Implementing computer technologies: teachers' perceptions and practices.This study investigates personal and setting characteristics, teacher attitudes, and current computer technology practices among 764 elementary and secondary teachers from both private and public school sectors in Quebec Quebec, city, Canada
Quebec, Fr. Québec, city (1991 pop. 167,517), provincial capital, S Que., Canada, at the confluence of the St. Lawrence and St. Charles rivers. . Using expectancy-value theory Introduction
Expectancy-value theory was originally created in order to explain and predict individual's attitudes toward objects and actions. Originally the work of psychologist Martin Fishbein, the theory states that attitudes are developed and modified based on assessments , the Technology Implementation Questionnaire (TIQ TIQ Tetrahydroisoquinoline (neurochemical associated with addiction)
TIQ Tinian, Northern Mariana Islands - Tinian (Airport Code) ) was developed; it consists of 33 belief items grouped under three broad motivational categories: perceived expectancy A mere hope, based upon no direct provision, promise, or trust. An expectancy is the possibility of receiving a thing, rather than having a vested interest in it.
The term has been applied to situations where an individual hopes and expects to receive something, generally of success, perceived value of technology use, and perceived cost of technology use. In addition, teacher demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. , teachers' current uses of technology, and availability of resources were also surveyed. The study found that: (a) expectancy of success and perceived value were the most important issues in differentiating levels of computer use among teachers; (b) personal use of computers outside of teaching activities was the most significant predictor of teacher use of technology in the classroom; and (c) teachers' use of computer technologies was predominantly pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. for "informative" (e.g., World Wide Web and CD-ROM CD-ROM: see compact disc.
in full compact disc read-only memory
Type of computer storage medium that is read optically (e.g., by a laser). ) and "expressive" (e.g., word processing word processing, use of a computer program or a dedicated hardware and software package to write, edit, format, and print a document. Text is most commonly entered using a keyboard similar to a typewriter's, although handwritten input (see pen-based computer) and ) purposes. Results are interpreted in light of the extent to which the expectancy-value model can explain the variation in teacher beliefs related to computer technology use. As a heuristic A method of problem solving using exploration and trial and error methods. Heuristic program design provides a framework for solving the problem in contrast with a fixed set of rules (algorithmic) that cannot vary.
1. , the core of our model of technology use reduces to a simple teacher motivation "equation": (.39 x Expectancy) + (.15 x Value) - (.14 x Cost) = Technology Use.
We are experiencing exponential growth Extremely fast growth. On a chart, the line curves up rather than being straight. Contrast with linear. in the use of computer technology for learning in K-12 schools. Indeed, there is sufficient optimism in the potential of technology that governments have dedicated substantial research funds to identifying and promoting ways to deliver or enhance instruction with the use of technology (Kleiman Kleiman is a surname, and may refer to:
, 2001). To some, computer technology can be a powerful and flexible tool for learning (Bereiter, 2002; Harasim, Hiltz, Teles, & Turoff, 1995). For example, in the Report to the U.S. President on the use of technology, the Panel (1997) wrote:</p> <pre> A number of different approaches have been suggested for the improvement of K-12 education in the United States Education in the United States is provided mainly by government, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. School attendance is mandatory and nearly universal at the elementary and high school levels (often known outside the United States as the , one common
element of many such plans has been the more extensive and more
effective utilization of computer, networking, and other technologies. (p. 6) </pre> <p>Coley coley
Brit an edible fish with white or grey flesh [perhaps from coalfish] , Cradler, and Engel Engel means angel in German, Danish, Dutch and Norwegian and may refer to:
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. (Bangert-Drowns, Kulik Kulik is a surname, and may refer to:
At the same time, there is sufficient concern (Noble, 1998; Russell Russell, English noble family. It first appeared prominently in the reign of Henry VIII when
John Russell, 1st earl of Bedford, 1486?–1555, rose to military and diplomatic importance. , 1999) that technology integration is problematic. Cuban, Kirkpatrick Kirk·pat·rick , Mount
A mountain, 4,531.1 m (14,856 ft) high, of Antarctica near the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. , and Peck peck: see English units of measurement. (2001) argued that without major and fundamental changes to the organization of schools, product reliability and cost, as well as increased technical support "... only modest, peripheral modifications will occur in schooling, teaching and learning. Teachers will adapt innovations to the contours Contours may mean:
1. Constituting a complete and independent unit in and of itself: A self-contained dictionary defines every word contained within it.
a. classroom. New technologies will, paradoxically par·a·dox
1. A seemingly contradictory statement that may nonetheless be true: the paradox that standing is more tiring than walking.
2. , sustain old practices" (p. 830). Based on these emerging concerns, our research emphasized the intersection intersection /in·ter·sec·tion/ (-sek´shun) a site at which one structure crosses another.
a site at which one structure crosses another. between teachers' instructional design Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. The process consists broadly of determining the current state of learner understanding, defining the end goal of strategies, school culture, motivation, and personal factors that influence the degree to which computer technologies are implemented into teaching and learning practices.
NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION
Student-centered approaches to learning (American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. , 1997) have encouraged teachers to modify instructional strategies and integrate computer technologies across the curriculum. The development of the World Wide Web (WWW WWW or W3: see World Wide Web.
(World Wide Web) The common host name for a Web server. The "www-dot" prefix on Web addresses is widely used to provide a recognizable way of identifying a Web site. or Web), as well as interactive and collaborative instructional software, makes technologies increasingly powerful and flexible tools. Despite efforts to expand computer use within the classroom, levels of integration among teachers remain extremely varied (Evans-Andris, 1995; Faison, 1996; Hadley Had·ley , Henry Kimball 1871-1937.
American composer and conductor whose romantic works include operas, such as Bianca (1918), symphonies, and chamber music. & Sheingold, 1993).
It is generally accepted that as teachers gain experience with computer technology their use in the classroom evolves into using more computer applications, more often and more flexibly (Ertmer, Addison Addison, village (1990 pop. 32,058), Du Page co., NE Ill.; inc. 1884. An industrial suburb of Chicago, it manufactures machinery and plastic items. , Lane, Ross Ross , Sir Ronald 1857-1932.
British physician. He won a 1902 Nobel Prize for proving that malaria is transmitted to humans by the bite of the mosquito. , & Woods, 1999; Marcinkiewicz Marcinkiewicz is a Polish''' family name of patronymic origin, meaning "son of Marcin (Martin)". People named Marcinkiewicz include:
An add-on may be covered by a clause in an installment payment contract that allows the seller to hold a security interest in the earlier goods until full payment is made on the later goods. activity or simply technological versions of the workbook work·book
1. A booklet containing problems and exercises that a student may work directly on the pages.
2. A manual containing operating instructions, as for an appliance or machine.
3. approaches that are already prevalent ..." (p. 265). In examining technology implementation it is necessary to examine the range of teachers' instructional applications of technology.
PERSONAL AND SCHOOL-RELATED FACTORS AFFECTING COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION
Researchers and staff developers have suggested numerous and disparate factors that may influence the degree to which teachers implement and persist in Verb 1. persist in - do something repeatedly and showing no intention to stop; "We continued our research into the cause of the illness"; "The landlord persists in asking us to move"
continue the implementation of educational innovations in general. These include personal and demographic factors related to teachers, the quality of professional development offered to teachers, the extent to which administrative and curricular support is available to teachers, as well as the quality of teacher access to computer resources.
