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Implementing change: community-oriented policing and problem solving.

Concern over crime has become a national preoccupation, fueled by nightly media reports and political posturing. This trend belies the slight, but consistent, decline in crime rates recorded over the past 4 years.(1)

While the public's view of crime and actual crime statistics may seem contradictory, police administrators should consider the disparity more closely before assuming that the public's visible concern is largely unfounded. They need to consider the other factors that contribute to this consuming fear of crime.

A nationwide survey conducted in March 1994, revealed that 44 percent of the respondents reported areas within a mile of their homes where they fear walking alone at night. Six of every 10 limit where they go by themselves.(2)

Although violent crime and media accounts of violence spark much of this concern, public perceptions also play an important role. Neighborhood disorder affects the public's perception of safety as surely as crime does.

People express more fear of strangers loitering Loitering (IPA pronunciation: ['lɔɪtəˌrɪŋ] is an intransitive verb meaning to stand idly, to stop numerous times, or to delay and procrastinate.  near their residences than they do of random physical violence. Undoubtedly, they fear people they view as sinister - panhandlers, drunks, addicts, rowdy teens, mentally imbalanced drifters, and the homeless. But, they also fear physical disorder A physical disorder (as a medical term) is often used as a term in contrast to a mental disorder, in an attempt to differentiate medical disorders which have an available objective mechanical test (such as chemical tests or brain scans), from those disorders which have no  - litter, abandoned buildings, graffiti, broken streetlights and windows, wrecked wrecked  
adj. Slang
Drunk or intoxicated.

Adj. 1. wrecked - destroyed in an accident; "a wrecked ship"; "a highway full of wrecked cars"
 vehicles, and other indicators of neighborhood decline.(3)

The twin threats of violence and neighborhood disorder raise the public's fear of crime beyond the level that crime rates alone may seem to support. Over the past several years, these factors have led to a tremendous increase in calls for police service. Likewise, the rise in citizens' calls to the police has had a marked impact on the nature of policing itself.


Several studies over the past 3 decades have succinctly suc·cinct  
adj. suc·cinct·er, suc·cinct·est
1. Characterized by clear, precise expression in few words; concise and terse: a succinct reply; a succinct style.

 described the reality of policing under the professional paradigm. Officers devote less than 50 percent of their on-duty time to responding to calls for service. They spend the remainder on administrative tasks. Of the calls responded to by officers, over 80 percent are for noncriminal incidents.(4) Clearly, officers deal with disorder and the fear of crime more than they deal with actual crime. As a result, they find themselves continually applying short-term solutions to the same long-term problems.

Ultimately, the strengths and weaknesses of the professional model rest with its method for measuring success. Under this model, agencies do not gauge success by determining whether a problem has been resolved fully. Rather, they measure success by tracking such quantitative indicators as response times, arrest figures, and crime clearance rates The area which would be cleared per unit time with a stated minimum percentage clearance, using specific minehunting and/or minesweeping procedures. .

This approach, while not without merit, assigns a great deal of weight to the accumulation of data. At the same time, it devotes too little effort to resolving problems long-term.

Granted, many incidents that the police confront require a one-time, short-term infusion of authority. But, as surveys and studies confirm, many calls for police service require a far more comprehensive response.

COMMUNITY-ORIENTED POLICING A philosophy that combines traditional aspects of law enforcement with prevention measures, problem-solving, community engagement, and community partnerships.

From the 1930s to the 1960s, U.S. law enforcement relied on a professional policing model.
 AND PROBLEM SOLVING problem solving

Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error.

To provide a structure to address the long-term factors that produce crime and disorder, hundreds of American law enforcement agencies A law enforcement agency (LEA) is a term used to describe any agency which enforces the law. This may be a local or state police, federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).  have adopted two separate but interrelated in·ter·re·late  
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.

 strategies - community-oriented policing and problem-oriented policing Problem-oriented policing (POP), coined by University of Wisconsin-Madison professor Herman Goldstein, is a policing strategy that involves the identification and analysis of specific crime and disorder problems, in order to develop effective response strategies in conjunction with . To encompass the mutual ideals of these approaches, this article employs the term community-oriented policing and problem solving (COPPS).

