Imagining military conflict during the Seven Years' War.
The second year of the Seven Years' War, 1757, was a frustrating one for bellicose bel·li·cose
Warlike in manner or temperament; pugnacious. See Synonyms at belligerent.
[Middle English, from Latin bellic British patriots such as John Brown, author of the best-selling pamphlet An Estimate of the Manners and Principles of the Times. The losses of Minorca and in North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. of the previous year were compounded by the continuing anxieties that the French might reproduce their successes in America on "the Plains of Salisbury." (1) An English admiral, John Byng For other persons named John Byng, see John Byng (disambiguation).
John Byng (October 29, 1704 – March 14, 1757) was a British admiral who was court-martialled and executed for failing to "do his utmost" during the Battle of Minorca, at the beginning of the Seven Years' , was executed by firing squad on the deck of a warship warship, any ship built or armed for naval combat. The forerunners of the modern warship were the men-of-war of the 18th and early 19th cent., such as the ship of the line, frigate, corvette, sloop of war (see sloop), brig, and cutter. for neglect over Minorca, though it was clear that part of the responsibility belonged to his political masters. Personal and policy disagreements among the powerful meant that for three months the popular William Pitt Noun 1. William Pitt - English statesman and son of Pitt the Elder (1759-1806)
Pitt the Younger, Second Earl of Chatham, Pitt
2. William Pitt - English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end (1708-1778) was out of office, and indeed, the country had effectively only a caretaker administration during that time. And the darling project of establishing militias was only just through Parliament. Brown, whose analysis places national character at the heart of national malaise, sums up: "THUS by a gradual and unperceived Decline, we seem gliding down to Ruin. We laugh, we sing, we feast, we play: We adopt every Vanity, and catch at every Lure, thrown out to us by the Nation that is planning our Destruction." (2) In short, British virtue, especially martial virtue, seemed to have disappeared, leaving the country exposed to France, its great national rival.
Against this background, a number of poems from that year articulate two wishes: the revival of British arms and a worthy muse to provoke and record that revival. David Garrick hopes that Thomas Gray will put Elizabethan deeds in his next odes with the effect of making "Britons, Greeks again," and the anonymous Scots author of an ambitious heroic, ThePatriot, wonders whether the sight of the French fleet will rouse "the lazy BRITAIN. sunk, / Abject, and mean, in dastard indolence." (3) Another long anonymous poem, Britain, A Poem, probably also by a Scot, wistfully conjures images of the Dukes of Marlborough and Cumberland riding "thro' fields of death," and ends with a rhapsodic rhap·sod·ic also rhap·sod·i·cal
1. Of, resembling, or characteristic of a rhapsody.
2. Immoderately impassioned or enthusiastic; ecstatic. vision of the goddess Britannia speaking to her sons so inspiringly that "every warrior fiercer grasp'd / His glittering arms, and tow'rd the Gallic shore / Disdainful dis·dain·ful
Expressive of disdain; scornful and contemptuous. See Synonyms at proud.
dis·dainful·ly adv. frown'd." (4) The poets' second wish, for a worthy martial muse, is subsidiary to the first, but nevertheless still important. One of the long poems dismisses the epic poetry Noun 1. epic poetry - poetry celebrating the deeds of some hero
poesy, poetry, verse - literature in metrical form of the past in favor of the "trembling muse" who will pursue the "nobler theme" of the "gen'rous patriot"--in this case supposed to be Frederick II Frederick II, king of Sicily
Frederick II, 1272–1337, king of Sicily (1296–1337), 3d son of Peter III of Aragón. When his brother, who was king of Sicily, became (1291) king of Aragón as James II, Frederick was his regent in Sicily. of Prussia. (5) The other hails the unnamed "SCOTIAN bard," who might be able to "wake the BRITISH lion from his den," and ends by wishing that his own muse had been inspired by the spirit of an Edward Young. (6) Garrick's poem is slightly different. He believes Britain has found its poet in the "Heav'n-born Art" of Gray. but suggests that the great modern poet should be making his subject the great deeds of a past victorious reign. (7) It is the same idea another way round--that in 1757, Britain needs heroic writing as well as real heroes.
Like the prayer of epic poetry, the poets' wishes were half granted. The remaining years of the war delivered enough victories, heroes, and conquered land to satisfy the most ardent patriot. James Wolfe's leadership of the assault on the Plains of Abraham led to the taking of Quebec and to his reputation, among contemporaries at least, of having conquered North America. Robert Clive's victories in India vastly extended the area of British influence and changed the nature of that influence so that Britain moved decisively toward the establishment of empire in the subcontinent. The contemporary chronicler of his battles calls Clive a hero, insisting that although "he does not stand enrolled among the foremost in the lists of fame, he is very far from deserving a place towards the latter end." (8) In Europe, John Manners John Manners can refer to the following people: Dukes
1. Lowness of spirits; depression; melancholy. of the early years, Britain won. (9) In Linda Colley's somewhat effusive ef·fu·sive
1. Unrestrained or excessive in emotional expression; gushy: an effusive manner.
2. Profuse; overflowing: effusive praise. words, it was "the most dramatically successful war the British ever fought." (10)
However, if the war was militarily successful for Britain, it did not produce the martial muse for which the poets of 1757 had hoped. To be sure, many poems and plays (and some prose fiction) either make the war and its heroes their subject, touch upon them in passing, or refer to them indirectly by representing comparable historical events. (11) But there is no sustained, confident tradition of heroic writing. Although Clive, "by whose might Chandernagore was raz'd," is accorded four enthusiastic lines in George Cockings's splendidly titled War: An Heroic Poem Noun 1. heroic poem - a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
epic, epic poem, epos
poem, verse form - a composition written in metrical feet forming rhythmical lines
chanson de geste - Old French epic poems , he is not widely remembered in verse. (12) Granby's exploits are mostly celebrated in boisterous drinking songs, such as the one that compares his battles in Europe to foxhunting and strains as hard as "can be" to end each verse with a rhyme on Granby. (13) By far the most poetically honored of all Britain's heroes is Wolfe, though his death at the moment of victory means that the dominant tone in literary memorials of him is dismal lament. In that respect, they are related to the most successful martial text of the war, the Ossian poems. James Macpherson's claims to ancient authenticity prevent him from explicitly connecting either the Fragments of 1760 or Fingal of 1762 to modern war, but his melancholy prose poems both draw from and feed into contemporary currents of feeling. (14) Unlike Macpherson, a number of historical dramatists do announce the relevance of their ancient stories. (15) Brown opens his Athelstan of 1756 with a spectacle hard for the modern theatergoer to imagine--that of "Mr.HOLLAND in the Character of the Genius of Britain" warning "the Sons of Freedom to be wise." (16) And in 1760, Macpherson's friend, John Home, publishes a prologue to his Spartan tragedy Agis that urges "May this sad scene improve each Briton's heart! / Rouse him with warmth to act a Briton's part!" (17) However, Athelstan's character as a kind of Saxon Coriolanus makes him a distinctly flawed hero; Agis is defeated by conspiracy; and many other historical plays feature doughty patriots who rescue their country from disaster rather than spread its glory. In sum, by the end of the war, there is no coherent body of writing celebrating British heroism or victory.
Despite the heterogeneity of the martial literature of the Seven Years' War, certain imaginative features occur sufficiently often to become characteristic of the group of writings as a whole. The two most striking features are avoidance and imaginative contradiction. For Britain, the Seven Years' War was a successful expansionist ex·pan·sion·ism
A nation's practice or policy of territorial or economic expansion.
ex·pansion·ist adj. & n. war, conducted with the most advanced military logistics Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. In its most comprehensive sense, it is those aspects or military operations that deal with:
tr.v. ab·solved, ab·solv·ing, ab·solves
1. To pronounce clear of guilt or blame.
2. To relieve of a requirement or obligation.
a. To grant a remission of sin to. themselves of killing either by kind actions or by their own death and/or defeat. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , the texts sedulously sed·u·lous
Persevering and constant in effort or application; assiduous. See Synonyms at busy.
[From Latin s avoid at least some of the realities of their subject, and in particular, they avoid territorial expansion and enemy death. As for contradiction, this can be seen in the way many of the texts comprehend mixed and often discordant attitudes. Though patriotic and enthusiastic about British military glory, they are chary char·y
adj. char·i·er, char·i·est
1. Very cautious; wary: was chary of the risks involved.
2. of showing killing or conquest, and are often drawn instead toward contemplation of the death of heroes. The contradiction betrays doubt, usually unacknowledged, about both the war and the possibility of adequately representing it. That doubt occurs in its most radical and consciously articulated form in Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy shan·dy
n. pl. shan·dies
2. A drink made of beer and lemonade.
pl -dies , which can be read in part as a comic analysis of many of the current problems in representing war. Before moving on to that, however, it is necessary to look at some of the factors weighing upon martial writing during the war.
Writers attempting to represent battle faced a number of difficulties, and many were aware of this. Sometimes that awareness simply takes the form of the amateur author's proper diffidence dif·fi·dence
The quality or state of being diffident; timidity or shyness.
