Hydrogen fuel cells to power homes, vehicles in Japan.YOKOHAMA, Japan -- Consumers here soon will be able to generate electricity and hot water for their homes and power their vehicles by using hydrogen.
Next year, companies including Panasonic, Toshiba and Toyota will The Toyota WiLL series consists of three individually-designed cars, based on the mechanicals of other Toyota models. The series was intended to appeal to markets that were not covered by Toyota's mainstream range, and to discover how commercially feasible such unusual designs were. begin selling residential fuel cell systems across the nation, says Hisashi Yano, director of the Japan Hydrogen Fuel Cell demonstration park.
Hydrogen fuel cells generate electricity through chemical reactions This is the 18th episode of television drama Men in Trees. It originally aired on June 25, 2007 on the TV2 network in New Zealand as a continuation of season 1. Recap
Marin and Cash have a stew cook off, she admits his is better than hers. between hydrogen and oxygen. Such technologies are considered clean energy sources because the only byproducts of the process are heat and water.
However, attaining a supply of hydrogen for the system still requires burning fossil fuels fossil fuel: see energy, sources of; fuel.
Any of a class of materials of biologic origin occurring within the Earth's crust that can be used as a source of energy. Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. . The residential fuel cell technologies will be connected to existing home energy sources, such as natural gas, propane propane, CH3CH2CH3, colorless, gaseous alkane. It is readily liquefied by compression and cooling. It melts at −189.9°C; and boils at −42.2°C;. and kerosene kerosene or kerosine, colorless, thin mineral oil whose density is between 0.75 and 0.85 grams per cubic centimeter. A mixture of hydrocarbons, it is commonly obtained in the fractional distillation of petroleum as the portion boiling off . The fuel cells derive hydrogen from those sources through a reforming process. One day, scientists believe the hydrogen will be derived from water.
Field tests of the residential fuel cell systems have been conducted in more than 3,300 homes across Japan since 2005. The technologies have shown reductions of 24 percent in fossil fuel consumption and 39 percent in carbon dioxide carbon dioxide, chemical compound, CO2, a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is about one and one-half times as dense as air under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure. emissions per household, says Makoto Okuda, director of the fuel cell department at the New Energy Foundation, which subsidizes the technology at a cost of $20,000 per residential fuel cell unit.
Each unit produces one kilowatt kilowatt: see watt. of electricity. The excess heat and water generated through the process can be captured and shifted to a home's hot water supply.
Consumers will be able to purchase the technologies for $10,000 per unit. The government is considering subsidies to help defray de·fray
tr.v. de·frayed, de·fray·ing, de·frays
To undertake the payment of (costs or expenses); pay.
[French défrayer, from Old French desfrayer : des-, the cost. Manufacturers are working to lower the price of the commercial systems. Okuda says the price tag must be cut to $5,000 to truly penetrate the market.
Along with promoting hydrogen fuel cell technologies for residences, the government is encouraging the development of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles
Auto manufacturers are leasing about 60 fuel cell vehicles to cities and municipalities across the country to generate data and interest in the technologies.
Nissan Motor Co. and Honda Motor Co. demonstrated their fuel cell vehicle prototypes to reporters here. Both vehicles zipped powerfully along the roads and experienced no trouble with acceleration, a problem that tends to plague their hybrid gas-electric counterparts. Because the hydrogen fuel is kept under pressure inside the fuel tanks, the vehicles can travel about 370 Idlometers before refueling. Doubling the pressure on the same amount of hydrogen fuel increases the driving range to more than 500 kilometers, company officials say.
The raw materials for the vehicles are not expensive, but the manufacturing processes are, says Izuho Hirano, manager of the fuel cell laboratory at Nissan's research center. The company initially invested about $850 million to develop its vehicle and it continues to improve the technologies to lower the costs for consumers.
The estimated cost per vehicle is 50 million to 100 million yen, or about $500,000 to $1 million. The average Japanese consumer would be willing to buy a fuel cell vehicle if it costs 5 million yen, or about $50,000, says Hirano. He adds that commercialization of these vehicles will be feasible in the near future as automakers continue to make progress in cost reductions.
The government has set up 12 hydrogen fueling stations throughout the nation and is collecting data on them to build and operate more stations in the future. Unlike conventional gasoline refueling stations, these hydrogen stations will be able to produce their own fuel. The hydrogen is stored in long cylindrical cyl·in·dri·cal
Of, relating to, or having the shape of a cylinder, especially of a circular cylinder. tanks under pressure. Pumps inject in·ject
1. To introduce a substance, such as a drug or vaccine, into a body part.
2. To treat by means of injection. a tank to capacity in five minutes, says Masaru Nakabayashi, director of the park's hydrogen station.
Ongoing research will help develop methods to compress hydrogen for fuel tanks and also determine the best ways to transport and store it.