COPPS is a proactive philosophy that promotes solving problems that are either criminal, affect the quality of life, or increase citizen fear of crime. It involves identifying, analyzing, and addressing community problems at their source.

Unfortunately, many individuals-both in and outside of policing-believe that the goals of the COPPS model can be achieved by merely putting officers on foot or bicycle patrol, or by opening neighborhood ministations. Such approaches misrepresent mis·rep·re·sent  
tr.v. mis·rep·re·sent·ed, mis·rep·re·sent·ing, mis·rep·re·sents
1. To give an incorrect or misleading representation of.

 the true potential of community-oriented policing and problem solving and establish unrealistically simplistic sim·plism  
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.

[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple


Moving an agency from the reactive, incident-driven mode to COPPS is no simple endeavor. Four principle components - leadership and management issues, organizational culture This article or section is written like an .
Please help [ rewrite this article] from a neutral point of view.
Mark blatant advertising for , using .
, field operations, and external relationships - must be rebuilt from the ground up to provide a strong basis for the COPPS model.

Leadership and Management Issues

Successfully implementing COPPS requires a change in the management approach of an agency. Whenever law enforcement agencies adopt new programs or strategies, employees commonly want to know why the change is taking place. Administrators should understand that this is a valid concern.

To address employees' concerns, it is important to develop a mission statement that embodies the agency's new operating principles and long-term objectives. To be useful, the mission statement must articulate the basic values and goals inherent in COPPS. Attention also must be given to policies and procedures Policies and Procedures are a set of documents that describe an organization's policies for operation and the procedures necessary to fulfill the policies. They are often initiated because of some external requirement, such as environmental compliance or other governmental , management styles, planning and program evaluation Program evaluation is a formalized approach to studying and assessing projects, policies and program and determining if they 'work'. Program evaluation is used in government and the private sector and it's taught in numerous universities. , and resources and finances.

Police Leadership

In Problem-oriented Policing, Herman Goldstein argues that good leaders "must have a set of values, a commitment to goals and governing principles."(5) Chief executives who attempt to guide their agencies out of the purely reactive mode must create a climate conducive to change. To do this they themselves must become viable change agents.

When implementing community-oriented policing and problem solving, chiefs should avoid the "bombshell bomb·shell  
1. An explosive bomb.

2. One that is sensationally shocking, surprising, or amazing.


a shocking or unwelcome surprise

Noun 1.
" technique - simply announcing that COPPS is now the order of the day without developing a carefully designed plan of implementation. The chief's job begins by involving the entire agency to develop a clear vision and mission statement that is consistent with the principles of COPPS. These guiding tenets should recognize that the police do more than merely enforce laws. These principles should serve as the basis for establishing new values and goals.

Chief executives must remember that fully implementing the COPPS model takes years, not weeks or months. It requires careful and continuous planning to ensure that the organization's policies and procedures do not conflict with the basic principles of COPPS. Because the COPPS model places strong emphasis on street officers as primary problem solvers, chiefs also should carefully evaluate resource allocation resource allocation Managed care The constellation of activities and decisions which form the basis for prioritizing health care needs  to determine if any redistribution is necessary.

The larger the organization, the more time necessary to implement COPPS, especially if it is being implemented department-wide. This period of changeover (programming) changeover - The time when a new system has been tested successfully and replaces the old system.  may involve considerable turbulence. Chief executives should be prepared to face a reluctance to change from those comfortable with the status quo [Latin, The existing state of things at any given date.] Status quo ante bellum means the state of things before the war. The status quo to be preserved by a preliminary injunction is the last actual, peaceable, uncontested status which preceded the pending controversy. .