Several studies have reported relationships between demographic characteristics of teachers and their reported use of technologies; age, gender, race, education level, socio-economic socio-economic adj → socioeconómico
socio-economic adj → socioéconomique status of students taught, years of teaching, years of technology use, specializations, and size of school were among the factors reported in key literature (Becker Beck´er
n. 1. (Zool.) A European fish (Pagellus centrodontus); the sea bream or braise. , 1994; Ely Ely, town (1991 pop. 9,006), Cambridgeshire, E central England. It is a market town for the surrounding rich farming area and has food-processing industries. Tourism is also important. , 1999; Hadley & Sheingold, 1993; Jaber Jaber may refer to:
Another key factor affecting the integration of computers is the technology-related training offered to teachers (Chin & Hortin, 1993, 1994; Dupagne & Krendl, 1992). Technology-related training plays a crucial role in developing teacher's competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. with computer applications (Gilmore Gilmore is a surname, and may refer to: People
The absence of a systematic policy and proven planning strategy can also hamper teachers' efforts to incorporate computers into the classroom (Cuban, 2000; Morton Morton, village (1990 pop. 13,799), Tazewell co., central Ill., in a grain-farming and livestock area; inc. 1877. Food is canned, and tractor parts, washing machines, and pottery are manufactured. , 1996). In a critical evaluation of technology adoption in two "high-tech high-tech also hi-tech
Of, relating to, or resembling high technology.
same as hi-tech
Adj. 1. " schools, Cuban et al. (2001) warn that "... the prevailing assumptions guiding policy on new technologies in schools are deeply flawed flaw 1
1. An imperfection, often concealed, that impairs soundness: a flaw in the crystal that caused it to shatter. See Synonyms at blemish.
2. and in need of re-assessment" (p. 830). Direction is needed from the research community on how schools can develop curricular plans and policies that are relevant and sensitive to issues related to computer integration.
The role of school administration extends beyond policy to include leadership within the school. Both Hadley and Sheingold (1993) and Marcinkiewicz (1996) suggested the need for a perception within the teachers' professional environment that computer integration is an expected and necessary component of the job. This perception can be established through modeling the use of computers by administration, colleagues, students and the larger professional community (Coley et al., 1997; Hannay Hannay, Hannah and Hanna are variations of the same Scottish surname.
The Hannays are a Scottish clan based in the Kirkdale Estate, Galloway. The clan motto is "Per ardua ad alta" (Latin: Through difficulties to the heights). & Ross, 1997; Wiebe, 1999).
Finally, researchers have contended that access to reliable and functional computer resources is a key factor in the use of computers for instructional activities (Gilmore, 1995; Jaber & Moore, 1999). Marcinkiewicz (1996), however, contended that increased availability of computers might not be sufficient to promote classroom integration. In a survey of 4,083 teachers, Becker et al. (1999) noted that only 5% of upper-elementary, 4% of middle grade and 13% of high-school teachers were currently integrating computers, despite increased availability. Another study by Cuban et al. (2001) provided further evidence that increased access to computers and related resources does not necessarily lead to its more widespread classroom use.
In a survey of connectivity and technology integration in Canadian Canadian (kənā`dēən), river, 906 mi (1,458 km) long, rising in NE New Mexico. and flowing E across N Texas and central Oklahoma into the Arkansas River in E Oklahoma. elementary and secondary schools, Plante and Beattie Beattie is a surname, and may refer to:
MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION
How do personal and school related factors impact on a teacher's decision to implement and persist at the integration of technology for learning? Researchers have been interested in investigating the motivational factors, which influence a teacher's tendency to try innovative educational practices, work towards succeeding at them, and persist at these efforts over time (Hativa & Lesgold, 1991; Ertmer et al., 1999).
A series of studies have looked at teacher's attitudes towards computer technology. Studies to date have focused mainly on investigating (a) how technology impacts the teachers' perceptions and attitudes about their role in the classroom (Chin & Hortin, 1994; Dupagne & Krendl, 1992); (b) the relationship between self-efficacy self-efficacy (selfˈ-eˑ·fi·k beliefs and actual computer use in the class-room (Marcinkiewicz & Regstad, 1996; Ross, 1994); (c) levels of computer anxiety among teachers (Bradley & Russell, 1997; Gressard & Lloyd, 1985); and (d) the relationship between teachers' personal teaching philosophy and computer technology use (Briscoe The Briscoe was an American automobile manufactured at Jackson, Michigan by a group headed by Benjamin Briscoe.
A few months after his departure from the United States Motor Company in 1913, Benjamin Briscoe established a manufacturing plant at Billancourt, France to , 1991; Rich, 1990; Sparks Sparks, city (1990 pop. 53,367), Washoe co., W Nev., just E of Reno; inc. 1905. The Southern Pacific RR was the major employer until the dieselization of railroad engines forced the closing (1957) of the railroad shops there. , 1988). Missing from the literature, however, are investigations, which apply broad motivational frameworks for examining the relationship between teachers' beliefs about computer technology and their classroom practice.
EXPECTANCY--VALUE THEORY OF MOTIVATION
Expectancy-value theory has emerged as a model for understanding and predicting behavior in the process of adopting innovations. Models of expectancy-value have been largely applied to industrial and occupational settings (Vroom, 1964; Mitchell Mitchell, city (1990 pop. 13,798), seat of Davison co., SE S.Dak.; inc. 1881. Mitchell is a trade, distribution, and shipping center for a dairy and livestock area. , 1977), and have been found to be an accurate predictor of productivity (Kopelman Kopelman can refer to:
Building on Shepperd's (1993) model of productivity within groups, we aim to apply expectancy-value theory to construct a model of the diverse issues involved in a teacher's decision to integrate computer technologies in their teaching. We believe that such a model may offer a more parsimonious par·si·mo·ni·ous
Excessively sparing or frugal.
parsi·mo as well as predictive model of teacher use and integration of technology for instruction. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. this model, innovations are more likely to be adopted if the perceived value of the innovation and the likelihood (or expectancy) of success are high, as well as if these benefits outweigh out·weigh
tr.v. out·weighed, out·weigh·ing, out·weighs
1. To weigh more than.
2. To be more significant than; exceed in value or importance: The benefits outweigh the risks. the perceived costs of implementation. That is to say, teachers' decisions to use an innovation, such as computer technology, in the classroom relate to (a) how highly they value the innovation; (b) how successful they expect their application of the innovation to be; and (c) how highly they perceive the costs of implementation and use to be.
Thus, in our model we discuss expectancy, value and cost as three distinct constructs. More precisely, expectancy items probe teacher perceptions of the contingency contingency n. an event that might not occur. between their use of the strategy and the desired outcomes. These include internal attributions (e.g., self-efficacy) and external attributions (e.g., student characteristics, classroom environment). Value items assess the degree to which teachers perceived the innovation or its associated outcomes as worthwhile. These include benefits to the teacher (e.g., congruency con·gru·en·cy
n. pl. con·gru·en·cies
Congruence. with teaching philosophy, career advancement), and to the students (e.g., increased achievement, enhanced interpersonal skills "Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability ). Cost items assess the perceived physical and psychological demands of implementation operating as a disincentive dis·in·cen·tive
Something that prevents or discourages action; a deterrent.
something that discourages someone from behaving or acting in a particular way
Noun 1. to applying the innovation (e.g., preparation time, effort, etc.). We predict that the classification of these items within a theoretical framework will allow us to determine whether those items which distinguish users from nonusers cluster within expectancy, value or cost issues.
Our research is designed to examine the relationship between motivational, instructional, and school factors that impact the nature and frequency of computer technology integration in schools. Thus, our research not only describes current practices but also employs a theoretical model related to teachers' use of technology for learning. Specifically we ask:
1. What is the extent and nature of teachers' classroom computer technology use? Are there significant differences in the ways technology is being implemented in classrooms?
2. What values, expectations and costs do teachers associate with the implementation of computer technologies? To what extent does the expectancy-value model provide a framework for explaining variability in teacher technology use?
3. To what extent do factors related to school environment, demographics and computer accessibility In human-computer interaction, computer accessibility (also known as Accessible computing) refers to the accessibility a computer system to all people, regardless of disability or severity of impairment. relate to the nature and extent of computer implementation?
Questionnaire Item Generation
To generate an initial pool of items, we identified studies that explored factors affecting teacher implementation of technology. From these studies, we extracted (a) items used in previous research instruments, and (b) factors, both positive and negative, identified as affecting integration. In addition, a preliminary survey of 51 teachers, aides, and administrators as well as a small focus group with 5 teachers was conducted to corroborate To support or enhance the believability of a fact or assertion by the presentation of additional information that confirms the truthfulness of the item.
