Impact of multicultural training on school psychology and education students.The basis for this research is an examination of the outcomes of a required multicultural mul·ti·cul·tur·al
1. Of, relating to, or including several cultures.
2. Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. course. Students completed pre- pre- word element [L.], before (in time or space).
1. Earlier; before; prior to: prenatal.
2. , mid- mid-
Middle: midbrain. and post-tests assessing their multicultural knowledge, awareness, and skills. Analyses of the pre-, mid- and posttests indicated significant increases in multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills.
This research focused on the outcome of multicultural training for future school psychologists This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. and educators. Increasingly, school psychologists and teachers receive training in multicultural topics in both their education and counseling coursework coursework
work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's . Although this attention to multicultural training is to be lauded, research which defines those elements that constitute successful training programs is needed. Relative to the total amount of literature on multicultural issues, a small amount has been directed toward evaluating the pedagogy and components of training programs with psychometrically sound instruments. Researchers (Neville, et al, 1996; & Ridley ridley: see sea turtle. , Mendoza, & Kanitz, 1994) have pointed out the critical need for more evaluative studies in this area.
Within this time of continued diversification Diversification
A risk management technique that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. It is designed to minimize the impact of any one security on overall portfolio performance.
Diversification is possibly the greatest way to reduce the risk. of student populations (Sue, 1991), psychologists and teachers within our school systems remain primarily European American A European American (Euro-American) is a person who resides in the United States and is either the descendant of European immigrants or from Europe him/herself.
Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate  and middle class in many geographical regions. This research assessed whether or not elements within a required multicultural course increase awareness, knowledge and skills for future educators and psychologists.
Evans Ev·ans , Herbert McLean 1882-1971.
American anatomist who isolated four pituitary hormones and discovered vitamin E (1922). , Torrey, and Newton (1997) report that 50% of the states have criteria and requirements for multicultural education. Bank & Banks (2001) examine issues of multicultural education and include as most relevant an awareness, understanding, and appreciation Of diversity. While the criteria vary from state to state, each mandates coursework in multicultural education as a requirement for teacher credentialing Credentialing is the administrative process for validating the qualifications of licensed professionals, organizational members or organizations, and assessing their background and legitimacy. (Evans, Torrey, & Newton, 1997). While vast literature exists on multicultural issues, little focus has been directed toward evaluating these training programs (Neville, et al, 1996). Additionally, the components and formats of these programs and whether the focus is on similarities or differences has been questioned (Ho, 1995) and whether in-depth knowledge of each racial/ethnic group is required (Cheatham, 1994).
Ridley and colleagues view training in multicultural counseling as critical, thus extending the emphasis from teachers to counselors within schools. While some researchers outline training models (Ridley, Mendoza, & Kanitz, 1994; and Sue, 1991), others have focused on evaluating training effectiveness (D'Andrea et al., 1991).
The basis for this study is grounded in current literature from the fields of education, counseling, and related multicultural studies which examine awareness, knowledge and skills. The courses are designed to meet specific objectives as mandated by a state requirement. These are: understand the contributions and lifestyles of various racial, cultural, and economic groups in our society; recognize and deal with dehumanizing biases, prejudices, and discrimination; create environments which contribute to the positive self-image self-image
The conception that one has of oneself, including an assessment of qualities and personal worth. of persons and to positive interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. relations; respect human diversity and personal rights; and develop multicultural, gender fair, disability sensitive, inclusive approaches. This study specifically examines whether elements of multicultural courses result in subsequent positive changes in awareness, knowledge and skills for those being trained to address diverse student populations.
Individuals participating in this research provided informed consent and were free to withdraw from the research at any time with no penalty. The students were not involved in any other multicultural courses. The surveys were completed and placed in one large envelope after the instructor had exited the room. They were collected by a student and turned in to the department secretary. They were returned to the researchers 8-10 weeks after course grades had been submitted. This is also standard procedure for end-of course evaluations A course evaluation is a paper or electronic questionnaire, which requires a written or selected response answer to a series of questions in order to evaluate the instruction of a given course. and encourages honesty Honesty
See also Righteousness, Virtuousness.
ancient Greek personification of truth. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 18]
Better Business Bureau
nationwide system of organizations investigating dishonest business practices. [Am. while insuring anonymity. The participants included 63 students enrolled in three undergraduate sections of a multicultural course each taught by the same instructor. Females comprised 63.5% of the sample, with 36.5% males. Ethnic diversity of the group was not large with 87.3 percent European American (4.8% Hispanic Hispanic Multiculture A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race Social medicine Any of 17 major Latino subcultures, concentrated in California, Texas, Chicago, Miam, NY, and elsewhere , 1.6% African-American, 1.6% Asian-American, and 6.3% other ethnicities). The average age of participants was 21.13 (SD = 3.53).