Noun 1. diffidence - lack of self-confidence
self-distrust, self-doubt before the subject. Although J. Patrick, for instance, has the confidence to use the word "Miltonic" in the subtitle of his poem about Quebec, he is fulsomely apologetic to the reader who " in the Perusal of a few Lines, will with Ease discover; and readily trace the Defects and Irregularities of a Muse, unacquainted with the difficult Paths of Parnassus." (18) However, there were real challenges even for writers thoroughly acquainted with those tricky paths. Thomas Blackwell, Macpherson's former tutor, had suggested in 1735 that ancient battles, with their duels and single combats, lent themselves more readily to poetry than modern battles, because we "cannot comprehend the Shock of a general Engagement, nor describe what is doing in all the Parts of a Battle." (19) Later writers echo that understanding of the difficulty of capturing modern war. William Dobson
adj. go·ri·er, go·ri·est
1. Covered or stained with gore; bloody.
2. Full of or characterized by bloodshed and violence. scene of severed heads
Severed Heads is an Australian electronic music group based and founded in Sydney in 1979 (see 1979 in music) as Mr. and Mrs. No Smoking Sign. , quivering trunks, and dismembered limbs. (20) More tellingly, Alexander Gordon Alexander Gordon can refer to:
1. A march back or in a reverse direction.
2. A complete reversal of method or conduct.
intr. & tr.v. to sing, / Were endless, and a meer Gazette in verse." (21) Finally, Charles Johnstone asserts in his novel. Chrysal, that "Descriptions of battles are never satisfactory; the confusion is too great, and the business of the scene too complex, to be brought into the regularity of any one design." (22) This reflection on the futility of trying to capture the full reality of a battle makes him, like Gordon, cut his own representation short, and concentrate instead on smaller, more humanly scaled episodes.
One of the causes of these problems of description is the organized and mass nature of eighteenth-century warfare. War was both prepared for and conceived of in terms that might be described as general, that is, of highly disciplined routines and uniform movements by bodies of men. The 1740 instruction for throwing a grenade, for instance, lists eighteen precisely choreographed movements: three for handling the match, three more for handling the grenade, a further three for opening the fuse, one more for guarding it, two for blowing the match, three for firing and throwing the grenade, and a final three for returning the match. The three for handling the grenade are as follows: "Keep your left hand extended to the front, as before, and face nimbly to the right on the left heel, stretching out your right arm, at the same time, the heighth of your shoulder, pointing directly to the rear. Tell 1, 2, and clap your right hand briskly on your pouch, seizing (if there should be occasion) your grenade. Then tell 1, 2, and bring up your right hand to its former position, placing the thumb against the fuze fuze
n. & v.
Variant of fuse1.
Noun 1. fuze - any igniter that is used to initiate the burning of a propellant
fuse, primer, priming, fuzee, fusee , and continue in this position 'till the following word of command is given." (23)
When this kind of training, and the military thinking and technology behind it, is translated to the battlefield, it leaves little room for noteworthy individual acts, single combats, or the recording of those in words. A newspaper report of the taking of Quebec is typical of journalistic accounts: "their attack was very brisk and animated on that side. Our troops reserved their fire, till within forty yards, which was so well continued, that the enemy every where gave way. It was then our General fell at the head of Bragg's, and the Louisburg grenadiers, advancing with their bayonets." (24)
The whole outlook of the description is--so to speak--plural. Even the death of Wolfe is only accorded an aside, for what really matters from the point of view of the battle is what the whole group of grenadiers is doing. And much the same is true of the other main branch of fighting during the war, the naval, where success depends overwhelmingly upon group effort. The amenability of this kind of warfare to representation varies according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the type of representation. Painters could and did depict mass battle, but imaginative writers, brought up in traditions that focused on individuals, found themselves with no fights between heroes to describe and either struggling to give an impression of the battle as a whole or concentrating on moments of suffering, such as Wolfe's death.
Perhaps even more important for description than the way modern war was fought, however, are two contemporary sets of ideas about it. The first is the conception of the most justified and noble war in terms of the citizens' defense of the homeland. Arguments for the establishment of militias appear everywhere in the political writings of the period, and they emerge in imaginative writing in the pervasive insistence on self-defense. The case for militias is only ever framed in part as a practical expedient for solving a problem. The influential pamphleteer pam·phlet·eer
A writer of pamphlets or other short works taking a partisan stand on an issue.
intr.v. pam·phlet·eered, pam·phlet·eer·ing, pam·phlet·eers
To write and publish pamphlets. , John Shebbe are, for instance, argues in 1756 that a militia bill "would have rendered you at the same Time free from the Fears of hostile Invasion, and the Conquest of mercenary and pretended Friends," but he also calls the refusal to enact one a "contempt of British Subjects for the Defence of this Island." (25) The word contempt is significant, as it turns the militia from a matter of expediency to one of national pride, even identity. Indeed, the defeat of the measure means to Shebbeare not that Britain would have to find another way of defending itself, but that "Freemen gave way to Slaves, Britons to Foreigners, Liberty to Thraldom." (26)
The same underlying sentiments survive the passing of the act and the establishment of militias. In 1764. Charles Churchill
Such were the Men, in Virtue strong, Who dar'd not see their Country's wrong, Who left the mattock, and the spade, And, in the robes of War array'd. In their rough arms, departing, took Their helpless babes, and with a look Stern and determin'd, swore to see Those babes no more, or see them free. (27)
Sentimental and nostalgic as this is, it does reveal how the militia figures as part of a conception--distorted no doubt--of abiding Britishness. Writing from a different political perspective, Edward Gibbon gibbon, small ape, genus Hyloblates, found in the forests of SE Asia. The gibbons, including the siamang, are known as the small, or lesser, apes; they are the most highly adapted of the apes to arboreal life. records his own obligation to the militia in which he served as "the making me an Englishman and a soldier." (28) In J. G. A Pocock's analysis, the experience did not turn Gibbon into a patriot in the contemporary political meaning of the word, but it did give him "the sense of belonging to a patria PATRIA. The country; the men of the neighborhood competent to serve on a jury; a jury. This word is nearly synonymous with pais. (.q.v.) ." (29) In short, the idea of autonomous defense is an important and connected part of a series of ideas and sentiments about self and nationhood.
The second set of ideas clusters around concern about the continuing existence of war in a period of refinement. There was a widespread sense that the progress that was thought to have enhanced humane virtues should have made war either unnecessary or less brutal and a widespread recognition that it had not. Much earlier in the century, Alexander Pope had remarked that "True Courage is inseparable from Humanity," (30) and when Israel Mauduit in 1760 mentions "the present more humanized laws of war The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called ," he is echoing a fairly general perception at least of what ought to be. (31) The year before the beginning of the war, William Whitehead __FORCETOC__ William Whitehead, (baptized February 12, 1715 – April 14 1785), was an English poet and playwright. He became Poet Laureate in 1757 after Thomas Gray declined the position. , soon to become poet laureate poet laureate (lô`rēĭt), title conferred in Britain by the monarch on a poet whose duty it is to write commemorative odes and verse. , includes in his critically successful tragedy, Creusa, advice to a prince not to be seduced by the "Pride of War." Rather, the prince should "remember thou are placed / The Guardian of Mankind, nor build thy Fame / On Rapines, and on Murders." (32)
But as the public well knew from the information available in newspapers, rapine RAPINE, crim. law. This is almost indistinguishable from robbery. (q.v.) It is the felonious taking of another man's personal property, openly and by violence, against his will. The civilians define rapine to be the taking with violence, the movable property of another, with the and murder continued apace. A commentator of 1761 remarks in the Gentleman's Magazine on the contradiction between modern humanity and increasingly sophisticated modern warfare Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. As a term, it is normally taken as referring to conflicts involving one or more first world powers, within the modern electronic era. : "we live in an age when the lights of philosophy have dispelled the obscurity of the dark ages of the world, and yet there never was a time in which cruelty was practised with less reluctance. Our wars bear a character of ferocity without example, even among the most barbarous nations of the whole earth." (33) In rather more graphic vein, Johnstone has Chrysal, his talking guinea, report on the "monuments of military glory" he witnesses in his travels across Europe: "the lands laid waste; the villages in ashes; the inhabitants perishing in the fields and high roads, of wounds, sickness, famine; and every various kind of misery, which the madness of human nature can inflict upon itself." (34) This is not to suggest that either the commentator or Johnstone is pacifist or even opposed to Britain's participation in the Seven Years' War. They are not. But what their comments reveal is something of the considerable contemporary discomfort with some aspects of war and its effects. The impact of this on literary representations of war is varied, but it might be summarized as a general unwillingness to show the writer's own side engaged in conquest and killing.
The belief that the best wars are fought by patriotic part-time soldiers on home soil and in its defense was a powerful internalized ideal during the Seven Years' War. It was also an ideal at odds with a very different reality. Some contemporary oppositional analyses describe the war in terms of pure rapacity. Samuel Johnson, for instance, characterizes it in 1756 as "the quarrel of two robbers for the spoils of a passenger," and Oliver Goldsmith insists in 1760 that the war in North America, in which both Britain and France usurp u·surp
v. u·surped, u·surp·ing, u·surps
1. To seize and hold (the power or rights of another, for example) by force and without legal authority. See Synonyms at appropriate.
