How consciousness-raising affects intonation and facilitates reading comprehension.ABSTRACT
This paper reports on an investigation about the relation between a student's conscious awareness of the structure of a sentence and the degree of his/her intonation intonation
In phonetics, the melodic pattern of an utterance. Intonation is primarily a matter of variation in the pitch level of the voice (see tone), but in languages such as English, stress and rhythm are also involved. accuracy as well as his/her reading comprehension Reading comprehension can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text. For normal reading rates (around 200-220 words per minute) an acceptable level of comprehension is above 75%. .
The research was done based on the hypothesis that: " if the students are made conscious of the infrastructure of lengthy sentences i.e., of subject and predicate In programming, a statement that evaluates an expression and provides a true or false answer based on the condition of the data. division and of the relative and other WH-clauses, they are more likely to read the sentences 'correctly and with greater comprehension.
To examine the validity of the hypothesis, different groups of ESP (1) (Enhanced Service Provider) An organization that adds value to basic telephone service by offering such features as call-forwarding, call-detailing and protocol conversion. students of different years were observed at Shahid Bahonar university of Kerman The university was almost entirely founded by a private gift donated by Alireza Afzalipour on August 9, 1972.
The university has two different main campuses in the city of Kerman and several smaller campuses spreaded out across the province of Kerman offering degrees in . They were, first, taught how to divide a sentence into subject and predicate and also about the form and function of WH-clauses.
Next, the application of the student's knowledge of sentence was examined whenever one of them seemed unable to read a sentence correctly. At this point, the student was asked to show the borderline borderline /bor·der·line/ (-lin) of a phenomenon, straddling the dividing line between two categories.
borderline between the subject and the predicate by identifying the verb verb, part of speech typically used to indicate an action. English verbs are inflected for person, number, tense and partially for mood; compound verbs formed with auxiliaries (e.g., be, can, have, do, will) provide a distinction of voice. at the beginning of the predicate. The next thing to do was to ask the student to read the sentence again. If he/she succeeded to read the sentence with the correct intonation, then he/she would be asked to translate it into L1. In case there were words that were unfamiliar to the student, they were ignored and the main idea of the sentence would suffice.
At last, the cross-tabulations of their immediate response to consciousness-raising with reading comprehension and intonation showed a 100% of improvement. This hypothesis proved the hypothesis.
Key words: Consciousness-Raising, Subject, Predicate, Reading Comprehension, Intonation, Language Awareness
Language awareness and its use in language teaching has recently received considerable attention, referring to the development in learners of an enhanced consciousness of and sensitivity to the forms and functions of language. Carter (2003) one investigation in this regard, was reported to have examined "whether negotiated help provided within the learners' zone of proximal development Lev Vygotsky's notion of zone of proximal development (зона ближайшего развития), often abbreviated ZPD (ZPD ZPD Zero Path Difference
ZPD Zone Proximal Development
ZPD Zero Percent Discount ) is more effective than help provided randomly... ." Nassaji & Swales (2000) findings of the investigation are said to have supported the consciousness raising Consciousness raising (often abbreviated c.r.) is a form of political activism, pioneered by United States radical feminists in the late 1960s. It often takes the form of a group of people attempting to focus the attention of a wider group of people on some cause or view of language learning.
The relation between consciousness and language learning is also accounted for by Van Lier Spelling variations of this family name include: Lier, Liere, Lierr, Lierre, Liers, Lieres, Lierrs, Lierres, de Lier, van Lier and many more.
First found in Holland, where the name became noted for its many branches in the region, each house acquiring a status and influence which (1998) elaborating on the issue from an ecological perspective. The writer sees consciousness and language as integral parts of human ecology Human ecology
The study of how the distributions and numbers of humans are determined by interactions with conspecific individuals, with members of other species, and with the abiotic environment. .