The testimony of a witness is corroborated if subsequent evidence, such as a coroner's report or the testimony of other factors that emerged from the literature. To categorize cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat the hundreds of generated items, we first separated them according to whether they addressed expectancy, value, or cost concerns as defined through the expectancy-value theory of motivation.
Questionnaire Construction Questionnaires are frequently used in quantitative marketing research and social research in general. They are a valuable method of collecting a wide range of information from a large number of respondents. Good questionnaire construction is critical to the success of a survey.
To reduce the number of items we selected only those items that appeared frequently in either the literature (i.e., minimum of three citations) or among teachers (i.e., minimum of three respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. ). We pilot tested the initial version of the Technology Implementation Questionnaire (TIQ) with 31 teachers and subsequently, modified our Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc to six-points, from A ("Strongly Disagree") to F ("Strongly Agree"), thereby removing a potential "undecided" category to allow for greater variability in responses. Further revisions left 33 items (Section I, Appendix A) concerning attitudes and beliefs towards computer technology use, worded both positively (e.g., "The use of computer technology in the classroom eases the pressure on me as a teacher") and negatively (e.g., "The use of computer technology in the classroom will increase the amount of stress and anxiety students experience"). Among the belief items there were 10 expectancy, 14 value, and 9 cost statements. The inter-rater reliability Inter-rater reliability, Inter-rater agreement, or Concordance is the degree of agreement among raters. It gives a score of how much , or consensus, there is in the ratings given by judges. coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. for classification of items into expectancy, value, and cost categories, as measured by Cohen's Kappa Cohen's kappa coefficient is a statistical measure of inter-rater reliability. It is generally thought to be a more robust measure than simple percent agreement calculation since κ takes into account the agreement occurring by chance. , was 0.86 (p<.001).
Section II contained seven questions related to personal and school demographics. Section III contained three items pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to teachers' self-reported proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.
Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence and current use of computers. Section IV consisted of 12 items; 10 of which were adapted from Hadley and Sheingold's (1993) "functional purposes" (p. 273) or instructional uses for computers in the classroom. We also adapted A. L. Russell's (1995) six-stage process of "learning to use technology" (p. 175) to identify teachers' perceptions of their current stage of integration (see item 55 in Appendix A). Finally, Section V consisted of two open-ended questions A closed-ended question is a form of question, which normally can be answered with a simple "yes/no" dichotomous question, a specific simple piece of information, or a selection from multiple choices (multiple-choice question), if one excludes such non-answer responses as dodging a soliciting teachers' views on how to reallocate Verb 1. reallocate - allocate, distribute, or apportion anew; "Congressional seats are reapportioned on the basis of census data"
allocate, apportion - distribute according to a plan or set apart for a special purpose; "I am allocating a loaf of resources for improved instructional uses of computers. The final version of the TIQ can be viewed in Appendix A. The survey was made available to teachers in French and English.
Data Collection Procedure
The TIQ was distributed to 2213 teachers working in elementary and secondary schools in the province of Quebec, Canada. The researchers received the active cooperation of 60 schools from 7 public school boards, as well as 5 private schools. For 19 of the public schools, a research assistant was present to administer the questionnaire to teachers. Each administration took approximately 30 minutes to complete. All other questionnaires were completed by way of a mail-out procedure. Teachers were free to refuse or discontinue dis·con·tin·ue
v. dis·con·tin·ued, dis·con·tin·u·ing, dis·con·tin·ues
1. To stop doing or providing (something); end or abandon: participation at any time. Individual responses were available only to members of the research team. All data collection was conducted in accordance Accordance is Bible Study Software for Macintosh developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
As well as a standalone program, it is the base software packaged by Zondervan in their Bible Study suites for Macintosh. with the ethical standards of the American Psychological Association.
From a total sample of 799 teacher respondents, 35 were held aside from further analysis. Of these 35, the responses of 33 teachers were excluded because they responded to less than 90% of the 55 items in the survey. The other two cases were discarded dis·card
v. dis·card·ed, dis·card·ing, dis·cards
1. To throw away; reject.
a. To throw out (a playing card) from one's hand.
b. due to noticeably no·tice·a·ble
1. Evident; observable: noticeable changes in temperature; a noticeable lack of friendliness.
2. Worthy of notice; significant. unreliable responding. Among the 764 remaining respondents, any missing data on questionnaire items were replaced as per guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. stated in Tabachnik and Fidell (2001). Only 25 respondents (3.2%) had missing values In statistics, missing values are a common occurrence. Several statistical methods have been developed to deal with this problem. Missing values mean that no data value is stored for the variable in the current observation. in their data sets; analyses conducted with the replaced missing values were no different than if left unreplaced. Missing responses for the 33 belief items in Section I were replaced with individual respondent's mean score for their belief statements, while those for items related to functional uses of computers (i.e., items 44 to 53) were replaced with the individual respondent's mean score for the 10 items on functional uses. Missing data for all other items, which probed personal and setting characteristics (i.e., items 34 to 43, 54 and 55), were replaced with the variable response mean. (1) Descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. revealed that although some belief item means were high (e.g., M = 5.48) no item had a SD lower than 0.99 (range SDs: 0.99 to 1.64). We reverse-coded 11 negatively-oriented belief statements in Section I, after data collection, to ease interpretation (Table 1). Therefore, for all 33 belief items, the larger the value of the response (on a scale of 1 to 6) the more positive the teacher attitude towards the belief statement.
Sample and Setting Descriptions
Of the 764 respondents, 488 taught in elementary schools elementary school: see school. . Almost 11% of the teachers who took part in this survey worked in the private school sector. Seventy-eight percent (78%) of the teachers were female. Twenty-three percent (23%) of the respondents completed the questionnaire in French. Teaching experience ranged from 1 to 43 years (M = 16.35, SD = 11.27). Class sizes taught by the teachers ranged from 3 to 40 students (M = 24.43, SD = 5.48).
Thirty-eight percent (38%) of respondents reported that teacher access to computer resource personnel in their school was either "poor" or "extremely poor." On the other hand, 76% of teachers rated student access to computer resources as "acceptable," "good," "very good," or "excellent." While 56% of the respondents reported using computers for personal use between 1 to 5 hours a week, 24% reported using computers less than 1 hour a week, if at all. Finally, 17% of teachers reported receiving no inservice training on "using computer technologies in the classroom" while 39% reported receiving "more than a full day and less than a one-semester course" of inservice training on the use of computers for teaching purposes.
Levels of Computer Technology Implementation
Fifty-nine percent (59%) of teachers reported that computer technologies were integrated "occasionally" or "frequently" in their teaching activities (see item 41 in Appendix A). Only 7% reported that computer technologies were used "almost always" or "all the time." Thirty-nine percent (39%) of teachers reported that computer technologies were "rarely" or "not at all" integrated into their classroom activities (M = 2.92, SD = 1.15).
Item 43 addressed teacher's proficiency levels in relation to computer technologies (M = 3.71, SD = 1.07). Only 19% of respondents reported being at an "advanced" or "expert" level of proficiency, and 11% indicated being "newcomers" or "unfamiliar" with technology.
Teachers selected one of six stages that best described their personal process of integration. Teacher responses to item 55 are reported in Table 2. About 6% of the teachers described themselves at the learning stage, aware that technology exists, but not having used it. At the other extreme, slightly more than 12% of the teachers described themselves at the creative application stage, able to apply what they know about using technology as an instructional aid that is integrated into the curriculum.
Teachers who reported using computers "all the time" were more likely to place themselves in the "average," "advanced," or "expert" proficiency level, [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ](36, N = 764) = 330.39, p < .001. Similarly, all teachers who reported using computers "almost always," or "all the time" were more likely to place themselves in the "familiarity," "adaptation," or "creative application" stage of integration, [chi square](36, N = 764) = 367.02, p < .001.
Preferred teaching styles (from largely teacher-centered to largely student-centered) were explored in item 37. Teachers who reported preferring student-centered styles of teaching were likely to (a) report using computers more frequently in their teaching, [chi square](30, N = 764) = 72.45, p < .001; (b) rate themselves as more proficient pro·fi·cient
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.