Mid-level Management

Mid-level police managers - lieutenants and captains - play a crucial role in the implementation of the COPPS model. Accordingly, they should be trained in the philosophy and methodology of the concept. Studies of the team policing programs of the 1970s found that many managers viewed that concept as a threat to their power. They subsequently "subverted and, in some cases, actively sabotaged" the effort.(6)

Mid-level managers need not be a hindrance hin·drance  
a. The act of hindering.

b. The condition of being hindered.

2. One that hinders; an impediment. See Synonyms at obstacle.
 to innovation. Indeed, many researchers who study law enforcement agencies identify middle managers as the locus of innovation. (7) If COPPS is to be implemented successfully, mid-level managers must provide administrative support and remove any barriers that first-line supervisors may confront.

First-line Supervisors

As first-line supervisors, sergeants wield wield  
tr.v. wield·ed, wield·ing, wields
1. To handle (a weapon or tool, for example) with skill and ease.

2. To exercise (authority or influence, for example) effectively. See Synonyms at handle.
 a tremendous amount of influence on the attitudes and behavior of officers. COPPS requires that sergeants allow their officers additional autonomy and authority to solve problems. This component of the COPPS model can seem threatening to first-line supervisors who, in turn, can create an enormous block to implementation.

Supervisory training should define a sergeant's role as "facilitator" rather than "controller." Sergeants often must run interference for their patrol officers to give them the time required to engage in problem solving. First-line supervisors also can assist by developing new COPPS activity forms and officer evaluation criteria that complement the new philosophy.

Organizational Culture

Reactive crime-fighting strategies and organizational values represent strong barriers to COPPS. Therefore, before meaningful transition can occur, the very core of an organization's culture often must change. In this context, "culture" refers to a set of expectations and norms that guide employees' behavior.

Organizations base their culture largely on history, officer experiences, organizational structure This article has no lead section.

To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, one should be written.
, leadership style, and past methods of handling change. To ensure that community-oriented policing and problem solving becomes a part of the organizational culture, and not simply a fleeting or peripheral "program," an agency must link COPPS to how it recruits, selects, trains, evaluates, promotes, rewards, and disciplines employees.

Agencies must review their recruiting literature and testing/selection processes to ensure that the skills, knowledge, and abilities used to select recruits are consistent with the desired traits of a COPPS officer. The training that recruits receive once they are hired becomes critical. Therefore, COPPS training must be integrated into the academy's curriculum fairly early in the implementation process.

In addition, both sworn and civilian employees should be taught the COPPS philosophy to ensure common understanding. Personnel should receive practical training related to the problem-solving model and other crime prevention and analysis strategies. Personnel also need to be trained on effective ways to involve other government agencies, private businesses, public and private service organizations, and the community in general. Agencies should include this instruction in field training curricula and updated annual training.

COPPS also changes the way organizations evaluate their officers. Evaluation criteria need not focus solely on efficiency - as indicated by citation and arrest numbers. Under COPPS, agencies should recognize officers who maximize resources and exhibit initiative in solving seemingly intractable intractable /in·trac·ta·ble/ (in-trak´tah-b'l) resistant to cure, relief, or control.

1. Difficult to manage or govern; stubborn.

 community problems. Administrators must remember that such activities often defy de·fy  
tr.v. de·fied, de·fy·ing, de·fies
a. To oppose or resist with boldness and assurance: defied the blockade by sailing straight through it.

 traditional numbers-oriented evaluation.

In fact, COPPS requires an evaluation system that measures whether attempted solutions successfully addressed community problems. Agencies must establish forms of assessment, such as community surveys and data analysis methodologies, that adequately gauge the effectiveness of individual problem-solving initiatives.(8)

In an organization devoted to the principles of COPPS, promotional exams should not focus solely on tactical orientation, nor should awards be restricted to recognizing only heroic deeds. Employees' knowledge about COPPS and their problem-solving performance must be reflected in an agency's promotional and reward systems.

Likewise, a department's disciplinary system is an important guide for employees' behavior. Agencies must uncover and swiftly deal with behavior that threatens their COPPS efforts.

