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Impacting teacher candidates' knowledge, skills, and dispositions regarding diversity: faculty triggers (1).

The increasing diversity of students within our educational systems demands improved training within teacher education programs at institutions of higher education (IHE IHE Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise
IHE Institutions of Higher Education
IHE International Institute for Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (historical acronym only, replaced by: IHE Delft, the Foundation) 
). This is, also, evident through standards of state and national accrediting bodies, through professional organizations guidance, and through demands of consumers of public education.

Along with training, assessment of teacher candidate knowledge, skills and dispositions about multicultural/diversity is critical (NCATE NCATE National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education , 2002). It can assist institutions of higher education in making programmatic pro·gram·mat·ic  
1. Of, relating to, or having a program.

2. Following an overall plan or schedule: a step-by-step, programmatic approach to problem solving.

 decisions as to diversity issues. It can, also, help provide evidence that the diverse needs of children, youth, and their families within our public school systems will be better met than in times past.

Faculty members within teacher education programs have great demands placed upon them. This includes making sure courses have diversity issues embedded Inserted into. See embedded system.  throughout them, that field experiences provide hands-on learning with a diverse population of students, that teacher candidates learn to meet individual needs along with collective needs, and that assessment of candidates is successfully conducted. Yet, how are we assuring that faculty members are provided with the training needed to meet these expectations? Where do the knowledge, skills and dispositions regarding diversity issues emanate em·a·nate  
intr. & tr.v. em·a·nat·ed, em·a·nat·ing, em·a·nates
To come or send forth, as from a source: light that emanated from a lamp; a stove that emanated a steady heat.
 with faculty who are charged with training our teacher candidates?

Refractive refractive

capacity to refract light.

refractive error
a difference between the focal length of the cornea and lens, and the length of the eye, resulting in myopia or hyperopia.

The Conceptual Framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .

A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project.
 (CF) of the College of Education at a Midwest Midwest or Middle West, region of the United States centered on the western Great Lakes and the upper-middle Mississippi valley. It is a somewhat imprecise term that has been applied to the northern section of the land between the Appalachians  university states that:
   The unit's CF reflects the unit's commitment to preparing
   candidates to support learning for all students and provides a
   conceptual understanding of how knowledge, dispositions, and
   skills related to diversity are integrated across the curriculum,
   instruction, field experiences, assessments, and evaluations.

Okay, that is all well and good; however, faculty members at this university may wonder how they are suppose to assure this happens in the program in which they work.

One problem is that the diversity representation of faculty at IHEs and teachers in our public school system do not always mirror the diversity of the students in their classrooms/programs (Campbell-Whatley, 2003; Dieker, Voltz Voltz is a rechargeable battery-based guitar pedals power supply with the following characteristics:
  • Capable of supporting 20+ pedals simultaneously for 8 hours on one single charge
  • No more ground loops and power line hum
, & Epanchin, 2002; Smith, 1998). So, teachers in school systems and faculty at IHEs "cannot count on being able to relate to the diversity of students in the schools simply based on their own backgrounds" (Miller, Strosnider, & Dooley Dooley is an Irish surname, and may refer to
  • Bill Dooley, American football coach
  • Billy Dooley, Irish hurling player
  • Brian Dooley, British television writer
  • Brian J.
, 2000, p. 15). Additionally, while the nation's school systems' demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data.  are increasing in student numbers of racial/ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity; the faculty numbers across these diverse areas are not increasing (Fenwick Fenwick may be:

A location in the United Kingdom:
  • Fenwick, East Ayrshire
  • Fenwick, Northumberland
  • Fenwick, South Yorkshire
A location in the United States:
  • Fenwick, Connecticut
  • Fenwick, West Virginia
  • Fenwick Island, Delaware
, 2001). The problem is compounded when thought is given to where faculty at IHE originate o·rig·i·nate
1. To bring into being; create.

2. To come into being; start.
. If teachers who represent diverse cultures are not entering teacher education programs at doctoral levels, it will be increasingly difficult to gain adequate representation at IHE levels. It is, therefore, imperative that recruitment efforts be developed that help bring diversity within teaching and faculty positions over the next generations in order to overcome these refractive errors. In the mean time, current faculty at IHEs (who represent more mainstream cultures) must be afforded the training required to meet the diverse needs of teacher candidates in personnel preparation programs.