An expert; an adept. in using computer technologies, [chi square](30, N = 764) = 50.45, p = .01; and (c) place themselves at a higher stage in the process of integrating computer technologies in the classroom, [chi square](30, N = 764) = 67.75, p < .001.
Manner of Technology Use
Items 44 to 53 asked teachers to report how frequently they used computers for 10 functional uses. Table 3 shows the distribution of responses. Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments. for teacher's responses to these ten functional uses yielded a high internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. of .86.
Technologies appeared to be used most often for informative (i.e., Internet Internet
Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the , CD-ROM) and expressive (e.g., word processing, online journal) purposes. More than half of the teachers surveyed reported "never" or "practically never" using computers for (a) recreational (e.g., games), (b) communicative com·mu·ni·ca·tive
1. Inclined to communicate readily; talkative.
2. Of or relating to communication.
com·mu (i.e., e-mail, ICQ ("I Seek You") A conferencing program for the Internet from Mirabilis, Tel Aviv, Israel (www.icq.com). It provides interactive chat, e-mail and file transfer and can alert you when someone on your predefined list has also come online. , computer conferencing See chat, videoconferencing and data conferencing. ), (c) instructional (e.g., drill, practice, tutorials, remediation), or (d) expansive purposes (e.g., simulations, experiments, exploratory environments, brainstorming).
Patterns of Use
Multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model. analyses of variances (MANOVAs) were conducted to investigate the mean differences in frequency of the 10 functional uses of computers (items 44 to 53) by gender, teaching sector (private vs. public), and teaching level (elementary vs. secondary). We urge moderation in interpreting the results reported in Tables 4, 5, and 6, as the effect sizes are relatively small. Male school teachers reported using computers for "communicative," "analytic an·a·lyt·ic or an·a·lyt·i·cal
1. Of or relating to analysis or analytics.
2. Expert in or using analysis, especially one who thinks in a logical manner.
3. Psychoanalytic. ," "expansive," and "creative" purposes significantly more than females. On the other hand, female teachers reported using computers for "instructional" purposes significantly more than male teachers (see Table 4).
Private school teachers reported using computers for each of the functional uses, except for "recreational" and "expansive" purposes, significantly more than public school teachers (see Table 5). It is important to note, also, that there was a statistically significant difference reported between the amount of training received by private (M = 3.14, SD = 1.08) and public (M = 2.75, SD = 1.21) school teachers, t(105.4) = 2.97, p = .001, which might explain the differences in patterns of use between the public and private sectors.
Finally, elementary and secondary school teachers showed statistically significant differences in their use of computers. Elementary teachers reported more frequent "instructional," "recreational," "creative," "expressive," and "informative" use of computers over secondary teachers; secondary teachers, on the other hand, reported more frequent "analytic" use of computers over elementary teachers (all reported differences were statistically significant; see Table 6). Yet again, there was a statistically significant difference reported between the amount of training received by elementary (M = 2.96, SD = 1.18) and secondary school teachers (M = 2.50, SD = 1.20), t(561.42) = 5.11, p < .001, which might better illuminate il·lu·mi·nate
v. il·lu·mi·nat·ed, il·lu·mi·nat·ing, il·lu·mi·nates
1. To provide or brighten with light.
2. To decorate or hang with lights.
3. the differences in reported patterns of use.
Teacher Expectations, Values and Perceived Costs Associated with Computer Implementation
Thirty-three items assessed teacher attitudes, values, and beliefs towards the integration of computer technology (see items 1 to 33 in Appendix A). Cronbach's alphas (which measured internal consistency) for items falling within the three categories of belief statements ranged from moderate to high. Although data from the pilot study revealed uniform distribution across all items, frequencies from the final data set revealed that responses to expectancy items 3, 20, and 33 were skewed skewed
curve of a usually unimodal distribution with one tail drawn out more than the other and the median will lie above or below the mean.
skewed Epidemiology adjective Referring to an asymmetrical distribution of a population or of data . Alpha for the expectancy category was .29 but increased to .61 when the skewed items were excluded; alpha for the value category was .86; and alpha for the cost category was .73. While the limited response ranges to the three skewed expectancy items detracts from the internal consistency of the data set, the information provided by the items proved to be useful for subsequent analyses.
Generally, teachers positively agreed with the 14 value statements (overall M = 4.10, overall SD = 0.80). The only value items with a mean rating of less than 4.0 were items 2, 10, 26, and 32. The two items with the highest agreement were item 7 where 91% of respondents generally agreed that computer technologies are "a valuable instructional tool" (M = 4.84, SD = 1.14); and item 16 (M = 4.72, SD = 1.32), where the majority of respondents agreed that computer technology "is an effective tool for students of all abilities." The two value items with the lowest agreement were item 10, "the use of computer technology in the classroom makes teachers feel more competent as educators" (M = 3.01, SD = 1.59); and item 2, "the use of computer[s] ... [does not result] in students neglecting important traditional learning resources" (M = 3.12, SD = 1.52).
The overall mean for the 10 expectancy items was also high (overall M = 4.12, overall SD = 0.53). Items with a mean rating of more than 4.0 were items 11, 13, 20, and 28. The two expectancy items with the highest agreement were item 13, "the use of computer[s] ... in the classroom is successful only if computers are regularly maintained by technical staff" (M = 5.48, SD = .99); and item 11, "the use of computer[s] ... is successful only if there is adequate teacher training in the use of technology for learning" (M = 5.19, SD = 1.20). The two expectancy items with the lowest agreement were item 30, "the use of computer[s] ... is only successful if computer technology is part of the students' home environment" (M = 3.08, SD = 1.44); and item 15, "the use of computer[s] ... is successful only if there is the support of parents" (M = 3.32, SD = 1.51)
Teachers showed less positive agreement towards the nine cost items (overall M = 3.58, overall SD = 0.83) as compared to the expectancy and value items. The cost items with a mean rating of more than 4.0 were items 23, 24, and 27. The two cost items with the highest agreement were item 23, "the use of computer[s] ... in the classroom [should not reduce] the number of teachers employed in the future" (M = 4.47, SD = 1.64); and item 24 "the use of computer[s] ... in the classroom [does not limit] my choices of instructional materials" (M = 4.45, SD = 1.47). The two cost items with the lowest agreement were item 19, "the use of computer[s] ... in the classroom eases the pressure on me as a teacher" (M = 2.61, SD = 1.47); and item 31, "the use of computer[s] ... [requires no extra time] to plan learning activities" (M = 2.74, SD = 1.45).
Characterizing Teacher Use of Technology: Composite User Variables
To better explore the factors that might be predictive of teachers' use or nonuse of technology, we decided to create a composite of item 41 (teacher's self-reported frequency of integration of computers into teaching activities), item 43 (teacher's self-reported proficiency at computer use) and item 55 (teacher's self-reported stage of computer integration), as these three items best reflected teacher use of and general proficiency with technology. Significant, positive correlations Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation between items 43 and 55 (r = +.702, p < .001), items 41 and 55 (r = +.507, p < .001), and items 41 and 43 (r = +.430, p < .001) provided sufficient evidence to create composite variables representing teacher use and proficiency with technology. Initially, we created an unweighted composite variable, Teacher Use (Unweighted), for each respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. by simply adding respondent's scores for items 41, 43, and 55.
Teacher Attitudes and Technology Use
To better investigate the motivational factors related to technology use we decided to create a weighted composite variable. This weighted variable was based on a canonical correlation In statistics, canonical correlation analysis, introduced by Harold Hotelling, is a way of making sense of cross-covariance matrices. Definition
Given two column vectors and between the set of items 41, 43, and 55 and the set of 33 expectancy, value, and cost items (i.e., items 1 to 33). The nonstandardized coefficients for the single root extracted from the canonical correlation analyses were .36 for item 41, .09 for item 43, and .46 for item 55, thereby yielding a weighted Teacher Use (Attitudes) variable. We elected to use the weighted composite variable in our regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.
