I can fly - so what if I'm paralyzed.
More than any other people, Americans have had fascinations with commanding the sky above them. The United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. has always been a world leader in innovative aviation technology and production of both civilian and military aircraft, as well as a haven for those from oil over the world seeking to learn to fly.
While flying for recreational or light commercial aviation is available in most western nations, aircraft, fuel, and maintenance are two to three times as expensive as in the United States, and cumbersome landing fees and regulations make aviation almost unaffordable un·af·ford·a·ble
Too expensive: medical care that has become unaffordable for many.
un . It is not surprising that with free use of almost 20,000 airports in the United States List of airports in the United States, grouped by state or territory and sorted by city.
Due to the large number of airports in the United States, this page only lists public use airports providing scheduled passenger services with over 10,000 passenger boardings per year and low rental rates for aircraft, many people come from all over the world to be trained to fly here. In Napa, CA, for example, Japan Airlines has an extensive training facility for all of its pilots, rather than much more expensive training in Japan where additional restrictions on use of airports would make training slow and tedious. People from all over Europe also journey to the United States for pilot training.
Flying in some states is a means of mass transportation. In Alaska, for example, where 50% of the population holds pilot licenses, aviation is a way of transportation, not just recreation, and demands equal access for persons who are disabled. In the lower 48 states, the Federal Aviation Administration Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), component of the U.S. Department of Transportation that sets standards for the air-worthiness of all civilian aircraft, inspects and licenses them, and regulates civilian and military air traffic through its air traffic control (FAA) has modified certification procedures for pilots with disabilities, allowing them to join the ranks of Amelia Erhardt and Charles Lindbergh.
People with disabilities can fly. With the exception of a medical waiver and use of hand controls which are specially adapted to operate an aircraft, the procedure for becoming a pilot (pilot certification) is largely the same for people with disabilities as the general population. For most people, the first step is a ride in a small aircraft and the first opportunity to hold the controls and fly. Most flight schools offer 30-minute introductory flight lessons costing between $25.00 and $50.00.
This is the potential student's chance to see what it is like sitting in and flying a small aircraft. The cockpit is small, the instruments look threatening, and the engine is the size of that found in a compact car. However, when the engine speeds up on the runway and you feel your body pushed back into the seat, no words can describe the feeling as the ground gives way below and the plane takes to the air. Flight suddenly becomes a reality, not just a dream.
General aviation aircraft range from small aircraft holding only two people to large jet airplanes. Larger aircraft and most jets require special certification. Because of physical requirements in case of an emergency, the Federal Aviation Administration has, thus far, rarely allowed pilots with disabilities to fly the large complex aircraft. Unlike many other sports in which people with disabilities engage, mistakes by aircraft pilots can injure To interfere with the legally protected interest of another or to inflict harm on someone, for which an action may be brought. To damage or impair.
The term injure is comprehensive and can apply to an injury to a person or property. Cross-references
Tort Law. not only themselves, but innocent people who are either passengers or those living under the flight path of an aircraft. Individuals who are in accidents in a wheelchair marathon usually only hurt themselves. In aviation, the government must protect people who can be hurt or killed due to negligent acts of a pilot.
Single-engine aircraft are the most common. These aircraft are fairly expensive to buy, ranging from $20,000 to $200,000; but, unlike the family car, they actually have been increasing in value as they get older and can last for 50 years or more. A two-passenger aircraft uses only a few gallons of gas per hour of flight, but really can carry only two small adults. A four-passenger aircraft consumes 6 or 7 gallons of gasoline per hour, but really holds only two adults and two small children.
One reason these aircraft last so long is that the FAA requires yearly inspections by a licensed mechanic. Additionally, while the pilot can do some repairs, an FAA licensed mechanic must do most repairs. This assures safety for pilot, passengers, and those over which the pilot flies.
Aircraft parts must all be FAA approved to be used; no discount store parts are allowed! Hand controls used for aircraft, like all aircraft parts, must go through an FAA certification process before they can be used. Fortunately, hand controls have been approved for most small aircraft and can be purchased for less than $500. One word of caution--unlike hand controls for cars, aircraft hand controls need adjustments when they are first installed, since even the same model aircraft can have small differences between years in which the model was produced. Several screws need to be adjusted which can be done in a few minutes by any competent flight instructor A flight instructor is a person who teaches others to fly aircraft. Specific privileges granted to holders of a flight instructor certificate vary from country to country, but very generally, a flight instructor serves to enhance or evaluate the knowledge and skill level of an who has adjusted such controls in the past.
