How to formulate lauryl sulfate-free products: here's a useful guide for the cosmetic chemist who is challenged to create lauryl sulfate-free personal care products.
LAURYL SULFATES have been used for personal cleansing in the U.S. since the mid-1940s. They were considered an improvement over "castile" shampoos which were based on liquid soaps composed of saponified sa·pon·i·fy
v. sa·pon·i·fied, sa·pon·i·fy·ing, sa·pon·i·fies
1. To convert (an ester) by saponification.
2. To convert (a fat or oil) into soap.
v.intr. vegetable oils <onlyinclude> This list of vegetable oils includes all vegetable oils that are extracted from plants by placing the relevant part of the plant under pressure to extract the oil. . Lauryl sulfates were found to provide a significant improvement in foam properties, whereas soap shampoos form insoluble insoluble /in·sol·u·ble/ (in-sol´u-b'l) not susceptible of being dissolved.
Not soluble. calcium soaps in hard water, causing depressed foam and soap buildups. An acid rinse was required to remove the insoluble calcium soap. (1)
In the 1950s, sulfates from ethoxylated lauryl alcohol lau·ryl alcohol
A colorless solid alcohol used in synthetic detergents and pharmaceuticals. were introduced. They provided greater solubility solubility
Degree to which a substance dissolves in a solvent to make a solution (usually expressed as grams of solute per litre of solvent). Solubility of one fluid (liquid or gas) in another may be complete (totally miscible; e.g. that enabled the formulator to develop higher active formulations. The ether ether, in chemistry
ether, any of a number of organic compounds whose molecules contain two hydrocarbon groups joined by single bonds to an oxygen atom. sulfates were found to be better solubilizers for fragrance oils and milder than lauryl sulfates (see Tables I and II). (2) Also, the irritation of the ether sulfates can be greatly reduced by blending with a sulfosuccinate or amphoteric amphoteric /am·pho·ter·ic/ (am?fo-ter´ik) having opposite characters; capable of acting as both an acid and a base; capable of neutralizing either bases or acids.
adj. . Lauryl sulfates are less responsive to reduced irritation when blended with a mild surfactant Surfactant Definition
Surfactant is a complex naturally occurring substance made of six lipids (fats) and four proteins that is produced in the lungs. It can also be manufactured synthetically. . (3,4,5)
Today, lauryl and laureth sulfates continue to be the "workhorse work·horse
1. Something, such as a machine, that performs dependably under heavy or prolonged use: "the 50-year-old DC-3 ... " surfactants in practically all personal cleansers: shampoos, body wash, liquid hand soaps and facial cleansers. Properties such as foam, viscosity-building, light color and low odor are unsurpassed compared to other major surfactants offered on the market.
In recent years, however, there has been a trend among some consumer product companies to replace lauryl sulfates in personal cleansers. Lauryl sulfate sulfate, chemical compound containing the sulfate (SO4) radical. Sulfates are salts or esters of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, formed by replacing one or both of the hydrogens with a metal (e.g., sodium) or a radical (e.g., ammonium or ethyl). surfactants have received bad press over the internet and as a result, some manufacturers have decided to reformulate Verb 1. reformulate - formulate or develop again, of an improved theory or hypothesis
formulate, explicate, develop - elaborate, as of theories and hypotheses; "Could you develop the ideas in your thesis" their products in order to avoid controversy.
There is no surfactant available on the market that will directly replace lauryl sulfate and maintain the identical properties. Compromises are necessary. With proper formulation techniques, however, lauryl sulfate-free formulas can be developed that are more mild and in some cases have improved properties, such as viscosity-building and conditioning. Although there are other options, this article offers alternative surfactants and model formulas to enable chemists to formulate quality lauryl sulfate-free products.
Sodium cocosulfate is prepared by the sulfation of coco alcohol which is derived from the hydrogenation hydrogenation (hīdrôj`ənā'shən, hī'drəjənā`shən), chemical reaction of a substance with molecular hydrogen, usually in the presence of a catalyst. of coconut oil coconut oil
A pale yellow to colorless oil or a white semisolid fat obtained from the flesh of the coconut, widely used in food products and in the production of cosmetics and soaps.
Noun 1. fatty acids at high temperature and pressure. The product is typically supplied as a 90% active solid in either a flake or needle form. The needle is the preferred form since it is less dusty when handled.
