been conflicting; Some studies find that African American males have the greatest discrepancies, others African American females, and still others White females. In addition, very little is known about the reporting patterns of Hispanic and Asian American teens, and few studies analyze samples of teens that are nationally representative.
In the current study, we empirically investigate potential gender and race/ethnicity differentials for two types of inconsistent reporting, extending the number of groups to include Hispanic and Asian American adolescents. In addition to gender and race/ethnicity, we include the respondent's age and measures of family socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. (SES). The focus of our work is to assess the variability in reporting problems over a limited set of sociodemographic variables rather than testing why these differences are observed. We recognize that sociodemographic attributes serve as proxies for numerous underlying social and cultural differences pertaining to gender roles, sexual norms A sexual norm can refer to a personal or a social norm. Most cultures have social norms regarding sexuality, and define normal sexuality to consist only of certain legal sex acts between individuals who meet specific criteria of age, relatedness or social role and status. , and beliefs of social desirability and agreeability a·gree·a·ble
1. To one's liking; pleasing: agreeable weather.
2. Suitable; conformable: a practice agreeable to the law.
3. (Catania, 1999; Catania et al., 1990; DeGaston, Weed, & Jensen, 1996; Franco, Malloy, & Gonzalez, 1984; Furstenberg, Morgan, Moore, & Peterson, 1987; Sabogal, Perez-Stable, Otero-Sabogal, & Hiatt, 1995; Sprecher, McKinney, & Orbach, 1987), but do not explicitly test this in the current work.
In addition, the respondent's degree of interest, level of motivation, and abilities are also associated with reporting problems. Highly motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo respondents may apply greater effort to understanding and answering questions, whereas less motivated ones may skim or skip questions, or give less thoughtful answers (Catania et al., 1990). Also, since reporting tasks can be complex, respondents who demonstrate greater abilities may be more consistent reporters (Lauritsen & Swicegood, 1997; Wu et al., 1999). To investigate the potential association between motivation and reporting problems, we include two measures of the interviewer's assessment of the teen's exhibited boredom Boredom
See also Futility.
Aldegonde, Lord St.
bored nobleman, empty of pursuits. [Br. Lit.: Lothair]
(1821–1867) French poet whose dissipated lifestyle led to inner despair. [Fr. Lit. and candor can·dor
1. Frankness or sincerity of expression; openness.
2. Freedom from prejudice; impartiality.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin, from . Also, to assess the potential contribution of vocabulary comprehension comprehension
Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined. on reporting problems, we include the teen's score for a shortened short·en
v. short·ened, short·en·ing, short·ens
1. To make short or shorter.
2. version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test The PPVT-III is an untimed, individual intelligence test, orally administered in 11 to 12 minutes or less. Extensively revised, this test measures an individual's receptive (hearing) vocabulary for Standard American English. .
Our analyses focus on a set of interrelated in·ter·re·late
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.
in questions examining two forms of inconsistency in reporting: event occurrence and timing. We first examine the frequency of rescinded reports of sexual experience and the personal characteristics associated with them. Then, we investigate the frequency and magnitude of inconsistent reports of date of first intercourse and the personal characteristics associated with them. Finally, we develop seven strategies for resolving these inconsistencies and remark on the substantive implications of these different "fixes."
The data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a survey designed to assess the health status of adolescents in America (Bearman, Jones, & Udry, 1998). The sampling frame consists of all U.S. high schools; younger students were sampled from one feeder school Feeder school is a name applied to schools, colleges, universities, or other educational institutions that provide a significant number of graduates who intend to continue their studies at specific schools, or even in specific fields. that included a 7th grade and sent graduates to the sampled high school. Each participating school provided a student roster, which constituted the student-level sampling frame. From that listing, a baseline sample was drawn consisting of a core sample and several special oversamples. The core sample is a probability sample of 12,105 students and is nationally representative of adolescents enrolled in grades 7 to 12 during the 1994 to 1995 academic year. The oversamples include specific ethnic groups, disabled teens, and biologically related adolescents. The combined Wave I sample size is 20,745. The Wave II sample is all adolescents interviewed at Wave I except for the deletion deletion /de·le·tion/ (de-le´shun) in genetics, loss of genetic material from a chromosome.
Loss, as from mutation, of one or more nucleotides from a chromosome. of teens who were 12th graders at Wave I and who were not part of the genetic oversample, and the deletion of the disabled sample. Wave II interviews were completed in 1996 and resulted in a sample size of 14,738. We dropped 41 cases from the original 20,745 sample because of very poor data quality. Also, there were 403 adolescents who self-identified as Native American or Other who were dropped because of small sample size and heterogeneity het·er·o·ge·ne·i·ty
The quality or state of being heterogeneous.
the state of being heterogeneous. . These deletions resulted in a baseline sample of 20,301.
