Including children with autism in general education in China.
In the People's Republic People's Republic
A political organization founded and controlled by a national Communist party. of China, a greater social attention to the education of children with special needs began to occur in the late 1970s, when President Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping or Teng Hsiao-p'ing (both: dŭng` shou`pĭng`), 1904–97, Chinese revolutionary and government leader, b. Sichuan prov. introduced the Reform and Open Door policy. Since then, special education in China has experienced significant reform and fast development, as well as profound political, economic, and social changes. However, education for children with severe developmental disabilities developmental disabilities (DD),
n.pl the pathologic conditions that have their origin in the embryology and growth and development of an individual. DDs usually appear clinically before 18 years of age. , especially autism autism (ô`tĭzəm), developmental disability resulting from a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain. It is characterized by the abnormal development of communication skills, social skills, and reasoning. , has long been the greatest challenge in special education.
Since the occurrence of autism is not subject to such factors as race, ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , or social backgrounds, the prevalence of autism used by Western countries is also applicable in China. If we use the current conservative prevalence of autism (i.e., 15 per 10,000 births) to calculate, it can be estimated that China, with a population of 1.3 billion, has approximately 1.95 million individuals with autism at various levels of functioning. Considering that 75 to 80 percent of the Chinese population resides in remote, rural areas and might experience financial and technical constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.
["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)]. related to identification of autism (e.g., lack of expertise and unavailability un·a·vail·a·ble
Not available, accessible, or at hand.
una·vail of systematic framework for identification and diagnosis), it is reasonable to estimate that approximately 75 to 80 percent of the 1.95 million individuals with autism have not yet been identified or diagnosed properly.
In reality, many individuals with both autism and cognitive impairments have been simply diagnosed with cognitive disabilities (e.g., mental retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living. ), due to psychiatrists' lack of knowledge about autism (Tao, 1987). In China, so far, no official data have been released regarding the number of individuals with a diagnosis of autism. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. experts from the Institute of Mental Health, Beijing University Beijing University or Peking University, at Beijing, China; founded as Metropolitan Univ. 1898, renamed Peking Univ. 1911, absorbed nontechnical departments of Qinghua (Tsinghua) Univ. , it is estimated that China has approximately 400,000 to 500,000 children (between ages 3 to 18) with autism at various levels of functioning (M.X. Jia, personal communication, November 26, 2005).
However, due to the lack of knowledge and awareness, autism has been misunderstood mis·un·der·stood
Past tense and past participle of misunderstand.
1. Incorrectly understood or interpreted.
2. in Mainland China for years and often has been thought of as a rare illness that is contracted by relatively few individuals. Therefore, it has not been officially specified under the category of mental disorders mental disorders: see bipolar disorder; paranoia; psychiatry; psychosis; schizophrenia. until recently. Currently, the official diagnostic criteria for autism in China are listed in the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders, Version 3 (CCMD-3rd, Chinese Psychiatry psychiatry (səkī`ətrē, sī–), branch of medicine that concerns the diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, including major depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety. Association, 2001).
Consequently, the education of children with autism has become a major concern in the field. Today, most school-age children with autism are still kept out of both regular and special schools for several reasons. First, approximately 75 percent of children with autism also have cognitive impairments (Gray, 1998). In China, students with such impairments usually go to a special school, since regular schools do not address the needs of children with autism. However, special schools also fail to educate children with autism, especially those with high functioning autism and without significant cognitive and language delays, because these schools were initially established for children with physical, visual, hearing, and speech-related disabilities, or moderate cognitive impairments.
In most places in China today, children with severe, multiple disabilities and mental retardation are still being institutionalized in·sti·tu·tion·al·ize
tr.v. in·sti·tu·tion·al·ized, in·sti·tu·tion·al·iz·ing, in·sti·tu·tion·al·iz·es
a. To make into, treat as, or give the character of an institution to.
b. and kept away from community life. Since the publication of the 1986 Education Law (National People's Congress
Background Information on Suiban Jiudu
Suiban Jiudu, translated as "attending school in regular classrooms" or "learning in regular classrooms" (Deng & Manset, 2000), was first developed in rural remote areas as a major initiative to promote the implementation of 9-year compulsory education An editor has expressed concern that this article or section is .
