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Income group tables.

For operational and analytical purposes the World Bank's main criterion for classifying economies is gross national income (GNI GNI Gross National Income
GNI Global Nomads International
GNI Guyana News and Information
GNI Gay Naturists International
GNI Global Netoptex Inc.
GNI Great Northern Iron
GNI Gebäude Netzwerk Institut (German) 
) per capita [Latin, By the heads or polls.] A term used in the Descent and Distribution of the estate of one who dies without a will. It means to share and share alike according to the number of individuals. . Every economy in The Little Green Data Book is classified as low income, middle income, or high income. Low- and middle-income economies are sometimes referred to as developing economies. The use of the term is convenient; it is not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development or that other economies have reached a preferred or final stage of development. Classification by income does not necessarily reflect development status.

Low-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $905 or less in 2006.

Middle-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of more than $905 but less than $11,116. Lower-middle-income and upper-middle-income economies are separated at a GNI per capita of $3,595.

High-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $11,116 or more.

Euro area includes the member states of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union For the concept in general, see .
In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them. The European Economic and Monetary Union
 that have adopted the euro as their currency: Austria Austria (ô`strēə), Ger. Österreich [eastern march], officially Republic of Austria, federal republic (2005 est. pop. 8,185,000), 32,374 sq mi (83,849 sq km), central Europe. , Belgium Belgium (bĕl`jəm), Du. België, Fr. La Belgique, officially Kingdom of Belgium, constitutional kingdom (2005 est. pop. 10,364,000), 11,781 sq mi (30,513 sq km), NW Europe. , Cyprus Cyprus (sī`prəs), Gr. Kypros, Turk. Kıbrıs, officially Republic of Cyprus, republic (2005 est. pop. 780,000), 3,578 sq mi (9,267 sq km), an island in the E Mediterranean Sea, c.40 mi (60 km) S of Turkey and c. , Finland Finland, Finnish Suomi (swô`mē), officially Republic of Finland, republic (2005 est. pop. 5,223,000), 130,119 sq mi (337,009 sq km), N Europe. , France, Germany Germany (jûr`mənē), Ger. Deutschland, officially Federal Republic of Germany, republic (2005 est. pop. 82,431,000), 137,699 sq mi (356,733 sq km). , Greece Greece, Gr. Hellas or Ellas, republic (2005 est. pop. 10,668,000), 50,944 sq mi (131,945 sq km), SE Europe. It occupies the southernmost part of the Balkan Peninsula and borders on the Ionian Sea in the west, on the Mediterranean Sea in the south, on , Ireland Ireland, Irish Eire (âr`ə) [to it are related the poetic Erin and perhaps the Latin Hibernia], island, 32,598 sq mi (84,429 sq km), second largest of the British Isles. , Italy Italy (ĭt`əlē), Ital. Italia, officially Italian Republic, republic (2005 est. pop. 58,103,000), 116,303 sq mi (301,225 sq km), S Europe. , Luxembourg Luxembourg, province, Belgium
Luxembourg, Du. Luxemburg, province (1991 pop. 232,813), 1,706 sq mi (4,419 sq km), SE Belgium, in the Ardennes, bordering on the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in the east and on France in the south.
, Malta, Netherlands Netherlands (nĕth`ərləndz), Du. Nederland or Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, officially Kingdom of the Netherlands, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 16,407,000), 15,963 sq mi (41,344 sq km), NW Europe. , Portugal Portugal (pôr`chəgəl), officially Portuguese Republic, republic (2005 est. pop. 10,566,000), 35,553 sq mi (92,082 sq km), SW Europe, on the western side of the Iberian Peninsula and including the Madeira Islands and the Azores in the , Slovenia Slovenia (slōvē`nēə), Slovene Slovenija, officially Republic of Slovenia, republic (2005 est. pop. 2,011,000), 7,817 sq mi (20,246 sq km). , and Spain Spain, Span. España (āspä`nyä), officially Kingdom of Spain, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 40,341,000), 194,884 sq mi (504,750 sq km), including the Balearic and Canary islands, SW Europe. .
Low income

Population (millions) 2,420
Land area (1,000 sq. km) 28,147
GDP ($ billions) 1,618.7

GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($)                       649
Urban population (% of total)                                    30.4
Urban population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)             3.1
Population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)                   2.0

Agriculture
Agricultural land (% of land area)                                 45
Irrigated land (% of cropland)                                   24.0
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams/ha of arable land)              ...
Population density, rural (people/sq. km of arable land)          544

