IX. Summary of recommendations/suggestions for further research.1. Public Awareness Campaign
A national campaign should be conducted to increase public awareness and knowledge concerning workplace violence issues.
Ideally, the educational effort should reflect a cooperative effort by government agencies, major corporations, unions, and advocacy groups. The Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration would be well placed to play an initiating and coordinating role, bringing together constituents at the national level and designing the basic framework for the campaign. The goals of the effort would include:
* Educating the public, legislators, and policymakers about the scope and costs of workplace violence.
* Promoting local coalitions to become active in workplace violence and violenceprevention issues.
* Encouraging employers to adopt violence-prevention policies and plans.
* Enlisting major corporations and industry or employer associations This is a list of employer associations and other business organizations. Austria
* Providing information and a model approach for similar awareness efforts by state and local occupational safety agencies.
* Promoting a preventive approach by law enforcement agencies A law enforcement agency (LEA) is a term used to describe any agency which enforces the law. This may be a local or state police, federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). .
* Cataloguing and publicizing pub·li·cize
tr.v. pub·li·cized, pub·li·ciz·ing, pub·li·ciz·es
To give publicity to.
Noun 1. publicizing - the business of drawing public attention to goods and services
advertising community resources that can assist employers and local police departments in violence prevention and crisis management.
* Developing public service announcements and websites that will promote awareness and violence-prevention planning.
* Appearances before Congress and state and local legislators to advocate appropriate laws and funding for workplace violence prevention programs.
2. Workplace Policies and Plans
Employers should adopt clear no-threats and no-violence policies and prevention plans.
Violence-prevention policies and planning are instrumental for employers to help meet their legal and ethical obligation to provide a safe environment for their workers. The best plans are based on a multidisciplinary model, drawing on the expertise of security officers, human resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees. managers, lawyers, mental health professionals, and others.
As well as adopting plans, employers should:
* Communicate the policy to employees at all levels of the company.
* Survey employees to get their ideas about the incidence of violence, possible risks, and suggested preventive measures.
* Give support to violence-prevention measures.
* Provide violence prevention training for managers, supervisors, and employees on a regular basis.
* Practice the plan.
* Provide physically secure work spaces and adopt staffing policies that will help keep employees safe on the job.
* Establish relations with police, social service and mental health providers, and other government and private agencies that can assist in threat assessment, threat management, and crisis management.
* Place workplace violence prevention and training on the agenda of chambers of commerce, industry and trade associations, and other employer organizations.
* Evaluate the workplace violence-prevention plan periodically or when workplace circumstances change or a violent event has occurred.
Beyond the specific policies and procedures Policies and Procedures are a set of documents that describe an organization's policies for operation and the procedures necessary to fulfill the policies. They are often initiated because of some external requirement, such as environmental compliance or other governmental spelled out in a violence prevention program, companies will be most successful if they create an atmosphere of fairness, trust, and cooperation between employees and management. Unions should be partners, not adversaries, in violence prevention.
When it comes to employee safety, businesses should cooperate, not compete. Sharing ideas and information about successful violence-prevention strategies, pooling resources to provide better training, and working together to raise public awareness will help all employers. In particular, larger corporations with greater resources should share plans and training resources with smaller firms and community organizations in an effort to extend violence prevention to small employers and lower-paid, lower-status workers.
3. Preventive Law Enforcement
Law enforcement agencies should adopt a preventive approach to violence in the workplace.
In recent decades, many police departments have changed attitudes and traditional practices in domestic violence cases, intervening earlier and paying increased attention to protecting the victim as well as arresting and prosecuting the abuser. A similar evolution can occur with workplace violence. Preventive measures include:
* Responding to and better documentation of minor workplace incidents or cases of threats and harassment Ask a Lawyer
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* Training officers in violence prevention, threat assessment, stalking and harassment Ask a Lawyer
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i have been harassed and stalked by several people in which I have recently discovered the names of a few of them which turns out are or were friends of laws, and other professional topics relevant to workplace violence.
* Establishing and maintaining two-way contact with employers, advising on anti-violence planning, and assisting in preparing for and managing potentially risky situations, such as carrying out layoffs or terminating a "problem" employee. Outreach efforts should be especially directed to smaller employers that do not have the resources to maintain their own security staff, employee assistance program, etc.
* Federal law enforcement agencies, state police, and large police departments should consider creating specialized units assigned to conduct threat assessments and work with employers on violence prevention. These units should also be available to provide training and assistance to departments in smaller communities.
4. Government's Role
Federal, state, and local occupational safety agencies should make workplace violence prevention a priority.
With OSHA taking the lead, government agencies can play a key role in improving, supporting and extending violence-prevention efforts by the Nation's private employers. In addition to promoting public awareness, agencies should:
* Develop systems for more complete and accurate monitoring of workplace violence incidents.
* Design and disseminate model policies and violence-prevention plans.
* Give special attention to developing violence-prevention strategies for smaller companies and for lower-paid, lower-status workers.
* Develop training programs for employers, supervisors, and employees.
* Compile and maintain lists of social service, mental health, legal, and other agencies, at the state and local level, that can provide assistance to employers or police departments in violence-prevention planning, training, threat assessment, employee counseling, etc.
Training in violence prevention, threat detection, threat assessment, and threat management should become part of the workplace culture.
Workplace training programs for senior executives, managers, supervisors, and employees should be developed and disseminated through government agencies, local law enforcement, and employer and community organizations.
Training curricula should also be designed for police executives and officers, including specialized training in threat assessment. The FBI, state police, and state criminal justice commissions should distribute model training programs to local law enforcement agencies and provide training for smaller police departments. Police training programs should include instruction on extending community policing concepts to workplace violence.