Please help improve the article by adding information and sources on neglected viewpoints, or by summarizing and for all children. The major goal of Suiban Jiudu is to increase school enrollment and retention of children with disabilities nationwide (McCabe, 2003). Currently, quantity (the number of students attending school) rather than quality (appropriate education) is considered as more important in China. Unlike mainstream educational practices in Western countries, Suiban Jiudu does not guarantee an appropriate education for children with disabilities, nor does it require parental involvement or the development and implementation of Individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. Educational Programs (IEPs) (Deng & Manset, 2000). As Xu, Piao, and Gargiulo (1995) have pointed out, "This strategy does not necessarily reflect allegiance allegiance, in political terms, the tie that binds an individual to another individual or institution. The term usually refers to a person's legal obligation of obedience to a government in return for the protection of that government, although it may have reference to the concept of Mainstream, rather it more accurately reflects a shortage of personnel, limited fiscal resources, and facilities in addition to geographical considerations" (p. 11). Therefore, to ensure that every child receives a free, 9-year compulsory education, the essential primary step is the establishment and enforcement of relevant legislation.
Although China's special education programs began to improve in the late 1970s, the government did not officially initiate any related legislation until the mid-1980s. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the first important legislation for education, the 1986 Compulsory Education Law (National People's Congress, 1986), stated that all children with and without disabilities are entitled en·ti·tle
tr.v. en·ti·tled, en·ti·tling, en·ti·tles
1. To give a name or title to.
2. To furnish with a right or claim to something: to a 9-year compulsory education, consisting of 6 years of elementary school elementary school: see school. and 3 years of middle school. For the first time in the history of modern China, the issue of education for children with disabilities was addressed by law. The word "inclusion" was not directly used in the legislation, however; regular schools were encouraged rather than mandated to accept children with disabilities (Wang, Rule, Latham, & Fiechtl, 1993).
In addition, in the early 1990s, two other comprehensive pieces of legislation for individuals with disabilities--the law of the People's Republic of China Law of the People's Republic of China is the legal regime of the People's Republic of China, with the separate legal traditions and systems of Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macao. on the Protection of Persons With Disabilities (National People's Congress, 1990) and the 1994 Regulations on Education for Persons With Disabilities (Chinese State Council, 1994)--were initiated to protect and safeguard the rights of individuals with disabilities. Both laws re-emphasized implementation of 9-year compulsory education for students with disabilities.
In 1988, to increase the number of students with disabilities receiving education, the Chinese National Institute of Educational Research Special Education Center began the first experimental projects involving children with disabilities in regular schools in several different locations across the country (McCabe, 2003). In 1994, a national meeting examined and summarized the results of these pilot studies. After the meeting, the 1994 State Education Commission Number 16 officially called for Suiban Jiudu as the major means to deliver educational services for children with disabilities (McCabe, 2003).
Current Practices of Inclusion
Although articles on practices of inclusion serving children with mild cognitive disability and sensory sensory /sen·so·ry/ (sen´sor-e) pertaining to sensation.
1. Of or relating to the senses or sensation.
2. impairments can be found in Chinese and English journals (e.g., Wu, 1997; Zhao, Guo, & Zhou, 1997; Zhou & Cheng, 1995, 1997), reports on practices involving children with autism have limited availability When customers of the PSTN make telephone calls, they commonly make use of a telecommunications network called a switched-circuit network. In a switched-circuit network, devices known as switches are used to connect the caller to the callee. in Chinese journals. This article intends to fill the void in the literature.
As Suiban Jiudu has become a common practice in Mainland China, more educational opportunities have been established for children with autism. However, parents, especially mothers, must remain persistent in advocating for their child's placement into an inclusive school An inclusive school is a school that encourages special needs students and students without special needs to learn together. Therefore, students are able to learn to live together. There are some inclusive schools in the world. (McCabe, 2002). As reported by parents, personal connections (e.g., acquaintances or friends working as administrators or teachers who are willing to include the child in the school) are often the major reason for their children's acceptance by local regular schools (McCabe, 2003).
China's educational system is standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. and test-oriented, and teacher performance is evaluated based on students' academic performance (Deng & Manset, 2000). Under this pressure, all teachers are particularly motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo to increase students' test scores (Deng & Manset, 2000). To facilitate the process of including more children with autism in regular schools, the State Department of Education decided to disregard the test scores of children with disabilities in the evaluation of general education teacher performance. Although this practice can promote regular schools' acceptance of more children with autism, it fails to ensure quality and appropriate education for this population. In practice, students with disabilities, including autism, in regular schools use the same curriculum as typically developing students, but are exempt from taking tests designed for their typically developing peers (Sun, 1990). This practice also impedes the proper documentation and assessment of their behavioral and academic progress.