In recent years, sodium cocosulfate has become a popular choice as a replacement for sodium lauryl sulfate Noun 1. sodium lauryl sulfate - a caustic detergent useful for removing grease; although commonly included in personal care items (shampoos and toothpastes etc. for several reasons:
* It has a more natural-sounding name. Many companies, especially those promoting natural products, prefer a name with a natural-sounding as opposed to a chemical-sounding name.
* It is an excellent viscosity builder and therefore can replace an alkanol amide or a fatty betaine betaine /be·ta·ine/ (be´tah-en) the carboxylic acid derived by oxidation of choline; it acts as a transmethylating metabolic intermediate and is used in the treatment of homocystinuria. .
* It has a noticeable conditioning effect on hair, whereas lauryl (a laureth) sulfate simply cleans. (6)
Sodium cocosulfate is used in a wide range of products either as a replacement for sodium lauryl sulfate or to enhance the qualities of a formula; i.e., conditioning and viscosity-building. Applications currently on the market include:
* Conditioning shampoos,
* Liquid hand soaps,
* Body washes,
* Bath beads,
* Synthetic detergent bars and
* Facial cleansers.
Sodium cocosulfate is an excellent replacement for sodium lauryl sulfate because it provides viscosity building properties and a rich dense foam. It is also a useful replacement for diethanolamides which have come under attack in recent years as potential carcinogens Carcinogens
Substances in the environment that cause cancer, presumably by inducing mutations, with prolonged exposure.
Mentioned in: Colon Cancer, Rectal Cancer . (7,8) The following model body wash formula is an example where a combination of sodium cocosulfate betaine, and an amphoteric can replace the traditional lauryl sulfate/ DEA DEA - Data Encryption Algorithm amide system.
Emollient Body Wash (Amide and Lauryl Sulfate Free) Ingredients %Wt. Mackam HPL-28 (McIntyre) 22.0 (sodium lauroamphoacetate) Mackam LMB (McIntyre) 16.0 (lauramidopropyl betaine, 30%) (Mackol CAS-100N) (McIntyre) 7.0 (sodium cocosulfate, 90%) Mackalene 426 (McIntyre) 2.5 (isostearamidopropyl morpholine lactate, 25%) Mackester EGDS (McIntyre) 1.5 (glycol distearate) Mackernium C-14U (McIntyre) 0.5 (guar hydroxpropyltrimonium chloride) Paragon MEPB (McIntyre) q.s. (phenoxyethanol (and) methylparaben (and) ethylparaben (and) butylparaben (and) propylparaben) EDTA (40%) 0.2 Citric acid q.s. to pH = 6.5-7.0 Water, fragrance q.s. to 100.0 Procedure: Disperse Mackernium C-14U in water at room temperature (no heat) and blend for one hour. Add the first five components and heat to 75[degrees]C. Blend until completely homogenous. Adjust pH with citric acid and cool. At 50[degrees]C add preservative, EDTA and fragrance. Cool and fill.
The body wash is a viscous viscous /vis·cous/ (vis´kus) sticky or gummy; having a high degree of viscosity.
1. Having relatively high resistance to flow.
2. Viscid. pearly liquid. It provides a rich creamy lather and has an emollient emollient /emol·li·ent/ (e-mol´yent)
1. softening or soothing.
2. an agent that softens or soothes the skin, or soothes an irritated internal surface.
Sodium cocosulfate is also ideal for products that require a creamy consistency; e.g., shave cream or facial cleansers. When combined with a mild disodium lauryl sulfosuccinate, a smooth creamy product can be developed which is ideal for dispensing from a tube. The following is an example of a shave cream formula combining sodium cocosulfate with disodium lauryl sulfosuccinate to provide a shave cream with a creamy texture:
Shave Cream Ingredients %Wt. Phase A Water 33.9 Mackernium C-14U (McIntyre) 0.4 (guar hydroxypropyltrimonium chloride) Glycerin 7.0 Mackol CAS-100N (McIntyre) 6.0 (sodium cocosulfate (90%) Sodium chloride 0.5 EDTA (40%) 0.2 Citric acid q.s. to pH 6.0-7.0 Phase B Mackanate LO (McIntyre) 52.0 (disodium lauryl sulfosuccinate (40%) Paragon MEPB (McIntyre) q.s. (phenoxyethanol (and) methylparaben(and) ethyl paraben (and) propylparaben (and) butylparaben) Fragrance q.s. Procedure: Disperse Mackernium C-14U into room temperature water. Heat to 40[degrees]C and maintain for 30 minutes. Add glycerin, EDTA and sodium chloride. Heat to 65[degrees]C and slowly add Mackol CAS-100N. Heat Mackanate LO to 50[degrees]C and add Paragon MEPB and EDTA. Slowly add Phase A to Phase B. Blend and add fragrance. Cool and fill.