Held Accountable

According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 Miller, Strosnider, and Dooley (2000), of the teachers who have graduated from teacher education programs since the mid 1990s, most have been required to take at least one course that addressed multicultural diversity. If this translates as a separate course, not embedded as core content within/across all courses or assessments throughout their program, it may set up dispositions of separatism sep·a·ra·tist  
1. One who secedes or advocates separation, especially from an established church; a sectarian or separationist.

 without this being the intension in·ten·sion  
1. The state or quality of being intense; intensity.

2. The act of becoming intense or more intense; intensification.

3. Logic The sum of the attributes contained in a term.
. Hidalgo Hidalgo, state, Mexico
Hidalgo thäl`gō), state (1990 pop. 1,888,366), 8,058 sq mi (20,870 sq km), central Mexico. Pachuca de Soto is the capital.
, Chavez-Chavez, and Ramage Ram´age   

n. 1. Boughs or branches.
2. Warbling of birds in trees.
a. 1. Wild; untamed.
Ramage branches collectively, 1656.
 (2002) suggest that teacher educators promote a curriculum infusion INFUSION, med. jur. A pharmaceutical operation, which consists in pouring a hot or cold fluid upon a substance, whose medical properties it is desired to extract. Infusion is also used for the product of this operation. Although infusion differs from decoction, (q.v.  approach to diversity training rather than a one-course serves all model.

The early course(s) on multicultural issues, typically, translated only to content about children of African or Latino heritage in urban or inner city settings (Miller, Strosnider, & Dooley, 2000). More recently, requirements have moved beyond this to issues of multicultural/diversity (which encompasses a broader range of learners to include race, ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , physical or mental condition, gender, age, geographic region, sexual orientation sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces.
, religion, language/linguistic, marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state.
, socioeconomic status, or other elements within the definition) (Gibson & Follo
For the Italian city, see Follo, Italy.
Follo is one of three districts in the County of Akershus, Norway. It is located between Oslo and Østfold and includes the southwestern part of the county's area east of Oslo.
, 1998; Miller, Strosnider, & Dooley; NCATE, 2002). With this expanded definition comes increased requirements of faculty. Yet for faculty that were educated prior to diversity being embedded in their preparation programs, they may not have the knowledge, skills or dispositions to adequately prepare teacher candidates within their personnel preparation programs. For these faculty members, training may be limited to what they sought or were provided in terms of continued professional development. So how have faculty members acquired the skills needed to train teacher candidates to meet the needs of the diverse students who will be in their classrooms? What triggers have faculty encountered to produce change in their own practice (whether in teaching, scholarship, or service requirements)?

From Rhizomes to Research

The Multicultural/Diversity Outcomes Assessment Project (MC/D) team members (from a participating university located in the Midwest) met often to discuss its plan for the assessment of its candidates within the teacher education programs regarding issues of multicultural/diversity. Discussions ensued about what measurement tools to use, how to distribute them, if the assessment instruments could be embedded within courses, or if they could be placed on-line. The work at hand was exciting, and setting aside time to work with valued and knowledgeable colleagues brought energy to the project. Yet, just as a rhizome rhizome (rī`zōm) or rootstock, fleshy, creeping underground stem by means of which certain plants propagate themselves. Buds that form at the joints produce new shoots.  sends out roots below to produce new stems and leaves elsewhere, the faculty team began to reach out, discussing broader interests regarding diversity issues within the College of Education. One area of conversation included how the faculty members, who train our candidates, were informed about diversity issues, and whether they could or should be included in the assessments of diversity. Talk of whether assessing faculty would be threatening in any way ensued. It was known that some studies had minimal response to assessment of faculty on diversity issues in the past (e.g., Gibson & Follo, 1998; Miller, Strosnider, & Dooley, 2000). Like all researchers, however, questions began to shoot up as to how information could be gleaned from faculty to produce answers without feeling threatened. Informally, project team members began to ask each other what affected their practice regarding diversity. Shortly, thereafter, a research question emerged and approval was sought from the IHE's Office of Research Administration to add the research as a part of the assessment conducted within the MC/D project.

The Research Question

In order to meet the needs of a busy faculty, information about the MC/D project and the following research question was sent out to all faculty members within the College of Education via email: "What 'triggers' can you identify regarding your knowledge, skills, and/or dispositions about diversity that affected/changed your practice (whether teaching, research or service)." Triggers were more fully defined in the email request so potential participants knew this translated to what training, interactions, or experiences impacted them enough to change their practices.