Because the typical class size in Chinese schools In Western countries, a Chinese school is a school established explicitly for the purpose of teaching the Chinese language (of the various Chinese dialects, nowadays Mandarin Chinese or Cantonese Chinese are almost always the ones taught) to American-born Chinese (ABC), is often between 50 to 75 students, it is unrealistic to expect that teachers can pay individual attention to children with autism. Based on previous experience with inclusive practices involving children with other disabilities, the most effective and practical approaches for teaching children with autism in an inclusive classroom include whole-group teaching and cooperative learning cooperative learning Education theory A student-centered teaching strategy in which heterogeneous groups of students work to achieve a common academic goal–eg, completing a case study or a evaluating a QC problem. See Problem-based learning, Socratic method. , followed by individual instruction/tutoring (Chen, 1997; Deng, Poon-McBrayer, & Farnsworth, 2001; McCabe, 2003). For example, general education teachers working in inclusive settings are encouraged (but not required by law) to set different learning objectives and specific educational plans, similar to an IEP IEP
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Irish Punt.
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion. in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , for each child with a disorder. In practice, these teachers usually place priority on modifications in both curriculum (e.g., dividing curriculum content into smaller chunks) and the use of task analysis, and on environmental accommodations, such as providing priority seating that allows more teacher attention, rather than on the delivery of instruction. The most common practice in inclusive classrooms is combining whole-class teaching with individual instruction/tutoring for the student with autism. Sometimes, teachers arrange an extra 15 to 30 minutes after class time for individual tutoring, either offered by the teacher or by student peers, to the student with autism.
Although a growing number of children with autism are currently attending regular schools, this number is probably relatively small compared to the proportion of children with other disabilities who are included in regular schools. As expected, high-functioning children with autism, such as children with Asperger's syndrome As·per·ger's syndrome
A pervasive developmental disorder, usually of childhood, characterized by impairments in social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns. , are more likely to be accepted by regular schools, while children with moderate to severe or profound autism probably attend special schools, or most likely stay at home. Unfortunately, no official statistics have been released by China's central government regarding the number of students with autism at regular schools. In fact, it is difficult to count accurately, given the fact that so many individuals with autism have not been properly diagnosed or have been misdiagnosed with a cognitive disability, as mentioned earlier.
Current Challenges and Possible Solutions for Effective Inclusion
Presently, the practice of inclusion is at an early stage of development in Mainland China. Many factors affect its implementation nationwide. The following section will address several current challenges and discuss possible solutions, based on the actual sociocultural so·ci·o·cul·tur·al
Of or involving both social and cultural factors.
soci·o·cul and economic situations in China.
Social Awareness and Acceptance. For generations, children with disabilities in China have been hidden at home and kept away from community life. Most people do not have a real understanding of disabilities because they seldom interact with people with disabilities (Deng, 1992; Deng & Manset, 2000; Na, 1993). General education teachers also might be reluctant to include children with autism in their classrooms because of their lack of knowledge regarding such students' characteristics and learning styles. In addition, parents of typically developing children worry about including children with autism in regular classrooms, due to the possible negative impact on their children's academic and behavioral performance (Deng & Manset, 2000). Even some parents of children with disabilities, and especially those having low-functioning children, still hold the belief that teaching children like theirs is not worth the expense and energy involved (Deng & Manset, 2000; McCabe, 2003; McCabe & Tian Tian
In indigenous Chinese religion, the supreme power reigning over humans and lesser gods. The term refers to a deity, to impersonal nature, or to both. , 2001). Thus, it is estimated that the number of children with autism currently included in regular classrooms is relatively small.
One possible solution to this problem is promoting disability awareness and acceptance through a variety of means (Deng & Manset, 2000), including introducing various disabilities and sharing life stories of people with special needs through mass media, and displaying talents and strengths of individuals with disabilities in public. Researchers have found that this approach can help clarify issues and diminish misunderstanding, confusion, and discrimination toward people with disabilities (Deng & Manset, 2000).