In this paper, three distinct analyses were performed using different analytic an·a·lyt·ic or an·a·lyt·i·cal
1. Of or relating to analysis or analytics.
2. Expert in or using analysis, especially one who thinks in a logical manner.
3. Psychoanalytic. strategies. For the first analysis, we examined logical inconsistencies in reporting of sexual status (i.e., reclamation Reclamation
A claim for the right to return or the right to demand the return of a security that has been previously accepted as a result of bad delivery or other irregularities in the delivery and settlement process. of virginity status). This analysis was limited to the 5,049 teens who reported they had sexual intercourse at Wave I and were reinterviewed at Wave II. For the second analysis, we examined inconsistencies in reported date of first intercourse. This analysis was limited to the 3,855 adolescents who reported they had sexual intercourse at Wave I and Wave II and provided complete dates (month and year) of first intercourse in both interviews. (2) For the third analysis, we presented coding options for reconciling logical inconsistencies and dating inconsistencies. To the extent possible, we utilized information from the entire Wave I sample. For these analyses, the sample size varied depending on the strategy employed, and only cases with complete date of first intercourse were included. Cases with only partial or missing date information will be considered in subsequent work.
Measures and Variable Description
Measuring first heterosexual intercourse. Approximately midway Midway, island group (2 sq mi/5.2 sq km), central Pacific, c.1,150 mi (1,850 km) NW of Honolulu, comprising Sand and Eastern islands with the surrounding atoll. Discovered by Americans in 1859, Midway was annexed in 1867. A cable station was opened in 1903. through the survey, respondents were asked about their sexual and contraceptive contraceptive /con·tra·cep·tive/ (-sep´tiv)
1. diminishing the likelihood of or preventing conception.
2. an agent that so acts. histories. This portion of the interview was self-administered by audio-CASI (Computer Assisted Self Interview) because of the sensitive nature of the questions. Questions were read to respondents by means of audio headphones Head-mounted speakers. Headphones have a strap that rests on top of the head, positioning a pair of speakers over both ears. For listening to music or monitoring live performances and audio tracks, both left and right channels are required. . Respondents were given instructions on how to complete their answers on the computer. They were first asked: "Have you ever had sexual intercourse? When we say sexual intercourse, we mean when a male inserts his penis into a female's vagina vagina: see reproductive system.
Genital canal in females. Together with the cavity of the uterus, it forms the birth canal. In most virgins, its external opening is partially closed by a thin fold of tissue (hymen), which has various forms, ." This question was asked of all interviewed respondents at Wave I and Wave II. If the respondent answered yes, she or he was then asked: "In what month and year did you have sexual intercourse for the very first time?" The response given by the respondent at Wave I was not taken into consideration at the Wave II interview. Consequently, it is possible for teens to rescind their report and change their date of first sexual intercourse. Logistic regression In statistics, logistic regression is a regression model for binomially distributed response/dependent variables. It is useful for modeling the probability of an event occurring as a function of other factors. was used to examine the correlates of logically inconsistent reports (1 = inconsistent report, 0 = consistent report). The second analysis examined differences in reported dates using two different measures. The first outcome was the difference, in months, between Wave I and Wave II reports of the date of first intercourse (Wave I minus Wave II). Ordinary least squares (OLS OLS Ordinary Least Squares
OLS Online Library System
OLS Ottawa Linux Symposium
OLS Operation Lifeline Sudan
OLS Operational Linescan System
OLS Online Service
OLS Organizational Leadership and Supervision
OLS On Line Support
OLS Online System ) regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.
In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set. was used. The second outcome was the squared values of the residuals obtained from the previous OLS analysis; it is a measure of the variability in the two reports. OLS was also used for this analysis.
Resolving inconsistencies in virginity status and reported dates of first intercourse. To resolve reporting inconsistencies, seven alternative coding schemes were developed and each option is described below. Survival analysis was used, so information for all respondents regardless of their re-interview status or sexual experience was utilized. (3)
Option 1: Wave I only. The Wave I date of first intercourse was used as the correct date and additional information provided in Wave II was ignored. Results based on this option provided a cross-sectional snap shot a quick offhand shot, without deliberately taking aim.
See also: Snap ; thus, this option does not address any of the inconsistencies considered in this analysis.
Option 2 and option 3: Lower and upper boundaries. For respondents with two reports of date of intercourse, Option 2 selected the earlier (younger) of the two dates and Option 3 selected the later (older) of the two dates. If only one date was available, it was used. Both options treated logically inconsistent reports as nonvirgins, since any mention of sexual experience was used as correct.
Option 4: Wave I dominant. The Wave I information was used as correct except when the Wave II information represented incident cases. That is, we used the Wave II date of first sex only if it occurred between the interview dates for respondents who reported they were not sexually active at Wave I. Note that respondents who reported no for intercourse at Wave I and yes to intercourse at Wave II were counted as virgins if the date of intercourse was prior to the Wave I interview date. Respondents with logically inconsistent reports were treated as nonvirgins.
