II. Project description.A. Lending Instrument
13. The lending instrument proposed for the project will be a Specific Investment Loan (SIL See safety integrity level.
1. SIL - "SIL - A Simulation Language", N. Houbak, LNCS 426, Springer 1990.
2. SIL - SNOBOL Implementation Language. Intermediate language forming a virtual machine for the implementation of portable interpreters. ) of US$10 million with co-financing of US$ 1.54 million from the Government.
B. Project Development Objective and Key Indicators
14. The project development objectives are to assist in the implementation of the Government's National HIV/AIDS Program by supporting the: (i) deepening of prevention interventions targeted at high-risk groups and the general population; (ii) increasing of access to treatment, care and support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services for infected and affected individuals; and (iii) strengthening of program management and analysis to identify priorities for building the capacity of the health sector to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other priority health problems.
15. Intermediate indicators will monitor the progress in achieving prevention and treatment targets and the availability of timely inputs that contribute to achievement of the project impact and outcomes (see Annex 3) in support of the goal of the national program as specified in the National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan 2007-2012--to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS as well as STIs by providing universal access to prevention, care and treatment.
C. Project Components
16. Component 1: Prevention (US$ 3.34 million). Prevention interventions are a high priority of the NHP NHP Non-Human Primate
NHP Natural Health Product
NHP Nevada Highway Patrol
NHP National Historic Park
NHP Nottingham Health Profile
NHP National Health Plan
NHP Nursing Home Placement
NHP Nominal Horsepower
NHP Not-Hot Plug (server) and need to be scaled up dramatically to halt and reverse the spread of the epidemic. Various implementing entities will intensify prevention activities: the Ministry of Health and the Regional Health Authorities, four non-health line ministries, CSOs and the private sector.
17. Subcomponent sub·com·po·nent
A portion of a component, especially an electronic component; a subassembly. 1(a): Prevention Activities by the Ministry of Health (MOH See modem on hold. ) and the Regional Health Authorities (USS USS
1. United States Senate
2. United States ship
USS abbr (= United States Ship) → Namensteil von Schiffen der Kriegsmarine 2.99 million). This subcomponent will strengthen the capacity of MOH and the Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) to provide technical guidance for the national response to HIV/AIDS and to deliver HIV/AIDS related services for prevention through the health care system. Activities financed will include: (a) Support for behavior change communication (BCC (Blind Carbon Copy) The field in an e-mail header that names additional recipients for the message. It is similar to carbon copy (cc), but the names do not appear in the recipient's message. Not all e-mail systems support the bcc feature. See fcc. ) interventions targeting at-risk groups (CSWs, MSMs, in and out of school youth, prison inmates, drug users) and the general population. The activities aim at dissemination of information for adoption of safer sexual practices. Funding will be provided for development of BCC materials, mass media campaigns, peer education, and outreach; (b) Expansion of STI STI systolic time intervals. management and blood safety for preventing HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. transmission; (c) Expansion of VCT VCT Voluntary Counseling and Testing
VCT Vinyl Composition Tile
VCT Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (ISO Country code)
VCT Venture Capital Trust (UK fiscal status) services for preventing of HIV transmission, scaling up treatment and care and expansion of PMTCT PMTCT Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission Services. These will include innovative approaches for hard to reach and vulnerable populations, including walk-in and mobile VCT services, and expand provider initiated counseling and testing. Funding will cover training, test kits reagents and supplies, laboratory support, mentioned in Component 2, and minor refurbishment of VCT rooms; and (d) Promotion of increased condom use. Support will be provided for procurement and distribution of condoms and lubricants that will not be financed through the GFATM GFATM Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria . Female condoms will be donated by UNFPA UNFPA United Nations Population Fund (formerly United Nations Fund for Population Activities)
UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities (now United Nations Population Fund) .