The Research Participants

The response from faculty was slow in coming, so the question was distributed again via the email system. As faculty members were met in passing, reminders and encouragement were provided to respond to the request. Following the multiple requests, a total of 17 participants (out of a possible 75, which is a 23% return rate) produced data to be analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

. Participants included faculty from the departments of Curriculum and Instruction, Educational Leadership, and Communication Disorders and Sciences within the College of Education. Diversity among participants included faculty who were Americans with Asian heritage (first generation immigrant The term First generation immigrant may be used to describe either of two[1] [2] classes of people:
  • An immigrant to a country, possibly with the caveat that they must be naturalized to receive this title.
), European heritage (majority of respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. ), Russian heritage (first generation immigrant), and one who is Australian.

Data Obtained

The participants in this study generated data in three ways. First, most of the participants provided a reply to the email request/research questions. Some, after giving what they wrote more serious consideration, followed up by sending additional email responses, furthering their reply. Others, when met in passing, shared their experiences in person. During these encounters, the researcher immediately located paper/pencil and recorded these responses in the form of field notes. Others, met in passing, stated they did get the email request, but chose not to reply (these individuals were not asked why, so reasons remain unknown).

Second, syllabi syl·la·bi  
A plural of syllabus.
 from 2001 through 2004 used by the participants responding to the email or in-person request were evaluated to determine what, if any, information could be gleaned that demonstrated what and how multicultural diversity content/performance was embedded in teacher education courses and how it changed over time. Finally, a follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.



follow-up plan
 email request was distributed to all of the faculty in the College of Education within the participating university. The email request was intended so participants could provide additional information regarding their perceived needs for continued professional development in the area of multicultural diversity.

Gathering and Analyzing the Data

Triggers. In order to better understand the subjective experiences, perspectives, and views of faculty participants of what triggered their change in practice regarding diversity, answers were analyzed using a constant comparative method of qualitative analysis Qualitative Analysis

Securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on nonquantifiable information, such as management expertise, industry cycles, strength of research and development, and labor relations.
 (Maykut & Morehouse Morehouse is a surname, and may refer to
  • Albert P. Morehouse
  • David Morehouse
  • Lyda Morehouse
  • Ward Morehouse
  • Ward Morehouse (activist)
See also
  • Morehouse, New York
  • Morehouse, Missouri
  • Morehouse College
, 1994) to arrive at categories and codes across participants from their email and in-person interviews. Three broad areas of categorizing the data emerged for reporting purposes: (a) specific codes for what triggered change; (b) the change, if any, that was produced due to the triggers, and (c) the number of participants who mentioned the coded trigger(s).

Syllabi. Following the email and in-person interviews, syllabi were reviewed to obtain whether the participants (the 17 participants who responded to the trigger request) were embedding 1. (mathematics) embedding - One instance of some mathematical object contained with in another instance, e.g. a group which is a subgroup.
2. (theory) embedding - (domain theory) A complete partial order F in [X -> Y] is an embedding if
 content regarding multicultural diversity within their courses taught in the Teacher Education program at the university. Data was compared across the academic years of 2001 through 2004 to note (a) whether or not multicultural information was included within the syllabus/course, and (b) whether or not changes in syllabi/courses regarding multicultural diversity were noted across the target years.

Perceived Professional Development Needs. Finally, email and hard copy survey responses from faculty in the College of Education were analyzed to look for patterns of need for continued professional development in the area of multicultural diversity. Note that only one request was made by email with a follow-up hard copy survey request distributed at a faculty meeting. Further follow-up reminders, thereafter, were not distributed.

Reporting the Results

Trigger Data. Final participants (n=17) were quite articulate articulate /ar·tic·u·late/ (ahr-tik´u-lat)
1. to pronounce clearly and distinctly.

2. to make speech sounds by manipulation of the vocal organs.