Option 5: Wave II dominant. The Wave II report was used as the correct report for respondents, regardless of the information provided at Wave I. Note that this option allowed respondents to transition to first intercourse even if the date provided at Wave II was prior to the Wave I interview date. Also, respondents with logically inconsistent reports were treated as virgins.
Option 6: More recent yes dominant. For respondents who provided two reports of date of first intercourse, the Wave II report was taken as correct. Respondents with logically inconsistent reports were treated as nonvirgins.
Option 7: Average. For respondents with two reports of first intercourse, the average of the two was used as the correct date. If there was only one report of date of first intercourse, that was used; thus, logically inconsistent reports were treated as nonvirgins.
This analysis consisted of two parts. First, to investigate the extent to which estimated ages at first intercourse vary across the seven options, Kaplan-Meier life tables were computed for each gender-by-ethnicity group. Then, Cox regression was used to explore if the different options produced substantive differences in the estimated effects of the independent variables on the time to first intercourse (hazard of first sex).
The independent variables we investigated can be broadly classified into three groups: (a) sociodemographic attributes; (b) ability (vocabulary comprehension); and (c) motivation, which also characterizes aspects, of interview conditions. Sociodemographic characteristics included gender, race/ethnicity, age, family structure, and family socioeconomic status (SES). Gender and race/ethnicity were interacted, resulting in eight gender-by-ethnicity groups: White, African American, Hispanic, and Asian American females and the same categories for males. White female was used as the reference category. Family structure was categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat into four living situations: living with both biological parents, living in a stepfamily step·fam·i·ly
n. pl. step·fam·i·lies
A family with one or more stepchildren. , living with one biological parent only, and all other living situations. We used two-biological-parent families as the reference category. Family SES consisted of three measures: mother's education, father's education, and household income. Missing values In statistics, missing values are a common occurrence. Several statistical methods have been developed to deal with this problem. Missing values mean that no data value is stored for the variable in the current observation. for parents' education were imputed Attributed vicariously.
In the legal sense, the term imputed is used to describe an action, fact, or quality, the knowledge of which is charged to an individual based upon the actions of another for whom the individual is responsible rather than on the individual's using the weighted mean education, stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. by gender and race/ethnicity. Both are continuous variables and interpretable only for family situations in which the relevant parent is present. The annual household income for 1994 was taken from the parent's questionnaire and was imputed for cases with missing data. The final measure was the logarithm logarithm (lŏg`ərĭthəm) [Gr.,=relation number], number associated with a positive number, being the power to which a third number, called the base, must be raised in order to obtain the given positive number. of income, which was then collapsed into quartiles, using the middle two (25-75) as the reference category.
The Add Health Picture Vocabulary Test vocabulary test A component of IQ tests in which a person is asked to define words of varying level of difficulty, and use them in context, which provides the examiner with a measure of the person's intellectual achievement and aptitude. See IQ test. (AHPVT) is a computerized computerized
adapted for analysis, storage and retrieval on a computer.
computerized axial tomography
see computed tomography. and abridged version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and was used to assess vocabulary comprehension (Bearman et al., 1997). The AHPVT is a hearing vocabulary test where the interviewer reads a word and the adolescent selects an illustration that best fits the word, choosing from a multiple-choice format of items. There are 78 items on the AHPVT. We standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. the raw test score and coded it into quartiles using the middle two quartiles as the reference category. (In additional analysis not presented here, age standardized AHPVT scores were used; none of the findings differed from those presented in this paper.) Motivation and candor during the interview were assessed with information obtained from the interviewer; two measures from this battery were used. The first asked the interviewer to rate the candidness can·did
1. Free from prejudice; impartial.
2. Characterized by openness and sincerity of expression; unreservedly straightforward: In private, I gave them my candid opinion. of the respondent in answering questions. This measure is a four-category variable ranging from not candid can·did
1. Free from prejudice; impartial.
2. Characterized by openness and sincerity of expression; unreservedly straightforward: In private, I gave them my candid opinion. to very candid; the latter was used as the reference. The second question asked the interviewer to evaluate if the respondent appeared bored or impatient im·pa·tient
1. Unable to wait patiently or tolerate delay; restless.
2. Unable to endure irritation or opposition; intolerant: impatient of criticism.
3. during the interview and was scored as a dichotomy di·chot·o·my
n. pl. di·chot·o·mies
1. Division into two usually contradictory parts or opinions: "the dichotomy of the one and the many" Louis Auchincloss. .
All multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model. analyses presented in the paper were performed using STATA Stata (Statistics/Data Analysis) is a statistical program created in 1985 by Statacorp that is used by many businesses and academic institutions around the world. Most of its users work in research, especially in the fields of economics, sociology, political science, and software (StataCorp, 1999). Robust variance estimates were computed to adjust for the complex clustered sample design using the Huber correction.
The first table shows the weighted distribution of the characteristics of the full sample. The average age of the respondent at Wave I was slightly older than 15 years. About two thirds of males and females were White, about 16% were African American, another 12% Hispanic, and the remainder were Asian American. Over one half of teens lived with both biological parents, approximately one quarter lived with one biological parent, and the remainder lived in stepfamilies and other situations. The mean years of schooling achieved were similar for mothers and fathers (about 13 years), and the mean household income (1994) was $42,8.64. The mean score of the raw AHPVT was 64.8. Over 80% of respondents were considered very or moderately candid during their interview, and only one in eight appeared bored during the interview (as observed by the interviewer).
Table 2 presents summary statistics for the two measures of inconsistent reports for each of the gender-by-ethnicity groups. White females had the lowest percentage of logically inconsistent responses (Column 1), at about 6%, and Asian American males had the highest percentage of inconsistent reports, at about 22%. In each of the four ethnic groups, males had higher percentages of inconsistent reporting than their female counterparts. As can be seen in the second column, teens on average revised their reported date of first sex to older ages, varying from 2.5 months (White girls) to almost 7 months (African American and Asian American boys). (4) Also, variability (SD) of these means differed across groups and was generally larger for males than for females. Thus, the descriptive findings demonstrated substantial variability in the extent of inconsistent reports across categories of gender-by-ethnicity. We now turn to the multivariate results.
Logically Inconsistent Reports of First Intercourse
The logistic regression results for the eight gender-by-ethnicity categories mirror the bivariate bi·var·i·ate
Mathematics Having two variables: bivariate binomial distribution.
Adj. 1. results in Table 2. That is, all groups had higher odds of inconsistent reporting than White girls, although not significantly so for Hispanic and Asian American girls. African American girls were 1.5 times more likely than White girls to provide logically inconsistent information. Most striking, however, were the findings for boys in every ethnic group. White, African American, and Hispanic boys were more than two times more likely and Asian American boys almost 5 times more likely than White girls to be inconsistent reporters. Also, older teens were less likely than younger teens to change their response at Wave II.
Family background effects were modest. Controlling for parents' education, teens living in other situations were less likely to provide logically inconsistent reports (see Table 3). Higher levels of mother's education were significantly associated with lower odds, among teens living with mothers. In contrast, neither father's education nor household income had an impact on reporting. In addition, teens who scored in the first quartile Quartile
A statistical term describing a division of observations into four defined intervals based upon the values of the data and how they compare to the entire set of observations.
Each quartile contains 25% of the total observations. (lowest) on the AHPVT were significantly more likely than those scoring in the middle two quartiles to provide inconsistent reports. However, neither the teen's degree of candor nor level of boredom was associated with reporting behavior.
Variability in Reported Dates of First Intercourse
In the next table (Table 4), we investigated factors that may be associated with inconsistent reports of the date of first heterosexual intercourse. The dependent variable in the first model (Column 1) was the difference in dates, and the dependent variable in the second model (Column 2) was the squared residuals obtained from the first model. A notable finding for both outcomes is that the model [R.sup.2] explained very little of the total variability in reported dates, suggesting small systematic variation in the reports for these model specifications. Looking first at Model 1 results, we found that all gender-by-ethnicity groups revised their dates to older ages (except for Asian American girls), and only two of the contrasts were significant. Compared to White girls, White and African American boys revised their dates significantly upward to older ages (by almost 4 months). There was a modest and somewhat unexpected effect for teens scoring in the top quartile of the AHPVT, who revised their reports to younger ages at Wave II. Family background and interview characteristics were not significant.
Model 2 shows the extent of variability in reported dates. When compared to White girls, African American boys had significantly greater variability, followed by White and Hispanic boys. None of the other gender-by-ethnicity contrasts were significant. Again, family background characteristics were only modestly important; we found that teens living in other family situations had significantly greater variability and those living in higher income households had significantly less. Lastly, teens scoring lower on the AHPVT had significantly greater variability in reported dates than those scoring in the middle two quartiles.