18. Subcomponent 1 (b): Prevention Activities by the Non-Health Line Ministries (US$ 0.30 million). Strengthening prevention requires scaling up the contribution of the non-health line ministries to make the national response truly multi-sectoral. Four key line ministries have been identified because they can reach important segments of vulnerable and/or at risk population groups through their official mandates: (a) Education (7); (b) Labour and Social Security; (c) Tourism; and (d) National Security. These ministries implemented some HIV/AIDS prevention activities under the first project. They will receive technical support and funding to scale up their activities more strategically based on medium term plans. This subcomponent will finance: annual work programs of three of the four line ministries that include implementing workplace HIV/AIDS policies, BCC, condom distribution and promotion, and advocacy to reduce HIV/AIDS stigmatization stigmatization /stig·ma·ti·za·tion/ (stig?mah-ti-za´shun)
1. the developing of or being identified as possessing one or more stigmata.
2. the act or process of negatively labelling or characterizing another. and discrimination; and, co-finance staffing costs of the focal points of the non-health line ministries. The national program will finance training, technical and material support for focal points, program officers and their respective ministerial HIV/AIDS Committees.
19. Subcomponent 1 (c): Prevention Activities by Civil Society Organizations and the Private Sector (US$ 0.05 million). This project will finance training and the position of the Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) Coordinator in the PCU PCU - PCI Configuration Utility who will provide capacity building for CSOs. The GFATM will be the main financing source for CSOs through demand-driven "subprojects" that will target interventions for: (a) Youth, including sexuality education, risk assessment, behavior modeling, and leadership training; (b) Commercial Sex Workers (CSWs), including better access to counseling and health care, skills development for alternative income generation, referral to agencies such as housing and drug addiction/prevention and support for increased involvement of club operators and the tourism services in risk reduction interventions including increased condom use; (c) MSMs by continuing training of trainers on risk reduction among the MSMs, referral to STITHIV test and treatment along with adherence and positive prevention; (d) Adult Males (19-39 years), including scaling up existing experiences in reaching/targeting male dominated occupations such as taxi and bus drivers, the police force and auto-mechanics for risk reduction interventions. The project will also provide works skills training for economically vulnerable populations to assist them in entering the job market. The GFATM has allocated US$5 million to fund CSOs which will allow a dramatic scaling up of the response. This support will encourage community-based activities to strengthen prevention work in rural and in urban areas and work with orphaned and HIV/ADDS affected children. The NHP has developed an organizational structure with standard operating procedures for engaging CSOs and the private sector. Selection criteria are detailed in the Project Operations Manual and include fiduciary and administrative procedures, demonstrated consultation and participatory processes to mobilize and empower target communities, and a system for provision of technical support to the CSOs.
20. Component 2: Treatment, Care and Support (US$1.81 million). This component will provide financing to support the efforts to enhance the following services: (a) Laboratory Diagnostic Services diagnostic services,
n.pl the imaging and laboratory capabilities available for determining the cause of an illness. . Refurbishing and equipping the TB Laboratory and the provision of reagents and supplies to support scaling up diagnosis and treatment of TB patients and the detection of HIV in this group; (b) Training for staff in the use of new equipment; (c) Refurbishing of select Treatment Sites as well as the procurement of drugs (not funded through the GFATM), nutritional supplements Nutritional Supplements Definition
Nutritional supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbs, meal supplements, sports nutrition products, natural food supplements, and other related products used to boost the nutritional content of the diet. , substitution infant feeding formula, contraceptive methods and reagents and testing supplies for diagnosing and monitoring HIV; (d) Refurbishing of Regional Laboratories to facilitate decentralization de·cen·tral·ize
v. de·cen·tral·ized, de·cen·tral·iz·ing, de·cen·tral·iz·es
1. To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities. of laboratory services; (e) Training of staff, and health care workers in comprehensive management of HIV/STI/TB,PMTCT, counseling and testing, Public Health Management and BCC and, (f) Curriculum development to support training activities.
21. Component 3: Strengthening Institutional Capacity for Legislative Reform, Policy Formulation, Program Management, Monitoring and Evaluation (US$ 4.26 million).
Subcomponent 3 (a): Policy Formulation for an Enabling Legal and Regulatory Environment and Human Rights (US$ 0.41 million). The new NSP (1) (Network Service Provider) An organization that provides a high-speed Internet backbone to ISPs and other service providers. Sprint, MCI and UUNET are examples of NSPs. See Internet backbones. emphasizes the need for a supportive legal and regulatory environment. The project will provide technical assistance in support of the changes to the legislative framework that have been recommended by the legislative review including updating of the Public Health Act to deal with new health challenges such as HIV/AIDS and advocacy for further legislative and policy reform to address stigma and discrimination.