3. to express in coherent verbal form.

 in how they gained the knowledge, skills and dispositions about issues of diversity that impacted what was embedded into their practices. Following analysis of the narrative data (email/interview), ten coded categories emerged to explain what triggered (i.e., affected/impacted) changes across their responsibilities (e.g., teaching, scholarship and service). Those categories consisted of (a) professional bodies that set standards/ guidelines guidelines, a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
 for diversity in professional training within educational programs; (b) lived experiences, including those from across their childhood through adulthood; (c) reading of research/literature; (d) involvement from specific grant/other projects that included issues of diversity; (e) interactions and/or friendships from others who influenced or inspired them; (f) information gained from reviewing evaluation/assessment instruments; (g) threats of legal action/grievances; (h) videos; (i) attending conferences; and (j) a final category emerged regarding emphasis from participants wanting to make sure that the researcher knew their definition of diversity went beyond just color. Appendix A summarizes the codes, changes and number of participants within each code.

The category that emerged as the one most discussed by participants was their lived experiences. These examples included those from childhood through adulthood, including personal encounters within their courses. One participant told of an experience in class that triggered change:
   As I taught the Introduction to the Exceptional Learner course, we
   were discussing whether we thought there were biases built into the
   identification process of special education. A lively conversation
   began with candidates talking about how tests were old, so didn't
   contain information relevant to today's society. Others talked about
   how tests were normed. One student, an American girl with African
   heritage, stated that she remembered a time in grade school where
   she would walk the halls past one room that she thought was the
   classroom where all Black males were sent. She found out later it
   was the special education room. This remark stopped the
   conversations cold. From that experience, I immediately began a
   search of the literature for determining biases within special
   education testing. I included this information thereafter in every
   course I taught.

Another participant, along these same lines, remarked:
   I remember visiting a middle school in USD 259 with a very diverse
   population of students. When we passed the classroom where students
   with gifts and talents were in attendance, diversity in that class
   was clearly missing. The population of students did not match the
   population in other classes.

Others talked of professional experiences prior to coming to a position at an IHE:
   Having loved teaching in Detroit, I asked to teach in a low-income
   school where about 25% of the students were minority, both Black and
   Native American. I then took a position as a teacher corps team
   leader in a minority-teaching grant. We had 6 team leaders (I was
   the minority white person) and 40 interns (4 white). My real
   enculturation began here. I studied minority students. I worked with
   minority peers and candidates. I worked in minority schools. I
   attended and taught minority studies workshops. I would go to a
   restaurant with one of the Black team leaders whose husband was a
   vice chancellor at KU. Never did they approach her to ask her to
   follow them to be seated, they always approached me. Never did they
   ask her first what she wanted to eat, they always asked me first.
   Politely with a grin I would say 'please ask her first.' I attended
   dinners, ate things I had never eaten (chitlins and greens are not
   my favorite, but with Tobasco, I went back for seconds).

Some participants talked of personal experiences within community events that impacted a change in attitudes:
   I remember a time when I went to a Cinco de Mayo celebration held
   within a Hispanic community. I couldn't wait to eat some of the
   food being served out of individual booths. I had my three small
   children with me, in order for them to experience a cultural
   celebration different from their own. We appeared to be one of very
   few White faces in the crowd. We were enjoying the music when we
   decided we were hungry. I finally found the booth that served
   authentic tamales--my favorite. We waited quite a while in line,
   finally making our way to the front of the line. I turned in our
   order for tamales only to be told they were all out of food--so
   sorry. I was so disappointed, but thanked them and turned to leave.
   While walking away, I turned to encourage one of my children to
   hurry and catch up, only to see that the individuals in line after
   us (Hispanic heritage) were being served the food. My first reaction
   was of extreme anger--how could they have done this--it was
   discrimination. Then, within seconds, I thought--oh, I get it; now
   I can begin to understand the angry feelings of many of them in
   similar situations. From that moment, my attitude changed.

Other categories included how participants sought out knowledge from reading relevant literature, from choosing specific sessions on diversity at professional conferences, and from professional organizations.
   Your question is a good one but also a difficult one to answer. I
   started integrating issues of diversity into my teaching and
   research quite a few years ago. I'm hoping I remember correctly!
   I suppose the "triggers" were two. First, ASHA has been promoting
   the importance of cultural and linguistic diversity (CLD) for quite
   a few years. A person in higher ed would be hard pressed not to
   know of the importance of infusing the curriculum with diversity or
   being aware of having a diverse population when studying specific
   aspect of language and literacy research. Second, just being in
   child/adolescent language and literacy, it is difficult not to
   understand the effect that CLD has on language and literacy
   acquisition. As far as how my teaching and research has changed,
   I guess there are two more answers. First, I integrate literature
   and lecture much more on the effects of CLD on language and literacy
   development. Second, I try to ensure I have a range of CLD in the
   participants in my studies.