In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set. analyses because the variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality explained by this variable was slightly better than the unweighted variable. The Teacher Use (Attitudes) variable predicted 3% more variance in teachers' use of technology than the Teacher Use (Unweighted) variable did. However, the significant predictor variables Noun 1. predictor variable - a variable that can be used to predict the value of another variable (as in statistical regression)
variable quantity, variable - a quantity that can assume any of a set of values remained unchanged regardless of whether we used weighted composites or not. In addition, we compared the analysis when skewed items were first normalized, versus when they were not. Here too, there were no differences in total variance explained and which predictors were significant.
Teacher Attitudes Predictive of Technology Use
We regressed the Teacher Use (Attitudes) variable on the 33 belief items (p to enter < .05; p to remove > .10). Overall, we were able to explain a meaningful proportion of variance in the degree of technology use, with five significant predictors, [R.sup.2] = 0.33, F(5, 758) = 74.05, p < .001.
Two of the five predictors focused on teacher expectations of the use of computers in their classrooms. The values of [beta], the standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. regression coefficient Regression coefficient
Term yielded by regression analysis that indicates the sensitivity of the dependent variable to a particular independent variable. See: Parameter.
regression coefficient reported later, represent the unique variance explained by each predictor. Shared variance is not included in the results of our analyses. The larger expectancy predictor was item 3, that computer use "... is effective because I believe I can implement it successfully" ([beta] = .33), while the other expectancy predictor was item 29, that computer use is not difficult even though "... some students know more about computers than many teachers do" ([beta] = .18). Two other predictors were value statements. The larger value predictor, item 18, was that the use of computers "... enhances my professional development" ([beta] = .13); while the smaller value predictor, item 2, was that computer use in the classroom does not "... result in students neglecting traditional resources (e.g., library)" ([beta] = .08). Only one significant predictor, item 25, focused on the costs of computer use in the classroom, namely that using technology in the classroom "... requires software-skills training that is [not] too time consuming" ([beta] = .13).
Subsequently, we regressed the Teacher Use (Attitudes) variable separately on each of the three sets of expectancy, value, and cost statements (p to enter < .05; p to remove > .10). The 10 expectancy statements predicted the most amount of variance in teacher use and proficiency with technology, with four significant predictors, [R.sup.2] = 0.30, F(4, 759) = 80.83, p < .001. The regression analyses conducted on the 14 value items yielded five significant predictors, [R.sup.2] = 0.19, F(5, 758) = 34.70, p < .001. Finally, the lowest amount of variance predicted was from the set of nine cost items, with four significant predictors, [R.sup.2] = 0.18, F(4, 759) = 40.23, p < .001. As with the regression of Teacher Use (Attitudes) on the entire set of 33 attitude statements, the two largest expectancy predictors were items 3 and 29, the two largest value predictors were items 18 and 2, while the largest cost predictor was item 25.
Using our regressions on the three separate sets of attitudes, we saved three sets of predicted values, one each for expectancy, value and cost. We then regressed Teacher Use (Attitudes) on the three predicted values of expectancy, value, and cost (p to enter < .05; p to remove > .10). The total variance explained for Teacher Use (Attitudes) was 33% ([R.sup.2] = 0.33, F(3, 760) = 126.81, p < .001). The regression coefficients calculated were [beta] = .39 for the predicted value of expectancy, [beta] = .15 for that of value and finally, [beta] = .14 for that of cost. These regression coefficients were used to construct an equation relating teacher use of technology to the expectancy, value, and cost items, namely (.39 x Expectancy) + (.15 x Value) - (.14 x Cost) = Technology Use. (2)
Predictive Teacher Personal and School Setting Characteristics
To create a second weighted composite variable we conducted canonical correlation analyses between the set of items 41, 43, and 55, and the set of nine items related to teachers' personal demographic and school setting characteristics (i.e., items 34 to 40, 42, and 54). The unstandardized canonical The standard or authoritative method. The term comes from "canon," which is the law or rules of the church. See canonical name and canonical synthesis.
canonical - (Historically, "according to religious law")
We next regressed Teacher Use (Personal and Setting) on the nine demographic and setting characteristics items (p to enter < .05; p to remove >.10), and found seven significant predictors, [R.sup.2] = 0.49, F(7, 756) = 105.06, p < .001. The largest predictor was the amount of computer use by teachers for personal purposes outside of teaching activities ([beta] = .57). The other six predictors were total amount of inservice training ([beta] = .15), years of teaching experience ([beta] = -.17), teachers' rating of student access to computers in their schools ([beta] = .10), gender ([beta] = .12), preferred teaching methodology ([beta] = .07), and level of teaching (e.g., elementary versus secondary, [beta] = -.06).
To determine the total amount of variance the TIQ explained in teacher use and general proficiency in technology, we regressed Teacher Use (Unweighted) on the combined set of 33 attitude statements and the 9 items on demographic and setting characteristics. Overall, we were able to explain 55% of the variance, with 11 significant predictors, [R.sup.2] = 0.55, F (11, 752) = 82.83, p < .001. The highest predictor of use was item 42, the amount of time teachers used computers for personal use outside of teaching ([beta] = .44).
This study investigated the motivational, demographic, and school conditions, which relate to teachers' implementation of computer technology. Consistent with other findings, our study found that technology implementation is a dynamic process mediated me·di·ate
v. me·di·at·ed, me·di·at·ing, me·di·ates
1. To resolve or settle (differences) by working with all the conflicting parties: by subjective teacher characteristics and by conditions within the school.
Spectrum and Nature of Use
In response to recommendations in previous research (Becker, 1994; Cuban et al., 2001), our study investigated not only how often computers were being used but the nature of that implementation. We found significant correlations between teachers' self-reported measures of: (a) how frequently they integrated computers; (b) how proficient they were with computer applications; and (c) at what phase of the integration process they were. Our findings support the use of more dynamic definitions of "use" that look beyond dichotomous di·chot·o·mous
1. Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.
2. Characterized by dichotomy.
di·chot categories of "use" and "nonuse" to allow for a spectrum of potential integration processes (Ertmer et al., 1999). The frequency of computer use among teachers in our study was consistent with recent research (Jaber & Moore, 1999) with two-thirds of the respondents reporting that they used computer technologies at least "occasionally," and only a small percentage of teachers reporting extensive use of computers (Marcinkiewicz, 1996, Cuban et al., 2001).
Our study found that teachers use computers more often for informative and expressive purposes like the World Wide Web, word processing, and online journals. This finding was consistent with Becker et al. (1999). In fact, less than half of the teachers in our study reported using computers for drill, practice, tutorials, or remediation. However, the general lack of computer use for more complex purposes (i.e., communicative, creative, and expansive) may support Cuban et al.'s (2001) claims that computers may simply maintain existing instructional practices that traditionally focus more on transmitting transmitting,
v to send and receive information, signals, and so on; allows a therapist to perceive a client's physical, emotional, and spiritual states. information then helping learners actively construct knowledge.
Demographic and Setting Characteristics
The results pointed to a number of demographic and setting characteristics related to both the frequency of computer use and the manner in which technologies were being used. Major findings included significant differences in the extent of technology use based on (a) teaching styles, (b) frequency of computer use outside of teaching activities, (c) amount of technology related training, and (d) accessibility of resources within the school.
Teaching styles. According to our results, teachers who prefer more student-centered approaches towards instruction are more likely to (a) integrate computer technologies more frequently; (b) perceive themselves as having a higher level of computer proficiency; as well as (c) report themselves as being at a more sophisticated stage of integrating computers in classrooms. Our findings are encouraging in light of Cuban et al.'s (2001) concern that new technologies run the risk of sustaining existing teachercentered practices. We encourage future studies to research the impact of computer integration on well-established and dominant teaching practices.