Cultural resistance to implementing COPPS invariably in·var·i·a·ble  
Not changing or subject to change; constant.

 encompasses officers' belief that responding to service calls leaves them insufficient time to engage in problem solving. COPPS training should explain that if officers do not engage in problem solving they will continue rushing from spot to spot like pinballs, achieving short-term results at best. Still, agencies can and should do a number of things to gamer more time for officers to engage in problem solving.

Field Operations

Under COPPS, field officers become the focus of problem-solving efforts; they identify problems, apply in-depth analysis of the underlying causes, employ creative and collaborative responses, and evaluate the results of their efforts. This philosophy often requires more time and effort from officers than incident-driven methodologies allow.

An agency's administration might obtain more time for officers by analyzing calls for service and officers' workload and by evaluating what activities officers perform and how they spend their uncommitted time. Agencies need to work toward taking more offense reports over the telephone or through mail-in reporting and consider the enactment of false alarm ordinances or other measures to reduce the number of unnecessary calls for police service. (9) Agencies also must seek ways to reduce the amount of time officers spend performing nonpolice functions.

Through better call management, supervisors can help by allowing officers to delay their responses to nonemergency calls. Supervisors in some agencies use cellular telephones to contact complainants directly and handle their problems, thus eliminating the need for an officer's response.

Problem solving also requires acquiring reliable data and information about substantive problems. Centralized cen·tral·ize  
v. cen·tral·ized, cen·tral·iz·ing, cen·tral·iz·es
1. To draw into or toward a center; consolidate.

 and accessible crime analysis information should provide officers with reliable data on all calls for service, not merely Part I crimes. Identifying sites that yield repeat calls for service represents a vital component to establishing long-term response strategies.

Agencies often question whether to implement COPPS on a department-wide basis or through specialized units. Although specialized units may produce limited results more quickly, their long-range impact may prove detrimental to the organization if other personnel view COPPS as a temporary or specialized program. Consequently, there is a growing consensus that all personnel in an agency should be trained in and practice COPPS.

In addition, agencies must consider operational variables that impact the implementation of community-oriented policing and problem solving. Agencies that assign fixed shifts and beats generally enjoy a higher success rate. Long-term and/or permanent beat and shift assignments - the ultimate forms of decentralization de·cen·tral·ize  
v. de·cen·tral·ized, de·cen·tral·iz·ing, de·cen·tral·iz·es
1. To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities.
 - allow officers to learn more about people, places, issues, and problems within neighborhoods. Agencies also may need to examine and modify rank structure to accommodate COPPS and to ensure that communication is not filtered, doctored, or suppressed.(10)

External Relationships

While much can be debated about COPPS implementation, one thing is clear: COPPS requires changes in agencies' external relationships. The goal should be to establish new partnerships for sharing the information and resources necessary to solve neighborhood problems. As an integral component of this effort, law enforcement should foster cooperative working relationships with city agencies, businesses, service providers, and the community.

Because a deteriorating neighborhood might require cooperation among health, police, fire, zoning, and social service agencies, key officials in each organization must be included early in the implementation process. The homeless, the mentally ill, and the victims of domestic violence often account for a high volume of police service calls. By working together, the police and other agencies can put victims in the hands of skilled practitioners and on the road to reclaiming their lives.


Elected Officials

Soliciting and maintaining political support represents an essential element to implementing COPPS fully. Elected officials must provide sustenance Sustenance

goat who provided milk for baby Zeus. [Gk. Myth.: Leach, 41]


food of the gods; bestowed immortal youthfulness. [Gk. Myth.
 and direction to any COPPS effort by allocating resources and developing strategic community-wide policies.

Unfortunately, political officials can be a difficult group for police administrators to influence: Their knowledge of policing traditionally is grounded in Uniform Crime Reports' statistics, response times, and case clearance rates. They rarely think of the police role beyond its law enforcement function.