Sodium cocosulfate is also used in toothpaste to replace sodium lauryl sulfate as the primary foamer and cleaning agent. The following formula is ideal for promotion to the "natural" market.
Toothpaste Ingredients %Wt. Phase A Sorbitol (70%) 31.85 Glycerin 10.00 Mackol CAS-100N (90%) (McIntyre) 0.60 (sodium cocosulfate) Phase B CMC PH-6000 powder (TIC Gums) 0.45 (cellulose gum) Phase C Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate 45.00 Monoammonium glycyrrizinate 0.30 Phase D Water 11.20 Sodium benzoate 0.25 Phase E Peppermint oil 0.25 Spearmint oil 0.10 Procedure: In jacketed, stainless steel kettle equipped with in-tank homogenizer mixing and sweep agitation, combine phase A materials and heat to 80-82[degrees]C. Under homogenization, add phase B and disperse uniformly (batch will produce foam). Add phase C to batch with same sheer and continue homogenization until all powder has been incorporated. Immediately add premixed phase D until uniformly incorporated. Switch to slow, sweep agitation and begin cooling batch slowly to 40-45[degrees]C to remove any aeration. At this temperature range, add phase E. Add water to batch and cool to 30-35[degrees]C. Compensate for water loss then compare top and bottom samples to standard. Finished product is a thick paste suitable for dispensing from a tube.
Sodium cocosulfate has low solubility in water, but when combined with a betaine, amphoteric and propylene glycol propylene glycol
a chemical used industrially as an antifreeze, solvent stabilizer, as a preservative in liquid livestock feeds and pharmaceutically as a vehicle or solvent for medicinal preparations. , a clear product can be achieved. The following is an example of a clear hand soap.
Clear Emollient Liquid Hand Soap Ingredients: %Wt. Mackam 35UL (McIntyre) 12.0 (cocamidopropyl betaine, 30%) Mackam HPC-32 (McIntyre) (sodium cocoamphoacetate, 32%) 10.0 Propylene glycol 7.5 Mackol CAS-100N (McIntyre) 5.5 (sodium cocosulfate, 90%) EDTA (40%) 0.2 Citric acid q.s. to pH 6.5-7.0 Mackstat SHG (McIntyre) q.s. (sodium hydroxymethylglycinate) Water, dye, fragrance q.s. to 100.0 Procedure: Add the first five components to water and heat to 70[degrees]C. Blend until the Mackol CAS-100N is melted and dispersed. Cool to 50[degrees]C and adjust pH with citric acid. Cool to 35[degrees]C. Add Mackstat SHG. Cool and fill. Product is a clear, viscous, free-flowing liquid.
Alpha Olefin olefin (ō`ləfĭn) or olefin series: see alkene.
Any unsaturated hydrocarbon containing one or more pairs of carbon atoms linked by a double bond (see Sulfonate sul·fo·nate
A salt or ester of sulfonic acid.
1. To introduce one or more sulfonic acid groups into an organic compound.
2. To treat with sulfonic acid.
Sodium [C.sub.14-16] olefin sulfonate (AOS (Alternative Operator Services) Operator services provided by a third-party organization. See operator services.
1. AOS - /aws/ (East Coast), /ay-os/ (West Coast) A PDP-10 instruction that took any memory location and added 1 to it. ) is another excellent replacement for lauryl sulfates. It has been used for many years in personal cleansers and is known to provide excellent foam properties and detergency de·ter·gen·cy
The power or quality of cleansing.
Noun 1. detergency - detergent quality; the quality of having cleansing power
usefulness, utility - the quality of being of practical use . (9) There are several differences between alpha olefin sulfonates (AOS) and sodium lauryl sulfate. For example, AOS requires a higher amount of viscosity builder (amide, betaine, electrolyte electrolyte (ĭlĕk`trəlīt'), electrical conductor in which current is carried by ions rather than by free electrons (as in a metal). , etc.) to achieve equal viscosity of a lauryl sulfate formula when formulated at the same active level. Also, AOS typically is not as lightly colored as sodium lauryl sulfate and therefore water white or blue colors cannot be achieved.