Personal computer use. Teachers' personal use of computers outside of teaching activities was the strongest predictor of technology use in the classroom. This finding supports Jaber and Moore's (1999) argument that teachers' access to computers at home influences computer use in the classroom. When asked what resources would contribute to improving their instructional use of computers, teachers in our study frequently made comments such as:</p> <pre> Teachers should have time to play and learn with different applications already available in schools ... [P]laying gives ideas on how you use computers with students ... [I] would like to see more release time or having computers available including a laptop Same as laptop computer.
laptop - portable computer for teachers to take home for extra practice [and] preparation. </pre> <p>Technology-related training. In line with findings by other researchers, the amount of technology-related inservice training was significantly related to computer use in the classroom (Becker, 1994; Gilmore, 1995; Zambo, Buss, & Wetzel, 2001). Teachers in our study generally reported the need for inservice training and when asked what resources could make their implementation easier, teachers referred to applied training that goes beyond skill development. One teacher wrote:</p> <pre>
I would like to learn an application that I need and my students
need. I want to use what I learn. It is fine to know how to take a photo and make a book or calendar but is that truly what a class
computer should be used for? What are the things students will need to know in the future? </pre> <p>Access to computer resources. Finally, our results suggest that student access to computer resources continues to be a predictor of technology integration, as was suggested in Gilmore (1995) and Jaber and Moore (1999). One teacher commented,</p> <pre> Computers could easily become an integral element within the classroom ... [i]f there were several computers per class. I have three in the classroom and use them everyday for a variety of purposes. Having upwards of eight computers would allow for total integration. Students should not have to constantly wait their turn. </pre> <p>Although teachers in our study highlighted the importance of access to computer resources, a recent study of a sample of 21 teachers by Cuban et al. (2001) found that access to equipment and software seldom led to widespread teacher and student use. Our results, which highlight the impact of motivational factors offers one explanation for why increased access to computers does not necessarily lead to consequential con·se·quen·tial
1. Following as an effect, result, or conclusion; consequent.
2. Having important consequences; significant: usage of technologies in the classroom.
Teacher Attitudes Towards Integrating Computers
A major purpose of this research was to explore whether we could employ a particular theoretical model to organize apparently disparate reasons teachers implement and persist at using an educational innovation, notably the uses of technology for learning. We believe we have made substantial progress towards achieving that objective. We were able to conceptually classify clas·si·fy
tr.v. clas·si·fied, clas·si·fy·ing, clas·si·fies
1. To arrange or organize according to class or category.
2. To designate (a document, for example) as confidential, secret, or top secret. a lengthy list of explanations into a coherent theoretical framework and relate these explanations to implementation variability. In particular, teacher motivation to use technology for learning was substantially related to self-reported use. Teacher attitudes toward the successful use of technology, the value of implementation and the costs associated with implementation explained a substantial amount (33%) of the difference observed in the degree to which computers were being integrated. As a heuristic, the core of our model reduces to a simple, teacher- motivation-to-use-technologies "equation":
(.39 x Expectancy) + (.15 x Value) - (.14 x Cost) = Technology Use
Which of the global factors from the expectancy-value model exerted the most influence on teachers' attitudes towards technology use? Factors related to expectancy of success were the most predictive of computer use. Teachers who believe that they have the skills to implement computers successfully and who valued the outcomes associated with integration were more likely to be at the high end of the "technology user" spectrum. One teacher's comment highlights the importance of possessing positive attitudes: "I know or am confident that I can figure out how to use aspects of computer capabilities with my students, but I want a lot of time to play around with classroom applications before using them in my class."
To maximize the implementation of educational innovations, our findings suggest that professional development must attend to the enhancement of teachers' expectations of success. Teachers need to believe that they can successfully implement the innovation within their own context; if not, they may neither take the initial risk nor continue to persevere per·se·vere
intr.v. per·se·vered, per·se·ver·ing, per·se·veres
To persist in or remain constant to a purpose, idea, or task in the face of obstacles or discouragement. in implementing it. This suggests that it may be useful, but not sufficient, to show teachers how successful others have been with technology applications and to create communities of practitioners providing mutual support.
Teachers also need to be convinced of the value of technology as a tool to supplement and improve classroom practice. Technology, which is well integrated into the curriculum, rather than merely added to it, may be one means by which skeptical teachers may develop positive beliefs about the role of technology as a tool for learning. When asked about the "ideal" way to integrate computers in the class, teachers highlighted the value of computers for the learning experience:</p> <pre> I believe [computer technology] is an essential tool in today's school environment. It motivates students and encourages them to explore and to learn in a way previously unavailable to them. [I am] [U]sing computers to create projects, learn and discover
various subject areas, too numerous to mention ... [I]t is a tool
that cannot be ignored. </pre> <p>Despite concerns that the costs associated with implementation would be the major barriers to use (e.g., maintenance by technical staff, time consuming training), cost did not figure as prominently a predictor of technology use in our study. However, when asked what resources would improve their use of computers, teachers commented on the availability of resource personnel and product reliability; for example, one teacher wrote: "The resources provided by school administration should cover many areas. Resources are needed for both teachers and students and should consist of such things as computer training, available computer programs as well as technical support from on-site technicians."
LIMITATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
A major objective of this research was to determine whether we could employ an expectancy-value model of motivation to organize teacher attitudes, values, and beliefs toward computer integration in the classroom. We have made tremendous progress towards developing a concise, meaningful, and powerful model of teacher use of technology. Overall, teacher attitudes as well as personal and setting characteristics, such as personal use outside of teaching, were able to account for 55% of the variance in teacher use of technology. However, a sizeable amount of variance remains to be explained.
To address this unexplained unexplained
strange or unclear because the reason for it is not known
Adj. 1. unexplained - not explained; "accomplished by some unexplained process" difference in computer use, future research should focus on additional factors that may affect a teacher's decision to integrate computers. Future research could measure factors like (a) personality differences among teachers, (b) levels of computer anxiety, (c) student characteristics, (d) levels of peer-support and administrative support, and (e) the extent to which prior experiences with computers has affected teacher attitudes, all of which were not addressed in the TIQ.
Efforts were made to address methodological issues (Miskel, DeFrain & Wilcox, 1980) associated with conducting survey research. We ensured the involvement of teachers in the process of generating belief items, and validated val·i·date
tr.v. val·i·dat·ed, val·i·dat·ing, val·i·dates
1. To declare or make legally valid.
2. To mark with an indication of official sanction.
3. the content validity content validity,
n the degree to which an experiment or measurement actually reflects the variable it has been designed to measure. of our items with practicing teachers as well as fellow researchers. However, the skewness Skewness
A statistical term used to describe a situation's asymmetry in relation to a normal distribution.
A positive skew describes a distribution favoring the right tail, whereas a negative skew describes a distribution favoring the left tail. of responses to some of the belief statements may point to the need for improved methods for creating items representative of the population being investigated. Future versions of the questionnaire should rephrase re·phrase
tr.v. re·phrased, re·phras·ing, re·phras·es
To phrase again, especially to state in a new, clearer, or different way. strongly skewed statements to increase the variability of responses, and hence increase the internal reliability of each of the three broad categories of belief items.
In addition, the use of self-reported measures of computer use, proficiency levels, and stages of integration could have affected the reliability of our analysis. Future research could involve triangulating the self-reported measures through use of observational and self-reported student data.
American Psychological Association, Work Group of the Board of Educational Affairs. (1997). Learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for school redesign re·de·sign
tr.v. re·de·signed, re·de·sign·ing, re·de·signs
To make a revision in the appearance or function of.
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pertaining to or originating in Australia.
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This research was supported by grants to the third author from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) is an arm's length Canadian federal funding agency. Offering numerous funding programs with a 2006-2007 budget of CAN$306 million for grants and scholarships, and CAN$538 overall, (Government of Canada The Government of Canada is the federal government of Canada. The powers and structure of the federal government are set out in the Constitution of Canada.
In modern Canadian use, the term "government" (or "federal government") refers broadly to the cabinet of the day and ) and the Fonds pour la Formation de Chercheurs et l'aide a la Recherche La Recherche is a monthly French language popular science magazine covering recent scientific news. It is published by the Société d'éditions scientifiques (the Scientific Publishing Group), a subsidiary of Financière Tallandier. (Government of Quebec).