Meanwhile, the pros and cons pros and cons
the advantages and disadvantages of a situation [Latin pro for + con(tra) against] of grammatical gram·mat·i·cal
1. Of or relating to grammar.
2. Conforming to the rules of grammar: a grammatical sentence. consciousness raising in English as a second or foreign language pedagogy have, for long, argued that meaningful research on the effectiveness of consciousness of formal instruction must abandon notions of the accumulation of language entities and consider consciousness raising with regard to grammatical processes and learners' progressive restructuring of prior knowledge that is, building upon the body of knowledge they have already accumulated. This final view is in tandem Adv. 1. in tandem - one behind the other; "ride tandem on a bicycle built for two"; "riding horses down the path in tandem"
tandem with what the advocates of noticing maintain as in the following where Schmidt argues for the role of consciousness in language acquisition in terms of the Importance of noticing the input
It seems that if [R] was to learn and use a particular type of verbal forms, it was not enough for it to have been taught and drilled in class. It was also not enough for it to occur in input, but [R] had to notice the Input ... [R] subjectively felt as [he] was going through the learning process that conscious awareness of what was present in the input was causal.
The research problem in this investigation is the fact that complex sentences seem to be a burden for second language learners to handle. One reason for this could be the fact that most often it is difficult for the second/foreign language learners to break through the nutshell, for example, to locate the borderline between subject and predicate (c.f. Quirk quirk
1. A peculiarity of behavior; an idiosyncrasy: "Every man had his own quirks and twists" Harriet Beecher Stowe.
2. , Greenbaum, Leech leech, predacious or parasitic annelid worm of the class Hirudinea, characterized by a cylindrical or slightly flattened body with suckers at either end for attaching to prey. & Svartvik 1987). So, they read such sentences in a "shooting-in-the dark" fashion and consequently, the text will become almost incomprehensible for both the reader and, if read aloud, for the listener.
To solve the problem it was decided to examine two main principles: 1) that "A language cannot be taught. One can create conditions for learning to take place." (Celce-Murcia 1991: 4) and 2) the questions "What are the conditions that facilitate and promote SLA (1) (StereoLithography Apparatus) See 3D printing.
(2) (Service Level Agreement) A contract between the provider and the user that specifies the level of service expected during its term. in the classroom?" and "How can we bring about those conditions?" (C.f. Ellis 1993). For this, the findings of such investigations as that by L'Huillier & Udris (1994) were studied. The study aimed to explore the extent of LA (Language Awareness) in French L2 learners and to examine the factors which control their recognition of meaning and their understanding of a written communication. They found that when L2 learners approach a text, criteria of familiarity, expectation of meaning, and the teaching context are important. They found also that the more awareness of the codes and structures of the L2 the learners have, the more able they are to make enlightened choices to read efficiently. In addition, they concluded that a critical reading strategy in L2 teaching could help learners to enhance their understanding of the coherence coherence, constant phase difference in two or more Waves over time. Two waves are said to be in phase if their crests and troughs meet at the same place at the same time, and the waves are out of phase if the crests of one meet the troughs of another. of the text.
With regard to the aim of their investigation they (L'Huillier & Udris 1994) maintained that "the intention was to help the students become aware of the way the organization of grammatical tools in a given written or oral French context brings out a specific message."
The following basic points were extracted from the abovementioned a·bove·men·tioned
The one or ones mentioned previously. research:
1) The factors that enter into their recognition of meaning and their understanding of a written communication.
2) The importance of criteria of familiarity, expectation of meaning, and the teaching context.
3) The positive relation between awareness of the codes and structures of the L2, and their ability to make enlightened choices to read efficiently.
4) The use of a critical reading strategy in L2 teaching for learners to enhance their understanding of the coherence of the text.
5) Consciousness raising about the way the organization of grammatical tools in a given written or oral French context brings out a specific message.
In the present investigation, consciousness about subject/predicate division was examined as a factor, which may enhance the students' ability to recognize meaning, and to understand written texts. (C.f. no. 1 above) Also, the fact that: consciousness about "how the organization of grammatical tools (no. 5 above) brings out a message" may lead to improved reading qualitatively and quantitatively was examined in the form of consciousness-raising about the infrastructure of the complex sentences. It was expected that the students will, as a result, use the technique as a reading strategy (C.f. no. 4 above) leading to their cumulative amount of awareness of the codes and structures of the L2 and hence, to their growing ability to make progressive choices to read efficiently.
Sampling was haphazard hap·haz·ard
Dependent upon or characterized by mere chance. See Synonyms at chance.
Mere chance; fortuity.
