Inclination of youth towards social networking sites: a three-nation exploration.Introduction
There is a growing usage of internet all over the world. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. ComScore Networks, seven hundred and thirteen million people ages fifteen and older (representing fourteen percent of the global population) used the Internet in June 2006 (Lipsman, 2006, cited in Hinduja and Patchin, 2001: 126). Within the user groups there is a growing population engaging in social networking See social networking site.
social networking - social network sites.
Social networking sites being a fairly recent development have become a dynamic communication tool mainly popular among youth. Considering this perspective, the study explores the concept of social networking sites and its usage pattern among youth of three different nations: India, Nepal and Maldives.
1.1 Social Networking Sites
The popularity of social networking sites are growing day by day and now it has become a revolutionized way of communication among youth. In a recent study it was mentioned that 'one hundred million people have joined the cyber (1) From "cybernetics," it is a prefix attached to everyday words to add a computer, electronic or online connotation. The term is similar to "virtual," but the latter is used more frequently. See virtual. socializing revolution in 2006' (www.voanew.com, accessed on 22 July 2008).
Social networking sites have been defined in several literatures. An internet-based social network can accordingly be considered a virtual community, consisting of characteristics such as: 'using common language and ease of communication; public space; common interests, values, and goals, persistence (1) In a CRT, the time a phosphor dot remains illuminated after being energized. Long-persistence phosphors reduce flicker, but generate ghost-like images that linger on screen for a fraction of a second. of common meaning; use of information technology for interaction, not physical space; overcoming time and space barriers; and using digitized identities as a substitute for physical being' (Wang (Wang Laboratories, Inc., Lowell, MA) A computer services and network integration company. Wang was one of the major early contributors to the computing industry from its founder's invention that made core memory possible, to leadership in desktop calculators and word processors. and Chen, 2004, p. 4). Similarly it has been defined as 'web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate articulate /ar·tic·u·late/ (ahr-tik´u-lat)
1. to pronounce clearly and distinctly.
2. to make speech sounds by manipulation of the vocal organs.
3. to express in coherent verbal form.
4. a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse traverse - traversal their list of connections and those made by others within the system' (Boyd and Ellison, 2007, http://jcmc.indiana Indiana, state, United States
Indiana, midwestern state in the N central United States. It is bordered by Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan (N), Ohio (E), Kentucky, across the Ohio R. (S), and Illinois (W). .edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html).
Many social networking sites has emerged over the years, refer to the depiction provided below.
World's top five social networking sites with countries where they are most popular include Facebook (U.S., Canada, U.K.), Hi5 (Peru, Thailand, Dominican Republic Dominican Republic (dəmĭn`ĭkən), republic (2005 est. pop. 8,950,000), 18,700 sq mi (48,442 sq km), West Indies, on the eastern two thirds of the island of Hispaniola. The capital and largest city is Santo Domingo. ), Orkut (Brazil, India, U.S.), Myspace (U.S., U.K., France), Friendster (Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore) Forward2, 2008, p18). These sites allow users to create their page, add friends and communicate with them by comment posted on their respective pages. Users are able to build a network of connections that they can display as a list of friends.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
The rapid growth of social networking sites during the last four years projected that they have successfully created a virtual relationship among youth ages thirteen to twenty two (Raskin, 2006, 56). However, other researchers describe the virtual relationship among youth from eighteen to thirty five. Social networking sites and their relation with youth has become an area of growing interest for researchers. They are interested to know why youth are joining these sites. Most of the existing studies related with this area are confined con·fine
v. con·fined, con·fin·ing, con·fines
1. To keep within bounds; restrict: Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand. See Synonyms at limit. to western world. The proposed study will be based on findings of a three- nation study with stated objectives. Hence, this study will add value and provide scope for further research possibilities in respective nations. For our research, we have selected popular sites on the basis of our pre-pilot study with young students in India, Nepal and Maldives. We also noticed from our pre pilot study that students from all three nations have identified sites that are general in nature ,with at least 10 million visitors worldwide .
* To explore and identify the reasons behind users' interest to join a social networking site A Web site that provides a virtual community for people interested in a particular subject or just to "hang out" together. Members create their own online "profile" with biographical data, pictures, likes, dislikes and any other information they choose to post.
* To assess user expectations from social networking sites.
* To investigate the advantages and disadvantages that users' are getting.
* To analyze the pattern of usage of some of the existing social networking sites.
The literature review given below focuses on different research studies done in the past in the relevant area. The literature review has been divided into three main sections based on the main three objectives of the study.
2.1 Reasons Behind Users' Interest to Join Social Networking Sites and Their Expectations From Those Sites
Surveys on use of social networking sites indicate that people join and partake in social networking websites This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. for various reasons, such as to stay in touch with friends, make plans with friends, make new friends, or flirt with someone (Lenhart and Madden mad·den
v. mad·dened, mad·den·ing, mad·dens
1. To make angry; irritate.
2. To drive insane.
To become infuriated. , 2007, cited in Gangadharbatla, 2007,7).
According to Madhavan (2007), while MySpace attracted the majority of media attention in the USA and other European countries, a number of social networking sites were also proliferating Proliferating is the multiplication of a certain thing. Often it is used as a biological term to describe the increase of cells due to cell division.
Look under proliferate or proliferation for more details. and growing popular in other parts of the world. The study showed that Friendster gained traction Traction Definition
Traction is the use of a pulling force to treat muscle and skeleton disorders.