The Multicultural Counseling Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Survey developed by D'Andrea, Daniels and Heck heck
Used as a mild oath.
Used as an intensive: had a heck of a lot of money; was crowded as heck.
[Alteration of hell. (1991) was modified for this research. The MAKSS (D'Andrea, Daniels & Heck) items were slightly revised to fit prospective educators (MAKSS-T). Some questions were modified by changing the word "counselor" to "teacher" to better fit the population. The modification was aimed at having the survey be more inclusive of inclusive of
Taking into consideration or account; including. educators and psychologists. The instrument consists of 60-items divided into three subscales of twenty items each. The scales provide one score each for multicultural awareness, multicultural knowledge, and multicultural skills. Reliability and validity has been established for the MAKSS (D'Andrea, Daniels & Heck, 1991).
Students participated in this research on a voluntary basis with no incentive offered and were free to withdraw without penalty. Responses were matched using social security numbers. The participants completed the MAKSS-T prior to the course, midway Midway, island group (2 sq mi/5.2 sq km), central Pacific, c.1,150 mi (1,850 km) NW of Honolulu, comprising Sand and Eastern islands with the surrounding atoll. Discovered by Americans in 1859, Midway was annexed in 1867. A cable station was opened in 1903. through the course, and at the completion of the course.
The course was required as a core course and was the only course devoted to multicultural issues required for graduation Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the associated ceremony. The date of event is often called degree day. The event itself is also called commencement, convocation or invocation. . The undergraduate courses met twice weekly for 100-minute sessions over a 15-week semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s . Course objectives included: 1) Understanding the contributions and life-styles of various racial, cultural and economic groups in our society; 2) Recognizing and addressing dehumanizing biases, prejudices, and discrimination; 3) Creating environments which contribute to the positive self-image of persons and to positive interpersonal relations, 4) Respecting human diversity and personal rights; and 5) Developing multicultural, gender fair, disability sensitive, inclusive approaches. Activities included readings, discussions, lectures, videos, reaction papers, lesson planning, individual and group presentation, analysis of group, a final research paper and a final objective examination.
The three classes were examined for significant differences on each of the three scales (awareness, knowledge, and skills) prior to collapsing them for this research. A repeated measures ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there indicated whether changes occurred between pre-, mid-, and post-assessment.
The three classes were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. with an ANOVA on each of the three scales prior to collapsing for further analysis. No significant differences were indicated on the pre-scores for the three classes (Awareness [F (1, 37) = 2.792, MSE MSE Mouse (computer)
MSE Materials Science & Engineering
MSE Mean Squared Error
MSE Mean Square Error
MSE Master of Science in Engineering
MSE Manufacturing Systems Engineering
MSE Mechanically Stabilized Earth = .032, p > .05], Knowledge IF (1, 37) = .030, MSE = .075, p > .05], Skills IF (1, 37) = .151, I= .193 p > .05]).
The data were examined with a repeated measures ANOVA for significant differences in the pre-, mid- and post-test scores (Table 1). Significant differences were indicated on the awareness scale [F (2, 35) = 16.08, MSE .28,p < .01]. Post-hoc analysis Post-hoc analysis, in the context of design and analysis of experiments, refers to looking in the data—after the experiment has concluded—for patterns that were not specified a priori. indicated significant differences between pre- and mid-test scores on awareness and pre- and post-test awareness scores (p < .01), however the mid- and posttest post·test
A test given after a lesson or a period of instruction to determine what the students have learned. scores on awareness were not significantly different (p > .05). Significant differences were indicated on the knowledge scale [F (2,35) = 32.06, MSE = 1.16, p < .01]. Post-hoc analysis indicated significant differences between pre-, mid- and post-test scores on the knowledge scale with each of the other two scores (p < .01). Significant differences were indicated on the skills scale [F (2,35) = 17.81, MSE = .91, p < .01]. Post-hoc analysis indicated significant differences between mid- and post-test scores for skills and pre- and post-test skills scores (p < .01), however the pre- and mid-test scores for skills were not significantly different (p > .05).
Analysis of the pre- to post-test indicate significant increases in multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills. The significance of these outcomes is important due to the prior beliefs held by the students. As in a similar study conducted with graduate students and some different variables, the students enter the course thinking they already know all they need to about multicultural issues (Warring, Keim, & Rau, 1998). Upon course completion they report how mistaken they were and how beneficial the course was. For the awareness scale, pre-mid and pre-post scores indicated significant changes: The lack of mid-post significant changes may indicate that large changes occur initially in awareness and then level off over the semester. These findings indicate that a large portion of the beginning of a multicultural course should be dedicated to increasing awareness. Increased awareness coupled with motivation facilitates learning the new information being presented to them and skill development in its application.