The multiagency cooperation inherent in COPPS represents a new concept for many public officials. Elected officials also must understand that they cannot promise the community reduced response times and an officer's response to every type of call, or that drug-related crime Illegal drugs are related to crime in multiple ways. Most directly, it is a crime to use, possess, manufacture, or distribute drugs classified as having a potential for abuse (such as cocaine, heroin, morphine and amphetamines). , homelessness, and other social problems will be resolved within a finite time period. Both voters and elected officials should understand that to achieve long-term results, COPPS requires careful, thoughtful approaches with realistic timeframes.


To many officers, investigation represents the single most important function of a police organization. An inevitable by product of this view is that uniformed officers are accorded less status than detectives. Thus, many patrol officers aspire to aspire to
verb aim for, desire, pursue, hope for, long for, crave, seek out, wish for, dream about, yearn for, hunger for, hanker after, be eager for, set your heart on, set your sights on, be ambitious for
 enter the investigative ranks. However, a shift to COPPS requires a new and enhanced role for line officers.

For this reason, detectives-who may feel that COPPS work is for uniformed officers alone - must be incorporated into the COPPS strategy. They should not view COPPS as an exclusive responsibility of the patrol force.

Detectives can relay information to the patrol division, while patrol officers can pass on relevant tips to detectives. In short, under COPPS, detectives are not the only crime solvers in the organization, and patrol officers no longer limit their duties to report taking.


Is COPPS contrary to union interests? Does it conflict with contractual issues, such as shift staffing, work hours, and promotions? These questions pose serious barriers to many administrators, requiring careful thought and cooperation between labor and management before COPPS can be implemented.

If agencies exclude unions from the COPPS planning process, officers may well perceive its implementation as a public relations public relations, activities and policies used to create public interest in a person, idea, product, institution, or business establishment. By its nature, public relations is devoted to serving particular interests by presenting them to the public in the most  gimmick to serve management's interests. Therefore, managers should explain their rationale and concerns to union leaders so that both groups can collaborate in planning the agency's future.

The implementation of the COPPS model is as important to labor as it is to management. Both sides desire a quality work environment for employees. COPPS fosters that and much more. It affords officers opportunities to use their talents creatively and to take control of their work environment through problem solving. COPPS also recognizes their cognitive abilities and rewards them for making lasting improvements in the community.


In the mid-1980s, the Reno, Nevada, Police Department faced the challenges now confronting many law enforcement agencies. A lagging Lagging

Strategy used by a firm to stall payments, normally in response to exchange rate projections.
 economy had forced administrators to make significant reductions in staffing and resources, while calls for service continued to rise dramatically.

As the department struggled to cope with these challenges, community support eroded e·rode  
v. e·rod·ed, e·rod·ing, e·rodes
1. To wear (something) away by or as if by abrasion: Waves eroded the shore.

2. To eat into; corrode.
. A survey taken in 1987 revealed that citizens viewed the police department as being uncaring and heavy-handed. Two municipal bond issues that would have replaced officers lost to attrition Attrition

The reduction in staff and employees in a company through normal means, such as retirement and resignation. This is natural in any business and industry.

 failed because of a lack of voter support.

Department administrators saw the need for broadbased change. In May 1987, the Reno Police Department adopted a department-wide community policing strategy it labeled Community-oriented Policing Plus (COP+). Administrators realized that as part of COP+, the department must engage the community and city agencies in a shared approach to problem solving if it hoped to address the problems of increased crime and disorder.

First, the department decentralized de·cen·tral·ize  
v. de·cen·tral·ized, de·cen·tral·iz·ing, de·cen·tral·iz·es
1. To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities.
 patrol into three geographic sections, each commanded by an officer who assumed 24-hour responsibility for a specific area. The sergeants and officers assigned to the areas receive more permanent beat assignments so that they could become familiar with residents and businesses and their respective problems.

Each area commander formed a neighborhood advisory group (NAG 1. NAG - Numerical Algorithms Group.
2. NAG - The Linux Network Administrators' Guide.
). Made up of area residents, the NAGs reflect the unique socioeconomic makeup and ethnic balance of each area and relate the specific crime concerns of the residents. Newsletters distributed prior to each quarterly meeting inform residents of a variety of department issues and programs, as well as crimes in their area. Today, neighborhood advisory group meetings provide citizens the opportunity to meet with officers, exchange information, and develop problem-solving strategies.