From the 17 participants, 10 made sure that the researcher understood first that they have been influenced in areas of diversity beyond that of race/ethnicity only.
   In both Masters programs, we have teachers from large school
   districts (urban) and people from small school districts (suburban
   and rural). This has made me reexamine the various strategies that
   I present in methods classes as most of my teaching experience is in
   urban settings. I seek examples of major topics from students in
   suburban and rural settings to add to the course content--so
   application is more easily pictured by students.

This same respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests.  provided additional information for this category by stating "Poverty is another diversity issue with the teachers in my classes and how they can 'deal' with it so that students learn." One participant who is Australian provided the following:
   More recent and more subtle influences on my current behavior and
   attitude have resulted from my own experience as "not so much a
   stranger in a foreign land." The fact that I look like many of my
   colleagues in this institution has de-emphasized that my heritage
   and background experience are different. In this culture there seems
   to be an unspoken belief that race or ethnicity doesn't really count
   unless one's skin is a dramatically different color or unless one
   belongs to one of a small number of officially recognized
   minorities. Reflection on the situations that result from this
   disparity is instructive personally and professionally.

A few participants talked of gaining additional knowledge and skills from grant projects in which they were involved:
   When I think of the way my treatment of diversity issues has
   evolved in the past two years, three triggers come to mind. The
   first was the IMPACT Project. Though I have always included issues
   of special education in my elementary methods courses (science
   methods and integrated mathematics-science methods), my knowledge
   of those issues was largely based in experience as a classroom
   teacher, and my formal knowledge was somewhat superficial. The
   IMPACT Project helped to deepen my knowledge and consider some new
   possibilities. The way that this new knowledge was enacted in my
   classroom was greatly influenced by the second trigger: team
   teaching for a semester with one of our special education faculty
   who also has expertise in mathematics. As a result of her modeling,
   I've become much more insistent that my students take their
   responsibilities seriously during field experiences. Finally, I've
   been increasingly influenced by the situations that I see as I
   supervise my students in their field experiences. Many of them are
   placed in schools and classrooms with significant numbers of
   children with limited English proficiency, and it has become
   abundantly clear that they must be prepared to reach this population
   as well. What we find, of course, is that many of the strategies
   that are most successful in reaching special needs populations are
   also very successful in meeting the needs of the general population.
   With thoughtful planning, the adjustments in instruction and
   assessment often turn out to be quite minor.

Reading and listening to what affected and changed participant's knowledge, skills and disabilities about issues of diversity, again, produced a rhizome effect. As more and more participants mentioned that it was their "lived experiences" (largest coded category) that impacted a change, additional questions began to emerge for future research efforts. For example, if this is true of faculty, would it, also, be true of our current candidates. Do preservice and graduate level professional programs need to make sure that candidates have increased and more diverse experiences within their programs? Do programs need to rethink re·think  
tr. & intr.v. re·thought , re·think·ing, re·thinks
To reconsider (something) or to involve oneself in reconsideration.

 what those experiences consist of, rather than just assuming that placements in diverse schools alone will meet requirements and produce educators with the required knowledge, skills and dispositions?

Syllabi Review. Syllabi from faculty participants were examined between the academic years of 2001 through 2004. Specific content was searched for information about multicultural diversity within the course title, course description, major topics, candidate/student outcomes, and assessments. One immediate, notable difference was that syllabi for the years of 2001, 2002, and 2003 had various formats of preparation by the faculty members teaching the courses. By 2004, however, all faculty members used a common template (1) A pre-designed document or data file formatted for common purposes such as a fax, invoice or business letter. If the document contains an automated process, such as a word processing macro or spreadsheet formula, then the programming is already written and embedded in the  that aligned the major topics and candidate learning outcomes with the College of Education's (COE See common operating environment. ) Conceptual Framework (which includes the guiding principle of human development and diversity), the NCATE standard on diversity (NCATE, 2002), and state standards (which for some included standards with indicators requiring content of multicultural diversity). Additionally, syllabi were all noted to increase the content for multicultural diversity between the years reviewed. Examples of changes in selected syllabi (three of the 17 faculty participants, representing courses at the early childhood, elementary and secondary levels) regarding inclusion of content about multicultural diversity across the years Across The Years is one of a few ultrarunning festivals still taking place in the USA. Founded in 1983 by Harold Sieglaff the race has changed over the years in location as well as organisation. Today the race is held at Nardini Manor about 45 minutes from downtown Phoenix, AZ.  of 2001 through 2004 are found in Appendix B.