By chance; casually. of a judgmental judg·men·tal
1. Of, relating to, or dependent on judgment: a judgmental error.
2. Inclined to make judgments, especially moral or personal ones: type. This was because there was no other choice than waiting for the cases to appear. So it took a long time for the researcher to come up with a reasonable number of subjects. The only option observed was equal time period (one semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s per group) for all the groups under investigation. Therefore, the investigation was carried out longitudinally.
Subjects were several groups of ESP students majoring in different fields of engineering Engineering is a collective term to describe the application of scientific theory in the design, creation, and maintenance of technology. According to 1992 NSF data, the largest fields of engineering are Civil, Electrical / Electronic, Industrial and Mechanical Engineering (by number of , natural sciences, art and library sciences, etc., at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. The important criteria of familiarity, expectation of meaning, and the teaching context (no. 2 above) were provided with ESP textbooks.
The students were not aware of being used as the informants of the study. They were told at the beginning that they were required to learn to analyze the sentences, and that they would be checked randomly in that regard once in a while.
As the informants had already completed some courses in English as a foreign language in high school, subject/predicate relation in sentence was reviewed briefly to make sure they understood the concept. This syntactic Dealing with language rules (syntax). See syntax. relation was introduced comparing the Persian structure with the English i.e. through contrastive analysis Contrastive analysis is the systematic study of a pair of languages with a view to identifying their structural differences and similarities. Historically it has been used to establish language genealogies. . Next, I made them practice this with simple English Simple English usually refers to a simplified form of English such as:
Afterwards af·ter·ward also af·ter·wards
At a later time; subsequently.
afterwards or afterward
later [Old English æfterweard]
Adv. 1. , the essential components of an English paragraph were introduced inductively in·duc·tive
1. Of, relating to, or using logical induction: inductive reasoning.
2. Electricity Of or arising from inductance: inductive reactance. to make them aware of the coherence of the text in a wider scope. This was done based on the assumption that they would become more confident in the use of the strategy. For this, the informants were asked to think and decide about the main point made by the writer in every paragraph of the reading text which they were assigned to in their ESP course book. As their attention was directed toward the usefulness of looking for Looking for
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. ideas rather than words, and how understanding the cohesive cohesive,
n the capability to cohere or stick together to form a mass. relations between sentences would help comprehension, they were again referred to the subject/predicate relation. All these were justified as a way of improving one's rate and speed of comprehension. In a way, this is an example of DEC-PRO procedures, changing declarative de·clar·a·tive
1. Serving to declare or state.
2. Of, relating to, or being an element or construction used to make a statement: a declarative sentence.
n. knowledge into procedural and maintaining it, (Johnson 1996: 102). This type of minimal-enhancement consciousness-raising (c.f. Sharwood-Smith 1994) is used as a facilitation Facilitation
The process of providing a market for a security. Normally, this refers to bids and offers made for large blocks of securities, such as those traded by institutions. strategy to substitute for instruction. The strategy of "facilitation rather than instruction" is recommended by the writers like Johnson (1996) who maintains: "In most general terms the question is how we may assist mastery of a second language by means of some form of facilitation."
The course work would proceed with reading, vocabulary, grammar and translation. During the reading-aloud task, whenever a student read a sentence with a wrong intonation, the following tasks were carried out:
* An asterisk (1) See Asterisk PBX.
(2) In programming, the asterisk or "star" symbol (*) means multiplication. For example, 10 * 7 means 10 multiplied by 7. The * is also a key on computer keypads for entering expressions using multiplication. (*) was inserted before the sentence showing that the sentence was included as a case in the study.
* The informant informant Historian Medtalk A person who provides a medical history was asked to analyze the sentence and show the verb, which was the beginning word of the predicate.
* Then s/he was asked to read the sentence aloud if s/he could read it with a correct intonation, then s/he was asked to give the meaning in L1, i.e. Persian.
* If s/he showed improvement in either/both oral production or/and reading comprehension a plus sign (+) was put before the sentence and if there was little or no change a minus sign (-) was used.
To control the validity of the correlation between consciousness-raising and comprehension (or correct reading) a different task was also performed as follows:
1. The student was asked to read the problematic sentence a second time while intonation was checked and if it was done correctly, a check mark was put next to it, if not, a minus was put there.