A final consideration concerning the aircraft a pilot with a disability might select is to determine if an aircraft with the wing above or below the cockpit is desired. Most two- and four-passenger aircraft are high wing; that is, the wing is on top of the plane. For a pilot who is ambulatory with braces due to some loss of muscle function because of spinal cord injury Spinal Cord Injury Definition
Spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord that causes loss of sensation and motor control.
Approximately 10,000 new spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur each year in the United States. , stroke, or mild cerebral palsy cerebral palsy (sərē`brəl pôl`zē), disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. , this type of aircraft is convenient to use, but the pilot must step up approximately 2 feet into the cockpit. For a pilot in a wheelchair, seat height is about 3.5 feet above the ground, and the landing gear blocks easy access to the door for convenient transfer. An exception to the latter is the Cessna Cardinal where the door is very wide. For most people in wheelchairs, high wing aircraft are difficult to use.
The second type of aircraft has the wing under the fuselage. Planes like the Piper Warrior have had excellent safety records in general aviation for both recreational and training uses. While the wing blocks entrance into the cockpit, the end of the wing is almost exactly wheelchair height so an easy transfer can be accomplished onto the wing. The pilot then can lift the wheelchair onto the wing and into the cockpit.
Flight training is not very different for pilots who are disabled or non-disabled. Phases of training can be characterized as familiarity, solo, flight planning Flight planning is the process of producing a flight plan to describe a proposed aircraft flight. It involves two safety-critical aspects: fuel calculation, to ensure that the aircraft can safely reach the destination, and compliance with air traffic control requirements, to , and the final exam Noun 1. final exam - an examination administered at the end of an academic term
final examination, final
exam, examination, test - a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge; "when the test was stolen the professor had to make a new set of . The first phase is to let the student become familiar with the aircraft and understand the basics of how it works. The next phase is learning enough basic flight maneuvers to allow the student to solo. After solo, probably the highlight of student training, it is time to get down to work and learn more maneuvers, night flying, weather, and flight planning. The final phase is preparing for the private pilot written and flight tests.
That first look at flight instruments Most aircraft are equipped with a standard set of flight instruments which give the pilot information about the aircraft's attitude, airspeed, and altitude.
Most aircraft have these seven basic flight instruments:
For an aircraft, each time it is flown, oil must be checked and fuel visually inspected by opening the fuel cap and looking in to assure that fuel gauges are correct. Drains under the wings allow fuel to be tested visually by filling a cup and checking the color; for piston engines, most fuel is tinted tint
1. A shade of a color, especially a pale or delicate variation.
2. A gradation of a color made by adding white to it to lessen its saturation.
3. A slight coloration; a tinge.
4. blue. If fuel is clear, it means it has been contaminated contaminated,
v 1. made radioactive by the addition of small quantities of radioactive material.
2. made contaminated by adding infective or radiographic materials.
3. an infective surface or object. and the aircraft must not be flown. Water in the fuel settles in the bottom of the inspection glass indicating a fuel contamination problem making the aircraft unsafe to fly. This inspection is an FAA requirement before each flight. A pilot who is disabled may not be able to climb onto or under the wings to check the fuel or oil. But the FAA does not require the pilot to do the inspection, only to make sure it is done. Any airport personnel, or anyone accompanying the pilot, can make necessary checks.
Aircraft instruments are not as complicated as they seem. One set of instruments tells the status of the engine, such as oil pressure and oil temperature gauges A temperature gauge is a device used to indicate the temperature of an item being monitored. The display can be an analogue dial, an Analogue range or a digital readout. The word gauge would seem to exclude a thermometer, which uses the thermal expansion of a liquid, but in the . Another set of instruments, the radios, allows the pilot to talk to other planes and air traffic controllers. Yet a third set of instruments helps with navigation. These latter instruments receive different types of radio signals from navigation transmitters, both on and off airports, to help a pilot find the way. Finally, flight instruments, such as the compass and airspeed indicator An instrument which displays the indicated airspeed of the aircraft derived from inputs of pitot and static pressures. , help the pilot fly the plane safely.