2. Native Americans' lands in quest of fur, is such a "contest, that no honest man can heartily wish success to either party." (35) Johnson and Goldsmith ignore the invasion fears, which were real enough in the first year of the war and which were to resurface re·sur·face
v. re·sur·faced, re·sur·fac·ing, re·sur·fac·es
To cover with a new surface: resurfacing a road; resurfaced the floor.
v.intr. briefly and less powerfully in 1759, when rumors of invasions briefly revived. However, invasion fears notwithstanding, this was certainly not a war happening in Britain, and it was probably for Britain not a war of patriotic self-defense. It was a war fought by professional soldiers, many of them foreign mercenaries, and fought abroad. Moreover, it ended for Britain as a war that, rather than keeping an enemy at bay, extended the country's territory enormously.
The response of most imaginative writers to this gap between ideal and real was simply to ignore the real, and figure the war in terms of self-defense. Some take the European theater as their subject, in which case they show allies on the defensive. Gordon, for instance, cites Frederick's reasons for invading Saxony Saxony (săk`sənē), Ger. Sachsen, Fr. Saxe, state (1994 pop. 4,901,000), 7,078 sq mi (18,337 sq km), E central Germany. Dresden is the capital. and Bohemia as "motives justify'd, and self-defence." (36) To invasion fear, Johnstone adds atrocity story The term atrocity story (also referred to as atrocity tale) as defined by the American sociologists David G. Bromley and Anson D. Shupe refers to the symbolic presentation of action or events (real or imaginary) in such a context that they are made flagrantly to violate . In a central episode of Chrysal, a wounded Bulgarian (for which we must read Prussian) explains that he became a soldier because of the twin desires to "repel the invaders" and revenge the murders of his father, wife, and children by (the reader must infer) Russian soldiers. (37) This kind of imaginative self-defense by proxy transforms into defense of the British empire British Empire, overseas territories linked to Great Britain in a variety of constitutional relationships, established over a period of three centuries. The establishment of the empire resulted primarily from commercial and political motives and emigration movements when the scene shifts from Europe to North America. In a pastoral elegy elegy, in Greek and Roman poetry, a poem written in elegiac verse (i.e., couplets consisting of a hexameter line followed by a pentameter line). The form dates back to 7th cent. B.C. in Greece and poets such as Archilochus, Mimnermus, and Tytraeus. for the death of Wolfe, Daphnis and Menalcas, one of the two shepherds, Daphnis, calls America his "native Land," and refers to its having long been a "helpless prey to lawless arms." (38) Daphnis is a slave-owning settler but adopts the Lockean position of regarding his cultivation of the land as giving him property rights over it. (39) Thus, British military action in North America becomes equivalent to defense of the homeland. Defense of the real homeland also figures in some works. The poet of The Patriot, having warned Britain of the French plan to "slay slay
tr.v. slew , slain , slay·ing, slays
1. To kill violently.
2. past tense and past participle often slayed Slang thy children," goes on to imagine those children "Mangl'd with gashes, and deform'd with gore." (40) Even Cockings, who approvingly compares British acquisitiveness abroad to "Briareus, with an hundred hands," opens his poem with the supposedly justificatory events of the first year of the war--the fall of Minorca and the subsequent reports that "the French prepar'd to land,/ And ravage England, with a mighty hand." (41)
It is in historical tragic drama that the idea of self-defense is most pronounced and integrated. Playwrights, who nearly always urge audiences to read a modern lesson in their work, turn routinely for plot to defense of one's country. Brown sets the tone at the beginning of the war in Athelstan, when he opens his play with invading Danes discussing London in flames. (42) Even in 1756, such extravagant visions of ruin were vulnerable to mockery. A parody of the same year has a Danish messenger reporting having seen "Proud London's City, smoaking, like the Devil Adv. 1. like the devil - with great speed or effort or intensity; "drove like crazy"; "worked like hell to get the job done"; "ran like sin for the storm cellar"; "work like thunder"; "fought like the devil" ," (43) and as the war continued, the likelihood of French troops arriving in England became more remote. Gray comments flippantly flip·pant
1. Marked by disrespectful levity or casualness; pert.
2. Archaic Talkative; voluble.
[Probably from flip. about the public mood in 1759, that everyone "continues as quiet about the Invasion, as if a Frenchman, as soon as he set his foot on our coast, would die, like a Toad in Ireland." (44) Yet invasion remained a staple of tragic drama. William Mason There have been several notable people named William Mason, including (sorted by birthdate):
See also: Dwell that frightening possibility, even as they read in the newspapers, week by week, of the successes of British troops abroad and of the conquests that accompanied those successes.
Two remarkable texts of the war challenge the trend to represent it as purely defensive. One is Gray's 1757 ode, "The Bard," in which a prophetic Welsh poet cries ruin and confusion on the invading Edward I Edward I, 1239–1307, king of England (1272–1307), son of and successor to Henry III. Early Life
By his marriage (1254) to Eleanor of Castile Edward gained new claims in France and strengthened the English rights to Gascony. . (48) The poem is not easy to interpret. There are patriotic English resonances in the bard's prevision of the Tudor accession to the English throne and celebration of Elizabeth and the literary glories of her reign. (49) However, the ode's central portion is devoted to a chorus of dead bards exultantly ex·ul·tant
Marked by great joy or jubilation; triumphant.
Adv. 1. rehearsing the failures and torments of Edward's family, and its motivating action is the unjustified invasion by England of another country. (50) To read it in terms of contemporary history is to see an aggressive rather than a defensive England. (51) Less difficult to interpret and more striking than Gray's poem is an Idler essay by Johnson that appeared first in an issue of The Universal Chronicle just two weeks after news of the fall of Quebec and the death of Wolfe. Sandwiched between eulogies of Wolfe, the essay offers the speech of a Native American chief observing an English army march across the plains. The chief characterizes the English as bloodthirsty blood·thirst·y
1. Eager to shed blood.
2. Characterized by great carnage.
blood invaders, "slaughtering in their rage those that resisted, and those that submitted, in their mirth." He ends his speech with a call to arms ! a summons to war or battle.
See also: Arms , looking forward to the day "when they shall be weakened with mutual slaughter," and he and his companions will be able to "rush down upon them, force their remains to take shelter in their ships, and reign once more in our native country." (52) The essay challenges both the widespread praise of Wolfe and the almost equally widespread representations of the current war as defensive.
It is worth noting that both Gray and Johnson still present defense of "our native Country" as the justification for war. In this, they are consistent with their contemporaries. (53) Their distinction is that they make the English or British the aggressors, and the foreign victims of that aggression the justified defenders. In most other martial works of the war, it is Britain that is threatened, or the allies of Britain, or the ancient or foreign place we are invited to associate with Britain. By this means, the writers both implicitly justify the war and avoid some parts of its nature.
More complex and interesting than the emphasis on defense is the imaginative contradiction in many wartime texts. For instance, the simultaneous desires to defend a homeland and invade the homeland of others in Cockings's War are also present in other texts. Having dubbed Wolfe the "great Deliv'rer," the Daphnis of Daphnis and Menalcas imagines the "greater labours" that remain to him:
New conquests rise to his undaunted mind: New worlds to pierce, new regions to explore, Where British streamers never flew before. (54)
Although Daphnis adds that these new territories will be freed from "Gallic chains," the addition does not quite hide the fact that indignation at being invaded is here paired with enthusiasm for invading others. Many texts of the Seven Years' War betray other mixed and discordant attitudes. They celebrate battle and are shy of it; they feature soldiers who kill and are kind; they desire victory, yet they are drawn toward images of collapse; they are fiercely patriotic, and yet they revel (as discussed below) in the imagination of their heroes' deaths. These mixed attitudes reflect in part the uncomfortable meeting in the middle of the century of ideals of martial virtue with the discomfort with war I discuss above. Their combined imprint on the writings of the Seven Years' War suggests an underlying uncertainty about war and its representation.
The unresolved tension between defense and conquest in Daphnis and Menalcas is matched by a more general ambiguity about war in many texts. In his laureate poem for the new year of 1761, for instance, Whitehead exploits the structure of the ode to accommodate both excitement and distaste at the imagination of battle. The strophe stro·phe
a. The first of a pair of stanzas of alternating form on which the structure of a given poem is based.
b. A stanza containing irregular lines.
2. that has the muse "indignant" hearing the "clanging clang
1. A loud, resonant, metallic sound.
2. The strident call of a crane or goose.
intr. & tr.v. clanged, clang·ing, clangs
To make or cause to make a clang. trump, the rattling car" is answered by an antistrophe an·tis·tro·phe
1. The second stanza, and those like it, in a poem consisting of alternating stanzas in contrasting metrical form.
2. that revels in the memory of the voice of Fame spreading British victories and ends with ringing tributes to naval victories and the taking of Quebec:
O'er Biscay's roar thy voice prevail'd, And at thy word the rocks we scal'd And Canada is ours. (55)
There is a similar mixture of incongruous sentiments in Thomas Warton's 1762 poem for the birth of the new Prince of Wales Prince of Wales
switches places with his double, poor boy Tom Canty. [Am. Lit.: The Prince and the Pauper]
See : Doubles . Having imagined the boy fired by the military trophies he will grow up among at Windsor, Warton changes tack and urges him not to seek "in fields of blood his warriour bays." Instead,
Be thine domestic glory's radiant calm, Be thine the scepter wreath'd with many a palm: Be thine the throne with peaceful emblems hung, The silver lyre to milder conquest strung!