2. If the student did it right then the comprehension would be checked.
3. If the comprehension was achieved another plus sign would be put there.
Reverse questioning was another task for both checking the validity of the experiment and also directing the informants' attention towards the usefulness of conscious analysis of the sentences. This happened whenever a question was put to the teacher by a student, asking about the meaning of a sentence s/he had difficulty with. The teacher (the researcher) would proceed this way:
1. The teacher would put another question back to the student asking the student about the division between subject and predicate of the same sentence.
2. A backward arrow (instead of the asterisk) was inserted next to the statement to show this type of sample sentences.
3. Once the task was performed and the sentence was analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. the teacher might ask the student if s/he still wanted the sentence to be translated for him.
4. If the student said s/he didn't need it any more, (as the often did) then a plus sign was put next to it. Conjecture CONJECTURE. Conjectures are ideas or notions founded on probabilities without any demonstration of their truth. Mascardus has defined conjecture: "rationable vestigium latentis veritatis, unde nascitur opinio sapientis;" or a slight degree of credence arising from evidence too weak or too
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS descriptive statistics
For the ease of conjecture, the findings were tabulated. The following tables show the results for different groups in different semesters. Sample sentences and computation for the difficulty level of the texts are given after each table.
Sample sentences (general English texts):
1) The skull of a dinosaur dinosaur (dī`nəsôr) [Gr., = terrible lizard], extinct land reptile of the Mesozoic era. The dinosaurs, which were egg-laying animals, ranged in length from 2 1-2 ft (91 cm) to about 127 ft (39 m). tells us what its head looked like.
2) Near the shore where the water is not so deep, live fish and see animals that we know better.
3) Of all the 900 species of bats, not one kind is the fearsome fear·some
1. Causing or capable of causing fear: "The Devil is a fearsome enemy" Jimmy Breslin.
2. Fearful; timid. creature seen in scary movies.
Flesch Reading Ease [206.835 - (1.015 x ASL ASL - Algebraic Specification Language ) - (84.6 x ASW ASW Antisubmarine Warfare
ASW Approved Social Worker
ASW Application Software
ASW a Small World (online community)
ASW Art Supply Warehouse
ASW Artificial Sea Water
ASW Australian Standard White (wheat) )] = 83.2 While a score of 60 to 70 is aimed for in most of the standard documents, the above score shows that the chosen text is easier than expected.
Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level [(.39 x ASL) + (11.8 x ASW) - 15.59] = 5.7
ASL (Average Sentence Length) = 16.3
Here, the score shows the text used is easier than expected which is a score of 7.0 to 8.0. (of Grade Level) The score shows the grade level of those who can understand the document.
4) A common treatment for premature babies born with potentially fatal jaundice jaundice (jôn`dĭs, jän`–), abnormal condition in which the body fluids and tissues, particularly the skin and eyes, take on a yellowish color as a result of an excess of bilirubin. is to bathe them in blue light, which for reasons not fully understood, eliminates the need to transfuse trans·fuse
To administer a transfusion of or to.
trans·fusa·ble adj. their blood.
5) If we take the colors separated out by Newton's prism--red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet--add the transitional color red-violet (which does not exist in the rainbow), and arrange these colors in a circle, we have a color wheel.
Flesch Reading Ease [206.835 - (1.015 x ASL) - (84.6 x ASW)] = 38.6
Flesch-kicaid Grade Level [(.39 x ASL) + (11.8 x ASW) - 15.59] = 12
ASL (Average Sentence Length) = 36
6) Throughout the school day, teachers and students / use library materials in the teaching and learning process.
7) To help solve this and other problems, many research libraries / cooperate in buying, cataloging, and sorting books and magazines.
8) For example, the materials in a chemical company's library / deal chiefly with chemistry.
Flesch Reading Ease [206.835 - (1.015 x ASL) - (84.6 x ASW)] = 35.4
Flesch-kicaid Grade Level [(.39 x ASL) + (11.8 x ASW) - 15.59] = 12
ASL (Average Sentence Length) = 16
9) Most of us are familiar with the fact that any matter whether a liquid, or a solid, or a gas, is made up of molecules.