The authors acknowledge the assistance received from Anne Wade, Laura Patterson. Christine Truesdale, Natalie Cristofaro. Tanya Schechter, Rocci Luppicini, Sophie David and Anna Peretiatkowicz.
1. The decision to use an individual teacher's mean scores in the case of belief statements and functional uses ensured that the replaced missing value best represented the individual's response to a given set of related items as opposed to a variable mean across all respondents. This conservative approach of replacing missing values using the mean did not change the variable mean, but the variance was very slightly reduced.
2. Cost has a negative coefficient in our equation to represent the fact that teachers use of computer technology is negatively influenced by any costs they associate with implementing technology in the classroom.
TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION QUESTIONNAIRE
Copies of English and French versions of the questionnaire are available at: http://doe.concordia.ca/cslp/Downloads/PDF/TIQ-QV17.pdf and http://doe.concordia.ca/cslp/Downloads/PDF/TIQF.PDF respectively.
This questionnaire has five sections and consists of four printed pages. Please mark ALL your answers on the accompanying Answer Sheet. Circle the most appropriate response when answering the closed-ended questions. Space is provided to record your comments to the open-ended questions. After you have completed your responses, please return both the questionnaire and the answer sheet to your facilitator.
SECTION I -- Your Professional Views on Computer Technology
Using the scale provided, please rate the extent to which you agree or disagree with Verb 1. disagree with - not be very easily digestible; "Spicy food disagrees with some people"
hurt - give trouble or pain to; "This exercise will hurt your back" the following statements regarding the use of computer technology in the classroom:</p> <pre> Strongly Moderately Slightly Slightly Moderately Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree
Agree Agree A B C D E
F </pre> <p>The use of computer technology in the classroom ...
1. Increases academic achievement (e.g. grades).
2. Results in students neglecting important traditional learning resources (e.g., library books).
3. Is effective because I believe I can implement it successfully.
4. Promotes student collaboration Working together on a project. See collaborative software. .
5. Makes classroom management more difficult.
6. Promotes the development of communication skills (e.g., writing and presentation skills).
7. Is a valuable instructional tool.
8. Is too costly in terms of resources, time and effort.
9. Is successful only if teachers have access to a computer at home.
10. Makes teachers feel more competent as educators.
11. Is successful only if there is adequate teacher training in the uses of technology for learning.
12. Gives teachers the opportunity to be learning facilitators instead of information providers.
13. Is successful only if computers are regularly maintained by technical staff.
14. Demands that too much time be spent on technical problems.
15. Is successful only if there is the support of parents.
16. Is an effective tool for students of all abilities.
17. Is unnecessary because students will learn computer skills on their own, outside of school.
18. Enhances my professional development.
19. Eases the pressure on me as a teacher.
20. Is effective if teachers participate in the selection of computer technologies to be integrated.
21. Helps accommodate students' personal learning styles.
22. Motivates students to get more involved in learning activities.
23. Could reduce the number of teachers employed in the future.
24. Limits my choices of instructional materials.
25. Requires software-skills training that is too time consuming.
26. Promotes the development of students' interpersonal skills (e.g., ability to relate or work with others).
27. Will increase the amount of stress and anxiety students experience.
28. Is effective only when extensive computer resources are available.
29. Is difficult because some students know more about computers than many teachers do.
30. Is only successful if computer technology is part of the students' home environment.
31. Requires extra time to plan learning activities.
32. Improves student learning of critical concepts and ideas.
33. Becomes more important to me if the student does not have access to a computer at home.
SECTION II -- Your Background, Your Teaching Style and Resources Available to You
35. Years of teaching completed (If this is your first year, indicate '0' on the answer sheet. If last year was your first, indicate '1', and so on.)
36. Current teaching position (If you teach in more than one subject area, choose the one that dominates your teaching schedule.)
A. Pre-K or Kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be
B. Cycle 1, grades 1 and 2
C. Cycle 2, grades 3 and 4
D. Cycle 3, grades 5 and 6
E. Other (e.g., Music, Phys. Ed phys.
4. physiology ., Science, Resource)
F. Mathematics, Science, or Computer technology
G. Language arts language arts
The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills, usually taught in elementary and secondary school. , Second language, MRE MRE
meal ready to eat , Social Science
H. Special Education or Resource
I. Other (e.g., Creative arts, Phys. Ed., Vocational)
37. Preferred teaching methodology (choose only one)
A. Largely teacher-directed (e.g., teacher-led discussion, lecture)
B. More teacher-directed than student-centered
C. Even balance between teacher-directed and student-centered activities
D. More student-centered than teacher-directed
E. Largely student-centered (e.g., cooperative learning, discovery learning)
38. Average class size that you teach (please provide a whole number and not a range)
For questions 39 and 40, use the following scale to rate your responses</p> <pre> Extremely Poor Poor Acceptable Good Very Good Excellent A B C D E F </pre> <p>39. How would you rate student access to computer technology at your school?
40. How would you rate teacher access to computer resource personnel in your school?
SECTION III -- Your Experience with Computer Technologies
41. Please indicate how often you integrate computer technologies in your teaching activities.
A. Not at all
E. Almost Always
F. All the Time
42. On average, how many hours per week do you spend using a computer for personal use outside of teaching activities?
B. Less than 1 hr
C. 1 hour or more, but less than 3 hours
D. 3 hours or more, but less than 5 hours
E. 5 hours or more, but less than 10 hours
F. 10 hours or more
43. Please read the following descriptions of the proficiency levels a user has in relation to computer technologies. Determine the level that best describes you and circle the corresponding letter on your answer sheet.
I have no experience with computer technologies.
I have attempted to use computer technologies, but I still require help on a regular basis.
I am able to perform basic functions in a limited number of computer applications.
I demonstrate a general competency in a number of computer applications.
I have acquired the ability to competently use a broad spectrum of computer technologies
I am extremely proficient in using a wide variety of computer technologies.
SECTION IV -- Your Process of Integration
For Items 44 to 53:
Please indicate how frequently computer technologies are integrated into your teaching activities for each of the uses listed below. Circle the appropriate response on your answer sheet.</p> <pre> Practically Once in a Fairly Very Almost Never Never While Often
Often Always A B C D E F </pre> <p>44. Instructional (e.g., drill, practice, tutorials, remediation)
45. Communicative (e.g., e-mail, ICQ, computer conferencing, LCD projector See LCD TV, data projector and LCD panel. )
46. Organizational (e.g., data base, spreadsheets The following is a list of spreadsheets. Freeware/open source software
47. Analytical/Programming (e.g., statistics, charting, graphing, drafting, robotics robotics, science and technology of general purpose, programmable machine systems. Contrary to the popular fiction image of robots as ambulatory machines of human appearance capable of performing almost any task, most robotic systems are anchored to fixed positions )
48. Recreational (e.g., games)
49. Expansive (e.g., simulations, experiments, exploratory environments, brainstorming)
50. Creative (e.g., desktop publishing desktop publishing, system for producing printed materials that consists of a personal computer or computer workstation, a high-resolution printer (usually a laser printer), and a computer program that allows the user to select from a variety of type fonts and sizes, , digital video, digital camera, scanners, graphics)
51. Expressive (e.g., word processing, on-line journal)
52. Evaluative (e.g., assignments, portfolio, testing)
53. Informative (e.g., Internet, CD-ROM)
54. Total amount of inservice training you have received to date on using computer technology in the classroom:
B. A full day or less
C. More than a full day and less than a one-semester course
D. A one-semester course
E. More than a one-semester course
55. Please read the descriptions of each of the six stages related to the process of integrating computer technology in teaching activities. Choose the stage that best describes where you are in the process and circle the corresponding letter on your answer sheet.
I am aware that technology exists, but have not used it--perhaps I'm even avoiding it. I am anxious about the prospect of using computers.
I am currently trying to learn the basics. I am sometimes frustrated frus·trate
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart: using computers and I lack confidence when using them.
I am beginning to understand the process of using technology and can think of specific tasks in which it might be useful.