Teacher Preparation. As Deng et al. (2001) have reported, few schools and teachers in China have the necessary resources and competence to teach children with autism in regular classrooms. The next challenge, therefore, is to persuade more schools to accept the practice of Suiban Jiudu. Yet, this aim must be approached in an environment in which most general education teachers are unfamiliar with the term "autism," and have had limited exposure to children with such a disorder. In addition, general education teacher preparation programs in China rarely otter otter, name for a number of aquatic, carnivorous mammals of the weasel family, found on all continents except Australia. The common river otters of Eurasia and the Americas are species of the genus Lutra. The North American river otter, L. special courses related to children with disabilities.
The lack of both experience and expertise suggests that general education teachers need to receive related inservice training, prior to teaching in inclusive classrooms. Most general education teachers attend intensive, short-term professional development opportunities, including lectures by special teachers from local special schools and observation of classes in local special schools during summer or winter holidays (Deng & Manset, 2000). The content of teacher preparation may include the following: introduction to characteristics and learning styles of children with disabilities, instructional and tutoring methods specified for teaching students with disabilities, behavior management behavior management Psychology Any nonpharmacologic maneuver–eg contingency reinforcement–that is intended to correct behavioral problems in a child with a mental disorder–eg, ADHD. See Attention-deficit-hyperactivity syndrome. skills, and performance measurement techniques specified for students with disabilities. For teachers unable to attend such training sessions, their schools may invite special education teachers to offer on-site instruction and coaching as well as consultation and technical assistance (Qian, 1992; Zhang, 1993).
After receiving training, regular teachers reported that they gained a better understanding of students with disabilities and were more comfortable having them in their classrooms (Deng et al., 2001). However, such inservice training can only temporarily meet the urgent need for expertise (Deng & Manset, 2000). From a long-term perspective, only solid teacher preparation programs specifically focusing on inclusive practices might ensure more successful implementation of Suiban Jiudu in the future.
Special Curriculum and Assessment. The nonexistence non·ex·is·tence
1. The condition of not existing.
2. Something that does not exist.
non of an official curriculum indicates that general education teachers in China do not have guidance regarding the content and process of instruction for children with autism in regular schools. In addition, in the absence of an appropriate assessment/evaluation system, these students' behavior and academic performance are not measured. These two factors play essential roles in successful inclusive practice. Therefore, to ensure quality education for all children with disabilities in inclusive schools, it is essential to develop and implement a nationwide special curriculum based on these children's strengths and needs, as well as an appropriate assessment/evaluation system.
Legislation and Financial Support. The ambiguous status of related legislation is one of the major reasons for the lack of related educational services for school-age children with autism (McCabe, 2002). More comprehensive legislation is urgently needed (as well as strict enforcement) in order to ensure that the fundamental human rights of these disadvantaged This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
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In China, financial constraints have always been a major barrier to quality educational services for all children. For decades, the central government has provided limited financial support to improve the development of fundamental education, including primary and secondary education, while local governments have been primarily responsible for covering education expenses. Educating children with autism is not only the parents' obligation, but the society's responsibility as well. More funding needs to be allocated for both special education research and practices.
Providing an appropriate education to every child with autism is a challenging task to accomplish in developing countries. Inclusion might offer the appropriate educational opportunities and resources for children with disabilities. Western researchers suggest that children with special needs will gain better academic, social, and developmental outcomes in inclusive settings, rather than in segregated classrooms (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2004). China has begun creating more educational opportunities for children with autism. Considering the financial constraints and lack of expertise with autism in China, however, international collaboration in research might be needed to improve China's current practices related to inclusion. While implementing inclusive educational practices adopted from other nations, such factors as social values, cultural differences, and local resources also should be considered. Inclusive practice is a long journey. It requires ongoing joint efforts from all relevant stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. for achieving the ultimate goal of quality education for all children with autism.
Note: The authors would like to express their special thanks to Dr. Michael Mayton for his assistance with the revision of this manuscript.
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n. Abbr. EI
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Childhood education during the period from infancy to age five or six. Institutions for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do their names (e.g. organizations. Exceptional Children and Practical Education Services, 3, 2-5.
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Ann X. Huang and John J. Wheeler Ann X. Huang is Assistant Professor, Department of Counseling, Psychology, and Special Education, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania “Pittsburgh” redirects here. For the region, see Pittsburgh Metropolitan Area.
Pittsburgh (pronounced IPA: /ˈpɪtsbɚg/) is the second largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. . John J. Wheeler is Dean, Tennessee Technological University Tennessee Technological University, popularly known as Tennessee Tech, is an accredited public university located in Cookeville, Tennessee, a small city approximately seventy miles (110 km) east of Nashville. , Cookeville.