Knowing that the university underwent NCATE accreditation accreditation,
n a process of formal recognition of a school or institution attesting to the required ability and performance in an area of education, training, or practice.
 review in the fall of 2004, the use of a common syllabus A headnote; a short note preceding the text of a reported case that briefly summarizes the rulings of the court on the points decided in the case.

The syllabus appears before the text of the opinion.
 template that aligned content with the COE Conceptual Framework and the standards became a trigger for change for all faculty members in the teacher education programs. Additionally, as faculty prepared for the NCATE review during the fall of 2004, the diversity standard (NCATE, 2002) became a topic of discussion that contributed to faculty focusing on how their syllabi reflected what was taught in the course (faculty participant emails and interviews).

Perceived Needs for Continued Professional Development. As a final, culminating act of this research, faculty participants were provided with both an email and follow-up survey request (handed out at a faculty meeting) asking what they perceived as further professional development needs in the area of multicultural diversity. Faculty responses (n=12) were analyzed for distinct categories. The needs included: (a) need for additional resource support such as attending trainings at conferences and/or workshops on diversity/multicultural education, and additional videos or other materials that could be viewed in courses regarding issues of multicultural diversity; (b) additional training on recruiting and retaining of candidates/students who are from diverse backgrounds, (c) additional training on how to work with candidates/students who are from diverse backgrounds in order to provide the support needed to be successful in their programs, and (d) additional training on the culture of poverty to make sure this diversity is included in our courses and field experiences.

Research Limitations

This information is intended as only a beginning to understanding how faculty members within IHEs gain their own knowledge, skills and dispositions regarding multicultural/diversity. The participants were limited in numbers in numbered parts; as, a book published in numbers.

See also: Number
 and to only one university teacher education program. Additionally, faculty were not observed regarding whether or not what was said in their emails or interviews or what was reflected in their course syllabi was actually taught/included within their courses/practice. Therefore, there are limitations to this current study. In order to fully understand the issues, the what, when, why, and how of ways faculty gain the information embedded in their programs, and how it "triggers" change in their practices, additional research needs to be conducted.


The field of education is uniquely poised to make real differences for our future. Through quality educational programs, students will learn to live and work together in an increasingly diverse global society. By providing strong adult models, including teachers and other educators, that mirror the children's and youth's culture, by sharing dispositions that all children belong and are valued members of our society, and by meeting individual needs at higher levels, all of our futures will be brighter.

First steps toward meeting this goal is to increase not only the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of teacher candidates/students, but to, also, increase it for the faculty who train them. Inquiring inquiring,
v to draw information from a client—whether by verbal questioning or physical examination—to assess the person's state of health.
 about the current strengths and needs of faculty regarding multicultural education can be a beginning. Providing resources, whether sending faculty to conferences/workshops or conducting in-house training, can be an asset. Existing literature can be obtained for faculty that provides strategies for multicultural education of teachers (e.g., Smith, 1998; Vavrus, 2002).

Secondly, in order to meet the diverse needs of students and their families within our school systems, greater effort must be placed in recruiting and retaining diverse teacher candidates and the faculty who teach them. Research has been conducted regarding effective strategies for recruitment of diverse teacher candidates and faculty (Patton Pat·ton   , Charley 1881-1934.

American blues singer and guitarist who wrote several blues standards, including "Mississippi Boll Weevil Blues," and helped pioneer the Mississippi blues style.
, Williams, Floyd Floyd is a variant spelling of the Welsh name Lloyd, which means grey, and may refer to: Places
  • Floyd, Iowa, community in Floyd County
  • Floyd, New Mexico, community in Roosevelt County
  • Floyd, New York, town in Oneida County
, & Cobb, 2003), yet much remains to be done in order to catch up with our increasingly diverse society.