Government or private organizations developing curricula and training materials should produce a videotape videotape
Magnetic tape used to record visual images and sound, or the recording itself. There are two types of videotape recorders, the transverse (or quad) and the helical. presentation on basic violence-prevention concepts tailored for small employers.
6. Domestic Violence and Stalking Criminal activity consisting of the repeated following and harassing of another person.
Stalking is a distinctive form of criminal activity composed of a series of actions that taken individually might constitute legal behavior. in the Workplace
When domestic violence follows an employee into the workplace, employers should support, protect, and help the abused partner, not punish her or him.
When an employee is being stalked stalked
Having a stalk or stem. Often used in combination: long-stalked; short-stalked.
Adj. 1. , harassed, or abused at work by a domestic partner or other personal acquaintance, the employer should:
* Take steps to keep the abuser out of the workplace (screening telephone calls, making the victim's work space physically more secure, instructing security guards or receptionists, etc.).
* Assist the victim in receiving emotional, financial, and legal counseling.
* Support the employee in obtaining police protection or a restraining order restraining order: see injunction. against the abuser (in some cases, an employer may seek a restraining order of its own barring the abuser from its premises).
* Be flexible in allowing time off for medical treatment or court appearances.
In some cases, regrettably, employers seeking the quickest and easiest way to avoid a violent incident will fire the victim. This is unjustified and unethical unethical
said of conduct not conforming with professional ethics. and may be illegal. Discrimination against victims should NOT be tolerated.
7. Legal and Legislative Issues
Clear, comprehensive, and uniform legal guidelines should be developed and widely distributed Adj. 1. widely distributed - growing or occurring in many parts of the world; "a cosmopolitan herb"; "cosmopolitan in distribution"
bionomics, environmental science, ecology - the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms to inform employers how they can strengthen violence-prevention measures within existing law, without infringing on due process, privacy, defamation defamation
In law, issuance of false statements about a person that injure his reputation or that deter others from associating with him. Libel and slander are the legal subcategories of defamation. Libel is defamation in print, pictures, or any other visual symbols. laws, or other employee rights.
Relevant laws and liability issues should be reviewed to see if there are ways to improve employee safety without jeopardizing individual rights. In particular, there should be a review of legal restrictions on exchanging information between employers or between law enforcement and private companies concerning past criminal convictions or violent behavior by an employee or job applicant.
In the legislative field, policymakers and lawmakers should explore possible incentives such as tax breaks, insurance discounts, or carefully drawn liability exemptions that will make it easier for businesses to adopt and carry out violence-prevention programs.
8. Suggestions for Further Research
Substantial additional research, both quantitative and qualitative, should be carried out to clarify the scope and costs of workplace violence and to evaluate and improve violence-prevention strategies.
Though a large body of knowledge already exists on workplace violence, much is still to be learned about the true dimensions of the problem and its impact on American society. Much also remains to be learned about how best to prevent violence or mitigate its effects if it occurs. "Credible empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received" on all aspects of workplace violence is sparse, and existing studies are seriously limited by inadequate reporting systems," two leading experts in public administration declared in 1996; ** unfortunately, the same could still be said today.
One possible instrument for research is the National Crime Victimization victimization Social medicine The abuse of the disenfranchised–eg, those underage, elderly, ♀, mentally retarded, illegal aliens, or other, by coercing them into illegal activities–eg, drug trade, pornography, prostitution. Survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics Noun 1. Bureau of Justice Statistics - the agency in the Department of Justice that is the primary source of criminal justice statistics for federal and local policy makers
BJS . If feasible, new categories or survey questions should be added to help identify violent crimes affecting people at work. An analysis of workers' compensation claims may also yield valuable data. Topics for future research should include:
* Ways to improve violence reporting and monitoring systems and data collection on the incidence of workplace violence. In particular, sampling or other methods should be developed to measure incidents of threats or harassment that are not reported as criminal offenses.
* Methods of measuring the economic and noneconomic costs of workplace violence.
* Analysis of workplace violence patterns, including the occurrence of different forms of violence and rates of violence in different occupational categories. A uniform reporting format for employers may be helpful in collecting data for analysis.
* Research on the damaging effects of threats, bullying, harassment, stalking, or other forms of abuse that do not inflict actual physical harm.
* Developing curricula for violence prevention training programs and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of training.
* Additional research in such areas as detecting warning signs, the relationship between various risk factors and actual violence, identifying high-risk behavior and high-risk individuals, and treatment of potentially dangerous people.
* A study of threats, including analysis of different patterns of threatening behavior, different forms of threat, and methods of evaluating when a threat is likely to be carried out.
* Qualitative research Qualitative research
Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections. on threat assessment, aimed at refining assessment criteria, and determining which factors are most important in predicting violent behavior.
* Support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services for violence victims.
* Ways to help employees and limit disruption after a disturbing event.
Most importantly Adv. 1. most importantly - above and beyond all other consideration; "above all, you must be independent"
above all, most especially , researchers should continually seek to monitor, evaluate, and refine violence prevention programs, and to the extent possible, determine which strategies appear most effective in decreasing rates of violence. A definitive evaluation will never be possible because there is no way to count incidents that did not happen. Still, with more comprehensive, reliable and detailed data, researchers can develop more sophisticated tools for analyzing what works and what doesn't. Their work, combined with a national effort to promote a workplace free from threats and violence, will benefit all businesses and all Americans.
** Nigro, Lloyd G., and Waugh, William L. Jr. Violence in the American workplace: challenges to the public employer. Public Administration Review, July-August 1996, 326-333