This is typical of the divided attitudes toward war in many texts. On the one hand, Warton concedes that "War has its charms terrific," but on the other, he acknowledges the claims of milder virtues. (56)
Those claims emerge in many texts through their emphasis on soldierly kindness and humanity. At times this can appear as just another justification for the war--not only are we fighting in self-defense, the writers seem to say, but also we are more humane than the enemy. Johnstone, for instance, follows his tale of Russian atrocity in Chrysal with a victory for his King of Bulgaria, a fictionalized and idealized portrait of Frederick, after which the king takes "immediate care of the unhappy sufferers, both friends and enemies without distinction." (57) But elsewhere kindness and killing are placed in such close relation to each other as to create distinct tensions. Dobson shows Frederick surveying the thousands of dead on the "foughten field," wonders later what "multitudes" and "what crouds on crouds" the hero has dispatched, and later still lauds his kindness "For guiltless Widows and for Orphan babes, / Thus multiplied by his victorious arm." (58) These last lines seem oddly to admire both Frederick's care for the widows and orphans In typesetting, widow refers to the final line of a paragraph that falls at the top the following page of text, separated from the remainder of the paragraph on the previous page. The term can also be used to refer simply to an uncomfortably short (e.g. and his part in making them widows and orphans. But the locus classicus of the kind-hearted killer is Ossian. When Fingal insists, "my hand did not injure the weak, my steel did not touch the feeble in arms," (59) he is showing something of that general "tenderness and delicacy" of the Ossianic hero, which a contemporary reviewer felt transcended "the ordinary mounds of credibility." (60) More germane to what I am discussing than Fingal's restraint, though, is the coexisting love of war and love of peace among Macpherson's warriors. Connal announces that his spear "delights to shine in battle, and to mix with the blood of thousands." But, he continues, "tho' my hand is bent on war, my heart is for the peace of Erin." (61) There is the characteristic Macpherson sleight here of moving the delight in blood from the warrior to his spear, but that cannot annul an·nul
tr.v. an·nulled, an·nul·ling, an·nuls
1. To make or declare void or invalid, as a marriage or a law; nullify.
2. the fact that pleasure in killing and longing for peace do not quite match. It is only Macpherson's rhetorical sweep that obscures the muddle and makes the collocation of "blood of thousands" and "peace of Erin" seem almost natural.
The emphasis on kindness is matched by an unwillingness to show soldiers from the writer's (and reader's) side in the act of killing. This is not true of every text. Cockings includes a scene of hand-to-hand combat between six Native Americans and an Irishman, who apparently, at one point, wields his halberd halberd
Weapon consisting of an ax blade and a sharp spike mounted on the end of a long staff. Usually about 5–6 ft (1.5–2 m) long, it was an important weapon in middle Europe in the 15th and early 16th centuries. to such effect that he transfixes two enemies with one thrust. (62) Cockings even offers a description of the effect of British bombs on the civilians of Louisbourg. "Men, women, children," he notes approvingly, "welter in their gore!" (63) More common, however, are descriptive methods that include victory and carnage but that somehow exclude the authors of them. One of these methods is the focus, familiar from the poetry of the War of the Spanish Succession Noun 1. War of the Spanish Succession - a general war in Europe (1701-1714) that broke out when Louis XIV installed his grandson on the throne of Spain; England and Holland hoped to limit Louis' power , on the heroic qualities of generalship gen·er·al·ship
1. The rank, office, or tenure of a general.
2. Leadership or skill in the conduct of a war.
3. Skillful management or leadership.
Noun 1. rather than on those of the warrior. (64) Johnstone has his Frederick, King of Bulgaria intrepidly flying "from rank to rank" and exposing himself "to every shape of death in the action," and Dobson tells how the "brave example" of Frederick in every corner of the field "Inspir'd, directed, instigated, cheer'd." (65) The characteristics of such heroes include omnipresence Omnipresence
See also Ubiquity.
supreme being and pervasive spirit of the universe. [Islam: Leach, 36]
all-seeing leader watches every move. [Br. Lit.: 1984]
God sees all things in all places. , leadership, and the courage to face death, but not, at least not graphically, the capacity to cause it. This diffidence about showing admired patriots in the act of killing is related to the growing concern, discussed above, with the "civilized" virtues of kindness and humanity.
In addition to the emphasis on generalship, writers sometimes resort to a strangely euphemistic figurative language. Daphnis and Menalcas has a vision of the approaching Wolfe:
He comes; the Hero terrible in War I see, and hail his bright approach from far, Our world's restorer and our Polar star. Glad beams of conquest round his temples play; The foes behold with terror and dismay. (66)
The martial terribleness of the first line is quickly transformed into images of benign light, so that by the end of the excerpt, Wolfe almost seems to conquer his foes by shining on them. (67)
Ossian uses removed language of a different kind, the death of Ullin early in the Fragments being fairly representative: "Oscur my son came down; the mighty in battle descended. His armour rattled as thunder; and the lightning of his eyes was terrible. There, was the clashing of swords; there, was the voice of steel. They struck and they thrust; they digged for death with their swords. But death was distant far, and delayed to come. The sun began to decline; and the cow-herd thought of home. Then Oscur's keen steel found the heart of Ullin. He fell like a mountain-oak covered over with glistering glis·ter
intr.v. glis·tered, glis·ter·ing, glis·ters
[Middle English glisteren, probably from Middle Dutch frost: He shone like a rock on the plain." (68) The conventionality of the images, the shift from human subjects to metonymic me·ton·y·my
n. pl. me·ton·y·mies
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of steel, and the absence of detail--all move the passage away from any real engagement with the moment of combat. Adam Potkay has suggested that "Ossian's language purposefully distracts us from the brutality it implies," and though I would quarrel with the word "purposefully," the point is well taken. (69) Macpherson manages to focus on individual deeds without describing the deeds themselves and to make killing with a sword a glorious thing without showing what that entails. In doing so, he is consistent with the tendency among his contemporaries to elevate military heroes but to avoid explicitly imagining them in the act of killing.
Another discordance discordance /dis·cor·dance/ (dis-kord´ans) the occurrence of a given trait in only one member of a twin pair.discor´dant
n. is that between desires for victory and fantasies of collapse. Desires for victory hardly need illustrating, but what is more curious is the way in which visions of ending hover around the literature of the war. (70) Home's Douglas and Mason's Caractacus are two examples. In Caractacus, the brave but disorderly Britons are beaten by the Romans, and though in Douglas the final battle is not shown, the play ends in an atmosphere of downfall. Lord Randolf goes off to battle "where the man that makes / Me turn aside must threaten worse than death." and in the last words of the play, he says "For RANDOLPH hopes he never shall return." (71) The sense of defeat is given a more general and apocalyptic turn in Caractacus by a chorus of Druids who offer a prophecy in which "kingdoms, empires, worlds. / Melt in the general blaze." (72) But again it is Ossian that provides the best example, since the sense that the days of glory are gone is probably the most pervasive element of those texts. Ossian in characteristic mood laments his present condition: "often have I fought, and often won in battles of the spear. But blind, and tearful, and folorn I now walk with little men. O Fingal, with thy race of battle I now behold thee not. The wild roes feed upon the green tomb of the mighty king of Morven." (73) This element of the poems is usually read, appropriately enough, in relation to Scottish history, but it may also be relevant to the broader British context. Although the connection must remain at the level of speculation, it seems likely that currents of discomfort and anxiety about modern warfare at least contributed to the impulse for imagining ending and collapse.
More widespread than the image of downfall is that of the death of the hero. This sometimes develops into a peculiar mixed aesthetic that combines joy at victory with morbid gratification at the demise of our most noble fighter. Death is almost omnipresent om·ni·pres·ent
Present everywhere simultaneously.
[Medieval Latin omnipres in Ossian, the first fragment of which has Shilric foreseeing his own in characteristically melancholy vein: "if fall I must in the field, raise high my grave, Vinvela. Grey stones, and heaped-up earth, shall mark me to future times. When the hunter shall sit by the mound, and produce his food at noon. 'Some warrior rests here,' he will say; and my fame shall live in his praise. Remember me, Vinvela, when low on earth I lie!" (74)
Fiona J. Stafford has argued that in Ossian "death seems a peaceful, fulfilling solution to the miseries and frustrations of life." (75) Certainly death solves the problems of some of the heroes, but it also provides an oblique solution for the writer's problem of maintaining at once an admiration for warrior and humane codes, for killing and being kind. If the killer is killed, he becomes implicitly a sacrifice and absolved of the killing he has done.