Traction is usually applied to the arms and legs, the neck, the backbone, or the pelvis. in the Pacific Islands; Orkut became the premier social networking site in Brazil before growing rapidly in India. Refer to Table 1 below for worldwide growth of usage of some key social networking sites:
Similarly, a study by Andrew Lipsman (2007) reported that literally hundreds of millions of people around the world are visiting social networking sites each month and many are doing so on a daily basis. This would indicate that use of social networking sites is not a fad but rather an activity that is being woven A woven is a cloth formed by weaving. It only stretches in the Bias directions (between the warp and weft directions), unless the threads are elastic. Woven cloth usually frays at the edges, unless measures are taken to counter this, such as the use of pinking shears or hemming. into the very fabric of the global Internet.
Further to add to the growing appeal of social networking sites among youth, a study published by Ofcom (2008) reflected that younger users said they preferred social networking sites which offered simplicity, visual fun and entertainment (e.g. Bebo and MySpace). The youth generally had more time to spend on these sites and tended to be more experimental in how they used them and what they posted in the sites.
Moreover, Boyd (2007) argued that the reason why the youths joined these sites are deeply rooted in how the social networking sites support sociality amongst preexisting pre·ex·ist or pre-ex·ist
v. pre·ex·ist·ed, pre·ex·ist·ing, pre·ex·ists
To exist before (something); precede: Dinosaurs preexisted humans.
v.intr. friend groups. While socializing drives certain kinds of engagement with the sites, the high incidence of teens with Internet access See how to access the Internet. at home offers another plausible explanation for the long hours they spend in the sites.
The present study also exhibited that the reasons for youth to join social networking sites as similar appeal as identified in the existing literature. Some of the major reasons to join the sites being "ease of keeping in contact with friends and reaching many people at the same time, meeting new people, keeping up with favourite bands, adding applications such as games, quizzes and virtual gift giving."
The available research put forward the view that most social networking sites primarily support pre-existing social relations. And, Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe (2007) suggest that Facebook is used to maintain existing offline relationships or solidify so·lid·i·fy
v. so·lid·i·fied, so·lid·i·fy·ing, so·lid·i·fies
1. To make solid, compact, or hard.
2. To make strong or united.
v.intr. offline connections, as opposed to meeting new people. These relationships may be weak ties, but typically there is some common offline element among individuals who befriend be·friend
tr.v. be·friend·ed, be·friend·ing, be·friends
To behave as a friend to.
to become a friend to
Verb 1. one another, such as in a shared class at school.
Above mentioned evidences are further supported by our pre-pilot study, where the majority of the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. indicated several reasons for their of interest into joining social networking sites as given in the following section:
2.2 Advantages and disadvantages
A Number of existing studies have exhibited the advantage and disadvantage of use of social networking sites. Also, one of the main objectives of the present study is to identify various advantages as well as disadvantages of these sites among the youth of India, Nepal and Maldives.
Users of social networking sites are aware of various advantages associated with these sites. They readily accept that these sites are the means of communication and connection with one another. Research has shown that online communication fosters relationship building, improving communication between parties, and consistently documents users' differences in online communication (Raacke and Bonds-Raache, 2008, 169).
In addition to the advantages explained above, social networking sites also provide a variety of services, for example, they allow any individual to quickly and easily post a web page that serves as a digital representation of one's self by one's self; without help or prompting; spontaneously.
See also: Of , his or her interests, personal style, affiliations, likes and dislikes. Moreover, the sites enable the users to post and link to pictures, videos, and audio with relative ease. According to Hinduja and Patchin (2008, 130), the communication features within the sites facilitate expedient ex·pe·di·ent
1. Appropriate to a purpose.
a. Serving to promote one's interest: was merciful only when mercy was expedient.
b. interaction among a population who wants to receive or send information quickly, and while engaged in multiple other online tasks.
The above statement can be further strengthened by a study carried out by Kaiser Family Foundation The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), or just Kaiser Family Foundation, is a U.S.-based non-profit, private operating foundation headquartered in Menlo Park, California. (Roberts, Foehr and Rideout, 2005, cited in Nyland, Marvez and Beck, 2006) that describe the lives of youth as being "media saturated saturated /sat·u·rat·ed/ (sach´ah-rat?ed)
1. denoting a chemical compound that has only single bonds and no double or triple bonds between atoms.
2. unable to hold in solution any more of a given substance. ." They are exposed to multiple sources of media at once. For this reason they have been dubbed dub 1
tr.v. dubbed, dub·bing, dubs
1. To tap lightly on the shoulder by way of conferring knighthood.
2. To honor with a new title or description.
3. by the Foundation as "The Multi-tasking generation".
Besides being extremely popular among college students, social networking sites have also contributed to fulfill ful·fill also ful·fil
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.
2. the users' social needs. The facts equally evident from our pre-pilot study (refer to the table below) which reflected that the social networking sites help the users to keep in touch with their friends circle to satisfy their need to be together and socialize so·cial·ize
v. so·cial·ized, so·cial·iz·ing, so·cial·iz·es
1. To place under government or group ownership or control.
2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable. . Ellison, Steinfield, and Lamp (2006, cited in Nyland, Marvez and Beck, 2006) found that youths who intensely used social networking sites reported higher levels of bonding, bridging, and high school social capital.
With presence of number of advantages, social networking sites are not completely free from disadvantages. To name a few, ENISA ENISA European Network and Information Security Agency (European Network and Information Security Agency) outlines a series of commercial, corporate and social/individual 'threats' raised by social networking sites. They describe the threats in technological terms and raise the issue of the difficulty of deleting entries, identity theft as well as cyberstalking Cyberstalking is use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk someone. This term is used interchangeably with online harassment and online abuse. Stalking generally involves harassing or threatening behavior that an individual engages in repeatedly, such as , cyber bullying Bullying
Chowne, Parson Stoyle
terrorizes parish; kidnaps children. [Br. Lit.: The Maid of Sker, Walsh Modern, 94–95]
bully; becomes thief in Fagin’s gang. [Br. Lit. , alc ohol and drug ab use (Associated Press, 2006c; Usher USHER. This word is said to be derived from a huissier, and is the name of an inferior officer in some English courts of law Archb. Pr. 25. , 2006); hate crimes (Edds, Lawhon, and Miller, 2006); planned or executed bombings (USA Today, 2006; Usher, 2006); planned school shootings (ABC News, 2006); suicide (Associated Press, 2006b); and even murder (Hoover, 2006).
