INDONESIA - The Geology.The Indonesian archipelago includes some of the world's largest islands and the smallest coral islets. The main islands of Sumatra and Java contain high mountain ranges and active volcanoes. Mountainous terrain also persists into Papua (West Irian West Irian: see Papua, Indonesia. ), the Indonesian portion of the island of New Guinea New Guinea (gĭn`ē), island, c.342,000 sq mi (885,780 sq km), SW Pacific, N of Australia; the world's second largest island after Greenland. in the east, and in the central parts of Kalimantan on the island of Borneo and in Sulawesi. Elsewhere the land is low, lying either with forest cover much of which has been subsequently cleared for agriculture, or comprises swamps and marshes associated with the deltaic mouths of rivers or on coastal islands.
About half of the territories is covered by sea with large areas of relatively shallow water See:
Part of the western Pacific Ocean. It is bordered by the Sulu Archipelago, Mindanao, the Sangihe Islands, Celebes, and Borneo. It extends 420 mi (675 km) north-south and 520 mi (837 km) east-west, occupying about 110,000 sq mi (280,000 sq km). and the western Pacific Ocean.
Indonesian geology is complex, dominated by large tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth. Tectonic plates are pieces of the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle, together referred to as the lithosphere. The plates are around 100 km (60 miles) thick and consist of two principal types of material: oceanic crust (also called . Seismic and volcanic activity indicates these plates are still in motion, the giant earthquake which hit Sumatra last December and the subsequent tsunami disaster being an example. The deep Timor Trench, in the Timor Sea Timor Sea
An arm of the Indian Ocean between Timor and Australia.
Noun 1. Timor Sea - an arm of the eastern Indian Ocean between Timor and northern Australia , is earthquake active as well.
Indonesia is located at the meeting point of the Australian, Pacific and South-East Asian plates. The Indian Plate The India or Indian Plate is a minor tectonic plate. It was originally a part of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland from which it split off, eventually becoming a major plate. About 50 to 55 million years ago, it fused with the adjacent Indo-Australian Plate. passed close to Sumatra before colliding with Eurasia. As a result, the Indonesian archipelago comprises a number of Middle to Late Tertiary-aged back arc basins strung out parallel to the main chain of mountains which has been thrown up by the collision of the tectonic plates.
The back arc basins have been filled with deltaic clastics mostly shed off adjacent shield areas. Invasion later by the sea resulted in deposition of platform carbonates and the build up of reefal limestones. Source rocks for these basins are frequently anoxic an·ox·i·a
1. Absence of oxygen.
2. A pathological deficiency of oxygen, especially hypoxia.
[an- + ox(o)- + -ia1. shales deposited in restricted lagoonal conditions in Early Tertiary grabens under the back arcs.
Most major petroleum finds in Indonesia were associated with Tertiary sediments or, locally, with either basement or Tertiary volcanics. The oil and gas in the latter two are said to be sourced from Tertiary sediments. But since the mid-1980s, big discoveries have been made in Pre-Tertiary prospects.
The Pre-Miocene rocks of South-East Asia South-East Asia n → le Sud-Est asiatique
South-East Asia south n → Südostasien nt
South-East Asia n → and the potential for new oil and gas discoveries in these rocks are the subject of wide interest in the industry. A number of major Pre-Miocene discoveries have been made during the past two decades, including the Bach Ho (White Tiger White tigers are individual specimens of the ordinary orange tiger (Panthera tigris), with a genetic condition that causes paler colouration of the normally orange fur (they still have black stripes). ) off south-eastern Vietnam. The field contains a major deposit of oil in fractured and altered granitic basement. But the Pre-Miocene section is still relatively under-explored in much of South-East Asia. Discoveries in this section during the past 12 years have served to stimulate interest in it. In Pre-Miocene reservoirs on the Chinese side, for example, there are "buried hills" of prime importance to geologists.
Major gas reserves have been found in Pre-Tertiary formations (Fms) in South Sumatra South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of Lampung to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi to the north. , where Gulf Resources of Canada has discovered almost 4 TCF See Trenton Computer Festival. . In October 2000 it reported test results in appraisal Suban-4 well confirming a major gas/condensate field in a 2,715-3,200 metre interval in fractured Pre-Tertiary granites. The well yielded 24 MCF/d of gas and 156 b/d of condensates. Other firms have made finds from the same horizon in South Sumatra and elsewhere in Indonesia.
In Indonesia, where the western regions are mature while the east is largely unexplored, Eocene sandstones serving as a main reservoir have proved to contain large reserves of natural gas. A case in point is the Pagerungan field in the East Java East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura and Bawean islands. Sea, which has major gas deposits in Eocene sandstones.