22. Subcomponent 3 (b): Program Management (US$ 3.30 million). This subcomponent will continue to support the coordination and management of the Government's National HIV/AIDS Program. The project will co-finance staff costs for the technical and fiduciary functions of the PCU and the RHAs in supporting the coordination and management of the Borrower's NHP. This includes reviewing work programs from line ministries and proposals from civil society implementing agencies, monitoring and evaluating program progress, and training staff of the PCU, Line Ministries, and CSOs in fiduciary functions.
23. Subcomponent 3 (c): Monitoring and Evaluation (US$ 0.54 million). The M&E Unit of the NHP/PCU in the MOH is implementing a comprehensive monitoring system. The objectives of the M&E system are to provide continuous feedback to monitor the trends in the epidemic and to enhance the delivery of HIV services. The NHP will emphasize: (a) staffing, training and building the capacity of the M&E Unit; (b) an information technology (IT) platform that will: (i) integrate the multiple sources of information and implementing partners; and (ii) complete the procurement of equipment, maintaining the software, training staff and rolling out the Laboratory Information System to the regions; (c) technical assistance, equipment and training to strengthen the M&E system and the decision-making process; (d) harmonizing the information flow from multiple data sources for impact, outcomes, outputs, and inputs; i.e., biological HIV surveillance HIV surveillance Epidemiology The identification and monitoring of HIV-infected persons through a regional or national database. See HIV reporting. ; behavioral HIV surveillance; (e) conducting surveys, surveillance and research/studies on special populations to inform the national response; (f) integrating the five national and sub-national HIV databases to enable evaluating the impact of the national program; and (g) build local M&E capacity. Most of the indicators for monitoring this project are drawn from the national indicators agreed by all partners and used for reporting to the United Nations Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session ).
24. Component 4: Health Sector Development Support (US$ 2.10 million).
Subcomponent 4 (a) Biomedical bi·o·med·i·cal
1. Of or relating to biomedicine.
2. Of, relating to, or involving biological, medical, and physical sciences. Waste Management (US$ 2.0 million). The project will support upgrading and improved management of the biomedical waste management system. This will include: upgrading medical waste treatment facilities; waste disposal supplies and materials in all health regions for enabling proper segregation practices. Interim storage facilities to support the regional collection and alternative treatment systems will be financed by the Government through the National Health Fund. The project will also finance capacity building activities: develop and disseminate medical waste management training material; train healthcare workers in medical waste management and post exposure prophylaxis post exposure prophylaxis Public health The administration of a vaccine and Ig after exposure to a potentially fatal pathogen–eg, rabies. See Rabies vaccine. , including regional 'Training of Trainers' workshops; share best practices; and, train staff for operation and maintenance of new equipment. Finally, the project will finance preparation of facility specific waste management plan, including the creation of a system to support health care facilities in the documentation of infectious waste generation on a continuous basis.
25. Subcomponent 4 (b). Diagnostic Capacity Assessment of the Health Sector (US$ 0.10 million). The 2004 national report prepared by the Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ PIOJ Planning Institute of Jamaica ) noted that Jamaica is behind in attaining some of the MDG MDG Millennium Development Goals (UNDP)
MDG Madagascar (ISO Country code)
MDG Medical Group (USAF)
MDG Air Madagascar (ICAO code) 2015 target values. Critical challenges to the capacity of the health sector to deliver quality services are the lack of adequate numbers of staff in all professional categories, an underfinanced public sector, crowded hospitals and underused health centers, periodic shortages of medical supplies, and pockets of violence in certain communities impeding access to health services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract and constraining the movement of health personnel. This component will finance a comprehensive assessment of the obstacles that limit the capacity of the health sector to deliver quality health care efficiently to those needing it most. The investment and operational cost of the actions identified in the assessment will be calculated and options proposed for financing the cost from national and external sources.
D. Lessons Learned and Reflected in the Project Design
26. There are a number of lessons learned from implementing the ongoing Bank-financed Jamaica HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Project, as well as from other Bank and donor-financed projects throughout the Caribbean (8).