Further, adding to the disadvantage of use of social networking sites, Livingstone (2008) mentioned social networking as a time-wasting and socially isolating i·so·late
tr.v. i·so·lat·ed, i·so·lat·ing, i·so·lates
1. To set apart or cut off from others.
2. To place in quarantine.
3. activity . The study also suggested that at worst it allows paedophiles to groomlure children in their bedroom or sees teenagers lured into suicide pacts while parents think they are doing their homework.
A recent survey from Get Safe Online found that "Over 10.8 million people across UK are registered to a social networking site. Of these, one in four have posted confidential or personal information such as their phone number, address or email, on their online profile, making them vulnerable to identity fraud." The research also found that 13 percent of social networkers have posted information or photos of other people online without their consent. According to the study, this trend is strongest amongst younger users, with twenty seven percent of eighteen to twenty four year-olds admitting that they have posted information, photos of other people without their consent online.
Meanwhile, a study by Noguchi No·gu·chi , Hideyo 1876-1928.
Japanese-born American bacteriologist who discovered the cause of syphilis and yellow fever and who worked to develop treatments for them. (2006) suggested that time spent by people on social networking sites only contributes to their workload The term workload can refer to a number of different yet related entities. An amount of labor
While a precise definition of a workload is elusive, a commonly accepted definition is the hypothetical relationship between a group or individual human operator and task demands. . Further stressing on disadvantage of use of these sites, the study exhibited that many users of Myspace seem to be closing their accounts because they feel that they aren't receiving enough face-to-face interaction, or that the interaction that they have online isn't as meaningful.
Our pre-pilot study also clearly stated that for majority of students using social networking sites was much more than just a functional activity. Refer to the table below for more detail result of pre-pilot study.
A view on statistics released by Audit Bureau of Circulation revealed that Teen Magazines This is a list of teen magazines.
To sum up , 'Social networking is what being a teenager Teenager
See also Adolescence.
high-school senior has problems with girls and his father. [Am. Drama: O’Neill Ah, Wilderness! in Sobel, 15]
teenaged film character of the 1940s. [Am. is about," said Kenda Creasy crease
1. A line made by pressing, folding, or wrinkling.
a. A rectangular area marked off in front of the goal in hockey and lacrosse.
b. Dean, associate professor of youth, church and culture and director of the Tennent School of Christian Education at Princeton Theological Seminary Princeton Theological Seminary is a theological seminary of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) located in the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey in the United States. It is independent of nearby Princeton University, despite collaboration between scholars at both schools. . "For people my age [in their forties], technology is a tool. For kids, technology is the air they breathe. It's social glue glue: see adhesive.
Adhesive substance resembling gelatin, extracted from animal tissue, particularly hides and bones, or from fish, casein (milk protein), or vegetables. ." (National Catholic Reporter, Nov. 2006).
3.1 Data collection
Data collection process started with a pre-pilot study to gather a basic understanding about the subject matter and social networking sites. Pre-pilot study included open-ended questions about inclination inclination, in astronomy, the angle of intersection between two planes, one of which is an orbital plane. The inclination of the plane of the moon's orbit is 5°9' with respect to the plane of the ecliptic (the plane of the earth's orbit around the sun). of youth towards social networking sites and it was collected through email from fifteen respondents. The pre-pilot study itself helped in designing the research questionnaire for this study. The pre-pilot study indicated that students from all three nations preferred common sites with at least ten million visitors world-wide, they are Myspace, Facebook, Hi5, Friendster and Orkut. Prior use of the survey instrument for the final study, validity check of the questionnaire was carried out and expert views were incorporated to improve the design of the survey instrument. Using the design instrument (as the basis for primary data collection) and other secondary data the complete data set for the study was generated. The primary data used was are collected based on self-administered questionnaire through email from the selected respondents from India, Nepal and Maldives. This method of data collection was chosen for two reasons. Firstly, the survey is about online social networking sites users, so the researchers implied that all respondents are internet savvy. Secondly, 'email surveys is quicker turnaround than the postal or face-to-face questionnaire, thus raising data quality by securing timely data' (Fielding et al, 2008: 89) Secondary data was obtained through published and non-published material mainly from online journals, social networking sites, books and informal interactions with the users.
The sample was selected because the three researchers involved in this study belonged to the referred three countries. The survey was carried out online and the survey forms were sent to different institutes of the respective countries. India, Nepal and Maldives population, literacy rate and age structure is depicted de·pict
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.
2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent. in the table below:
Non-probability convenience sampling was used to choose the institutes and the respondents. For the purpose the study the data was collected from ninety respondents equally distributed among three countries. However, for the purpose of analysis eighty nine responses were considered. All the respondents were graduate and postgraduate postgraduate
after first degree graduation, the registerable degree in veterinary science.
may be a research degree, e.g. PhD, or a course-work masterate with a vocational bias, or any combination of these. students, both male and female with age group ranging from seventeen to thirty two years.
Analysis and Findings
This section is organized according to the results pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to the participants who are the users of social networking sites. The results obtained from analysis, using Excel A full-featured spreadsheet for Windows and the Macintosh from Microsoft. It can link many spreadsheets for consolidation and provides a wide variety of business graphics and charts for creating presentation materials. and SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. package mainly concentrate on mean comparison, one-way ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there and Factor-Analysis.