I am gaining a sense of self-confidence in using the computer for specific tasks. I am starting to feel comfortable using the computer.
I think about the computer as an instructional tool to help me and I am no longer concerned about it as technology. I can use many different computer applications.
F. Creative Application
I can apply what I know about technology in the classroom. I am able to use it as an instructional aid and have integrated computers into the curriculum.
SECTION V -- Additional Comments
A. Suppose your school administration annually made additional resources available (example: release time) for improving computer-based instruction. In your opinion, what kinds of resources should they provide? How would you like to see these resources used in order to improve your instructional use of computers?
B. Please describe the ideal use, if any, of computer technology in the classroom.
Thank you very much for your participation in our study.
LORI WOZNEY, VIVEK VENKATESH, AND PHILIP C. ABRAMI
Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance
Table 1 Technology Implementation Questionnaire (TIQ): Belief Items (1) # (2) Cat. (3) Item Stem M (4) SD 1 V Increases academic achievement (e.g., 4.05 1.32 grades). *2 V Does not result in students neglecting 3.12 1.52 important traditional learning resources (e.g., library books). 3 E Is effective because I believe I can 3.97 1.37 implement it successfully. 4 V Promotes student collaboration. 4.18 1.31 *5 C Does not make classroom management more 3.70 1.58 difficult. 6 V Promotes the development of communication 4.01 1.45 skills (e.g., writing and presentation skills). 7 V Is a valuable instructional tool. 4.84 1.14 *8 C Is not too costly in terms of resources, 3.48 1.56 time and effort. 9 E Is successful only if teachers have access 3.56 1.71 to a computer at home. 10 V Makes teachers feel more competent as 3.01 1.59 educators. 11 E Is successful only if there is adequate 5.19 1.20 teacher training in the uses of technology for learning. 12 V Gives teachers the opportunity to be 4.44 1.29 learning facilitators instead of information providers. 13 E Is successful only if computers are 5.48 .99 regularly maintained by technical staff. *14 C Does not demand that too much time be 2.88 1.36 spent on technical problems. 15 E Is successful only if there is the support 3.32 1.51 of parents. 16 V Is an effective tool for students of all 4.72 1.32 abilities. *17 V Is necessary because students will not 4.61 1.37 learn computer skills on their own, outside of school. 18 V Enhances my professional development. 4.34 1.40 19 C Eases the pressure on me as a teacher. 2.61 1.47 20 E Is effective if teachers participate in 4.74 1.24 the selection of computer technologies to be integrated. 21 V Helps accommodate students' personal 4.30 1.29 learning styles. 22 V Motivates students to get more involved in 4.45 1.29 learning activities. *23 C Should not reduce the number of teachers 4.47 1.64 employed in the future. *24 C Does not limit my choices of instructional 4.45 1.47 materials. *25 C Requires software-skills training that is 3.53 1.50 not too time consuming. 26 V Promotes the development of students' 3.59 1.48 interpersonal skills (e.g., ability to relate or work with others). *27 C Will not increase the amount of stress and 4.31 1.30 anxiety students experience. 28 E Is effective only when extensive computer 4.43 1.52 resources are available. *29 E Is not difficult, even though some 3.79 1.62 students know more about computers than many teachers do. 30 E Is only successful if computer technology 3.08 1.44 is part of the students' home environment. *31 C Requires no extra time to plan learning 2.74 1.45 activities. 32 V Improves student learning of critical 3.79 1.25 concepts and ideas. 33 E Becomes more important to me if the 3.67 1.53 student does not have access to a computer at home. (1) Response Scale: 1 (strongly disagree) through 6 (strongly agree) (2) Questionnaire item number (3) Conceptual category of item: E = expectancy, V = value, C = cost (4) N = 764. * Items negatively worded on the TIQ. Reverse-coded for all analyses. Italicised portion identifies section that was rephrased. Table 2 Teacher Responses For Item 55: Self-Reported Stages of Integration Stage Frequency Percent Awareness 45 5.9 Learning 110 14.4 Understanding 146 19.1 Familiarity 192 25.1 Adaptation 175 22.9 Creative Application 96 12.6 Total 764 100.0 M = 3.82 SD = 1.41 Table 3 Teacher Responses For Items 44 To 53: Functional Uses of Computer Technology (N = 764) Reported Frequency Reported of Use: Frequency of Fairly Use: Never, Often, Practically Very Never, Often, Once in A Almost Functional Uses of Computer Technologies While Always Instructional (e.g., drill practice, 77% 23% tutorials, remediation) Communicative (e.g., e-mail, ICQ, computer 80% 20% conferencing, LCD projector) Organizational (e.g., data base, spreadsheets, 69% 31% record keeping, lesson plans) Analytical/Programming (e.g., statistics, 92% 8% charting, graphing, drafting, robotics) Recreational (e.g., games) 77% 23% Expansive (e.g., simulations, experiments, 89% 11% exploratory environments, brainstorming) Creative (e.g., desktop publishing, digital 84% 16% video, digital camera, scanners, graphics) Expressive (e.g., word processing, on-line 61% 39% journal) Evaluative (e.g., assignments, portfolio, 69% 31% testing) Informative (e.g., Internet, CD-ROM) 52% 48% Table 4 Multivariate Tests of Differences between Male and Female School Teachers on Reported Frequencies of Functional Uses of Computers* Functional Use Gender M SD F p ES (a) Instructional Male 2.43 1.45 5.38 .02 .08 Female 2.47 1.40 Communicative Male 2.40 1.59 7.08 .008 .09 Female 2.15 1.46 Analytic Male 2.06 1.48 51.10 <.001 .26 Female 1.49 .93 Expansive Male 2.06 1.37 7.81 .005 .10 Female 1.86 1.17 Creative Male 2.18 1.48 11.79 .001 .12 Female 2.10 1.32 * Males (N=168), Females (N=596); for all tests df = 1, df (Error) = 756 (a) Effect size (ES) is calculated using Cohen's (1988) procedure, which is equivalent to [square root of ([[eta].sup.2]/[1 - [[eta].sup.2]])], where [[eta].sup.2] is interpreted as the proportion of the total variability in the dependent variable that is accounted for by variation in the independent variable; [[eta].sup.2] is the ratio of the between groups sum of squares to the total sum of squares. Table 5 Multivariate Tests of Differences between Private and Public School Teachers on Reported Frequencies of Functional Uses of Computers* Functional Teaching Use Sector M SD F p ES Instructional Public 2.46 1.39 7.38 .007 .10 Private 2.47 1.57 Communicative Public 2.08 1.42 35.98 <.001 .22 Private 3.25 1.64 Organizational Public 2.62 1.64 16.16 <.001 .15 Private 3.60 1.90 Analytic Public 1.56 1.02 38.54 <.001 .23 Private 2.05 1.55 Creative Public 2.06 1.34 28.50 <.001 .19 Private 2.53 1.48 Expressive Public 3.01 1.65 13.22 <.001 .13 Private 3.57 1.82 Evaluative Public 2.62 1.61 7.96 .005 .10 Private 3.52 1.84 Informative Public 3.36 1.60 12.30 <.001 .13 Private 4.02 1.49 * Private (N=81), Public (N=682); for all tests df = 1, df (Error) = 756 Table 6 Multivariate Tests of Differences between Elementary and Secondary School Teachers on Reported Frequencies of Functional Uses* Functional Use Teaching Level M SD F p ES Instructional Elementary 2.60 1.37 12.48 <.001 .13 Secondary 2.21 1.44 Analytic Elementary 1.51 .98 9.29 .002 .11 Secondary 1.80 1.27 Recreational Elementary 2.82 1.47 7.49 .006 .10 Secondary 1.89 1.22 Creative Elementary 2.22 1.40 25.71 <.001 .18 Secondary 1.94 1.27 Expressive Elementary 3.13 1.63 7.11 .008 .10 Secondary 2.95 1.75 Informative Elementary 3.53 1.56 3.99 .05 .07 Secondary 3.27 1.67 Elementary (N=488), Secondary (N=276); for all tests df = 1, df (Error) = 756