Forests and biodiversity
Forest area (% of land area)                                     23.9
Deforestation (average annual %, 1990-2005)                       0.6
Nationally protected area (% of land area)                        9.9
Animal species, total known
Animal species, threatened
Higher plant species, total known
Higher plant species, threatened
GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0-100, median is 1.8)

Energy
GDP per unit of energy use (2005 PPP $/kg oil equivalent)         3.8
Energy use per capita (kg oil equivalent)                         486
Energy from biomass products and waste (% of total)              41.7
Electric power consumption per capita (kWh)                       391
Electricity generated using fossil fuel (% of total)             72.4
Electricity generated by hydropower (% of total)                 24.8

Emissions and pollution
C[O.sub.2] emissions per unit of GDP (kg/2005 PPP $)             0.53
C[O.sub.2] emissions per capita (metric tons)                    0.90
C[O.sub.2] emissions growth (%, 1990-2004)                       55.7
Particulate matter (urban-pop.-weighted avg., [micro]g/cu. m)      74
Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)                                   8

Water and sanitation
Internal freshwater resources per capita (cu. m)                3,077
Freshwater withdrawal
  Total (% of internal resources)                                18.9
  Agriculture (% of total freshwater withdrawal)                   89
Access to improved water source (% of total population)            75
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    69
  Urban (% of urban population)                                    88
Access to improved sanitation (% of total population)              38
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    28
  Urban (% of urban population)                                    60

Environment and health
Acute resp. infection prevalence (% of children under 5)
Diarrhea prevalence (% of children under 5)
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)                 112

National accounting aggregates
Gross savings (% of GNI)                                         30.5
Consumption of fixed capital (% of GNI)                           9.0
Education expenditure (% of GNI)                                  3.4
Energy depletion (% of GNI)                                       9.4
Mineral depletion (% of GNI)                                      1.3
Net forest depletion (% of GNI)                                   0.6
C[O.sub.2] damage (% of GNI)                                      1.0
Particulate emission damage (% of GNI)                            0.7
Adjusted net savings (% of GNI)                                  11.9

Middle income

Population (millions) 3,088
Land area (1,000 sq. km) 68,468
GDP ($ billions) 10,059.2

GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($)                     3,053
Urban population (% of total)                                    54.5
Urban population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)             2.4
Population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)                   1.1

Agriculture
Agricultural land (% of land area)                                 35
Irrigated land (% of cropland)                                   18.2
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams/ha of arable land)            1,331
Population density, rural (people/sq. km of arable land)          471

Forests and biodiversity
Forest area (% of land area)                                     33.8
Deforestation (average annual %, 1990-2005)                       0.2
Nationally protected area (% of land area)                       11.7
Animal species, total known
Animal species, threatened
Higher plant species, total known
Higher plant species, threatened
GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0-100, median is 1.8)

Energy
GDP per unit of energy use (2005 PPP $/kg oil equivalent)         4.0
Energy use per capita (kg oil equivalent)                       1,486
Energy from biomass products and waste (% of total)              10.3
Electric power consumption per capita (kWh)                     1,928
Electricity generated using fossil fuel (% of total)             71.5
Electricity generated by hydropower (% of total)                 21.5

Emissions and pollution
C[O.sub.2] emissions per unit of GDP (kg/2005 PPP $ GDP)         0.70
C[O.sub.2] emissions per capita (metric tons)                    3.95
C[O.sub.2] emissions growth (%, 1990-2004)                       29.9
Particulate matter (urban-pop.-weighted avg., [micro]g/cu. m)      56
Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)                                  50

Water and sanitation
Internal freshwater resources per capita (cu. m)                8,754
Freshwater withdrawal
  Total (% of internal resources)                                 6.3
  Agriculture (% of total freshwater withdrawal)                   71
Access to improved water source (% of total population)            84
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    72
  Urban (% of urban population)                                    95
Access to improved sanitation (% of total population)              62
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    41
  Urban (% of urban population)                                    81

Environment and health
Acute resp. infection prevalence (% of children under 5)
Diarrhea prevalence (% of children under 5)
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)                  33