Of the eighty nine participants surveyed, the sample constituted of 61.8 percent male (55 male) and 38.2 percent female (thirty four female). Age wise distribution suggested that ninteen percent respondents are from seventeen to twenty two age groups, sixty nine percent from twenty three to twenty seven age groups and remaining twelve percent from twenty eight to thirty two age groups.
4.1 General Analysis
As the research objective focused on the use of social networking sites and youth inclination toward the social networking sites, the first attempt was made to identify the hours spent on social networking sites. As shown below, thirty three percent of the respondents spend one to two hours on social networking sites, whereas thirteen percent spent two-three hours.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
When the hours spent on social networking sites were compared in terms of nations, the following results emerged. The chart illustrated Maldivian youth spending more hours on social networking sites in comparison to India and Nepal.
Even though Maldivian youth spend longer hours on social networking sites, rating for importance is similar in the three countries. High percentage of respondents from all three nations opined social networking sites as important.
The importance itself supported by the number of social networking youth is using. As evident, from the chart below thirty three percent youth have five social networking sites.
From the pre-pilot and the main survey 5 popular social networking sites (Facebook, Orkut, Hi5, Friendster and Myspace) appears in the three countries. The charts below illustrates the usage patterns of five social networking sites in three countries.
4.2 Mean Comparison and ANOVA
Based on the general findings (4.1) the mean comparisons was conducted to determine reasons to join social networking sites, ease of use of social networking sites, expectation on the use of social networking sites and disadvantages of social networking sites with respect to nationality nationality, in political theory, the quality of belonging to a nation, in the sense of a group united by various strong ties. Among the usual ties are membership in the same general community, common customs, culture, tradition, history, and language. , gender and age.
Reasons to Join Social Networking Sites
The popular reasons to join social networking sites were identified through mean comparison. From the comparison it is visible that Nepalese female, Indian male and female considered 'reconnecting with old friend(s) who have lost contact' as most important reason to join social networking sites with mean 4.79 for Nepalese female, 4.45 for Indian male and 5 for Indian female. Whereas, for Maldivian males and females the preferred reasons to join social networking sites where 'communicating with friends', with mean 4.56 and 4.92 respectively. In addition, Maldivian males rated 'reconnecting with old friend(s) who have lost contact' as high priority reason with equal mean as 'communicating with friends' dimension. Likewise, Nepalese male are interested to 'reconnect with old friends (Mean =4.33) and 'communicate with friends' (Mean =4.33).
For further explanation, one-way ANOVA has been conducted for each of the items (reasons). Researchers' wanted to see whether there is any difference between Indian, Nepalese and Maldivian youths' in terms of reasons to join social networking sites. It is evident from the table that in case of 'entertain myself' (P=.023), 'share videos/pictures/ music' (P=.037), 'business purpose' (P=.014), and 'make new friends' (P=.001) differences exists. Similarly when researchers compared Nepal with other two countries 'leisure/time pass' (P=.032) and 'educational purpose' (P=.004) were found to be different from the other two countries. Further in case of Maldives, in comparison to other two countries some interesting results evolved which reflected that 'communicating with family' (P=.026), 'communicating with friends' (P=.027), 'leisure/ time pass' (p=.002) 'entertain myself' (P=.005), 'make new friends' (P=.000) and 'exploring the possibility of future relationships' (P=.013) were different. Though 'entertain myself', 'leisure/ time pass' and 'making new friends' were common in all three countries. Thus, it can be inferred that there are common reasons for which youth of three countries are joining social networking sites. Regardless of the commonalities certain differences exists in the case of Maldives which could be argued I terms of cultural differences.
Ease of Use of Social Networking Sites
With respect to ease to join social networking sites Indian females preferred 'changing themes' (mean =4.50), than 'adding/removing pictures', and 'ease of access to friends and family' both with the mean of 4.38. In case of Nepalese females 'ease of access to friends and family', 'ease to register' with mean equal to 4.29, followed by 'adding or removing pictures' with mean 4.14 were found to be important. However, in case of Maldivian female users 'ease of access to friends and family' were found to be most important with the mean of 4.25 followed by 'adding and removing pictures' and 'removing items or posts' both with the mean of 4.08. In case of Indian male 'ease of access to friends and family' which was the second important variable for Indian females considered to be most important variable here with the mean of 4.14, followed by 'ease to register' with a mean of 4.09. In case of Nepalese male users 'ease to register' with mean 4.33 was the most important variable followed by 'ease of access to friends and family' with 4.27 mean. Similarly, comparing Maldivian males, it is evident that 'ease of access to friends and family' again got the highest priority with a mean of 4.44 along with 'adding/removing picture' with the same mean.
Features Relevance and Expectation on the Use of Social Networking Sites
Descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. for the features relevance and expectations represents that for Indian females 'scrapping/ message posting' is the most relevant feature (mean= 4.62), whereas for Indian males the same is the most relevant feature with lesser mean 4.32. In addition, to this Indian male also give higher priority to 'block unwanted users' (mean= 4.32). In case of Nepalese female users 'block unwanted users' emerges as the most relevant feature followed by 'sharing picture' (mean 4.07) which was the most relevant feature in case of Nepalese male. Interesting to add that Nepalese male gave second priority to 'blocking unwanted users'. In case of Maldivian female totally different results emerged from the descriptive analysis. For the Maldivian male and female 'personalising ones profile' was considered as the most relevant feature (mean= 4.67) for both.
ANOVA results for assessing feature relevancy and nationality showed no difference between Indian and Nepalese users opinion, however Maldivian respondents as in the earlier case, depicted different opinion regarding 'sharing videos' (P=.006) and 'personalising ones profile' (p=.001).
Analysis of variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality in terms of expectations from social networking sites in future with nationality and gender suggested that in case of 'diverse applications' (P=.046) Maldivian youth has different expectations about this.