Indonesia has 60 sedimentary basins, of which 36 in the mature west have been well explored and 14 of them are producing oil and gas. In the under-explored east, 39 Tertiary and Pre-Tertiary basins could be rich in hydrocarbons. But the eastern regions are remote, mountainous and jungle-clad; they lack infrastructure. A wildcat in Papua (Irian Jaya Irian Jaya, province, Indonesia: see Papua. ), a frontier region, can cost up to $40m, and in many cases helicopters are required to transport equipment and supplies.
About 75% of exploration is located in producing western Indonesia. There are four oil producing regions: Sumatra, the Java Sea, East Kalimantan and Natuna. There are four main gas producing regions: East Kalimantan, Arun (North Sumatra), South Sumatra and Natuna. The main petroleum provinces in Indonesia are the following:
Sumatra, the biggest and longest island in Indonesia to the west, accounts for about 55-60% of Indonesia's oil production. There, Caltex produces over half of Indonesia's oil. The Caltex area of operation is part of Riau province, in West Sumatra, which also oversees the administration of Natuna islands.
North Sumatra, in Aceh province which was hit by the earthquake last December, is an oil and gas producing region, with oil primarily in Tertiary clastics and mostly in small fields. Arun, once one of the world's largest gas/condensate fields, is in a pinnacle limestone reef. Arun is depleeting. Most of the petroleum in this region is onshore. Some large gas deposits are in reefs offshore.
Central Sumatra, mainly Riau province where Caltex operates, is mainly an oil zone but with the number of gas fields discovered increasing rapidly since the mid-1990s. Most of the petroleum there is reservoired in deltaic sandstones contained in anticlinal anticlinal /an·ti·clin·al/ (-kli´n'l) sloping or inclined in opposite directions.
Inclined in opposite directions, as two sides of a pyramid. structures. The province has Indonesia's two largest oilfields, both operated by Caltex: Minas, with oil reserves in place in excess of 4 bn barrels; and Duri, a shallow field whose reserves for primary recovery were estimated in the early 1990s at about 600m barrels. Duri is the site of one of the world's largest steam flood projects and ultimate recovery could exceed 3 bn barrels.
South Sumatra is an oil and gas province, with petroleum reservoired in both clastic clastic /clas·tic/ (klas´tik)
1. undergoing or causing division.
2. separable into parts.
1. and carbonate rocks. Oilfield sizes are generally small, but some of the gas fields discovered in recent years are large.
Java, the most populated island in Indonesia, is by far the biggest oil and gas consumer in this country. Parts of the island and the adjacent Java Sea form an oil and gas province. Numerous oil and gas fields have been located offshore.
West Java's oilfields are reservoired in clastic and carbonate rocks and in fractured volcanics. Recent gas discoveries have resulted from active exploration for this clean source of energy to satisfy Java's rapidly growing demand.
In Central Java, ExxonMobil has been testing what may turn out to be Indonesia's biggest oil discovery in a decade. The US super-major has drilled into a deep reef structure called Kujung Fm. The well, Banyu-Urip-3 drilled in late 2000, is a re-entry RE-ENTRY, estates. The resuming or retaking possession of land which the party lately had.
2. Ground rent deeds and leases frequently contain a clause authorizing the landlord to reenter on the non-payment of rent, or the breach of some covenant, when the of a shallow probe abandoned by a previous operator.
Madura: Following earlier disappointment in the East Java Sea, substantial gas reserves have been established in the Madura Strait and oil production by Mobil (now ExxonMobil) began in late 1994. A significant oil discovery in a Tertiary reefal prospect was made in 1994 in the region's onshore.
East Kalimantan, on the island of Borneo, has two main petroleum producing regions: the Tarakan Basin, associated with Tarakan island and primarily an oil play in Tertiary clastics, is a very old group of oilfields whose cumulative production appears to have exceeded the calculated volumes of the producing reservoirs, which has suggested communication with other sources of oil; and the Kutei Basin in the Mahakam Delta, where oil has been produced since the late 19th century. Gas production in these regions is a more recent activity, with the fields being a major source of supply for the LNG trains at Bontang.
Oil and gas in the Kutei Basin are produced from Tertiary deltaic sands in multi-reservoir fields. Fields occur both onshore and offshore and exploration has shown that much of the pre-Mahakam Delta area is underlain un·der·lain
Past participle of underlie. by gas deposits, with Total of France having had impressive gas discoveries there.