10) Electrons, which revolve re·volve
v. re·volved, re·volv·ing, re·volves
1. To orbit a central point.
2. To turn on an axis; rotate. See Synonyms at turn.
3. in orbits around the nucleus of an atom, are easy to move.
11) Having mastered this power, scientists are now busily engaged in finding ways to use it for the betterment bet·ter·ment
1. An improvement over what has been the case: financial betterment.
2. Law An improvement beyond normal upkeep and repair that adds to the value of real property. of mankind.
Flesch Reading Ease [206.835 - (1.015 x ASL) - (84.6 x ASW)] = 61
1) Since its development as a separate field, psychology has gone through an enormous expansion division and subdivision.
2) Indeed almost any problem involving human factors that industry or military establishments may encounter is dealt with in this profession.
3) This specialized training is obtained by serving as resident physician in a psychiatric hospital psychiatric hospital
A hospital for the care and treatment of patients affected with acute or chronic mental illness. Also called mental hospital. typically for three years.
4) Psychoanalysts must be given credit for helping us to appreciate the importance of an individual's childhood experiences upon one's life.
Flesch Reading Ease [206.835 - (1.015 x ASL) - (84.6 x ASW)] = 21.9
Flesch-kicaid Grade Level [(.39 x ASL) + (11.8 x ASW) - 15.59] = 12
ASL (Average Sentence Length) = 18.7
1. Physics must therefore be regarded as an evolving subject, approaching closer and closer to the truth but never quite attaining it.
2. A physicist would be interested in the laws governing motion, since any piece of matter in motion would possess "kinetic energy kinetic energy: see energy.
Form of energy that an object has by reason of its motion. The kind of motion may be translation (motion along a path from one place to another), rotation about an axis, vibration, or any combination of ".
3. Several everyday things operate on the principle of electromagnetism electromagnetism
Branch of physics that deals with the relationship between electricity and magnetism. Their merger into one concept is tied to three historical events. Hans C. .
Flesch Reading Ease [206.835 - (1.015 x ASL) - (84.6 x ASW)] = 30.3
Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level [(.39 x ASL) + (11.8 x ASW) - 15.59] = 12
ASL (Average Sentence Length) = 17
All the tables have a column marked Int. and/or Comp. It refers to the cases when the researcher did not get the chance to mark intonation or comprehension separately because of the condition imposed by the situations.
The results of the first group, the Management student, indicate 100% improvement of intonation and/or comprehension. That is, all of the cases of subject-predicate analysis have led to improvement of either intonation or comprehension. (C.f. table 1)
Table 2 also shows similar results by the students of visual arts visual arts npl → artes fpl plásticas
visual arts npl → arts mpl plastiques
visual arts npl → , i.e., the 100% of analysis led to 100% of improvement of both of the dependent variables.
Table 3 shows a different code i.e., 2R which means the student was made to repeat the sentence a second time. The code was listed under "not improved": the (-) sign in the same row under S-P analysis shows that no consciousness was raised in this case. So, in two of the three cases minimally enhanced consciousness of S-P analysis shows correlation with improvement in intonation and/or comprehension, while in one case lack of it and mere repetition indicates lack of improvement.
Table 4 describes the results of the engineering students. It is bigger and therefore, with a more diverse set of results. This is merely because the writer had the chance to work with different groups of them in different terms. While cases 4 and 14 show directly the positive correlation Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation between consciousness-raising and improvement in both intonation and comprehension, cases 11, 12 and 20 indicate the fact in a rather indirect way. It was found that when repletion re·ple·tion
1. The condition of being fully supplied or completely filled.
2. A state of excessive fullness. was not of any use in this regard, the third attempt (* 3 *) of using consciousness-raising strategy would help. Cases 9, 10 and 16 are, however examples of ineffective consciousness-raising. On the whole, 26 out of 29 subjects (86.6%), who received consciousness-raising either before the 2nd or before the 3rd attempt, overcame the difficulty.
In table 5, the arrows in the first, third and fourth rows indicate that consciousness-raising took place before the third attempt. In number 5, the arrows show that the same method of C-R was used as a basis for both intonation and comprehension in turn. So, all seven cases received C-R and led to improvement.
Similarly table 6 shows 84.6% improvement, that is, 11 out of 13 cases.