When examining the knowledge scale, significant changes occurred at each assessment point. This indicates that while the semester continues, students consistently gain in their knowledge. This is important when examining the number of issues across the semester and across time as students leave school. Motivation and willingness to continue to integrate and build their knowledge base when faced with new topics/issues is critical in society.
The skills scale indicated significant pre-post and mid-post changes. Perhaps the lack of significant differences between pre-mid indicate that the multicultural skills come with time and may not be demonstrated early in the course. Skill development is unlikely without awareness and knowledge.
This study demonstrates the potential impact of instruction on multicultural competencies through self-reported changes over a period of time. Common multicultural experiences in core programs provide sources of bonding, discussion and shared work for students. Although the researchers acknowledge limitations such as nonrandom sample selection and course variables, these results offer encouraging evidence in support of mandatory multicultural training for the helping professions. It should also be noted that while one course is insufficient to provide all the necessary information it can lay the groundwork for additional training.
Finally, the results of this research provide information regarding the sequencing of acquiring new awareness, knowledge and skills during a multicultural course. Ongoing research needs to be conducted to assess the design and implementation of effective training models.
Table 1 MAKSS-T SCALES Mean Std Dev Cases Awareness Pre-test *, ** 2.64 .21 53 Mid-test * 2.73 .22 49 Post-test ** 2.78 .19 49 Knowledge Pre-test (+, ++) 2.46 .25 53 Mid-test (+, +++) 2.62 .26 49 Post-test (++, +++) 2.82 .29 49 Skills Pre-test (-) 2.63 .42 53 Mid-test (--) 2.70 .36 48 Post-test (-, --) .91 .41 48 * Pre- and mid-test were significantly different,(t(44) = 3.06, p < .01). ** Pre- and post-test were significantly different, (t(39) = 5.17, p < .01). (+) Pre- and mid-test were significantly different, (t(44) = 3.77, p < .01). (++) Pre- and post-test were significantly different, (t(39) = 6.74, p < .01). (+++) Mid- and post-test were significantly different, (t(39) = 5.92, p < .01). (-) Pre- and post-test were significantly different, (t(39) = 4.78, p < .01). (--) Mid- and post-test were significantly different, (t(38) = 5.52, p < .01).
Banks, J. A. & Banks, C. A. M. (2001). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives 4th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Cheatham, H. E. (1994). A response. Counselor Education and Supervision, 30, 66-76.
D'Andrea, M., Daniels, J., & Heck, R. (1991). Evaluating the impact of multicultural counseling training. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70(1), 143-150.
Evans, E. D., Torrey, C. C. & Newton, S. D. (1997). Multicultural education requirements in teacher certification: A national survey. Multicultural Education, 4(3), 9-11.
Ho, D. (1995). Internalized culture, culturocentrism, and transcendence. The Counseling Psychologist psy·chol·o·gist
A person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and therapy.
psychologist , 23(1), 4-24.
Neville, H., Heppner, M., Louie, C., Thompson Thompson, city, Canada
Thompson, city (1991 pop. 14,977), central Man., Canada, on the Burntwood River. A mining town, it developed after large nickel deposits were discovered in the area in 1956. , C., Brooks., L. & Baker, C. (1996). The impact of multicultural training on white racial identity attitudes and therapy competencies. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27, 83-89.
Ridley, C. R., Mendoza, D. W., & Kanitz, B. E. (1994). Multicultural training: Reexamination re·ex·am·ine also re-ex·am·ine
tr.v. re·ex·am·ined, re·ex·am·in·ing, re·ex·am·ines
1. To examine again or anew; review.
2. Law To question (a witness) again after cross-examination. , operationalization, and integration. The Counseling Psychologist, 22(2), 227-289.
Sue, D. (1991). A model for cultural diversity training. Journal of Counseling Development, 70, 99-105.
Warring, D., Keim, J. & Rau, R. (1998). Multicultural training for students and its impact. Action in Teacher Education, 20, 56-63.
Jeanmarie Keim, Ph.D., Counseling Psychology Counseling psychology as a psychological specialty facilitates personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span with a focus on emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns. , University of Memphis The University of Memphis is a public research university located in Memphis, Tennessee, United States, and is a flagship public research university of the Tennessee Board of Regents system. . Douglas F. Warring, Ph.D., Educational and Social Psychology, University of St. Thomas University of St. Thomas can refer to:
Order of Saint Benedict , M.A., Counseling Psychology, University of St. Thomas.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Jeanmarie Keim, Counseling Psychology, 100 Ball Education Building, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152.