Disadvantages of Using Social Networking Sites
Regarding the disadvantages, all three nation users (including both female and male) considered social networking sites as an 'addiction'. For Indian users 'addiction' (with mean 3.70), for Nepalese users (mean =3.76) and Maldivian users (mean= 4.20). For Maldivian females 'lack of face-to-face interaction' emerged as highly disadvantageous dis·ad·van·ta·geous
dis·advan·ta . Nepalese females also reflected that using social networking sites create a 'lack of face-to -face interaction' which is the second disadvantage for them. Nepalese male considered this as the most disadvantageous (mean =3.0).
To substantiate To establish the existence or truth of a particular fact through the use of competent evidence; to verify.
For example, an Eyewitness might be called by a party to a lawsuit to substantiate that party's testimony. the above results, one-way ANOVA was conducted to evaluate each disadvantage item with respect to three nations separately. For Nepalese users 'time consuming' (p = 0.000) and 'ground for sexual predators' (p = 0.034) were significant at 0.05. However, in case of Indian youth, 'lack of face-to-face interaction' showed significant result (p = 0.019). Similarly, for Maldivian youth 'time consuming' (p = 0.001) and 'lack of face-to-face interaction' (p = 0.006) was significant at 95 percent of confidence level.
In addition, a percentage analysis has been carried out to find out the disadvantages of social networking sites (see chart below). Social networking site drawbacks greatly felt by Maldivian youth include 'time consumption', 'addiction' and 'lack of face-to-face interaction'. However, the stated disadvantages are felt to a lesser extent by the other two countries. Nepalese youth perspective in terms of disadvantage is reflective Refers to light hitting an opaque surface such as a printed page or mirror and bouncing back. See reflective media and reflective LCD. from 'addiction' and 'lack of face-to face interaction'. Likewise, the Indian youth reflected disadvantage in terms of 'time consumption' and 'addiction'. The lowest score illustrative il·lus·tra·tive
Acting or serving as an illustration.
Adj. 1. from the chart (for all the three countries) lies in cyberbullying.
[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]
Apart from the above mentioned analysis, two-way ANOVA was carried out taking age and gender as the independent variable to find out the effect of social networking site on the number of friends. The results showed that F-statistics corresponding to nationality was 8.862 which was significant at p<0.001. F-statistics for gender was 0.415 which was insignificant as p value was equal to 0.521. Also, the interaction between nationality and gender was insignificant. Therefore, in this case, the null hypothesis null hypothesis,
n theoretical assumption that a given therapy will have results not statistically different from another treatment.
n (nationality and gender have no relation on number of friends at social networking sites) was partially supported.
4.1 Factor Analysis
Factor Analysis has been carried out to find out the underlying dimensions for reasons to join social networking sites, ease to join and disadvantages. The following results from factor analysis throws light on above mentioned aspects.
Reasons to Join Social Networking Sites
Table-VI explains the extraction communalities which are useful as these are obtained using the extracted factors. In the present research seventy nine percent of the variance in 'Entertain myself' is explained by the extracted factors. It is also useful to note seventy five percent of the variance in 'communicate with friends' is explained by the extracted factors.
It is also important to note that out of thirteen variables, four factors can explain the 64.22 percent of the variance. Total variance explained can be seen in the following table. It is important to note from the table that four variables have Eigen value of more than 1.
Above table clearly depicts that with the help of factor analysis researchers are able to find out the underlying following four dimensions. It is clear that 'communicate with family', 'communicate with friends' and 'reconnect with old friends' which has similar factor loading can be grouped together as one factor. Similarly, 'leisure/timepass', 'entertain oneself', and 'convenience' can be grouped as one factor. Further, variables like 'business purpose', 'educational purpose' and 'keep up to date with social happenings/events' can be a part of one factor. And, lastly, 'share video/ pictures/music', 'explore possibility of a future relationship', 'make new friends' are part of one factor. Thus, researchers can infer that broad reasons of respondents' inclination towards social networking sites are 'communication purpose', 'entertaining', 'valuable' and 'features ease'.
Ease of use of Social Networking Sites
Table-IX explains the extraction communalities which are useful as these are obtained using the extracted factors. In the present research 82.3 percent of the variance in 'ease to register' is explained by the extracted factors. It is also useful to note 80.1 percent of the variance in 'remove items/posts' is explained by the extracted factors.
From the above table it is clear that three variables are explaining the sixty nine percent of variance with Eigen value more than 1.
Above mentioned rotation table represents that 'find information', 'add/remove pictures', 'can edit privacy settings' and 'remove items/posts' can be grouped together as one factor namely 'personal posting ease'. Similarly, 'ease to register'; 'ease to access to friends; and family' can be grouped together as second factor namely 'access ease'. Third factor consisted of 'change themes' and 'create something of my own' variable which can be named as 'creativity'.
Disadvantages of Using Social Networking Sites
Table-XII explains the extraction communalities which are useful as these are obtained using the extracted factors. In the present research eighty two percent of the variance in 'cyberbullying' is explained by the extracted factors. It is also useful to note 71.8 percent and 71.4 percent of the variance in 'ground for sexual predators' and 'cyberstalking' is explained by the extracted factors.
It is also important to note that out of six variables, two factors can explain the 63.30 percent of the variance. It is important to note from the table that two variables have Eigen value of more than 1.
Table-XIV clearly depicts that with the help of factor analysis researchers are able to find out the underlying two dimensions. It is clear that 'time consuming' and 'addiction' has similar factor loading can be grouped together as one factor, namely 'addiction'. Similarly the variables: 'ground for sexual predators', 'cyberbullying', 'lack of face-to-face interaction' and 'cyberstalking', can be grouped as one factor namely 'cyber harassment'.
Results obtained from the factor analysis are supported by the following qualitative research Qualitative research
Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections. analysis.