The department also established a quality assurance unit (considered the "plus" in COP+). Among other duties, this unit conducts biannual bi·an·nu·al  
1. Happening twice each year; semiannual.

2. Occurring every two years; biennial.

 community surveys to identify citizens' concerns and evaluate the effectiveness of the department in resolving them. The survey results, which administrators use to make necessary operational or administrative policy adjustments, are presented to every department member, to the city council, and at community and NAG meetings.

To improve strained relations with the media, the department created a media advisory group. As part of this effort, the department appointed a public information officer to provide newscasters with a principal contact person in the agency.

In addition, the department's executive staff meets with members of the media twice a year to discuss policy issues and relations. The department also relaxed its press policy to encourage cooperation between officers and the media.

As community support grew for the department's efforts to solve problems through cooperation, residents began to take a more active part in problem solving. The department established neighborhood police stations in each of the three patrol areas. For the most part, these stations were funded through private community donations. Civilian report takers staff the stations to provide residents with a means to file police reports in their own neighborhoods. The stations also provide citizens a place to meet with officers to discuss neighborhood problems and to obtain information about a variety of community-based programs offered by the department.

City agencies and social service organizations also became vital to the police department's problem-solving efforts. Officers now routinely work with representatives from a variety of city agencies and offices, including planning, fire, streets, signs, and the city attorney to improve neighborhood conditions and eradicate Eradicate
To completely do away with something, eliminate it, end its existence.

Mentioned in: Smallpox
 specific problems.

The cooperative problem-solving approach led to the creation of several coalitions to address substantive community concerns. The gang alternative partnership (GAP) program brings together representatives from law enforcement, juvenile courts juvenile court

Special court handling problems of delinquent, neglected, or abused children. Two types of cases are processed by a juvenile court: civil matters, often concerning care of an abandoned or impoverished child, and criminal matters, arising from antisocial
, probation, education, and citizens groups to establish gang enforcement policy and diversion programs A diversion program in the criminal justice system is a program run by a district attorney's office designed to enable offenders of criminal law (usually minor offenses) to avoid criminal charges [1][2]. .

A similar consortium of concerned stakeholders Stakeholders

All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government.
 works together to help the homeless through the homeless evaluation liaison program (HELP). Comprised of police officers, university students, and volunteer residents, HELP identifies homeless persons An individual who lacks housing, including one whose primary residence during the night is a supervised public or private facility that provides temporary living accommodations; an individual who is a resident in transitional housing; or an individual who has as a primary residence a  and places them with a social service agency that can best assist them. HELP's efforts have significantly reduced homeless-related offenses and the male population of the county jail.

The efforts of the Reno Police Department to establish external problem-solving partnerships emerged as a critical component of its community policing strategy. While such an approach represents a significant departure for most law enforcement agencies, department leaders have found that the wide range of crime-related problems facing Reno can best be met through a broadbased community response.


Like any broadbased change to accepted practices, community-oriented policing and problem solving should be implemented carefully. Chief executives who commit to the COPPS approach face two critical considerations - overcoming organizational resistance to innovation and gauging and managing the pace of change once it is undertaken. Police executives should understand that COPPS is evolutionary; it occurs as a result of refining past practices, implementing new strategies, and at times, accepting small wins in lieu of Instead of; in place of; in substitution of. It does not mean in addition to.  major victories. Successful implementation requires planning, patience, and time.

Agencies that provide a strong foundation for the COPPS model and nurture its growth will bring order to the chaos and fear often associated with organizational change. More important, these agencies will forge new relationships with city agencies and community members to resolve problems, not just respond to incidents.


1 "Preliminary Annual Uniform Crime Report," Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), division of the U.S. Dept. of Justice charged with investigating all violations of federal laws except those assigned to some other federal agency. , Washington, DC, released May 5, 1996.