The aircraft is controlled by moving three parts of the outside of the plane, the control surfaces. Part or all of the tail is on hinges and can rotate when pedals are pushed up and down. This, the rudder, allows the aircraft to turn (yaw yaw, in aviation: see airplane; airfoil.
See pitch-yaw-roll. in aircraft jargon). Rudder controls may be able to be used by a person with partial paralysis, but they must be augmented by hand controls for the pilot who is paralyzed par·a·lyze
tr.v. par·a·lyzed, par·a·lyz·ing, par·a·lyz·es
1. To affect with paralysis; cause to be paralytic.
2. To make unable to move or act: paralyzed by fear. . Hand controls connect to the top of the rudder pedals; when moving the hand control from side-to-side, the rudder moves.
One complication on rudder pedals for someone with a disability is that most aircraft use pads at the top of the rudder pedals to operate left and right wheel brakes. Aircraft, like tractors, have one brake for each side. Thus, pushing the right brake causes the plane to steer to the right, while pushing the left brake causes the plane to turn to the left. Hand controls have a set of clamps attaching to the brake pads brake pad
A flat block that presses against the disk of a disc brake.
Noun 1. brake pad - one of the pads that apply friction to both sides of the brake disk so moving the hand control up and down engages the brakes. By simultaneously moving the hand control to the right or left and up engages one brake or the other. The pilot with a disability must learn how to use the hand control to steer the rudder of the aircraft and use the brakes.
The other two control surfaces are elevators and ailerons. Elevators are located on the flat part of the tail (horizontal stabilizer Noun 1. horizontal stabilizer - the horizontal airfoil of an aircraft's tail assembly that is fixed and to which the elevator is hinged
horizontal stabiliser, tailplane ) or may involve movement of the whole tail (stabilator A stabilator (stabilizer-elevator) is an aircraft control surface that combines the functions of an elevator and a horizontal stabilizer. Most fixed-wing aircraft control pitch using a hinged horizontal flap — the elevator — attached to the back of the ). Pulling the control wheel back or pushing it forward moves the elevator up and down causing the aircraft to gain or lose altitude (climb or descend); this controls the pitch of the aircraft. The control wheel also turns from side to side moving control surfaces on the ends of the wings up or down. When one surface moves up on one wing, the other side moves down. These surfaces are the ailerons. By changing airflow across the wings, the ailerons cause the aircraft to bank to the right (right aileron aileron: see airfoil; airplane. up) or left (left aileron up); in aircraft jargon this is called the roll. The Wright brothers, who did not use ailerons on their first flights, found the aircraft skidded in turns. The ailerons and rudder, being controlled by the control wheel, are no more of a problem for pilots who are paraplegic paraplegic /para·ple·gic/ (-ple´jik)
1. pertaining to or of the nature of paraplegia.
2. an individual with paraplegia. than for non-disabled pilots. However, a pilot with quadriplegia quadriplegia: see paraplegia. must have sufficient ability to hold and turn the wheel and move it forward and back.
During pre-solo flight training, a student pilot learns basic flight maneuvers, such as taking off, holding headings and altitudes, making turns, and learning to control ascent and descent of the aircraft in preparation for landing. For a pilot who is disabled, the workload is slightly different since the hands must be used to control the rudders and brakes of the aircraft.
The only other basic difference in training between pilots who are disabled and non-disabled prior to solo flight Solo Flight was a flight simulator game for the Commodore 64 and Atari 8-bit microcomputers, released in 1983. It was later released for the IBM PC. The game was created by noted game designer Sid Meier, and published by MicroProse Software, Inc. is the medical examination. The Federal Aviation Administration requires an approved medical doctor who has been trained as a flight examiner to conduct a basic physical examination on all pilots. This exam, including blood pressure, eye check, urinalysis urinalysis (yr'ənăl`ĭsĭs), clinical examination of urine for the purpose of medical diagnosis. to screen for diabetes (diabetic individuals are not allowed to fly), and checking for heart disease must be completed before a student can solo. For the pilot who is disabled, a medical waiver is needed. Because of paralysis, persons so situated must demonstrate to a designated FAA examiner that they can get into and out of the airplane on their own, load their wheelchairs, and manipulate the controls. Once a waiver is given, it is good for life. The medical certificate serves as the student's solo pilot certificate, and, with a sign-off from an instructor, allows the individual to solo.