Other writers also dwell upon the beauty of death. This can be seen best among the memorialists of Wolfe, whose death was perhaps the most imaginatively resonant moment of the whole war. One of the many prose accounts of it records what were agreed to have been his last words upon learning that the French were in retreat: "I die contented then the hero cry'd, my life was due to my country, happy if I have been the means of adding conquest and glory to it: he died with calmness, and closed a well-spent life by an action which throws a lustre lustre
In mineralogy, the appearance of a mineral surface in terms of its light-reflecting qualities. Lustre depends on a mineral's refractivity (see refraction), transparency, and structure. upon the arms of Britain." (76)
Narratives of this kind were quickly supplemented by poetic tributes, one of which puts different words into a spectator's mouth:
"How beautiful is Death when earn'd by Virtue! "Who would not be that Youth? What pity is it "That we can die but once, to serve our Country." (77)
There is the idea here, partly borrowed from Joseph Addison's Cato, that death is the highest act of patriotic virtue, and alongside that is a strong imaginative delight in it. Death is beautiful, the lines insist, and repeated death, if possible, would be desirable. That sense of the beauty of death is powerfully expressed in a curious, rhapsodic prose life of Wolfe by Sir John Pringle. Having conceded that many have died for their country, Pringle goes on: "but how few, under his Circumstances, have graced Death with such attractive Charms, that what commonly is abhorred as an Evil, seems pleasing, welcome and desirable? We praise then, we magnify mag·ni·fy
To increase the apparent size of, especially with a lens. such a Death; we exult within ourselves, that we can produce such an Example to awake Imitation upon a like Occasion." (78) Pringle does not do things by halves. He uses four adjectives for the charm of death, three verbs for our admiration of it, and finally hints at the possibility of imitation. Like a later poet and some of his contemporaries, he seems "half in love" if not with "easeful ease·ful
Affording or characterized by comfort and peace; restful.
easeful·ly adv. Death," then certainly with patriotic death. (79) This is an extreme example, but it does illustrate the way in which, alongside victory, writers relished the death of their own heroes.
Heroic death and soldierly kindness are reproduced in the two most successful visual images of the war. The more well known of these today is Benjamin West's 1771 painting of the death of Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham. Wolfe's body, in the arms of another soldier, is bent like the body of Christ
The Body of Christ is a term used by Christians to describe believers in Christ. Jesus Christ is seen as the "head" of the body, which is the church. in Renaissance paintings, while the union flag rises above him like the upright of a cross, and the mourners stand round. Objects positioned behind the mourners even suggest angels' wings in some cases, and the battle continues away from Wolfe and behind his back. Continuing battle or not, the focus of the picture is his death, and a beautiful and sacrificial death at that. The other painting is Edward Penny's 1764 The Marquis of Granby Giving Alms to a Sick Soldier and His Family, which is now in the Ashmolean Museum. (80) It shows a mounted Granby, England's most dashing officer, about to give money to an ailing soldier seated at the side of a path, while the soldier's family--wife, three children, and a faithful spaniel--stand behind, the wife wearing an expression of deferential deferential /def·er·en·tial/ (-en´shal) pertaining to the ductus deferens.
Of or relating to the vas deferens.
pertaining to the ductus deferens. gratitude. To the left and also behind are three officers in conversation on horseback, and in the distance is the end of a cavalry column. Except perhaps for the conversation of the officers and the gesturing arm of one of them, there is no suggestion of imminent or recent battle.
Both West and Penny painted their pictures after the end of the war, but their choice of subject demonstrates the continuing resonance of the ideas of kindness and death that are so important in writings produced during it. Like much imaginative war writing, the pictures have a curious relation to their subject, and seem to embody contradictory attitudes. On the one hand they celebrate two of Britain's most renowned military heroes--Wolfe and Granby. But on the other, they keep the military element of their subject's heroism, which is surely also the principal element, strictly at a distance. Wolfe is the sacrificial victim, albeit at the moment of victory, and Granby is the generous distributor of alms. It is as if the painters are unsure about their feelings concerning heroism and the war and about how to represent them. In the same way, much of the war writing of the Seven Years' War embodies mixed and conflicting desires: for victory and self-sacrifice, for heroes who conquer and are kind, for soldiers who kill but are not seen killing. Behind those discordances is uncertainty about war and about what to do with it in words.
Where contradiction exists in the martial literature of that war, it is usually neither deliberate nor acknowledged, but obscured either by the conventional afflatus af·fla·tus
A strong creative impulse, especially as a result of divine inspiration.
[Latin affl of heroic writing or by the melancholy mists of Macpherson's. Only in one text of the war, Tristram Shandy, are mixed attitudes toward war in general comically analyzed and understood. (81) Tristram's Uncle Toby embodies in an extreme way the conflicting characteristics of other wartime literary heroes in fighting foreign wars at home, and in being at once badly wounded (rather then dead), preternaturally pre·ter·nat·u·ral
1. Out of or being beyond the normal course of nature; differing from the natural.
2. Surpassing the normal or usual; extraordinary: gentle, and excessively enthusiastic about war. Not only does Toby refuse to hurt a fly, but according to one of Tristram's tributes: "for each one's service, thou hadst hadst
A second person singular past tense of have. a tear,--for each man's need, thou hadst a shilling." (82) Yet this is also the man who spends both his time and his fortune in enacting on a bowling green the ongoing and deadly sieges of European fortified fortified (fôrt´fīd),
adj containing additives more potent than the principal ingredient. towns. Sterne draws the reader's attention to the contradiction. The fly incident, to which Tristram says he owes "one half of my philanthropy," is prefaced by a discussion of sieges. Just before Toby releases the fly, Walter has wished "the whole science of fortification fortification, system of defense structures for protection from enemy attacks. Fortification developed along two general lines: permanent sites built in peacetime, and emplacements and obstacles hastily constructed in the field in time of war. , with all its inventors, at the Devil;--it has been the death of thousands,--and it will be mine, in the end." (83) The outburst recalls that warfare involves death, and that the veteran who cannot hurt a fly must presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. have killed men. Later, Trim adds to Obadiah's praise of the kindness of his master: "there never was a better officer in the king's army,--or a better man in God's world; for he would march up to the mouth of a cannon, though he saw the lighted match at the very touch-hole,--and yet, for all that, he has a heart as soft as a child for other people.--He would not hurt a chicken." (84) Like other descriptions of Trim's, and indeed of the period, this one dwells upon marching forward and receiving fire, and it says nothing of delivering bullets or bayonet bayonet
Short, sharp-edged, sometimes pointed weapon, designed for attachment to the muzzle of a firearm. According to tradition, it was developed in Bayonne, France, early in the 17th century and soon spread throughout Europe. thrusts. That absence, obvious enough in itself with Toby so close to the enemy, is high-lighted by the insistence that this brave soldier and lover of war would not "hurt a chicken." Sterne is making comic capital out of the tensions inherent in the notion of the gentle warrior.
If Toby embodies in comic form the contrary impulses in portraits of martial heroes, he also provides Sterne with the opportunity to explore some of the contemporary problems in representing war. Peculiar, obsessive, and eccentric as he is, Toby is grappling with the same difficulty as many of Sterne's contemporaries of how to show war through one representational means or another. His hobby has its source in the tendency of visitors to his sick bed to ask about his wound, and in "the almost insurmountable difficulties he found in telling his story intelligibly." (85) In other words, it begins with his desire to narrate precisely the formative military moment of his adult life. From attempts at narrative he moves to maps, and eventually, at Trim's suggestion, from maps to the odd new genre--part masque masque, courtly form of dramatic spectacle, popular in England in the first half of the 17th cent. The masque developed from the early 16th-century disguising, or mummery, in which disguised guests bearing presents would break into a festival and then join with their , part history, part sculpture--the two of them invent together. Although its creators seem satisfied with the adequacy of this form of representation, no one else can be. It is a bizarre mixture of materials and scales, lacks representations of human beings, and appears grotesquely deficient in its rendition of such specific events as the siege of Lille There have been two sieges of Lille in France:
Toby's problem is the aesthetic one of finding the most appropriate means of representation, but Sterne also hints at the moral problem for those who produce or enjoy representations of battle. Indeed, he implies quite strongly that there is something wrong with the "intense pleasure" Toby gets from his sieges. (86) The point is made most explicitly in Walter's insinuations that his brother's regret at the Treaty of Utrecht For the Union of Utrecht of 1579, see .
The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, rather than a single document, comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713. is regret at the curtailment of his activities: "never mind, brother Toby, he would say,--by God's blessing we shall have another war break out again some of these days; and when it does,--the belligerent powers, if they would hang themselves, cannot keep us out of play." (87)
The suggestion here that Toby's pursuit of his own pleasure overrides any concern for the loss of other people's lives is present in all the descriptions of the bowling-green activities and especially in the siege of Lille episode. The high casualty rate in the real attack, carefully mentioned by Sterne, makes Toby prepare his reenactment re·en·act also re-en·act
tr.v. re·en·act·ed, re·en·act·ing, re·en·acts
1. To enact again: reenact a law.
2. "with a more than ordinary solemnity SOLEMNITY. The formality established by law to render a contract, agreement, or other act valid.