Facilitation seems to be more fruitful than mere instruction. However, this is not to be confused with a deductive de·duc·tive
1. Of or based on deduction.
2. Involving or using deduction in reasoning.
de·duc approach to the instruction of rules, for which the students are supposed to memorize mem·o·rize
tr.v. mem·o·rized, mem·o·riz·ing, mem·o·riz·es
1. To commit to memory; learn by heart.
2. Computer Science To store in memory: the rules out of context. In this facilitation approach, the students are assumed to have some knowledge of the rules in advance (at least procedurally). Minimal consciousness-raising, in this case about their already-possessed knowledge through questions can facilitate the development of correct intonation and comprehension. This is achieved by making them practice the application of structures contextually. Nevertheless as a necessary factor, it might not be sufficient because the process of learn-perform-learn (c.f., Johnson 1996) would not be complete unless we make sure the students apply the strategies (in this case using subject-predicate divisions to break through the semantic nutshells). Also, they need to get used to the act of bringing to the conscious level whatever basic rules and structures that may become necessary occasionally. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , consciousness-raising can be a facilitator to reading and to reading comprehension. However, as mentioned before, it is only a necessary means that may not be sufficient.
To make the terms (practice, consciousness raising, awareness of language, etc.) clear, the distinction made by Ellis (1993) was employed who is reported to have defined practice as: "... grammar activities that will require a learner to produce sentences exemplifying ex·em·pli·fy
tr.v. ex·em·pli·fied, ex·em·pli·fy·ing, ex·em·pli·fies
a. To illustrate by example: exemplify an argument.
b. the grammatical feature that is the target of the activity." And consciousness-raising as: "... activities that will seek to get a learner to understand a particular grammatical feature ... but not require that learner to actually produce sentences manifesting that particular structure." (Hopkins & Nettle nettle, common name for the Urticaceae, a family of fibrous herbs, small shrubs, and trees found chiefly in the tropics and subtropics. Several genera of nettles are covered with small stinging hairs that on contact emit an irritant (formic acid) which produces a 1994)
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. The abovementioned writers, "teachers who engage in the teaching of grammar through consciousness-raising ... will opt to present the language for receptive use, rather than productive use, ...". They exemplified this in a teacher highlighting the form and use of the structure "have something done", to help with comprehension of reading passage without making any productive demands on the learners. This is called the linking of consciousness-raising and practice, which often takes place within the same lesson.
The present paper studied that kind of linking by highlighting the form, and by switch from teaching to learning. This is one answer to the question "What are the conditions that facilitate and promote SLA in the classroom?" and "How can we bring about those conditions? (Ellis 1993)
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ELT n abbr (Scol) (= English Language Teaching) → Englisch als Unterrichtsfach Journal, 57/1, 64-65.
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Chamberlain, A. 1998. The consciousness-raising movement. Babel Babel (bā`bəl) [Heb.,=confused], in the Bible, place where Noah's descendants (who spoke one language) tried to build a tower reaching up to heaven to make a name for themselves. : Australia, 33/3, 14-17.
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Krashen, S. D. 1999. Seeking a role for grammar: A review of some recent studies. Foreign Language Annals an·nals
1. A chronological record of the events of successive years.
2. A descriptive account or record; a history: "the short and simple annals of the poor" , 32/2, 245-57.
L'Huillier, M. & Udris, R. 1994. Research on reading awareness in French 12 learners. Language Awareness, 3/3&4.
Nassaji, H. & Swales, M. 2000. Vygotskian perspective on corrective feedback in L2: The effect of random versus negotiated help on the learning of English articles. Language Awareness, 9/1, 34-51.
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Longman.
Rutherford Rutherford (rŭth`ərfərd), borough (1990 pop. 17,790), Bergen co., NE N.J., a residential suburb of the New York City–N New Jersey metropolitan area; inc. 1881. Several pre-Revolutionary houses remain there. , W. 1987. The meaning of grammatical consciousness raising. World Englishes, 6/3, 209-16.