Flight Planning and Exam
Post-solo training includes learning navigation, weather, more advanced flight maneuvers, different types of landings, night flight, basic flight by instruments, and many other skills needed before taking the private pilot's written and oral check ride. More than anything, it involves getting comfortable with the aircraft. Total time required in flight before the exam in 35 hours of flight time, including 25 hours of solo if the student has graduated from an approved flight school, or 40 hours of total flight time and 25 hours of solo from a non-FAA approved flight school. However, most students require between 50 to 60 hours of flight time before they can adequately do the maneuvers and are comfortable with the aircraft.
Advanced Flight Training
After the initial private pilots license is obtained, additional flight training is needed for a pilot to obtain an instruments rating, commercial pilot's license, or an airline transport pilot's license. The instrument rating is needed to fly legally in clouds and conditions where visibility is low. Instrument training in the private pilot license is meant for emergency use only, if the pilot accidentally gets into a cloud, and is not to be used to penetrate clouds intentionally. The instrument training requires 40 hours of additional training in flight in instrument conditions. It requires passing both a written exam and a flight check ride with a designated FAA examiner.
The commercial pilot license allows an individual to fly an airplane for hire, either transporting cargo or passengers. It requires demonstration of higher levels of skill in basic flight and emergency maneuvers from the private pilot license and another written exam and flight test.
The airline transport rating is considered the PhD of aviation for a pilot. It requires written and flight tests and a minimum of 1,500 hours of flight time. Skill level must show the pilot can precisely fly the plane and safely handle a variety of emergency conditions. The written exam requires advanced knowledge of navigation, weather, aircraft operation, and theory of flight for both jets and propeller-driven aircraft. Only 1% of all pilots ever achieve the level of airline transport pilots Airline Transport Pilot may refer to:
To fly aircraft with more than one engine, the FAA requires a multi-engine rating. This rating requires only a flight test with a designated FAA examiner. But control of an aircraft with two engines can, in a emergency, require great physical strength in the legs to control the rudders or in the arms for hand controls. Thus far, the FAA has been hesitant to give multi-engine flight privileges to pilots with full paralysis in their legs, except for multi-engine aircraft with both engines in the fuselage. These are called push-pull aircraft since one engine is in front and pulls while the second engine is behind the cockpit and pushes. In an emergency, these aircraft can be flown much more easily if one engine is out and are used by pilots who are disabled even for commercial aviation.
RELATED ARTICLE: Flying Out My Wheelchair
We are more than 2,000 feet up in the air, floating silently over the green and sunlit sun·lit
Illuminated by the sun.
Adj. 1. sunlit - lighted by sunlight; "the sunlit slopes of the canyon"; "violet valleys and the sunstruck ridges"- Wallace Stegner
sunstruck world that stretches out below us. The only sound is the rushing wind outside the glider, but by now I don't even hear that. Up and to our right, a small form twists to the side, indignant over our invasion of its airspace.
"There's another hawk," Ben Emgee, the pilot, points out from behind me. "Remember what I said last time. They're our thermal guides."
Emgee is a trustee for Freedom's Wings International, Inc., the non-profit organization A non-profit organization (abbreviated "NPO", also "non-profit" or "not-for-profit") is a legally constituted organization whose primary objective is to support or to actively engage in activities of public or private interest without any commercial or monetary profit purposes. based in Scotch Plains, NJ, that has liberated me from the ground. During our first flight, he had told me how soaring birds This is a list of types of soaring birds, which are birds that can maintain flight without wing flapping, using rising air currents. Many gliding birds are able to 'lock' their extended wings by means of a specialized tendon. are a perfect sign of the rising air currents, called thermals, that hawks and glider pilots This list of notable glider pilots contains the names of glider pilots who have achieved fame in gliding other fields: Notable in gliding
After almost eight years in a wheelchair, I am free!
It is a heady feeling. Thirteen years ago, rapidly progressing multiple sclerosis (MS) forced my life into a new direction. Within five years I went from ambulatory to being confined to a wheelchair. I know--confined is not a politically correct politically correct Politically sensitive adjective Referring to language reflecting awareness and sensitivity to another person's physical, mental, cultural, or other disadvantages or deviations from a norm; a person is not mentally retarded, but expression. Too bad. It happens to be the way I often feel. I am fortunate that my MS has been stable for the past six years and that I can live alone and take care of myself, but I am so tired of looking up at the world from my wheelchair.