2. A marriage, for example, would not be valid if made in jest, and without solemnity. Vide Marriage, and Dig. 4, 1, 7; Id. 45, 1, 30. ," (88) but the somber mood disappears when he arrives at the bowling green to find Trim's contraption for imitating cannon smoke with two Turkish pipes. He hesitates before taking one of them:
Give me hold of the ivory pipe, Trim, said my uncle Toby--my uncle Toby put it to his lips,--drew it back directly,--gave a peep over the horn-beam hedge;--never did my uncle Toby's mouth water so much for a pipe in his life.--My uncle Toby retired into the sentry-box with the pipe in his hand.-- --Dear uncle Toby! don't go into the sentry-box with the pipe, --there's no trusting a man's self with such a thing in such a corner. (89)
The hesitation, the checking over the hedge for witnesses, the retirement to the privacy of the sentry box, Tristram's apostrophic a·pos·tro·phe 1
The superscript sign ( ' ) used to indicate the omission of a letter or letters from a word, the possessive case, or the plurals of numbers, letters, and abbreviations. warning, even the mouth watering--all imply a guilty pleasure. What is more, the idea of an irresistible attraction in the last sentence carries a distinct sexual connotation, especially in a novel that delights so much in sexual innuendo innuendo n. from Latin innuere, "to nod toward." In law it means "an indirect hint." "Innuendo" is used in lawsuits for defamation (libel or slander), usually to show that the party suing was the person about whom the nasty statements were made or why the comments . The suggestion that imaginative response to foreign battle can be a solitary, almost irresistible sexual pleasure betrays a more radical doubt about the representation of war than the uncertainty I discussed in the previous section. Sterne implies that, if war itself is possibly out of place in a humane age, the pleasure in creating and experiencing representations of war is also morally very dubious.
It is perhaps not too great a stretch to offer that moment--the wounded veteran Toby with the ivory pipe in the sentry box--as the epitome of the martial literature of the Seven Years' War. There is delight for Toby in the idea of war and victory, no matter what the cost in life, and in the recreation of an attack in his chosen media of soil, wood, old boots, and tobacco smoke. But there is also constraint--seen in the absence of human figures on the green and the retirement into the box. That same mixture of delight and constraint is present in most of the imaginative writing about the war. The writers seem to have wanted to awaken the martial muse the poets of 1757 looked forward to, but also to have felt there was something not quite right in that. The result is an insecure body of writing, veering between pictures of sanguinary san·gui·nar·y
1. Accompanied by bloodshed.
2. Eager for bloodshed; bloodthirsty.
3. Consisting of blood.
[Latin sanguin triumph and the implicit extenuation EXTENUATION. That which renders a crime or tort less heinous than it would be without it: it is opposed to aggravation. (q.v. )
2. In general, extenuating circumstances go in mitigation of punishment in criminal cases, or of damages in those of a civil nature. of those in cameos of the hero's kindness and death. Only Sterne was able to step back from that and see, with quite astonishing comic clarity, the contradictions inherent in contemporary attitudes and behavior.
(1) John Brown, An Estimate of the Manners and Principles of the Times. 2d edn, (London. 1757: Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004). p. 201, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=O&locID=txshracd2542&d1=1278900&srchtp=b&c=4&SU=All&d2=1&docNum=CW3307975463&bO=An+Estimate+of+the+Manners+and+Principles+of+the+Times&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&b1=Tl&d6=1&ste=10&dc=tiPG&stp=Author&d4=0.33&n=10&d5=d6.
(2) Brown, Estimate, p. 144.
(3) David Garrick, "To Mr. Gray on His Odes" (Twickenham. 1797: Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p. 2, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&locID=txshracd2542&dl=0149003200&srchtp=b&SU=All&c=1&d2=1&docNum=CW3312998134&b0=To+Mr.+Gray+on+his+Odes&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&b1=TI&d6=1&ste=10&d4=0.33&stp=Author&de=tiPG&n=10&d5=d6; The Patriot: Or A Call To Glory Call to Glory was an American television series that aired 23 episodes during the 1984/1985 TV seasons on the ABC-TV network. Starring Craig T. Nelson as USAF pilot Col. ; A Poem. In Two Books (Edinburgh, 1757; Eighteenth Century Collections Online. 2004), p. 10. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=o&locID=txsracd25&d1=0273100200&srchtp=b&c=4&SU=All&d2=1&docNum=CW3314681796&bO=The+Patri ot%3A+Or+a+Call+to+Glory&h2=l&10=1757&vrsn=1.0&bl=TI&d6=1&ste=10&d4=0.33&de=dc=tiPG&stp=Author&n=10&d5=d6.
(4) Britain, a Poem; In Three Books (Edinburgh, 1757). pp. 11-2, 84.
(5) Britain, a Poem, p. 56.
(6) The Patriot, pp. 20, 79. It is unclear who the "SCOTIAN bard" is. though he may possibly be John Home, whose Douglas was enjoying both fame and notoriety in 1757.
(7) Garrick, p. 2.
(8) A Complete History of the War in India, from the Year 1749, to the Taking of Pondicherry in 1761. Giving a Particular and Circumstantial Account of All the Differences between the English and French; also the Disputes among the Nabobs. and Those between the English and the Dutch; Together with an Accurate Detail of All Colonel Clive's Military Transactions, with Those of Every Other Officer (London, 1761; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2003), p. 1, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&locID=txshracd2542&d1=0002900200&srchtp=b&SU=All&c=1&d2=1&docNum=CW3302158529&bO=A+complete+history+of+the+war+in+india&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&b1=TI&d=1&ste=10&d4=0.33&stp=Author&dc=tiPG&n=10&d5=d6.
(9) Tom Pocock's recent popular history of the war. for instance, adopts the phrase for its subtitle (Battle for Empire: The Very First World War, 1756-63 [London: Michael O'Mara Books, 1998]).
(10) Linda Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707-1837 (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1992), p. 101.
(11) M.John Cardwell has recently considered writings of the Seven Years' War in some detail from a historical perspective, concentrating on the insight that literary texts can offer into "the cultural and ideological framework of contemporary political discussion" (Arts and Arms: Literature, Politics, and Patriotism during the Seven Years War Seven Years War, 1756–63, worldwide war fought in Europe, North America, and India between France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and (after 1762) Spain on the one side and Prussia, Great Britain, and Hanover on the other. [Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 2004], p. 2). But scholars have not paid much attention to eighteenth-century war writing in general. For a brief overview of the scholarship, see Simon Bainbridge, British Poetry and the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: Visions of Conflict (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2003), pp. 21-2.
(12) George Cockings, War: An Heroic Poem, from the Taking of Minorca, by the French; to the Reduction of Manilla; in Ten Books, 4th edn. (London, 1765; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p. 26, http://galenet. galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=O&locID=txshracd2542&d 1=062190050 O&srchtp=b&SU=All&c=4&df=f&d2=l&docNum=CW3313704806&bO=Cockings&h2= 1 &vrsn=1.0&b 1=AO&db=Title+Page&d6= 1&d3=O&ste= 10&d4=0.3 3&stp=Author&n=10&d5=d6.
(13) Thro' Austria and Russia. The Marquis of Granby (London, 1762), n.p.
(14) Contemporary critics have discussed Ossian's negotiations between ancient and modern ideas of the warrior. At one end of the spectrum John Dwyer argues that the "intricate weave" of "the mantle of Ossian" "provided a cultural seam between two ethical domains" ("The Melancholy Savage: Text and Context in the Poems of Ossian," in Ossian Revisited, ed. Howard Gaskill [Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1991], pp. 164-206, 169). At the other, Dafydd Moore suggests Ossian "ultimately does no less than insist on the total disjunction disjunction /dis·junc·tion/ (-junk´shun)
1. the act or state of being disjoined.
2. in genetics, the moving apart of bivalent chromosomes at the first anaphase of meiosis. between the epic of warrior adventuring ... and the world of sensibility" ("Heroic Incoherence in James Macpherson's The Poems of Ossian," ECS See eComStation. 34, 1 [Autumn 2000]: 43-59, 45). See also Adam Potkay, "Virtue and Manners in Macpherson's Poems of Ossian," PMLA 107, 1 (January 1992): 120-30, 121.
(15) Cardwell, p. 9.
(16) John Brown, prologue to Athelstan. A Tragedy. As It Is Acted at the Theatre Royal in Drury-Lane (Dublin, 1756; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2003). pp. 5-6, 5, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=O&locID=txshracd2542&d 1=0737801300&srchtp=b&c=27&SU=All&df=f&d2=1&docNum=CW3313471676&bO=Brown%2C+John&h2=l&vrsn=1 O& b1 = AO&db=Title+Page&d6=l&d3=0&ste=10&d4=0.33&stp=DateAscend&n =10&d5=d6.
(17) Home, Agis, in The Dramatic Works of John Home (London, 1760; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), pp. 92-180, 94, http://galenet. galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=O&locID=txshracd2542&d 1=057990040 0&srchtp=b&c=3&SU=All&d2=l&docNum=CW3314334557&b0=the+dramatic+works+of+John+Home&h2= 1&vrsn=1.0&b 1=TI&d6= 1&ste= 10&dc=tiPG&stp=Author&d4=0.33&n=10&d5=d6.
(18) J. Patrick, "To the Reader," preface to Quebec: A Poetical Essay, in Imitation of the Miltonic Stile: Being a Regular Narrative of the Proceedings and Capital Transactions Performed by the British Forces under the Command of Vice-Admiral Saunders and Major-General Wolfe, in the Glorious Expedition against Canada, in the Year 1759. The Performance of a Volunteer On Board His Majesty's Ship Somerset during the Passage Home from Quebec. The Whole Embellished with Entertaining and Explanatory Notes (London, 1760), pp. 6-7. 6.
(19) Thomas Blackwell, An Enquiry into the Life and Writings of Homer (London, 1735; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p. 309, http:// galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=O&locID=txshracd2542&dl=0983 500100&srchtp=b&SU=All&c=l&d2=2&docNum=CW3315467554&bO=Blackwell%2C+Thomas&h2=1&vrsn= 1.0&b1=AO&d6=2&ste= 10&d4=0.33&stp=A uthor&dc=tiPG&n=10&d5=d6.