Resolving Logical and Date Inconsistencies: Seven Options
For the last analysis, we investigated the following questions: To what extent do inconsistencies in reporting alter estimates of age at first sex? And, to what extent do these inconsistencies alter the estimates of the covariates on the risk of first sexual intercourse? To answer these questions, we examined the results obtained from seven different options for reconciling inconsistencies. Note that for all but one of the options (Option 5), teens were considered to be nonvirgins if there is any mention of first intercourse. Option 5 allowed teens to regain their virginity status, and they were counted as virgins. Table 5 shows the Kaplan-Meier estimated median ages of first intercourse for girls and boys, respectively. What is most notable in the table is the overall similarity Similarity is some degree of symmetry in either analogy and resemblance between two or more concepts or objects. The notion of similarity rests either on exact or approximate repetitions of patterns in the compared items. in the estimates, regardless of the option used for computation Computation is a general term for any type of information processing that can be represented mathematically. This includes phenomena ranging from simple calculations to human thinking. . For girls, African American girls generally reported the youngest age, followed by White, Hispanic, and, lastly, Asian American girls (for whom ages could not be computed for most options because so few had become sexually active by the last interview). The last column shows the greatest difference (in fraction of years) between the two most disparate estimates of median age at first sex. For girls, the largest difference was 0.4 years. For boys, African American boys reported the youngest ages of first sex overall, followed by Hispanic, White, and, lastly, Asian American boys. There was somewhat greater variability in the estimated ages among boys. The largest discrepancies in age were among African American boys (0.8 years) and Asian American boys (0.6 years).
For our final analysis, we estimated multivariate models of the time to first sex using Cox proportional proportional
values expressed as a proportion of the total number of values in a series.
the patient is a miniature without disproportionate reductions or enlargements of body parts. hazard regression (Table 6). We were interested in (qualitatively) assessing variation in the parameter (1) Any value passed to a program by the user or by another program in order to customize the program for a particular purpose. A parameter may be anything; for example, a file name, a coordinate, a range of values, a money amount or a code of some kind. estimates across the options, highlighting any changes in substantive findings. Overall, differences in substantive results were small, with a few notable exceptions. Compared to White girls, Hispanic and Asian American girls had significantly lower risk (older ages) of first intercourse, as did White and Asian American boys. African American boys had significantly higher risk (younger ages) than White girls, and Hispanic boys did not differ from White girls. Note, however, that the results for African American girls depended on the option selected. In two cases, we found that African American girls had significantly higher risk than White girls. In five cases, the differences between African American and White girls were not statistically significant. Thus, although the effects for African American girls were substantively the same across the options, the precision of the estimates differed. It is also possible to see the impact of logically inconsistent reports in the results from Option 5. Because boys were more likely to provide logically inconsistent reports (and were thus coded as virgins in this case), the higher relative risk for African American boys was somewhat suppressed sup·press
tr.v. sup·pressed, sup·press·ing, sup·press·es
1. To put an end to forcibly; subdue.
2. To curtail or prohibit the activities of.
3. , and the lower risk among White and Asian American boys was even lower when compared to the other options.
Because family background characteristics were not strongly predictive of inconsistent reporting, their effects were strikingly similar across the options. Controlling for parents' education, teens living in stepfamilies had higher risk of sex than those living with both biological parents. Higher levels of both mothers' and fathers' education reduced the risk of sex among those teens living with a mother and/or father. Across alt options, household income was not significant. Lastly, compared to the middle two quartiles, teens scoring in the top quartile of the AHPVT had significantly lower risk of intercourse; Option 5 results show that teens scoring, in the first quartile also had significantly lower risk.
Our findings suggest that although adolescents may have difficulty providing consistent information about their sexual experience, these reporting problems (i.e., reclaiming
specified - clearly and explicitly stated; "meals are at specified times" ), with a few notable exceptions. Boys, especially Asian American boys, are more likely than White girls to provide logically inconsistent reports, as are teens with lower AHPVT scores; older teens are less likely to do so. Among sexually active teens who are not logically inconsistent, boys, especially White and African American boys, report greater differences than White girls in dates of first intercourse. With respect to the degree of variability in reported dates, boys, in particular African American boys, have much greater dispersion dispersion, in chemistry
dispersion, in chemistry, mixture in which fine particles of one substance are scattered throughout another substance. A dispersion is classed as a suspension, colloid, or solution. in the dates they provide than White girls, as do teens scoring in the lowest quartile of the AHPVT. In addition, family background factors, the degree of candor, and the level of boredom during the interview do not influence reporting.
Although we presented gender-by-ethnicity interaction models, our findings suggest that gender differences in inconsistent reports are greater than race/ethnic differences. Overall, boys are more inconsistent reporters than girls, results found by others analyzing earlier cohorts of adolescents (Alexander et al., 1993; Lauritsen & Swicegood, 1997; Mott, 1985; Rogers et al., 1982). Nevertheless, the gender-by-ethnicity comparisons provide some additional insights. When compared to White girls, Asian American boys are almost five times more likely to provide logically inconsistent reports. When compared to White girls, both White and African American boys significantly revise their ages at first intercourse to older ages. Although we did not attempt to explain why these differences are observed, other studies have suggested that honesty in reporting may be a factor (Newcomer & Udry, 1988; Siegel, Aten, & Roghmann, 1998). When students were asked directly about the honesty of their reports of sex, gender, race/ethnicity, and nonintercourse sexual experiences were associated with teens' propensity to be honest (Newcomer & Udry, 1988). And, the youngest boys were the least likely to provide honest reports about their sexual experiences (Siegel et al., 1998). Problems with recall may also be a contributing factor, although the recall period for most of the teens in the sample is of relatively short duration and onset of sexual activity is most often considered a salient experience. Nevertheless, bias due to memory problems are particularly relevant for recollection of dates, and many people may be poor reporters of the timing of even relatively recent events (Sudman, Bradburn, & Schwarz, 1996).