National accounting aggregates
Gross savings (% of GNI)                                         30.5
Consumption of fixed capital (% of GNI)                          10.9
Education expenditure (% of GNI)                                  3.5
Energy depletion (% of GNI)                                      12.8
Mineral depletion (% of GNI)                                      1.6
Net forest depletion (% of GNI)                                   0.0
C[O.sub.2] damage (% of GNI)                                      0.9
Particulate emission damage (% of GNI)                            0.8
Adjusted net savings (% of GNI)                                   7.0

Lower middle income

Population (millions) 2,276
Land area (1,000 sq. km) 27,977
GDP ($ billions) 4,735.7

GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($)                     2,038
Urban population (% of total)                                    47.3
Urban population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)             3.0
Population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)                   1.1

Agriculture
Agricultural land (% of land area)                                 42
Irrigated land (% of cropland)                                   26.3
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams/ha of arable land)            2,057
Population density, rural (people/sq. km of arable land)          531

Forests and biodiversity
Forest area (% of land area)                                     26.5
Deforestation (average annual %, 1990-2005)                       0.1
Nationally protected area (% of land area)                       12.8
Animal species, total known
Animal species, threatened
Higher plant species, total known
Higher plant species, threatened
GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0-100, median is 1.8)

Energy
GDP per unit of energy use (2005 PPP $/kg oil equivalent)         3.6
Energy use per capita (kg oil equivalent)                       1,216
Energy from biomass products and waste (% of total)              12.8
Electric power consumption per capita (kWh)                     1,502
Electricity generated using fossil fuel (% of total)             78.6
Electricity generated by hydropower (% of total)                 16.8

Emissions and pollution
C[O.sub.2] emissions per unit of GDP (kg/2005 PPP $)             0.82
C[O.sub.2] emissions per capita (metric tons)                    3.37
C[O.sub.2] emissions growth (%, 1990-2004)                       71.1
Particulate matter (urban-pop.-weighted avg., pg/cu. m)            69
Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)                                  21

Water and sanitation
Internal freshwater resources per capita (cu. m)                5,769
Freshwater withdrawal
  Total (% of internal resources)                                 7.3
  Agriculture (% of total freshwater withdrawal)                   75
Access to improved water source (% of total population)            81
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    71
  Urban (% of urban population)                                    93
Access to improved sanitation (% of total population)              55
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    39
  Urban (% of urban population)                                    76

Environment and health
Acute resp. infection prevalence (% of children under 5)
Diarrhea prevalence (% of children under 5)
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)                  36

National accounting aggregates
Gross savings (% of GNI)                                         41.4
Consumption of fixed capital (% of GNI)                          10.4
Education expenditure (% of GNI)                                  2.5
Energy depletion (% of GNI)                                      11.1
Mineral depletion (% of GNI)                                      1.1
Net forest depletion (% of GNI)                                   0.0
C[O.sub.2] damage (% of GNI)                                      1.2
Particulate emission damage (% of GNI)                            1.1
Adjusted net savings (% of GNI)                                  18.9

Upper middle income

Population (millions) 811
Land area (1,000 sq. km) 40,492
GDP ($ billions) 5,324.6

GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($)                     5,913
Urban population (% of total)                                    75.0
Urban population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)             1.4
Population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)                   0.9

Agriculture
Agricultural land (% of land area)                                 30
Irrigated land (% of cropland)                                    9.0
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams/ha of arable land)              672
Population density, rural (people/sq. km of arable land)          112

Forests and biodiversity
Forest area (% of land area)                                     38.8
Deforestation (average annual %, 1990-2005)                       0.2
Nationally protected area (% of land area)                       10.9
Animal species, total known
Animal species, threatened
Higher plant species, total known
Higher plant species, threatened
GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0-100, median is 1.8)

Energy
GDP per unit of energy use (2005 PPP $/kg oil equivalent)         4.6
Energy use per capita (kg oil equivalent)                       2,248
Energy from biomass products and waste (% of total)               6.5
Electric power consumption per capita (kWh)                     3,131
Electricity generated using fossil fuel (% of total)             61.9
Electricity generated by hydropower (% of total)                 27.8

Emissions and pollution
C[O.sub.2] emissions per unit of GDP (kg/2005 PPP $ GDP)         0.57
C[O.sub.2] emissions per capita (metric tons)                    5.60
C[O.sub.2] emissions growth (%, 1990-2004)                       -7.7
Particulate matter (urban-pop.-weighted avg., [micro]g/cu. m)      33
Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)                                 140