(20) William Dobson. The Prussian Campaign, a Poem: Celebrating the Achievements of Frederick the Great Frederick the Great: see Frederick II, king of Prussia. , in the Years 1756-57 (London, 1758; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p. 17, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&locID=txshracd2542&dl=0163600800&srchtp=b&SU=All&c= 1&d2= 1&docNum=CW3309550446&bO=Dobson%2C+William&h2=1 &vrsn= 1.0&b1 =AO&d6=1&ste= 10&d4=0.33&stp=Author&dc=tiPG&n=10&d5=d6.
(21) Alexander Gordon. The Prussiad: An Heroick Poem. Written by Major Alexander Gordon, a Volunteer in the Prussian Service; and Presented to the King of Prussia at the Camp of Madlitz, near the Furstenwalde, Sept. 7, 1759. To Which Is Prefixed, the Original Letter, Wrote with His Majesty's Own Hand to the Author, in the German Language, with a Translation (London, 1759; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p. 26, http://galenet. galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=O&locID=txshracd2542&d 1=062500040 0&srchtp=b&c= 1&SU=All&d2=2&docNum=CW3313601690&b0=The+Pruss iad&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&b1=TI&d6=2&ste=10&dc=tiPG&stp=Author&d4=0.33&n=10&d5=d6.
(22) Charles Johnstone, Chrysal: Or, the Adventures of a Guinea. Wherein Are Exhibited Views of Several Striking Scenes, with Curious and Interesting Anecdotes of the Most Noted Persons in Every Rank of Life. Whose Hands It Passed through, in America, England, Holland, Germany, and Portugal, 3d edn., 4 vols. (London, 1767; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), 2:138,http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=O&locID=txshracd 2542&dl=0391300102&srchtp=b&SU=All&c=3&d2=l&docNum=CW33122 26635&bO=Chrysal&h2=1&vrsn= 1.0&10= 1767&b 1=TI&d6= 1&ste= 10&dc=tiPG&d4=0.33&stp=Author&n=10&d5=d6.
(23) The Militia-Man. Containing, Necessary Rules for Both Officer and Soldier. With an Explanation of the Manual Exercise of the Foot. Illustrated with Forty-Eight Cuts. Representing the Different Positions of a Soldier Under Arms. To Which Is Prefixed, A Proposal for Making the Love of Arms Universal, and Some Proofs, that Many of the Greatest Military Acts Have Been Performed by Militia (London, 1740; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2003), p. 80. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=O&locID=txshracd2542& d 1 =016420 1300&srchtp=b&c=1&SU=All&d2=1&docNum=CW3304891472&bO=The+Militia-Man&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&bl=TI&d6=l&ste= 10&dc=tiPG&stp=Author&d4=0.33&n=10&d5=d6.
(24) "Copy of a Letter from the Hon. Brigadier General Townsend to the Right Hon. Mr. Secretary Pitt, Dated, Camp Before Quebec. Sept. 20, 1759." The Universal Chronicle, or Weekly Gazette 81, 13-20 October 1759, 333.
(25) John Shebbeare, A Fourth Letter to the People of England. On the Conduct of the M--rs in Alliances. Fleets, and Armies, since the First Differences on the Ohio, to the Taking of Minorca by the French (London, 1756; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2003), pp. 61, 2, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=O&loclD=txshracd2542&dl=123980140 0&srchtp=b&SU=All&c=4&df=f&d2=2&docNum=CW3307668878&bO=Sheb beare%2C+John&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&10=1756&b1=AO&db=Title+Page&d6=2&d3=O&Ste=10&d4=0.33&stp=DocTitle&n=10&d5=d6.
(26) Shebbeare. p. 62.
(27) Charles Churchill, The Duellist. A Poem. In Three Books (London, 1764; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p. 19, http://galenet. galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&locID=txshracd2542&d 1=122040100 O&srchtp=b&SU=All&c=12&d2=2&docNum=CW3316857173&bO=Churchil1%2C+Charles&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&b1=AO&d6=2&ste=10&d4=0.33&stp=Aut hor&dc=tiPG&n=10&d5=d6.
(28) Edward Gibbon. The Autobiographies of Edward Gibbon. Printed Verbatim from the Hitherto Unpublished Mss.. with an Introduction by the Earl of Sheffield, ed. John Murray, 2d edn. (London, 1897), p. 190, qtd. in J. G. A. Pocock John Greville Agard (J.G.A.) Pocock (born March 71924) is a world-renowned historian and expatriate New Zealander, noted for his trenchant studies of republicanism in the early modern period (especially in Europe, Britain, and America), for his treatment of Edward Gibbon and . The Enlightenments of Edward Gibbon, 1737-1764. vol. 1 of Barbarism bar·ba·rism
1. An act, trait, or custom characterized by ignorance or crudity.
a. The use of words, forms, or expressions considered incorrect or unacceptable.
b. and Religion, 4 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999-2005). 1:117.
(29) J. G. A. Pocock, Barbarism, 1:119.
(30) Alexander Pope, The Illiad of Homer. Books X-XXIV, ed. Maynard Mack, vol. 8 of The Twickenham Edition of the Poems of Alexander Pope, ed. John Butt, 11 vols. (London: Methuen, 1938-69), 8:128n.
(31) Israel Mauduit, Considerations on the Present German War (London, 1760; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2003). p. 26, http://galenet. galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=O&loclD=txshradce2542&d 1=079340120 O&srchtp=b&c=2&SU=All&d2=1&docNum=CW3305105206&bO=Considerations+on+the+Present+German+War&h2=1&vrsn= L.O&b 1.0&b1=TI&d6=1&ste=1 0&dc=tiPG&stp=DocTitle&d4=0.33&n=10&d5=d6.
(32) William Whitehead, Creusa. Queen of Athens. A Tragedy. As It is Acted at the Theatre Royal in Drury-Lane by His Majesty's Servants (London, 1754; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), act 4, p. 57, http://galenet. galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=o&localD=txshrace2542&d1=01560110 O&srchtp=b&c=4&SU=All&d2=1&docNum=CW3310244664&b0=Whitehead %2C+William&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&b 1=AO&d6=1&ste=10&de=tiPG&stp=Author&d4=0.33&n=10&d5=d6\.
(33) "An Address of a Citizen of the World to All the Belligerent Sovereigns, in the Name of All the Subjects in Europe," The Gentleman's Magazine, and Historical Chronicle 31, January 1761, 3-6, 4.
(34) Johnstone, 2:153.
(35) Samuel Johnson. "Observations on the Present State of Affairs." in Samuel Johnson: Political Writings, ed. Donald J. Greene, vol. 10 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson, ed. Herman W. Liebert, 17 vols. (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1958-2004), 10:184-96, 188; Oliver Goldsmith, The Citizen of the World, ed. Arthur Friedman. vol. 2 of Collected Works of Oliver Goldsmith, 5 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966). 2:74.
(36) Gordon, p. 1.
(37) Johnstone, 2:112.
(38) Daphnis and Menalcas: A Pastoral. Sacred to the Memory of the Late General Wolfe. And Humbly Inscribed to the Right Honourable William Pitt. Esquire (London. 1759: Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p. 5. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&locID=txshracd2542&d1=0660301600&srchtp=b&c=1&SU=All&d2=1&docNum=CW3313767987&b0=Daphnis+and+Menalcas%3A+A+Pastoral.+Sacred+to+the+Memory&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&b1=TI&d6=1&ste=10&dc=tiPG&stp=Author&d4=0.33&n=10&d5=d6.
(39) Daphnis and Menalcas, pp. 7-8. See Richard Tuck. The Rights of War and Peace: Political Thought and the International Order from Grotius to Kant (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. 1999). p. 232.
(40) The Patriot. p. 9.
(41) Cockings, pp. 27, 24.
(42) Brown, Athelstan, p. 7. Brown is working in an established tradition of invasion plays, which includes Richard Glover's Boadicia (1753), and James Thomson's and David Mallet's influential masque. Alfred (1740).
(43) Turncoat, A Parody of the Tragedy of Athelstan (London, 1756: Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), scene 2,p.12, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&locID=txshracd2542&dl=0796400500&srehlp=b&SU=All&c=1 &d2= 1 &docNum=CW331 442904 l&bO=Turncoat%2C+A+Parody+of+the+Tragedy&h2=1&vrsn= 1. O&b 1 =KE&d6= 1 &ste=10&d4=0.33&stp=Author&dc=tiPG&n=10&d5=d6.
(44) [Thomas] Gray to [Thomas] Wharton, 21 July 1759, letter 296 in The Correspondence of Thomas Gray. ed. Paget Toynbee and Leonard Whibley. 3 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1935), 2:624-9, 628.
(45) Arthur Murphy., The Orphan of China, a Tragedy (London, 1759; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), act 1, p. 2, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&locID=txshracd2542&dl=0695900800&srchlp=b&e=l&SU=All&d2=l&docNum=CW3314019960&b0=the+Orphan+of+China%2C+A+tragedy&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&b1=TI&d6= 1&ste=10&dc=tiPG&stp=Author&d4=0.33&n=10&d5=d6.