Whenever I see horseback riders in the park near my apartment, I ache to be mounted again. And I often see hot air balloons This article is about hot air balloons themselves. For the associated activity, see Hot air ballooning.
The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology, dating back to its invention by the Montgolfier brothers in Annonay, floating leisurely overhead. They always seem to be taunting me because I am stuck down on the ground in a 180pound motorized mo·tor·ize
tr.v. mo·tor·ized, mo·tor·iz·ing, mo·tor·iz·es
1. To equip with a motor.
2. To supply with motor-driven vehicles.
3. To provide with automobiles. wheelchair with all the race and free spirit of a Mack truck.
No more, thanks to Freedom's Wings International. I can now fly rings around those hot-air soarers. The converted glider, or sailplane sailplane: see glider. , around me has two positions in the nose, one in front of the other, each with full instrumentation and hand controls to allow a pilot who is unable to use his or her legs to maneuver the plane unhindered unhindered
not prevented or obstructed: unhindered access
without being prevented or obstructed: he was able to go about his work unhindered . And I can come to Van Sant Airport Van Sant Airport (FAA LID: 9N1) is a public general aviation airport in Erwinna, Pennsylvania, United States. History
In 1944, John Van Sant (born 1912) bought the Silver Star Airport, renamed it to The Old Star Airport, and started his own business, Van Sant in Bucks County, PA, from April to November, along with students from as far away as Alaska and Ireland, to receive free flights and lessons. I am just one among many who are enjoying this. The sailplane I am riding in made over 400 flights last year. Our role model is the organization's president, Raymond D. Temchus, Jr. In 1988, he qualified as the nation's first FAA-certified quadriplegic quadriplegic /quad·ri·ple·gic/ (-ple´jik)
1. of, pertaining to, or characterized by quadriplegia.
2. an individual with quadriplegia. flight instructor of sailplanes and is one of the country's few commercially licensed sailplane pilots with disabilities.
My flight-mate, Ben, has been flying for almost fifty years, fifteen of them in sailplanes. I admire the practiced ease with which he swoops Swoops are a chocolate candy manufactured by The Hershey Company. They are potato-chip shaped, and come in many candybar flavors. These flavors are as follows. Hershey's Milk Chocolate, Almond Joy, Reese's Peanut Butter, York Peppermint Pattie, White Chocolate Reeses, and Toffee to catch rising air, adding to our altitude. We are at 3,500 feet, having gained 1,500 feet without an engine.
"Do you want to take the controls this time?" he asked unexpectedly. I swallow. This is only my second flight, and the prospect of trying to pilot the plane is daunting daunt
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.
[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin . I had no idea that there was so much to keep track of. But a pro--who has a strong sense of self-preservation and plenty of skill--is sitting behind me, so I relax.
"Sure. Why not?" I curl my right hand around the control stick and my left around the rudder lever. My eyes flash from the yaw-string that is taped to the canopy over me (it shows the wind flow) to the various instruments, and finally to the horizon. Ben has told me to keep a slice of the horizon in view between the canopy and the sky to let me know that I am level. Too much horizon and I am losing altitude; too little and I am climbing, at risk of stalling as my airspeed airspeed
the speed of an aircraft relative to the air in which it moves
Noun 1. airspeed - the speed of an aircraft relative to the air in which it is flying
speed, velocity - distance travelled per unit time drops. I also have to watch my airspeed gauge. If we are flying at less than 35 to 40 knots, we will stall.
I feel a little overwhelmed this first time, especially when I try my hand at turning and feel the plane start to stall. Ben chuckles
1. the ventrally directed large surface of the bird's sternum, the site of attachment of the major muscles of flight. Called also carina.
2. the prominent area over the sternum in Dachshunds. as I realize I definitely need more practice. Level flight comes pretty easily, but turning is another matter. Not at all as easy as driving my hand control-equipped van.
As Ben hands control back to me, I continue to gain respect for him--and for that vanished hawk who is probably soaring out of sight somewhere above us, trying not to laugh at my clumsy attempts to fly. After a few more fumbling fum·ble
v. fum·bled, fum·bling, fum·bles
1. To touch or handle nervously or idly: fumble with a necktie.
2. tries at turning I relinquish control, because a friend on the ground is waiting for her turn to soar--as long as she sees me come down safely.