The following model formula for a 2:1 shampoo was developed with sodium alpha olefin sulfonate in place of sodium lauryl sulfate. Note that the formula also contains cocamide MIPA MIPA Musikmesse International Press Award
MIPA Malawi Investment Promotion Agency
MIPA Ministero per le Politiche Agricole (Italy)
MIPA Michigan Interscholastic Press Association
MIPA Monoisopropanolamine as a viscosity builder and foam stabilizer stabilizer: see airplane. instead of the traditional cocamide MEA Cocamide MEA, or cocamide monoethanolamine, is a pale yellow viscous clear to amber liquid, or solid flakes. It can be made from fatty acids in coconut oils, reacted with ethanolamine. See cocamide for the discussion of the length of carbon chain in the molecule. . The reason is that cocamide MIPA was chosen because it has no free diethanolamine, whereas cocamide MEA contains trace amounts of diethanolamine which can be unacceptable to some consumers. Also, the isostearmidopropyl morpholine Morpholine is an organic chemical compound having the chemical formula O(CH2CH2)2NH. This heterocycle, pictured at right, features both amine and ether functional groups. lactate Lactate
A salt or ester of lactic acid (CH3CHOHCOOH). In lactates, the acidic hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by a metal or an organic radical. Lactates are optically active, with a chiral center at carbon 2. used in this formula was found to provide excellent conditioning without depressing foam. Eye and skin irritation skin irritation,
n reaction to a particular irritant that results in inflammation of the skin and itchiness. are very low. (10,11,12)
2:1 Silicone-Free Shampoo Ingredients: %Wt. Sodium [C.sub.14-16] olefin sulfonate, 40%) 25.0 Mackanate EL (McIntyre) 15.0 (disodium laureth sulfosuccinate, 40%) Makamide CPA (McIntyre) 3.0 (cocamide MIPA) Mackernium 007 (McIntyre) 6.0 (polyquaternium 7, 9.2%) Mackalene 426 (McIntyre) 8.0 (isostearamidopropyl morpholine lactate, 25%) Mackester EGDS (McIntyre) 1.5 (ethylene glycol distearate) ETDA (40%) 0.2 Paragon MEPB (McIntyre) q.s. (phenoxyethanol (and) methylparaben (and) ethylparaben (and) propylparaben (and) butylparaben Citric acid q.s. to pH 6.5-7.0 Water, fragrance q.s. to 100.0 Procedure: Add first seven components to water and heat to 70[degrees]C. Blend until the Mackamide CPA and Mackester EGDS are melted and dispersed. Cool to 50[degrees]C and add fragrance and Paragon MEPB. Adjust pH to 6.5-7.0 with citric acid if needed. Cool and fill. Product is a pearly, viscous, free-flowing liquid.
Cocoglyceryl sulfonate is another interesting replacement for lauryl sulfate. A more "non-traditional" surfactant, it provides excellent lather and cleansing properties. When blended properly with conditioners and thickening agents, the cocoglyceryl sulfonate provides excellent cleaning and conditioning properties. The following is an example of a 2:1 silicone free shampoo based on cocoglyceryl sulfonate, mild surfactants and conditioners compatible with anionic an·i·on
A negatively charged ion, especially the ion that migrates to an anode in electrolysis.
[From Greek, neuter present participle of anienai, to go up : ana-, ana- surfactants.
2:1 Silicone-Free Shampoo Ingredients: %Wt. Sodium alkyl [C.sub.10-16] 12.0 (glyceryl sulfonate, 50%) Mackanate EL (McIntyre) 20.0 (disodium laureth sulfosuccinate, 40%) Mackalene 426 (McIntyre) 6.0 (isostearamidopropyl morpholine lactate, 25%) Mackernium 007 (McIntyre) 4.0 (polyquaternium-7, 9.2%) Mackamide CPA (McIntyre) 4.0 (cocamide MIPA) Mackester EGDS 1.5 (ethylene glycol distearate) ETDA (40%) 0.2 Phenagon PDI (McIntyre) q.s. (phenoxyethanol (and) DMDM hydantoin (and) iodopropynyl butylcarbamate) Citric acid q.s. to pH 6.0-6.5 Water, fragrance q.s. to 100.0 Procedure: Dissolve the Mackernium 007 in water. Add the other components (except fragrance and preservative) and heat to 70-[degrees]C. Blend until the Mackester EGDS and Mackamide CPA are melted and dispersed. Cool to 50-[degrees]C and add Phenagon PDI and fragrance. Cool and fill. Product is a pearly, viscous, free-flowing liquid.