Bowers Bowers is a surname, and may refer to
  • Betty Bowers
  • Bryan Bowers
  • Charles Bowers
  • Claude Bowers
  • Dane Bowers
  • David A. Bowers
  • Elizabeth Crocker Bowers
  • Graham Bowers
  • Henry Francis Bowers
  • Henry Robertson Bowers, (1883 - 1912), polar explorer
 and Apffel-Marglin (2005) suggest that teachers (both faculty at institutions of higher education and within public school systems) should be provided "with an in-depth understanding of these aspects of culture, with an emphasis on differences between modern and traditional cultures" (p. 174). Additionally, they suggest that issues regarding various cultures should be taught to students in other college/university departments and not just those housed in teacher education programs, yet this is not usually the case. If professors in other departments included "tradition, technology and other topics" (p. 175) indigenous Indigenous may refer to:
  • Indigenous church mission theory
  • Indigenous peoples, population groups with ancestral connections to place prior to formally recorded (i.e.
 in diverse cultures within their courses, this could assist in raising awareness across society, including school-based systems, without it always falling just to the shoulders of teachers.

Even though teacher preparation programs at IHE may not be where education on diversity begins, or where it should begin, for candidates/ future educators, but it can certainly affect changes thereafter. Teacher education programs can make diversity the core of its pedagogy, content knowledge, field/community experiences, and assessments so that future educators can better meet the diverse needs of students within their classrooms/programs. Faculty can, also, connect and collaborate with other departments across campus to assist in embedding diversity content into other courses. Assessing candidate knowledge, skills and dispositions regarding diversity can provide valuable information for individual and/or program improvement. In order to begin this process, however, efforts must be placed on educating the trainers of these future teachers.

This study gives only a beginning insight into what triggers faculty at institutions of higher education to fit diversity into their practices, whether teaching, research or service. It cannot be assumed that all faculty, whether long-term veterans or newly hired doctoral program graduates, have extensive preparation in the area of diversity, or that what is embedded in their practice comes only through their formal training. Ongoing recruitment and retention of a diverse faculty, professional develop and personal experiences in the area of multicultural diversity, in its broadest sense (e.g., beyond race and inclusive of inclusive of
Taking into consideration or account; including.
 the culture of poverty), through a variety of venues, and additional resources must be provided in order for real change to occur.
Appendix A
Trigger Data

Category/Code          Changes Suggested              Number
for Triggers           Due to Triggers1               of Respondents
                                                      Who Mentioned
                                                      This Trigger

Professional           * Used as guides to embed      4
Bodies Who Set         into courses/syllabi
Guidelines             * Used as guides to better     3
(NCATE,                document what is currently
ASHA, CEC)             done regarding diversity
                       within courses

                       * Used as knowledge-base       4
                       for many areas of

                                                      Total Respondents
                                                      to this Trigger
                                                      Code = 4/17

Lived                  * Increased/changed            14
Experiences            dispositions regarding
(Childhood             biases, inequities in self
experiences 2/10;
As teachers in         * Used in class lecture        6
programs 5/10;
Via students           * Use in class discussions     12
comments or
behaviors in           * Used in research, as         3
courses/class 6/10;    examples
In a leadership
role 1/10;             * Used to guide interactions   2
Observations           with students
within educational
settings during        * Prompted additional          4
students supervised    learning (read books, took
visits 5/10)           classes, attended

                                                      Total Respondents
                                                      to this Trigger
                                                      Code = 14/17

Research/Literature    * Used information,            5/17
(Seek out written      embed in areas of
forms of knowledge)    teaching and research

Specific Projects      * Increased information        1
(IMPACT grant,         for class lecture
SpEd focus),
MC/D grant             * Changed dispositions (to     1
(inclusive             become more inclusive)
diversity focus)
                       * No response to change        1

                                                      Total Respondents
                                                      to this Trigger
                                                      Code = 3/17

Individuals Who        * Changed dispositions         4
Have Influenced
or Inspired            * Use information in course    3
(Interactions and      work
relationships                                         Total Respondents
developed between                                     to this Trigger
faculty and another                                   Code = 4/17
who had a different
cultural background)

Beyond "Color"         * Faculty who described        10/17
as a Definition        triggers beyond just as
                       described by race/color
                       (including exceptionality,
                       SES level, geographic
                       location, gender,
                       international views, sexual

Lack of valid and      * Seeking additional           1/17
reliable assessment    knowledge/skills on how to
instruments            modify assessments so they
                       are appropriate (not biased)
                       for students with special

Threat of legal        * No change mentioned          1/17
action or grievance
being filed

Watching Videos        * No change mentioned          1/17

Attended               * Included information in      1
Conferences            courses

                       * No change mentioned          1

                                                      Total Respondents
                                                      to this Trigger
                                                      Code = 2/17