(a) The ongoing project had a slow start mainly due to unclear financial management and procurement procedures. In particular, differences between country and Bank procurement guidelines took time to resolve. These problems were subsequently addressed through a proactive process involving close coordination between the Bank and the project. With the experience gained by the MOH team, this project will take advantage of greater flexibilities in Bank procedures. The Government continues to review its own procedures especially for procurement.
(b) Other challenges experienced relate to slow involvement of non-health line ministries, CSOs and the private sector in execution of priority interventions especially for prevention. This project will build upon the lessons from the first project to strengthen the procedures and technical guidance to these critical stakeholders to ensure their greater participation especially in reaching at-risk and vulnerable groups.
(c) Overall institutional and implementation arrangements are critical for a multi-sectoral response in line with the NSP. Execution of the previous project and other Government HIV/AIDS efforts underscored the importance of the "Three Ones". This project will support the strengthening of the National ADDS Committee as the "one coordinating national body" to enable it to provide the policy guidance. The project will also support execution of the NSP, "the one national strategic plan" with one "M&E plan".
(d) Prevention. The number one issue posited by the NSP is increasing prevention activities and improving strategic focus. This is consistent with the experience in other Caribbean countries and globally. Activities that lead to behavior change need to be more skillfully designed and intensified to respond to the complex socio-economic factors that are driving the epidemic such as multiple partners, commercial and transactional sex and poverty. This project will contribute through a two pronged strategy: targeting interventions at high risk groups and implementing non-targeted activities for the general population.
(e) Stigma and discrimination in Jamaica, as in most Caribbean countries, is still a major impediment to the response to the epidemic as it prevents people from seeking care and caregivers from giving appropriate care. The project will provide technical assistance through support to efforts to foster an enabling environment through BCC as well as legal and regulatory reforms and policy advocacy.
(f) The fight against HIV/ADDS requires a multi-sector response with buy-in from leadership in Government, key non-health line ministries, the private sector, and participation of a crosscutting range of stakeholders: CSOs, the private sector, community level, household level, religious groups, professional groups and PLWHA PLWHA People Living With HIV/AIDS . The project will greatly scale up the role and capacity of non-health line ministries, CSOs, and the private sector which were activities under the first project that were not developed pro-actively.
(g) The health system still requires considerable strengthening to enable it to cope with the increased demands for prevention, treatment and care brought on by the HIV/AIDS epidemic: improving physical facilities, diagnostic capacity, and increasing the number and skills of staff. Based on the experience of the first project, this project will refurbish treatment sites and train health workers as indicated under Component 2 and finance a comprehensive assessment to identify and solve the most urgent bottlenecks in service delivery.
(h) The fight against HIV/AIDS is expensive and Jamaica needs additional resources to sustain the momentum it has built. Along with this, it is critical for the NHP to be institutionalized through the establishment of staff positions on the regular public payroll. The Government will need to continue to keep HIV/ADDS as a priority in its expenditure plans as it has done in the past to ensure that the HIV/AIDS response is sustained.
(i) Finally, it is important to note that there is no proven "production function" in responding to HIV/ADDS in a complex epidemic such as the one in Jamaica. Research will be important to continue to identify those areas that contribute the most to addressing the epidemic. The project will support M&E to ensure that the Government continuously adjusts the program to the changing nature of the epidemic.
E. Alternatives Considered and Reasons for Rejection
27. The first alternative considered was to have no follow-on project. The Bank-funded Jamaica HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Project is scheduled to close on May 31, 2008. The CAS stresses the threat of HIV/AIDS to the country's development prospects. This alternative was rejected. The second alternative considered was to combine a health sector intervention and a repeater project into one operation. This alternative was rejected because the broader needs of the health sector will be better addressed in a separate health sector program and will require diagnostic work that will take some time to complete. The Government was anxious to avoid a gap in financing of the HIV/AIDS response and requested that preparation of the follow-on project be expedited. A third alternative would have been to use the option of additional financing. This option was rejected as it would have restricted the implementation period to three years and the Government team and the Bank task team judged a four year period more appropriate. The selected alternative will be a specific investment loan that will build upon the successful implementation of the first HIV/ADDS Project.