Alkylamido Betaines A betaine in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group such as an ammonium ion or phosphonium ion (generally: onium ions) which bears no hydrogen atom and with a negatively charged functional group such as a carboxylate group
Alkylamido betaines are another replacement for lauryl (or laureth) sulfates in personal care cleansing formulations. Betaines have excellent foam and cleaning properties without the need to include an additional foam booster. (13) A betaine-based formula also has the added advantage for products that are required to be anionic surfactant-free. Anionic-free formulas are important for antibacterial antibacterial /an·ti·bac·te·ri·al/ (-bak-ter´e-al) destroying or suppressing growth or reproduction of bacteria; also, an agent that does this.
adj. cleansers because the active ingredient An active ingredient, also active pharmaceutical ingredient (or API), is the substance in a drug that is pharmaceutically active. Some medications may contain more than one active ingredient. may be deactivated by anionic surfactants. The following is an example of a clear liquid hand soap based on a lauramidopropyl betaine, which utilizes hydroxethyl cellulose as a thickener thick·en
tr. & intr.v. thick·ened, thick·en·ing, thick·ens
1. To make or become thick or thicker: Thicken the sauce with cornstarch. The crowd thickened near the doorway.
2. and polyquaternium-7 to provide a smooth feel to the skin. Similar products, such as body washes and shampoos can also be formulated with a few minor modifications.
Clear, Anionic-Free Liquid Hand Soap Ingredients: % Wt. Mackam LMB (McIntyre) 30.0 (lauramidopropyl betaine, 35%) Mackernium 007 (McIntyre) 2.0 (polyquaternium-7, 9.2%) Natrosol 250HHR 1.0 (hydroxyethyl cellulose) Paragon q.s. (DMDM hydantioin (and) methylparaben (and) propylene glycol) EDTA (40%) 0.2 Water, fragrance, dye q.s. to 100.0 Procedure Slowly disperse Natrosol 250HHR in water. Blend until completely hydrated (approximately one hour). Add Mackernium 007 and blend until completely dispersed. Add Mackam LMB and EDTA and heat to 40[degrees]C. Add Paragon and blend until clear. Add fragrance, dye and blend until clear. Adjust pH to 6.5-7.0 with citric acid if needed. Product is a clear, free-flowing liquid.
In today's ever-changing market, an ingredient that is widely-favored one day may fall out of favor the next. For example, diethanolamides were the traditional viscosity builder and foam stabilizer in cleansing products for more than 50 years. Then in December 1997, the National Toxicology Program National Toxicology Program Environment A program that conducts toxicologic tests on substances frequently found at the EPA's National Priorities List sites, which have the greatest potential for human exposure published a report that diethanolamine (DEA) when applied to the skin induced liver and kidney cancers. (14) The results were reported to the public on February 22, 1998 by CBS Morning News CBS Morning News is the half-hour daily television broadcast from CBS News that airs following Up to the Minute. It airs from 4:30 to 5 a.m. in many markets (it is updated for the different time zones across the United States) and features late-breaking news . (15) The effect on the industry was that many companies decided to reformulate so they could remove the word DEA from their label to avoid possible public controversy.
There are other examples in the industry, such as nitrosamine-free, dioxane-free, acrylamide-free, ethoxylate-free and animal-free that have resulted in product reformulations. It is difficult to know at this time whether "lauryl sulfate-free" will become a major trend, or remain in the niche market A niche market also known as a target market is a focused, targetable portion (subset) of a market sector.
By definition, then, a business that focuses on a niche market is addressing a need for a product or service that is not being addressed by mainstream providers. . The purpose of this article is to address the questions "how to reformulate" and not "why to reformulate." The why is often traced to special interest groups and not necessarily based on sound science.
The formulas presented in this article serve as a useful guide to the formulator who is given the challenge to develop a "lauryl sulfate-free" product. Compromises are needed to achieve this goal, but by using creative formulating techniques, lauryl sulfate free cleansers with equivalent (or improved) properties to traditional lauryl sulfate products are possible.