As we circle around and drop towards the field, I know that I will keep coming back. During these flights I leave more than my wheelchair on the ground below. I leave all sense of disability behind. For a while I can soar, more than physically, in a world few non-disabled people ever get a chance to explore.
For more information on how to become part of this unique program, write to: Freedom's Wings International, 1832 Lake Ave., Scotch Plains, NJ 07076.
F. Alexander Brejcha is a freelance writer with multiple sclerosis who works the night shift as a telephone operator, and spends his free (?) time writing science fiction and disability-related nonfiction for a variety of newspapers and magazines. In 1993 he experienced true freedom while riding the therms above the New Jersey countryside.
RELATED ARTICLE: The Stormy Story
Ten-year-old Stormy Burn has no use of his legs and cannot speak. But, he sure loves to fly!
Stormy attended the Challenge Air (CA) event held at Orlando Executive Airport Orlando Executive Airport (IATA: ORL, ICAO: KORL, FAA LID: ORL) is a public airport located 3 miles (5 km) east of the city of Orlando in Orange County, Florida, USA. It primarily serves the general aviation community. in Florida on May 16 and 17, 1998.
He flew with CA's pilot, Theron Wright, a chair user himself. Stormy has cerebral palsy and he drives a huge tank-like hybrid wheelchair/off-road vehicle, controlling it with his head. He speaks with the help of a laptop computer and his biggest idol is Steven Hawkins. lust one look in Stormy's eyes and you can see that he is extremely intelligent.
When Stormy, his mother Katie, and brother Franky arrived at the event, Katie requested that he fly with Theron Wright. "After Stormy saw that Theron was in a wheelchair, he communicated through his hand gestures that no, Theron can't fly," said Katie.
Little did he know, until Theron showed him how he flew the airplane, that people in wheelchairs could be pilots. "It was quite a shock to all of us when during the flight he started screaming and hollering (the joyous joy·ous
Feeling or causing joy; joyful. See Synonyms at glad1.
joyous·ly adv. type of screaming and hollering) and continued to do so long after his flight," said Wright.
To express their appreciation, Stormy and his family came back to the event the next day and brought Theron roses and a card that Stormy had made.
"The flight meant so much to Stormy," said Katie. "We fully intend to take him flying at least three to four times a year. This is his special treat. Meeting Theron made him realize that everything isn't lost for him."
Stormy's only request was that he have a picture with Theron by the airplane to place in his album of different people who have overcome obstacles in spite of their disabilities.
Theron will be placed next to Steven Hawkins.
Challenge Air is a non-profit organization committed to the education and inspirational advancement of children who are disabled and seriously ill A patient is seriously ill when his or her illness is of such severity that there is cause for immediate concern but there is no imminent danger to life. See also very seriously ill. by providing MORE--Motivational, Occupational, Recreational, and Educational therapy through the experience of flight with a pilot who has a disability, free of charge. For more information: <www.challengeair.com>.
For more information, contact the Wheelchair Pilots Association, Big Bear City Airport, Attn: Mike Smith, PO Box 2799, Big Bear City, CA 92314.
Additionally, two books may be useful for questions on general aviation: Airmen's Information Manual and Federal Aviation Regulations The Federal Aviation Regulations, or FARs, are rules prescribed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) governing all aviation activities in the United States. The FARs are part of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). . Both ore published for the FAA and con be purchased at any airport pilot shop.
Jerrold Petrofsky is a professor of physical thievery Thievery
See also Gangsterism, Highwaymen, Outlawry.
Alfarache, Guzmán de
picaresque, peripatetic thief; lived by unscrupulous wits. [Span. Lit. at Loma Linda University Founded in 1905, Loma Linda University (LLU) is a private, Christian, coeducational, health sciences university located in Southern California 60 miles east of Los Angeles close to San Bernardino and near beaches, mountains, and the desert. . He has published over 200 scholarly papers and holds 33 patents in the area of rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. following spinal cord injury. He presently t operates the Petrofsky Center for Rehabilitation and Research in Tustin, CA. Dr. Petrofsky has over 20 years teaching experience in aviation. Aviation can be fun, as well as a good means of transportation.