Appendix B
Syllabi and Multicultural Content Changes over Time for Three Courses

Course--Instructional Strategies

Preschool Education

2001             2002              2003            2004

MC/D Content:    MC/D Content:     MC/D Content:   MC/D Content:
Major Topics:    Major Topics:     Major Topics:   [Aligned with COE
(only place      Same as 2001,     Same as 2001    Conceptual
that included    plus added in     and 2002        Framework: Human
diversity):      special                           Development and
                 education                         Diversity; NCATE
                                                   Standard 4; and
"DAP             Assessments:      Assessments:    State Licensure
Curriculum-      Comprehensive     Multicultural   Standards.]
multicultural"   Written Unit -    Story Outline
                 added in to       and Lesson      Major Topics:
"Integrated      remember the      Plan (choose    remained the same as
Curriculum-      different ages,   a book from     2003
socially         stages,           another
understanding    families, and     culture than    Assessment:
self and         cultures of the   your own and    Same as 2003
others"          children.         make an
                                   outline that    Outcomes:
                                   can be tied     Added included:
                                   into a lesson   "Incorporate
                                   plan)           concepts and
                                                   materials from many
                                   Graduate        cultures in planning
                                   Project was     learning
                                   added to        environments for
                                   create a DAP    young children;" and
                                   activity        "Demonstrate respect
                                   related to      for differences in
                                   multicultural   family values and
                                   lesson plan     describe strategies
                                                   for working in
                                                   partnership with
                                                   families to
                                                   encourage young

Course--Instructional Strategies in Math and Science

Elementary School

2001             2002              2003            2004

MC/D Content:    MC/D Content:     MC/D Content:   MC/D Content:
                                                   [Aligned with COE
Major Topics:    Same as 2001      Same as 2002,   Conceptual
"Teaching                          except added:   Framework: Human
mathematics      Textbooks-                        Development and
and science to   Readings          Guided          Diversity; NCATE
ALL students -   included the      Inquiry         Standard 4; and
diversity"       National Math     Section - "4.   State Licensure
                 and Science       How will        Standards.]
Student          Standards,        multiple
Outcomes:        which calls       diverse         Same as 2003, plus
"Plan, teach &   for issues of     perspectives    added in
display a        diversity         enhance the     Assessments: Added
knowledge of                       teaching of     in Teacher Work
diversity                          mathematics     Sample, which
issues"                            and science     includes
                                   in your         requirements of
                                   classroom?"     identifying special
                                                   cultures within the
                                                   school placement and
                                                   how individual
                                                   needs, based on
                                                   culture, would be
Course--Instructional Strategies


2001             2002              2003            2004

MC/D Content:    MC/D Content:     MC/D Content:   MC/D Content:
                                                   [Aligned with COE
Major Topics:    Same as 2001      Major Topics:   Conceptual
"Gender and                        "No child       Framework: Human
ethnic equity                      left behind,    Development and
issues in                          meeting needs   Diversity; NCATE
science"                           of all          Standard 4; and
                                   students"       State Licensure
Outcomes:                          "Gender and     Standards.]
"Demonstrate                       ethnicity
an awareness                       equity issues   Major Topics and
of and a way                       in science"     Outcomes were the
of addressing                                      same, except added
gender equity                      Outcomes:       to Outcomes and
while teaching                     "Identify       linked to COE
science."                          strategies      Conceptual
                                   for reaching    Framework:"The
                                   every student   teacher understands
                                   in the          the abilities and
                                   classroom.      developmental
                                   Describe the    readiness of
                                   students        students to learn
                                   and the         science content and
                                   strategies      skills" and "The
                                   which meet      teacher understands
                                   their needs."   the psychological
                                   "Demonstrate    and social
                                   an awareness    environment
                                   of and a way    conducive to the
                                   of addressing   students'
                                   gender equity   intellectual,
                                   while           social, and personal
                                   teaching        growth in science
                                   science"        education"


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(1) This paper was presented at the 2nd National Conference on Assessment of Multicultural/Diversity Outcomes, April 3, 2004, Kansas City, Missouri Kansas City is the largest city in the state of Missouri. It encompasses parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest in Missouri, which includes counties in both Missouri and Kansas. .

(2) Note that not all participants provided how their triggers changed their practice.
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Author:Mitchell, Linda
Publication:Journal of Thought
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2005
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