Table I: Eye Irritation Scores of Common Surfactants Draize Score Lauramide DEA 59 Cocamidopropylamine oxide 59 Sodium [C.sub.14-16] olefin sulfonate 39 Sodium lauryl sulfate 32 Cocamidopropyl betaine 24 Sodium laureth sulfate 22 Disodium lauryl sulfosuccinate 18 Disodium laureth sulfosuccinate 14 Disodium cocoamphodiacetate 12 Disodium oleamido MEA sulfosuccinate 4 Table II: Skin Irritation Scores of Common Surfactants Draize Score Sodium [C.sub.14-16] olefin sulfonate 5.5 Sodium lauryl sulfate 5.0 Sodium laureth sulfate 4.7 Cocamidopropylamine oxide 3.9 Lauramide DEA 3.8 Cocamidopropyl betaine 3.8 Disodium lauryl sulfosuccinate 3.4 Disodium laureth sulfosuccinate 1.4 Disodium cocoamphodiacetate 1.0 Disodium oleamido MEA sulfosuccinate 0.9
(1.) Schimmel Schimmel is a German surname and may refer to:
(2.) "A Guide to Formulating Mild Sulfosuccinate Products," McIntyre Group Product Guide, p.7, 2/93.
(3.) T.G. Schoenberg, "Formulating Mild Skin Cleansers," Soap/Cosmetics/Chemical Specialties, May 1983, p. 34A.
(4.) T.G. Schoenberg, "Formulating with Non-Traditional Amhoterics," Cosmetic and Toiletries toi·let·ry
n. pl. toi·let·ries
An article, such as toothpaste or a hairbrush, used in personal grooming or dressing.
toiletries npl → artículos mpl de aseo (= , Vol. III, No. 10, p. 99.
(5.) T.G. Schoenberg, "Formulating with Betaine and Amphoteric Surfactants," Happi, October 1997.
(6.) T.G. Schoenberg, "Formulating with Sodium Coco-Sulfate, A Non-Traditional Surfactant," Happi, February 2001.
(7.) T.G. Schoenberg, "Formulating without Diethanolamides," Happi, July 1998.
(8.) T.G. Schoenberg, "Formulating without Ethanolamides," Happi, July 1999.
(9.) T.G. Schoenberg, "Formulating [C.sub.14-16] Alpha Olefin Sulfonates in High Foaming Shampoos," Soap/Cosmetics/Chemical Specialties, May 1980.
(10.) T.G. Schoenberg, "New Look at Cationic cationic
having qualities dependent on having free cations available.
are wetting agents that disrupt or damage cell membranes, denature proteins and inactivate enzymes. Surfactants for Today's Low Today's Low
The intra-day low trading price.
In other words, this is the lowest price that a stock traded at during the course of the day. More often than not this is lower than the closing price.
See also: Today's High pH Shampoos", Cosmetics and Perfumery per·fum·er·y
n. pl. per·fum·er·ies
2. An establishment that makes or sells perfume.
3. The art of making perfume.
Noun 1. , March 1975.
(11.) T.G. Schoenberg, A.A. Scafidi, "Rose of Alkylamidoamine Salts in the Modern Hair Conditioner Hair conditioner is a hair care product that alters the texture and appearance of human hair. History
For centuries, Natural oils have been used to condition human hair. ," Cosmetics and Toiletries, March 1979.
(12.) T.G. Schoenberg, U.S. Patent 4,168,302.
(13.) T.G. Schoenberg, "Formulating with Betaine and Amphoteric Surfactants," Happi, October 1997.
(14.) NTP (Network Time Protocol) A TCP/IP protocol used to synchronize the real time clock in computers, network devices and other electronic equipment that is time sensitive. It is also used to maintain the correct time in NTP-based wall and desk clocks. Board of Science Conselor's Technical Reports Review Sub Committee (Dec. 9, 10, 1997).
(15.) "Major cosmetic and toiletry ingredient poses avoidable cancer risk," R.R. Newswire, February 22, 1998.
Director of International Sales
McIntyre Group Ltd.
TOM SCHOENBERG is the director of international sales with the McIntyre Group Ltd., University Park, IL. He has more than 40 years of experience in the personal care market. For most of his career, Mr. Schoenberg has been involved in the development of new applications for raw materials. He has published many articles and holds several patents in the area of new and novel products.