Schmidt, R. & Frota, S. 1986. Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner Adult learner is a term used to describe any person socially accepted as an adult who is in a learning process, whether it is formal education, informal learning, or corporate-sponsored learning. of Portuguese. In R. Day (Ed.), Talking to Noun 1. talking to - a lengthy rebuke; "a good lecture was my father's idea of discipline"; "the teacher gave him a talking to"
rebuke, reprehension, reprimand, reproof, reproval - an act or expression of criticism and censure; "he had to Learn: Conversation in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 237-326). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Sharwood-Smith, M. 1994 Second Language Learning: Theoretical Foundations. New York: Longman.
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SHAHID Shahid or Shaheed is a male given name common among Muslims. It is the Arabic word for witness or martyr. People with this name
Famous people with this name include: See also
E-MAIL e-mail: see electronic mail.
in full electronic mail
Messages and other data exchanged between individuals using computers in a network. : <MOHAMMAD_SHARIATI@HOTMAIL.COM>
Table 1. The Students of Management S/P Case analysis Intonation not improved improved 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * 5 * Total 5 Percent 100% Minimally enhanced consciousness (S-P analysis) Case Comprehension Int. and/or Comp not not improved improved improved improved 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x Total 5 0 Percent 100% 0% 5/5 improved 5/5 100% 100% Table 2. The Students of Visual Arts S/P Case analysis Intonation not improved improved 1 * 2 * Total 2 Percent 100% Minimally enhanced consciousness (S-P analysis) Case Comprehension Int. and/or Comp not not improved improved improved improved 1 x 2 x Total 2 Percent 100% 2/2 Improved 2/2 [right arrow] 100% 100% Table 3. The Students of Library and Information Sciences S/P Case analysis Intonation not improved improved 1 -- 2 * 3 * Total 3 Percent 100% Minimally enhanced consciousness (S-P analysis) Case Comprehension nt. and/or Comp not not improved improved improved improved 1 2R 2 * 3 * Total 2 Percent 100% Improved [right arrow] 66.6 66.6 Table 4. The Students of Engineering S/P Case analysis Intonation not improved improved 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * x 5 * 6 * 7 * 8 * 9 10 11 12 * 13 -- 14 * x 15 * 16 * 17 * 18 * 19 * 20 * 21 * 22 * 23 * 24 * 25 * 26 * 27 * 28 * 29 * Total 29 2 Percent !00% 6.89% Total Improved [right arrow] 26/29 [right arrow] 3 cases of no enhancement of consciousness (mere repetition) 3 cases of no enhancement of consciousness (mere repetition) Case Comprehension Int. and/or Comp not not improved improved improved improved 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 * 8 * 9 * 10 * 11 x(2) *3x 12 x(2) *3x 13 * 14 x 15 x 16 * 17 x 18 * 19 * 20 x(2) *3x 21 * 22 * 23 * 24 * 25 * 26 * 27 * 28 * 29 * Total 24 3 Percent [left arrow] + 82.75% 10.34% [right arrow] Total 89.65% not improved Improved [down arrow] [right arrow] improved 26/29 [down arrow] [right arrow] 3 cases of no 0 0% 3 100% enhancement of consciousness (mere repetition) 3 cases of no 26/29 89.6% 3/29 10.4% enhancement of consciousness (mere repetition) Table 5. The Students of Education S-P Case analysis Intonation not improved improved 1 [right arrow] 2R 2 * 3 [right arrow] 4 [right arrow] 5 *[right arrow] * < > 6 * 7 * 1 Total 7 Improved = Minimally enhanced consciousness (S-P analysis) = Case Comprehension Int. and/or Comp. not not improved improved improved improved 1 *3* 2 * 3 *3* 2R 4 *3* 2R 5 * 6 * 7 * 2 5 Total 2+5 Improved = 7 100% Minimally enhanced consciousness (S-P analysis) = 7 100% Table 6. The Students of Computer Sciences S-P Case analysis Intonation not improved improved 1 * 2 * * 3 * 4 * 5 * 6 * * 7 * 8 * 9 * 10 * 11 * 12 * * 13 * Case Comprehension Int. and/or Comp. not not improved improved improved improved 1 * 2 3 * 4 * 5 * 6 7 3* 2R 8 * * 9 10 * * 11 12 13 * Total improved 11 [right arrow] 84.6% [right arrow] cases of no 2 [right arrow] 15.4% enhancement minimally enhanced 13/13 100% consciousness (S-P [right arrow analysis)