Teens scoring in the lowest quartile of AHPVT were more likely to rescind their report and more likely to give inconsistent dates of first intercourse than teens with higher scores. Teens with lower scores may have more difficulty understanding the content of the questions being asked and thus more inclined to provide faulty fault·y
adj. fault·i·er, fault·i·est
1. Containing a fault or defect; imperfect or defective.
2. Obsolete Deserving of blame; guilty. answers. Also, they may have greater difficulty performing the computations needed to convert their age at first intercourse into a calendar date (Wu et al., 1999). In other work analyzing the overall quality of the Add Health data, teens with lower AHPVT scores were more likely to give out-of-range, missing, or "don't know Don't know (DK, DKed)
"Don't know the trade." A Street expression used whenever one party lacks knowledge of a trade or receives conflicting instructions from the other party. " responses throughout the survey (Joyce Tabor, personal communication, 1999).
An important limitation of our study is our narrow definition of sexual behavior--heterosexual vaginal intercourse--and our focus on the age when this first occurred. Adolescent sexual expression encompasses a multiplicity mul·ti·plic·i·ty
n. pl. mul·ti·plic·i·ties
1. The state of being various or manifold: the multiplicity of architectural styles on that street.
2. of behaviors, and there are forms of sexual initiation other than heterosexual vaginal intercourse. A recent commentary (Remez, 2000) discusses the difficulties in characterizing these behaviors, especially in relation to identifying teens "at risk." Because of the narrow focus on sexual intercourse in past research, a major component of early sexual activity, namely noncoital behaviors, has historically been overlooked. Anecdotal anecdotal /an·ec·do·tal/ (an?ek-do´t'l) based on case histories rather than on controlled clinical trials.
anecdotal adjective Unsubstantiated; occurring as single or isolated event. reports suggest that teens may be engaging in behaviors (e.g., oral sex) that avoid pregnancy but leave them at risk for STIs, including HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. (Remez, 2000). Similarly, this perspective also overlooks same-sex sexual behaviors, which also place teens at risk of STIs (in some cases, substantially increased risk). Failure to measure and estimate the prevalence of these behaviors will underestimate adolescents' risk for STIs and hinder hin·der 1
v. hin·dered, hin·der·ing, hin·ders
1. To be or get in the way of.
2. To obstruct or delay the progress of.
v.intr. our ability to elaborate the Complexities of adolescent sexual behaviors. Nonetheless, we argue that assessing the reliability of reporting of heterosexual vaginal intercourse is useful because it is an important marker of risk. One of the innovations of the Add Health data set is that it also contains information regarding same-sex and other noncoital behaviors (Bearman et al., 1997).
The results show that inconsistency in reporting has only limited influence on the estimated ages at first intercourse or on the effects of standard sociodemographic determinants on the risk of first sex. Despite different assumptions about virginity status and about which reported date of first intercourse was considered true, the seven options we developed for resolving inconsistencies produced substantively similar results. Although others also find that inconsistent reporting does not affect results for age at first intercourse (Lauritsen & Swicegood, 1997; Wu et al., 1999), these studies did not present a range of options for resolving inconsistencies. In particular, we found that the gender-by-ethnicity differentials in risk did not markedly differ across the options, with the exception of the results for African American girls. Family background effects also were remarkably similar across the fixes. The substantive results are in agreement with other studies using the Add Health data set as well as other nationally representative data sets such as the YRBS (Kolbe, Kann, & Collins, 1993; Resnick et al., 1997). The large sample size of the Add Health data set undoubtedly contributed to the robustness of these findings. Nevertheless, our findings also show that the prevalence estimates of sexual experience are influenced by these reporting problems; the estimates vary from 38.9% (Option 1) to 48.3% (Options 2 and 5) (data not shown). Thus, these coding options do not substantially impact the effects of the explanatory ex·plan·a·to·ry
Serving or intended to explain: an explanatory paragraph.
ex·plan variables but do affect the point estimates of the prevalence of sexually active adolescents.
In sum, although teens may have difficulty providing consistent information regarding their sexual experience, it appears that these reporting problems are largely random and that they have little impact on the substantive conclusions regarding age at first intercourse. Our work shows, however, that there are still moderate levels of inconsistent reporting of these behaviors, and points to the importance of continuing to explore the ways in which adolescents understand sexuality, sexual behaviors, and the personal meanings they attach to these phenomena.