4.4 Comments on Actual Gains From Social Networking Sites
Upon asking about the actual gains from using social networking sites from the respondents in the form of open-ended question A closed-ended question is a form of question, which normally can be answered with a simple "yes/no" dichotomous question, a specific simple piece of information, or a selection from multiple choices (multiple-choice question), if one excludes such non-answer responses as dodging a ; respondents expressed their opinions freely. Analysis of those responses suggested that most of the respondents considered social networking sites as a platform for meeting especially old friends and family. According to one respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. , "Now, I know my family and friends are just a click away and I don't feel so out of touch either. Best of all, I get to see their and their children's pictures and videos."
Most of the respondents reflected that using social networking sites is fun and entertaining activity which helps in time pass. At the same time many of them felt that it is an addiction addiction: see drug addiction and drug abuse. . Some of the respondents expressed that these kinds of sites gave a platform for branding oneself. Many of them felt that these social networking sites are good public relation media.
According to one respondent, "It is a medium of advertising and promoting one-self in order to gain 'popularity' which are measured by i) the number of friends that I have in the friends list ii) my profile settings and, iii) my photos and my themes. And to get that we keep on adding to people that we do not know, qualities that we do not possesses and groups that we do not belong to. And in doing that we learn how to mix up/socialize with people of different age and background."
One respondent opined that, "lot of interaction with people from different parts of world improves knowledge of human culture. Secondly, communities provide good platform for discussing topics extensively. Cricket updates are faster than cricinfo.com or cricbuzz.com. keeping in touch with all friends, their updates on home page provides easy way of getting updated. No NEED to go to friend's page and check for updates n all. Easy mode of Sharing pictures and friends commenting on pics without any difficulty is really awesome".
Some of them expressed that they were very selective in making friends. One expressed that, "I rather then wasting time on making useless friends, work on meeting great people who are achievers and influence my life and motivate me to do the same. I generally use social networking for having an insight to people who have made this world a better place to live by their innovation or ideas. For example I met CEO (1) (Chief Executive Officer) The highest individual in command of an organization. Typically the president of the company, the CEO reports to the Chairman of the Board. of mouthshut.com on linkedin.com and was shocked to know that he started this site at a very young age and it was an idea which he put to work so efficiently. He also does social activities in Mumbai currently helping the poor."
Most of them felt that it is also a discussion gateway in the form of community thread. It is evident that most of the respondents see social networking sites as a communication channel connecting their friends and families. However, some also felt this as an enhancing knowledge and as a mean to share ideas.
4.5 Findings and Summary
Thus, the analysis done with the help of statistical tools clearly indicate the reasons, advantages, disadvantages and usage pattern of using social networking sites by youth of the three nations. Results from mean comparison, ANOVA and factor analysis including open-ended question analysis reflects that youth from all three nations joins social networking sites to communicate with their friends/family and reconnect with old friends. Analysis shows that youth use social networking sites as a discussion platform to talk about their interest, sharing picture, music, videos and up-to-date themselves with the happenings in their respective communities.
It is also reflective to note that India and Nepal share commonalities across various variables, whereas Maldives displayed distinct results majority of the cases. Results communicated that youth from all three nations felt that using social networking sites is an addiction and this leads to them to spend more than 2hours daily.
Among the five selected social networking sites Orkut considered most popular site in India, while Facebook appeared as most popular in Nepal and Maldives.
The analysis with findings indicated the reasons of joining, expectations and disadvantages with regard to social networking sites. In this research researchers have focused on respondents from three nations respondents only. There is further scope to be this type of exploration to be carried out on other socio cultural contextsexplored.
Methodologically researchers' ability to make causal causal /cau·sal/ (kaw´z'l) pertaining to, involving, or indicating a cause.
relating to or emanating from cause. claims is limited by a lack of experimental or longitudinal studies longitudinal studies,
n.pl the epidemiologic studies that record data from a respresentative sample at repeated intervals over an extended span of time rather than at a single or limited number over a short period. and limited sample size. Researchers hope that the study carried out about exploring the inclination of youth towards social networking sites will help in building an understanding for future investigations of issues surrounding sur·round
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.
2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.
n. social network sites.
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* Fielding, N. and Lee, R. M. (2008). Online Research Methods. Sage Publications This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. , Thr Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire, Great Britain Great Britain, officially United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 60,441,000), 94,226 sq mi (244,044 sq km), on the British Isles, off W Europe. The country is often referred to simply as Britain. .
* Gangadharbatla, H., (2007). Facebook Me: Collective Self-Esteem self-esteem
Sense of personal worth and ability that is fundamental to an individual's identity. Family relationships during childhood are believed to play a crucial role in its development. , Need to Belong, and Internet Self-Efficacy as Predictors of the iGeneration's Attitudes toward Social Networking Sites. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 1-29.
* Hinduja, S. and Patchin, J.W. (2008). Personal Information of Adolescents on the Internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace. Journal of Adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. , 31: 125-146.
* Livingstone, S., (2008). Taking Risky Opportunities in Youthful Content Creation: Teenagers' use of Social Networking sites for Intimacy, privacy and self-expression. New Media Society, 10: 393-411.
* Madhavan, N. (2007, July 6). India Gets More Net Cool. Hindustan Times This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. . [Retrieved from http:// www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx? id=f2565bb8-663e-48c1-94ee-d99567577bdd]
* Nyland, R., Marvez, R., Beck, J., (2007). Paper Presented at the AEJMC AEJMC Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Midwinter mid·win·ter
1. The middle of the winter.
2. The period of the winter solstice, about December 22.
1. the middle or depth of winter
2. Conference, Feb 23-24, Reno, Nevada.
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Dr. Divya Singhal Assistant Professor, Goa Institute of Management Goa.