Water and sanitation
Internal freshwater resources per capita (cu. m)                17,199
Freshwater withdrawal
  Total (% of internal resources)                                 4.0
  Agriculture (% of total freshwater withdrawal)                   54
Access to improved water source (% of total population)            93
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    78
  Urban (% of urban population)                                    98
Access to improved sanitation (% of total population)              81
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    60
  Urban (% of urban population)                                    89

Environment and health
Acute resp. infection prevalence (% of children under 5)
Diarrhea prevalence (% of children under 5)
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)                  26

National accounting aggregates
Gross savings (% of GNI)                                         22.3
Consumption of fixed capital (% of GNI)                          11.4
Education expenditure (% of GNI)                                  4.4
Energy depletion (% of GNI)                                      14.4
Mineral depletion (% of GNI)                                      2.0
Net forest depletion (% of GNI)                                   0.0
C[O.sub.2] damage (% of GNI)                                      0.7
Particulate emission damage (% of GNI)                            0.4
Adjusted net savings (% of GNI)                                  -2.2

Low and middle income

Population (millions) 5,507
Land area (1,000 sq. km) 96,616
GDP ($ billions) 11,678.6

GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($)                     1,997
Urban population (% of total)                                    43.9
Urban population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)             2.6
Population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)                   1.5

Agriculture
Agricultural land (% of land area)                                 38
Irrigated land (% of cropland)                                   20.4
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams/ha of arable land)            1,159
Population density, rural (people/sq. km of arable land)          511

Forests and biodiversity
Forest area (% of land area)                                     30.9
Deforestation (average annual %, 1990-2005)                       0.3
Nationally protected area (% of land area)                       11.2
Animal species, total known
Animal species, threatened
Higher plant species, total known
Higher plant species, threatened
GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0-100, median is 1.8)

Energy
GDP per unit of energy use (2005 PPP $/kg oil equivalent)         4.0
Energy use per capita (kg oil equivalent)                       1,071
Energy from biomass products and waste (% of total)              16.2
Electric power consumption per capita (kWh)                     1,290
Electricity generated using fossil fuel (% of total)             71.6
Electricity generated by hydropower (% of total)                 22.0

Emissions and pollution
C[O.sub.2] emissions per unit of GDP (kg/2005 PPP $)             0.67
C[O.sub.2] emissions per capita (metric tons)                    2.62
C[O.sub.2] emissions growth (%, 1990-2004)                       33.2
Particulate matter (urban-pop.-weighted avg., [micro]g/cu. m)      61
Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)                                  39

Water and sanitation
Internal freshwater resources per capita (cu. m)                6,268
Freshwater withdrawal
  Total (% of internal resources)                                 8.8
  Agriculture (% of total freshwater withdrawal)                   78
Access to improved water source (% of total population)            80
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    70
  Urban (% of urban population)                                    93
Access to improved sanitation (% of total population)              51
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    34
  Urban (% of urban population)                                    74

Environment and health
Acute resp. infection prevalence (% of children under 5)
Diarrhea prevalence (% of children under 5)
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)                  79

National accounting aggregates
Gross savings (% of GNI)                                         30.5
Consumption of fixed capital (% of GNI)                          10.7
Education expenditure (% of GNI)                                  3.5
Energy depletion (% of GNI)                                      12.3
Mineral depletion (% of GNI)                                      1.5
Net forest depletion (% of GNI)                                   0.1
C[O.sub.2] damage (% of GNI)                                      0.9
Particulate emission damage (% of GNI)                            0.8
Adjusted net savings (% of GNI)                                   7.6

Euro area

Population (millions) 317
Land area (1,000 sq. km) 2,465
GDP ($ billions) 10,636.4

GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($)                     34,307
Urban population (% of total)                                    73.5
Urban population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)             0.6
Population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)                   0.4

Agriculture
Agricultural land (% of land area)                                 47
Irrigated land (% of cropland)                                   16.8
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams/ha of arable land)            1,904
Population density, rural (people/sq. km of arable land)          180

Forests and biodiversity
Forest area (% of land area)                                     37.2
Deforestation (average annual %, 1990-2005)                      -0.7
Nationally protected area (% of land area)                       11.5
Animal species, total known
Animal species, threatened
Higher plant species, total known
Higher plant species, threatened
GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0-100, median is 1.8)

Energy
GDP per unit of energy use (2005 PPP $/kg oil equivalent)         7.5
Energy use per capita (kg oil equivalent)                       3,961
Energy from biomass products and waste (% of total)               4.3
Electric power consumption per capita (kWh)                     6,926
Electricity generated using fossil fuel (% of total)             52.5
Electricity generated by hydropower (% of total)                  8.4