Table 1. Distribution of Sample Characteristics, Add Health, Wave I Characteristics Percentage or mean Age 15.4 Gender by race/ethnicity White females 33.4% African American females 8.1 Hispanic females 6.0 Asian American females 1.7 White males 34.5 African American males 8.0 Hispanic males 6.3 Asian American males 1.9 Family structure Two biological parents 54.7% Stepfamily 10.3 One biological parent 28.6 Other situations 6.4 Family SES Mother's education 13.1 Father's education 13.3 Household income 42,864 AHPVT 64.79 Respondent candor Very candid 51.3% Moderately candid 33.9 Somewhat candid 10.5 Not candid 4.3 Respondent boredom Bored (vs. not bored) 12.6% N 20,301 Note. Weighted percentages and means; unweighted N. Table 2. Summary Statistics of Logically Inconsistent Reports and Inconsistent Dates of Reported First Intercourse, by Gender-by-Ethnicity Groups Percent logically Mean inconsistent differences in (reclaimed reported dates virginity status) (Wave I-Wave II) (SD) White girls 5.94 -2.54 (14.13) African American girls 9.78 -4.22 (21.93) Hispanic girls 9.33 -3.67 (16.51) Asian American girls 12.26 -2.91 (15.16) White boys 12.85 -5.73 (26.79) African American boys 14.75 -6.94 (39.29) Hispanic boys 13.96 -4.99 (29.12) Asian American boys 22.22 -6.87 (26.62) Total 11.2 -4.5 N 5,049 3,855 Table 3. Logistic Regression Coefficients for Rescinded Sexual Intercourse at Wave II, Add Health Parameter Odds Characteristics estimate ratio Deviation from mean age -0.252 *** 0.777 Gender by race/ethnicity African American females 0.382 * 1.465 Hispanic females 0.296 1.345 Asian American females 0.853 2.347 White males 0.883 *** 2.418 African American males 0.839 *** 2.314 Hispanic males 0.799 *** 2.223 Asian American males 1.564 *** 4.778 Family structure Stepfamily -0.161 0.851 One biological parent -0.416 0.659 Other situations -0.839 * 0.432 Family SES Mother's education -0.037 * 0.964 Father's education -0.013 0.987 Household income-first quartile 0.067 1.069 Household income-fourth quartile -0.023 0.977 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test First quartile 0.337 *** 1.400 Fourth quartile -0.138 0.871 Interview characteristics Moderately candid 0.137 1.147 Somewhat candid 0.152 1.164 Not candid 0.383 1.468 Bored -0.043 0.957 Constant -2.052 -- N 5,049 a.f 21 Log-likelihood -1673.41 *** Note. Characteristics limited to those teens who were sexually active at the Wave I interview. Huber correction for SE. * p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001. Table 4. OLS Regression Coefficients for the Difference (in Months) in Reports of Date of First Intercourse (Model 1) and for Squared Residuals of Differences (Model 2) Model-- Model 2--squared Characteristics differences residuals Deviation from mean age 0.690 2.744 Gender by race/ethnicity African American females -1.021 62.79 Hispanic females -0.565 -86.46 Asian American females 0.033 -98.85 White males -3.340 ** 535.24 *** African American males -3.888 ** 1141.79 *** Hispanic males -2.229 526.67 ** Asian American males -4.182 437.95 Family structure Stepfamily 0.295 45.89 One biological parent 1.333 156.72 Other situations -2.036 789.98 * Family SES Mother's education -0.044 17.18 Father's education 0.062 16.86 Household income-first quartile 1.852 91.99 Household income-fourth quartile 0.769 -243.46 * Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test First quartile -1.251 403.58 *** Fourth quartile 1.759 * -92.32 Interview characteristics Moderately candid -0.437 106.28 Somewhat candid -0.154 -15.79 Not candid 3.308 28.79 Bored -2.239 52.23 Intercept -3.866 -281.84 N 3,855 3,855 d.f. 21 21 F value 3.53 *** 11.77 *** R2 0.01 0.04 Note. Characteristics limited to adolescents who reported they were sexually active at both Wave I and Wave II interviews. Huber correction for SE. * p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001. Table 5. Kaplan Meier Life Table Results for Median Age at First Sex, Based on Seven Different Options Ethnic Groups Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Girls White 16.9 16.8 16.9 17.0 African American 16.3 16.2 16.5 16.4 Hispanic 18.0 17.6 17.6 17.9 Asian American 18.8 Boys White 17.5 17.3 17.4 17.6 African American 15.4 15.0 15.5 15.4 Hispanic 17.l 16.7 17.0 17.2 Asian American 19.5 19.5 19.8 19.5 Ethnic Groups Option 5 Option 6 Option 7 Greatest [DELTA] Girls White 17.0 16.9 16.8 0.2 African American 16.6 16.4 16.3 0.4 Hispanic 17.8 17.6 17.6 0.4 Asian American Boys White 17.6 17.4 17.3 0.3 African