(46) Henry Erskine, The Story of the Tragedy of Agis. With Observations on the Play, the Performance, and the Reception (London, 1758: Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p. 6, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&localID=txshraced2542&d1=0221000300&srchtp=b&SU=All&c=1&d2=1&docNum=CW3310751264&bO=The+Story+the+Tragedy+of+Agis.+With+observations&h2=1&vrsn=1.0&b1=KE&d6=1&ste=10&ste=10&d4=0.33&stp=Author&dc=tiPG&n=10&d5=d6.
(47) Edward Young. prologue to The Brothers. A Tragedy (London, 1774; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p.2. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&localID=txshraced2542&d1=0918100500&srchtp=b&SU=All&c=9&df=f&d2=1&docNum=CW3315179757&bO=The+Brothers.+A+tragedy.&h2=1&vrsn=1.O&b1=Title+Page&d6=1&d3=O&ste=10&d4=0.33&stp=Author&n=10&d5=d6.
(48) Gray, "The Bard. A Pindaric Ode," in Thomas Gray and William Collins: Poetical Works, ed. Roger Lonsdale (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. 1977). pp. 52-9, lines 1-2.
(49) Gray. "The Bard," lines 115-30.
(50) Gray, "The Bard," lines 49-96.
(51) Dustin Griffin argues that "what is most striking about Gray's Pindaric odes is that in the second year of Britain's Seven Years' War with France, they decline to celebrate contemporary British power and greatness" (Patriotism and Poetry in Eighteenth-Century Britain [Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. 2002], p. 170). I suggest there is even implicit criticism of that power and greatness. John Lucas includes Gray among midcentury poets who "experienced a profound loss of certainty about the culture they had begun by thinking it proper to identify with" (England and Englishness: Ideas of Nationhood in English Poetry, 1688-1900 [London: Hogarth Press, 1990], p. 48).
(52) Johnson, "The Idler, no. 81, Saturday, 3 November 1759," in "The Idler" and "TheAdventurer", ed. W. J. Bate bate 1
tr.v. bat·ed, bat·ing, bates
1. To lessen the force or intensity of; moderate: "To his dying day he bated his breath a little when he told the story" , John M. Bullitt, and L. F. Powell, vol. 2 of Works, 2:252-4, 253-4. To read the essay in its original context, see The Universal Chronicle, or Weekly Gazette 83. 27 October-3 November 1759, 343.
(53) Self-defense had not been the proclaimed motive in every earlier war. In the War of the Spanish Succession, for instance, Britain was represented as playing the role of "Guardian of the Continent." See Joseph Addison, The Campaign, a Poem to His Grace the Duke of Marlborough (London, 1705; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p. 2,http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&locID=txshracd2542&dl=0100301100&srchtp=b&c=3&SU=All&d2=l&docNum=CW3312044320&b0=The+campaign%2C+A+ poem+to+his+grace+the+duke+of+marlborough&h2=1&vrsn=1. O&b 1 =Tl&d6 = l&ste=10&dc=tiPG&stp=Author&d4=0.33&n=10&d5=d6.
(54) Daphnis and Menalcas, pp. 7-8.
(55) Whitehead, "Ode IV. For the New-Year, 1761," in Plays and Poems by William Whitehead, Esq. Poet Laureat, and Register and Secretary to the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, 2 vols. (London, 1774), 2:273-5, 273-4. A third volume was added in 1788.
(56) Thomas Warton, Poems. A New Edition (London, 1777; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), pp. 20-2,http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=08docID=txshracd2542&dl=0158900300&srchtp= b&c= 1 &SU=All&d2=1 &docNum=CW3313321168&bO=Poems.+A+New+Edit ion&h2=1 &10=1777&vrsn=1.0&b1=T1&d6=1 =TI&d6= 1 &ste=10&d4=0.33&dc=tiPG&s tp=Author&n=10&d5=d6.
(57) Johnstone, 2:139.
(58) Dobson, pp. 10, 18. 24.
(59) Macpherson, The Works of Ossian, the Son of Fingal. In Two Volumes. Translated from the Galic Language by James Macpherson. Vol. I. Containing Fingal, an Ancient Epic Poem, in Six Books; and Several Other Poems, in The Poems of Ossian and Related Works, ed. Howard Gaskill (Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1996), pp. 39-202, 120.
(60) "Review of Fingal: An Ancient Epic Poem," in Critical Works, vol. 3 of Ossian and Ossianism, ed. Dafydd Moore, 4 vols. (London: Routledge, 2004), 3:6-17, 12.
(61) Macpherson, Works of Ossian, p. 56.
(62) Cockings, pp. 127-8.
(63) Cockings, p. 41.
(64) I consider this more fully in "Modern Warfare in Early Eighteenth-Century Poetry," SEL (SELect) A toggle switch on a printer that takes the printer alternately between online and offline.
1. SEL - Self-Extensible Language.
2. SEL - Subset-Equational Language. 45, 3 (Summer 2005): 557-77.
(65) Johnstone, 2:139; Dobson, p. 17.
(66) Daphnis and Menalcas, p. 6.
(67) In Books 19 and 20 of the Iliad, the rearmed and reenergized Achilles is described with images of effulgence. But he also performs warrior acts to defeat the Trojans.
(68) Macpherson, Fragments of Ancient Poetry, Collected in the Highlands of Scotland, and Translated from the Galic or Erse Language, in Poems of Ossian. pp. 1-31, 14.
(69) Potkay, p. 124.
(70) Colley has suggested that at the end of the war Britons were "worried about the immediate challenges of extended empire" (p. 102).
(71) Home, Douglas: A Tragedy, in Dramatic Works, pp. 2-90, 89.
(72) William Mason, Caractacus, a Dramatic Poem: Written on the Model of the Ancient Greek Tragedy (Dublin, 1759; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2004), p. 25, http://galenet. galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&l 0cID=txshracd2542&d 1 =0670801600&srchtp=b&c=4&SU=All&df=f&d2=l& docNum=CW3313801767&bo=caractacus&h2=1&vrsn=l.0&b1=TI&db=Titl e+Page&d6=1 &d3=0&ste=10&d4=0.33&stp=Author&n=10&d5=d6.
(73) Macpherson, Works of Ossian, p. 79.
(74) Macpherson, Fragments, p. 7.
(75) Fiona J. Stafford, "'Dangerous Success": Ossian, Wordsworth, and English Romantic Literature," in Ossian Revisited, pp. 49-72, 58.
(76) An Accurate and Authentic Journal of the Siege of Quebec, 1759. By a Gentleman in an Eminent Station on the Spot (London, 1759; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2003), p. 40, http://galenet.galegroup.com/ sendet/ECCO?dd=0&locID=txshracd2542&dl=0499201200&srchtp=b&S U=All&c=l&d2=1&docNum=CW3305196159&bO=An+Accurate+and+Authentic+Journal+of+the+Siege+of+Quebec&h2=l&vrsn=1.0&bl=TI&d6=l&ste = 10&d4=0.33&stp=Author&dc=tiPG&n=10&d5=d6.
(77) Cato, "On General Wolfe," The Universal Chronicle, or Weekly Gazette 82, 20-27 October 1759,337.
(78) Sir John Pringle, The Life of General James Wolfe, the Conqueror of Canada: Or, the Elogium of that Renowned Hero, Attempted According to the Rules of Eloquence. With a Monumental Inscription. Latin and English, to Perpetuate His Memory (London, 1760; Eighteenth Century Collections Online, 2003), p. 15, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO?dd=0&locID=txs hracd2542&dl=0645700400&srchtp=b&SU=All&c=l&d2=l&docNum=CW 3302344125&b0=Life+of+General+James+wolfe%2C+the+Conqueror+of+Cabada&h2=I&vrsn=1.0&bl=TI&d6=1&ste=10&d4=0.33&stp=Author&dc=tiPG&n=10&d5=d6.
(79) John Keats, "Ode to a Nightingale Ode to a Nightingale is a poem by John Keats. It was written in May, 1819, in the garden of the Spaniards Inn, Hampstead. It was first published in 'Annals of the Fine Arts' in July of the same year. ," in The Complete Works of John Keats (New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Thomas Y. Crowell, 1895), pp. 291-5.
(80) Reproduced in Catherine Casley, Colin Harrison, and Jon Whiteley, eds., The Ashmolean Museum: Complete Illustrated Catalogue of Paintings (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, 2004). p. 165.
(81) Six of the nine volumes were published during the Seven Years' War. Toby's bowling-green games track a different war, the War of Spanish Succession.
(82) Laurence Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, the Text: Volume I, vol. 1 of The Florida Edition of the Works of Laurence Sterne, ed. Melvyn New and Joan New, 6 vols. (Gainesville: Univ. Press of Florida, 1978-2002), 1:265.
(83) Sterne, 1:130-1.
(84) Sterne, 1:437.
(85) Sterne, 1:88-9, 94.
(86) Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, the Text: Volume 2, vol. 2 of Works, 2:537.
(87) Sterne, 2:552.
(88) Sterne, 2:543.
(89) Sterne, 2:549.
John Richardson is associate professor of English literature at the National University of Singapore. His most recent book is Slavery and Augustan Literature: Swift, Pope, Gay (2004).