Emissions and pollution
C[O.sub.2] emissions per unit of GDP (kg/2005 PPP $ GDP)         0.28
C[O.sub.2] emissions per capita (metric tons)                    8.22
C[O.sub.2] emissions growth (%, 1990-2004)                        3.9
Particulate matter (urban-pop.-weighted avg., [micro]g/cu. m)      24
Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)                                 536

Water and sanitation
Internal freshwater resources per capita (cu. m)                2,951
Freshwater withdrawal
  Total (% of internal resources)                                22.3
  Agriculture (% of total freshwater withdrawal)                   38
Access to improved water source (% of total population)           100
  Rural (% of rural population)                                   100
  Urban (% of urban population)                                   100
Access to improved sanitation (% of total population)             100
  Rural (% of rural population)                                   ...
  Urban (% of urban population)                                   ...

Environment and health
Acute resp. infection prevalence (% of children under 5)
Diarrhea prevalence (% of children under 5)
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)                   4

National accounting aggregates
Gross savings (% of GNI)                                         21.8
Consumption of fixed capital (% of GNI)                          13.8
Education expenditure (% of GNI)                                  4.8
Energy depletion (% of GNI)                                       0.4
Mineral depletion (% of GNI)                                      0.0
Net forest depletion (% of GNI)                                   0.0
C[O.sub.2] damage (% of GNI)                                      0.2
Particulate emission damage (% of GNI)                            0.2
Adjusted net savings (% of GNI)                                  12.0

High income

Population (millions) 1,031
Land area (1,000 sq. km) 33,029
GDP ($ billions) 36,794.5

GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($)                     36,608
Urban population (% of total)                                    77.6
Urban population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)             1.1
Population growth (average annual %, 1990-2006)                   0.7

Agriculture
Agricultural land (% of land area)                                 36
Irrigated land (% of cropland)                                   11.0
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams/ha of arable land)            1,188
Population density, rural (people/sq. km of arable land)          325

Forests and biodiversity
Forest area (% of land area)                                     29.5
Deforestation (average annual %, 1990-2005)                      -0.1
Nationally protected area (% of land area)                       13.0
Animal species, total known
Animal species, threatened
Higher plant species, total known
Higher plant species, threatened
GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0-100, median is 1.8)

Energy
GDP per unit of energy use (2005 PPP $/kg oil equivalent)         6.0
Energy use per capita (kg oil equivalent)                       5,498
Energy from biomass products and waste (% of total)               3.2
Electric power consumption per capita (kWh)                     9,760
Electricity generated using fossil fuel (% of total)             62.5
Electricity generated by hydropower (% of total)                 11.5

Emissions and pollution
C[O.sub.2] emissions per unit of GDP (kg/2005 PPP $)             0.41
C[O.sub.2] emissions per capita (metric tons)                   13.23
C[O.sub.2] emissions growth (%, 1990-2004)                       22.4
Particulate matter (urban-pop.-weighted avg., [micro]g/cu. m)      27
Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)                                 467

Water and sanitation
Internal freshwater resources per capita (cu. m)                9,579
Freshwater withdrawal
  Total (% of internal resources)                                10.2
  Agriculture (% of total freshwater withdrawal)                   42
Access to improved water source (% of total population)            99
  Rural (% of rural population)                                    98
  Urban (% of urban population)                                   100
Access to improved sanitation (% of total population)             100
  Rural (% of rural population)
  Urban (% of urban population)                                   100

Environment and health
Acute resp. infection prevalence (% of children under 5)
Diarrhea prevalence (% of children under 5)
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)                   7

National accounting aggregates
Gross savings (% of GNI)                                         19.9
Consumption of fixed capital (% of GNI)                          13.0
Education expenditure (% of GNI)                                  4.7
Energy depletion (% of GNI)                                       1.5
Mineral depletion (% of GNI)                                      0.2
Net forest depletion (% of GNI)                                   0.0
C[O.sub.2] damage (% of GNI)                                      0.3
Particulate emission damage (% of GNI)                            0.3
Adjusted net savings (% of GNI)                                   9.3
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Title Annotation:THE LITTLE GREEN DATA BOOK 2008
Publication:Little Green Data Book 2008
Date:Jan 1, 2008
Words:2976
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