2 George Gallup George Horace Gallup (November 18, 1901 – July 26, 1984), American statistician, invented the Gallup poll, a successful statistical method of survey sampling for measuring public opinion. Life
Gallup was born into a dairy farming family in Jefferson, Iowa.
, Jr., "The Gallup Poll Gallup Poll

a sampling of the views of a representative cross section of the population, usually used to forecast voting [after G H Gallup, statistician]

Gallup poll n
 Monthly," The Gallup Poll, March 1993.

3 James Q. Wilson James Q. Wilson (born May 27, 1931) in Denver, Colorado is the Ronald Reagan professor of public policy at Pepperdine University in California, and a professor emeritus at UCLA. From 1961 to 1987 he was a professor of government at Harvard University. He has a Ph.D.  and George L. Kelling George L. Kelling is a Professor at Rutgers University, a Research Fellow at Harvard University, and an Adjunct Fellow at the Manhattan Institute. He previously taught at Northeastern University.

Dr. Kelling earned his Ph.D.
, "Broken Windows: Police and Neighborhood Safety," The Atlantic, March 1982, 29.

4 See E. I. Cumming, I. Cumming, and L. Edell, "Policeman as Philosopher, Guide and Friend," Social Problems, 12, 1965, 276-286; T. Bercal, "Calls for Police Assistance," American Behavioral Scientist, 13, 1970, 682; Albert Reiss, The Police and the Public (New Haven New Haven, city (1990 pop. 130,474), New Haven co., S Conn., a port of entry where the Quinnipiac and other small rivers enter Long Island Sound; inc. 1784. Firearms and ammunition, clocks and watches, tools, rubber and paper products, and textiles are among the many , Connecticut: Yale University Yale University, at New Haven, Conn.; coeducational. Chartered as a collegiate school for men in 1701 largely as a result of the efforts of James Pierpont, it opened at Killingworth (now Clinton) in 1702, moved (1707) to Saybrook (now Old Saybrook), and in 1716 was  Press, 1971); R. Lilly, "What Are the Police Now Doing?" Journal of Police Science and Administration, 6, 1978, 51-60.

5 Herman Goldstein, Problem-oriented Policing (New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: McGraw-Hill, 1990), 153.

6 Lawrence W. Sherman, Team Policing: Seven Case Studies (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 1973), 10.

7 Rosabeth Moss Kanter Rosabeth Moss Kanter is a tenured professor in business at Harvard Business School, where she holds the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorship. She has written numerous books on business management techniques, particularly change management. , "The Middle Manager as Innovator," Harvard Business Review Harvard Business Review is a general management magazine published since 1922 by Harvard Business School Publishing, owned by the Harvard Business School. A monthly research-based magazine written for business practitioners, it claims a high ranking business readership and , July-August 1982, 95-105.

8 For a discussion of evaluation processes in several sites, see Dennis P. Rosenbaum (ed.) The Challenge. of Community Policing: Testing the Promise (Thousand Oaks, California Thousand Oaks, commonly referred to as "T.O." by residents, is a city in southeastern Ventura County, California, in the United States. It was named after the many oak trees that grace the area, and the city seal is adorned with an oak. : Sage, 1994).

9 See John J. Moslow, "False Alarms: Cause for Alarm," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is published monthly by the FBI Law Enforcement Communication Unit[1], with articles of interest to state and local law enforcement personnel. , November 1994, 1.

10 Malcom K. Sparrow, "Implementing Community Policing," National Institute of Justice, Research in Brief, 9, September 1988, 5.

Deputy Chief Ronald W. Glensor, Ph.D. serves with the Reno, Nevada, Police Department.

Dr. Ken Peak, Ph.D. is a professor of criminal justice at the University of Nevada University of Nevada could refer to either of the universities in the Nevada System of Higher Education:
  • University of Nevada, Reno (UNR)
  • University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV)
 in Reno.
COPYRIGHT 1996 Federal Bureau of Investigation
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1996, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Author:Peak, Ken
Publication:The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
Date:Jul 1, 1996
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