Fathimath Shiraani Assistant Lecturer lecturer A person who is primarily–if not entirely—involved in the teaching activities of an academic center, who is not expected to perform research or Pt management; in general, lectureships are non-tenured positions , Maldives College of Higher Education Maldives College of Higher Education was established on January 1, 1999, as part of a restructuring and rationalization of all government-run post-secondary education in Maldives. , Republic of Maldives.
Jyoti Regmi Adhikary Assistant Professor, Kathmandu University Kathmandu University was started in 1991 with the motto "Quality Education for Leadership". The University operates through its six Schools of Science, Engineering, Management, Arts, Education and Medical sciences. School of Management, Nepal.
The present paper provides an exploration of three nations comprising, India, Nepal and Maldives about inclination of youth towards social networking sites. The paper also examines the usage pattern and prevailing popular social networking sites in these nations. It also explored and identified the reasons behind users' interest to join and their expectations, features relevance and disadvantages from social networking sites.
Table-I Worldwide growth of usage of some key social networking sites Worldwide Growth of Selected Social Networking Sites--Total Worldwide Home/Work Locations Among Internet User; Age 15+ Social Networking SiteTotal UniqueVisitors (000) Jun-06 Jun-07 % Growth MySpace 66,401 114,147 72 Facebook 14,083 52,167 270 His 18,098 28,174 58 IOrkut 13,588 24,120 78 Friendster 14,917 24,675 65 Source: www.comScore.com, accessed on 22 July. 2008 Table-II Population, Literary Rate and Age Structure in The Three Nations Country India Gender Male Female Literacy rate 73.4 percent 47.8 percent Population according to age structure 0-14 yrs 16.48 percent 15 percent 14-65 yrs 32.59 percent 30.74 percent > 65 yrs 2.46 percent 2.72 percent Total population 1,147,995,904 Country Nepal Gender Male Female Literacy rate 62.7 percent 43.9 percent Population according to age structure 0-14 yrs 19.62 percent 18.39 percent 14-65 yrs 29.92 percent 28.27 percent > 65 yrs 1.83 percent 1.96 percent Total population 29,519,114 Maldives Country Male Female Gender 96.2 percent 96.4 percent Literacy rate Population according to 11.96 percent 11.5 percent age structure 44.64 percent 28.02 percent 0-14 yrs 1.95 percent 1.92 percent 14-65 yrs > 65 yrs 385,925 Total population Source CIA, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/ the-world/fact/book/print/np.html, accessed on 28th September, 2008 Table-III Sample profile according to Nationality Gender and Age Country Gender Age Percentage India Male 17-22 0 23-27 20.22 28-32 4.49 Female 17-22 1.12 23-27 7.87 28-32 8.99 Nepal Male 17-22 3.37 23-27 12.36 28-32 1.12 Female 17-22 5.62 23-27 8.99 28-32 1.12 Maldives Male 17-22 3.37 23-27 6.74 28-32 3.37 Female 17-22 5.62 23-27 12.36 28-32 2.25 Table-IV One- Way ANOVA Between Reasons to Join SNS Across Nations Nation Reasons to join SNS Items F Nepal Leisure/Time pass Between Groups 4.776 Educational purpose Between Groups 8.641 India Entertain myself Between Groups 5.384 Share videos/ pictures/ music Between Groups 4.507 Make new friends Between Groups 11.399 Business purpose Between Groups 6.261 Maldives Communicate with family Between Groups 5.159 Communicate with friends Between Groups 4.062 Leisure/Time pass Between Groups 9.711 Entertain myself Between Groups 8.404 Make new friends Between Groups 31.201 Explore possibility of a Between Groups 6.429 future relationship Nation Reasons to join SNS Items Sig. Nepal Leisure/Time pass Between Groups .032 Educational purpose Between Groups .004 India Entertain myself Between Groups .023 Share videos/ pictures/ music Between Groups .037 Make new friends Between Groups .001 Business purpose Between Groups .014 Maldives Communicate with family Between Groups .026 Communicate with friends Between Groups .047 Leisure/Time pass Between Groups .002 Entertain myself Between Groups .005 Make new friends Between Groups .000 Explore possibility of a Between Groups .013 future relationship Table-V One- way ANOVA far Disadvantage of Use of SNS Across Nations Nation Disadvantage Item F Nepal Time consuming Between Groups 23.618 Ground for sexual predators Between Groups 4.649 India Lack of face-to-face interaction Between Groups 5.703 Maldives Time consuming Between Groups 12.275 Lack of face-to-face interaction Between Groups 7.972 Nation Disadvantage Item Sig. Nepal Time consuming Between Groups .000 Ground for sexual predators Between Groups .034 India Lack of face-to-face interaction Between Groups .019 Maldives Time consuming Between Groups .001 Lack of face-to-face interaction Between Groups .006 Table-VI Communalities for Reasons Initial Extraction Communicate with family 1.000 .582 Communicate with friends 1.000 .750 Reconnect with old friends 1.000 .699 Leisure/Timepass 1.000 .728 Convenient than Phone/Email 1.000 .570 Entertain myself 1.000 .790 Share videos/ pictures/ music 1.000 .635 Make new friends 1.000 .612 Keep up-to-date with social happenings/events 1.000 .579 Explore possibility of a future relationship 1.000 .646 Business purpose 1.000 .689 Educational purpose 1.000 .656 Bully others 1.000 .413 Table-VII Total Variance Explained for Reasons Component Initial Eigenvalues Total Percent of Cumulative Variance percent 1 3.231 26.922 26.922 2 2.105 17.540 44.462 3 