American 15.8 15.3 15.2 0.8 Hispanic 17. l 16.9 16.8 0.5 Asian American 19.5 19.2 19.5 0.6 Note. See text for description of coding options. Table 6. Cox Proportional Hazard Results for Risk of First Intercourse, Using Seven Different Coding Options Characteristics Option 1 Option 2 Gender by race/ethnicity African American girls 0.148 * 0.116 * Hispanic girls -0.433 *** -0.413 *** Asian American girls -0.734 *** -0.701 *** White boys -0.137 *** -0.125 *** African American boys 0.609 *** 0.614 *** Hispanic boys -0.034 0.014 Asian American boys -0.724 *** -0.703 *** Family structure Stepfamily 0.403 *** 0.407 *** One biological parent 0.076 0.051 Other situations -0.079 -0.176 Family SES Mother's education -0.026 ** -0.031 *** Father's education -0.030 *** -0.032 *** HH income--first quartile -0.028 -0.016 HH income--fourth quartile 0.018 0.016 AHPVT First quartile -0.075 -0.052 Fourth quartile -0.233 *** -0.229 *** N 19,232 19,467 Log-likelihood -67,058.927 -85,285.925 Characteristics Option 3 Option 4 Gender by race/ethnicity African American girls 0.092 0.108 Hispanic girls -0.421 *** -0.401 *** Asian American girls -0.729 *** -0.752 *** White boys -0.156 *** -0.167 *** African American boys 0.538 *** 0.549 *** Hispanic boys -0.044 -0.060 Asian American boys -0.744 *** -0.756 *** Family structure Stepfamily 0.389 *** 0.393 *** One biological parent 0.077 0.075 Other situations -0.172 -0.118 Family SES Mother's education -0.028 *** -0.029 *** Father's education -0.029 *** -0.030 *** HH income--first quartile -0.023 -0.023 HH income--fourth quartile 0.015 0.041 AHPVT First quartile -0.069 -0.077 Fourth quartile -0.227 *** -0.213 *** N 19,479 19,232 Log-likelihood -84,818.191 -78,089.854 Characteristics Option 5 Option 6 Gender by race/ethnicity African American girls 0.073 0.098 Hispanic girls -0.408 *** -0.421 *** Asian American girls -0.730 *** -0.719 *** White boys -0.194 *** -0.147 *** African American boys 0.457 *** 0.552 *** Hispanic boys -0.077 -0.029 Asian American boys -0.813 *** -0.731 *** Family structure Stepfamily 0.387 *** 0.397 *** One biological parent 0.079 0.068 Other situations -0.152 -0.192 Family SES Mother's education -0.028 ** -0.029 *** Father's education -0.029 *** -0.030 *** HH income--first quartile -0.025 -0.019 HH income--fourth quartile 0.022 0.018 AHPVT First quartile -0.111 ** -0.065 Fourth quartile -0.198 *** -0.223 *** N 19,475 19,474 Log-likelihood -80,801.983 -84,923.082 Characteristics Option 7 Gender by race/ethnicity African American girls 0.105 Hispanic girls -0.421 *** Asian American girls -0.717 *** White boys -0.135 *** African American boys 0.602 *** Hispanic boys -0.008 Asian American boys -0.721 *** Family structure Stepfamily 0.402 *** One biological parent 0.064 Other situations -0.163 Family SES Mother's education -0.029 *** Father's education -0.030 *** HH income--first quartile -0.017 HH income--fourth quartile 0.014 AHPVT First quartile -0.052 Fourth quartile -0.233 *** N 19,479 Log-likelihood -85,169.316 Note. Huber correction for SE. * p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001.
This research is supported by grant R01 HD36993 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, March 25-27, 1999, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , NY. The authors acknowledge Yasamin Kusunoki and Rachel Oakes for their invaluable assistance in the preparation of the manuscript.
(1) Adolescent is defined broadly and includes individuals between the ages of 11 and 20.
(2) Because our inconsistency analysis uses information from both waves of data and because the oldest teens (high school seniors) were not reinterviewed, we can only make statements about reporting problems for younger teens (i.e., between 12 and 18).
(3) In each of the following options, for respondents who were not reinterviewed at Wave II, we used the information available from the Wave I interview. In addition, where it was determined that the respondent was a virgin, the observation was censored cen·sor
1. A person authorized to examine books, films, or other material and to remove or suppress what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable.
2. at the appropriate interview date.
(4) We also note that only 22.2% of teens reported the same date of first intercourse, and only one third reported dates within 6 months of each other (data not shown).
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Manuscript accepted February 18, 2002
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