1.646 13.716 58.178 4 1.018 8.486 66.664 5 0.890 7.418 74.082 6 0.657 5.476 79.557 7 0.603 5.025 84.582 8 0.534 4.451 89.033 9 0.415 3.462 92.494 10 0.373 3.107 95.602 11 0.283 2.361 97.963 12 0.244 2.037 100.000 Component Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total Percent of Cumulative Variance percent 1 3.231 26.922 26.922 2 2.105 17.540 44.462 3 1.646 13.716 58.178 4 1.018 8.486 66.664 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Table-VIII Rotated Component Matrix (a) for Reasons 1 2 Communicate with family .053 .381 Communicate with friends .291 .055 Reconnect with old friends .175 .092 Leisure/Timepass .106 .154 Convenient than Phone/Email .180 .376 Entertain myself .245 .187 Share videos/ pictures/music .759 .230 Make new friends .728 .063 Keep up-to-date with social happenings/events .503 .538 Explore possibility of a future relationship .768 .023 Business purpose .132 .805 Educational purpose .064 .803 Bully others .112 .330 Component 3 4 Communicate with family .630 .191 Communicate with friends .814 .023 Reconnect with old friends .810 .060 Leisure/Timepass .286 .782 Convenient than Phone/Email .245 .580 Entertain myself .111 .826 Share videos/ pictures/music .070 .037 Make new friends .231 .157 Keep up-to-date with social happenings/events .091 .168 Explore possibility of a future relationship .039 .231 Business purpose .001 .153 Educational purpose .062 .052 Bully others .390 .374 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. A Rotation converged in 7 iterations. Table-IX Communalities for Ease of Use Initial Extraction Ease to register 1.000 .823 Ease of access to friends and family 1.000 .645 Can edit privacy settings 1.000 .443 Find information 1.000 .726 Addl remove pictures 1.000 .715 Remove items/posts 1.000 .801 Change themes 1.000 .735 Create something of my own 1.000 .705 Table-X Total Variance Explained for Ease of Use Total Variance Explained Component Initial Eigenvalues Total Per cent of Cumulative Variance Per cent 1 3.299 41.243 41.243 2 1.241 15.512 58.754 3 1.055 13.190 89.944 4 0.789 9.857 79.801 5 0.549 8.880 88.881 8 0.433 5.410 92.071 7 0.353 4.408 98.477 8 0.282 3.523 100.000 Component Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total Per cent of Cumulative Variance Per cent 1 3.299 41.243 41.243 2 1.241 15.512 58.754 3 1.055 13.190 89.944 4 5 8 7 8 Component Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Total Per cent of Cumulative Variance Per cent 1 2.522 31.528 31.528 2 1.540 19.251 50.777 3 1.533 19.188 89.944 4 5 8 7 8 Table-XI Rotated Component Matrix for Ease of Use Component personal access Creativity posting ease ease Ease to register .077 .902 .054 Ease of access to .406 .653 .235 friends and family Can edit privacy settings .540 .353 .165 Find information .801 .273 .104 Addl remove pictures .803 .196 .181 Remove items/posts .859 .076 .238 Change themes .184 .049 .836 Create something of my own .053 .232 .805 Table-XII Communalities for Disadvantages Initial Extraction Time consuming 1.000 .616 Addiction 1.000 .677 Ground for sexual predators 1.000 .718 Cyberbullying 1.000 .820 Lack of face-to-face interaction 1.000 .252 Cyberstalking 1.000 .714 Table-XIII Total Variance Explained for Disadvantages Component Initial Eigenvalues Total percent of Cumulative Variance percent 1 2.569 42.824 42.824 2 1.229 20.480 63.304 3 .865 14.410 77.714 4 .636 10.603 88.317 5 .449 7.483 95.800 6 .252 4.200 100.000 Component Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total percent of Cumulative Variance percent 1 2.569 42.824 42.824 2 1.229 20.480 63.304 3 4 5 6 Component Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Total percent of Cumulative Variance percent 1 2.285 38.085 38.085 2 1.513 25.218 63.304 3 4 5 6 Table-XIV Component Matrix (a) for Disadvantages Component Matrix(a) Component 1 2 Time consuming .389 .682 Addiction .468 .677 Ground for sexual predators .831 .166 Cyberbullying .867 .261 Lack of face-to-face interaction .464 .191 Cyberstalking .735 .417 Figure-3 Social Networking Sites Use Hours Across Nations SNS use hours and Nations Less than 1-2 hr 2-3 hr 3-4 hr more than one hour 4 hrs Nepal 17 8 2 2 0 India 20 6 2 0 1 Maldives 10 10 8 1 0 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure-4 Importance of Social Networking Sites Importance of online SNS Not Not Impo Very Extre impo muc rtant impo mely Nepal 6.897 24.14 41.38 20.69 6.897 India 3.448 20.69 55.17 17.24 3.448 Maldives 9 26.67 43.33 23.33 6.667 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure-5 Number of SNS people use 1 7% 2 13% 3 20% 4 27% 5 33% Figure-6 Use of Facebook in the Three Nations Facebook Use and Nations Nepal India Maldives Never 7 19 2 Ocassionaly 8 8 5 Regulary 14 2 23 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure-7 Use of Myspace in the Three Nations Nepal India Maldives Never 25 24 20 Ocassionaly 4 5 8 Regulary 1 0 2 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure-8 Use of Hi5 in the Tree Nations Hi5 use and Nations Nepal India Maldives Never 7 23 18 Ocassionaly 14 5 6 Regulary 9 1 6 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure-9 Use of Orkut in the Three Nations Orkut use and Nations Nepal India Maldives Never 21 0 29 Ocassionaly 4 4 1 Regulary 4 25 6 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure-10 Use of Friendster in the Three Nations Friendster use and Nations Nepal India Maldives Never 29 29 27 Ocassionaly 0 0 2 Regularly 0 0 1 Note: Table made from bar graph.