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How Sierra Leone fell into the hands of young soldiers.

Elections are a fraught issue in much of Africa, as recent events in Cote d'lvoire continue demonstrate. And this year alone, there will be 17 presidential elections on the continent. So when a former military leader organises an election and hands over power to the winning civilian, that is a cause for celebration. Julius Maada Bio Brigadier General Julius Maada Bio (born 1964 in Bo, Sierra Leone) led a coup in Sierra Leone on January 16 1996 ousting president Valentine Strasser. He was previously Strasser's deputy and was a participant in the April 1992 coup that ousted the All Peoples Congress (APC) , ex-military leader of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone (sēĕr`ə lēō`nē, lēōn`; sēr`ə lēōn), officially Republic of Sierra Leone, republic (2005 est. pop. 6,018,000), 27,699 sq mi (71,740 sq km), W Africa. , handed over power to Ahmad Tejan Kabbah Alhaji Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (born February 16, 1932) was the President of Sierra Leone from 1996 to 1997 and from 1998 to 2007. He worked for the United Nations Development Programme and returned to Sierra Leone in 1992. He was elected president in 1996.  in 1996, and then went off to the USA to study at the American University. He has since returned home and is now aspiring to become the opposition Sierra Leone People's Party's (SLPP SLPP Sierra Leone People's Party
SLPP State and Local Policy Program
SLPP Summary Level Planning Package (earned value management)
SLPP State and Local Preparedness Program
SLPP Simple Loop Prevention Protocol (Nortel) 
) presidential candidate for 2012. As part of our special series to welcome Sierra Leone's 50th independence anniversary, which falls on 27 April, we sent our correspondent, Lansana Gberie, to interview Julius Maada Bio. Here is his report.

THERE IS SOMETHING EXTRAORdinary about Julius Maada Bio. Alone of all the core members of the National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC NPRC National Personnel Records Center
NPRC National Primate Research Center
NPRC Needham Pool and Racquet Club (Massachusetts)
NpRC Non-Profit Recyclers Council
NPRC Northumberland Pistol and Revolver Club (Canada) 
), the fresh-faced junta that ruled Sierra Leone from 1992 to 1996, Bio has somewhat thrived, and has remained a national figure. His senior colleague, Valentine Strasser

Valentine Esegragbo Melvine Strasser (born 1967 in Freetown, Sierra Leone) is a former head of state of Sierra Leone.
, who headed the NPRC for a time and was pushed aside by Bio, is a shambling, barely recognisable figure who occasionally rants incoherently from his home outside Freetown.



When he handed over power to President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah after elections in 1996, Bio went to study in the USA, including at the American University in Washington, where he earned a masters degree in International Relations international relations, study of the relations among states and other political and economic units in the international system. Particular areas of study within the field of international relations include diplomacy and diplomatic history, international law, . He then returned to his country and started a pharmaceutical business. When that went nowhere, Bio started another business, exporting cocoa and coffee. He also re-entered politics, joining and contesting (without success) the Sierra Leone Peoples Party (SLPP) leadership position. Now, 46, Bio is campaigning once again to become presidential flag-beater of the SLPP (the key opposition in Sierra Leone); if he is successful in March, he will then face the current president, Ernest Bai Koroma Ernest Bai Koroma (born 2 October 1953 in Makeni, Bombali District, Northern Sierra Leone[1]) has been the President of Sierra Leone since September 17, 2007. He is the leader of the All People's Congress (APC) and was minority leader in parliament prior to becoming , at the polls in 2012. And he will have a credible prospect of becoming, once again, President of Sierra Leone.

Although this may be unfair, it might be said that Bio's continuing gravitas--compared to his ex-junta colleagues--is due to his descent from a ruling house: he has a distinctly regal demeanour demeanour or US demeanor

the way a person behaves [Old French de- (intensive) + mener to lead]

Noun 1.
 and perhaps a sense of entitlement. But Bio thinks otherwise. "I am one of 35 children of Paramount Chief A paramount chief is the highest-level traditional (usually tribal) chief or political leader in a regional or local polity or country typically administered politically with a chief-based system.  Charlie Vonie Bio. In fact, I was the 33rd child. That's not the greatest start in life," he said, sardonically, when I met him at Mamba Point Hotel in Freetown.

Somewhat to my surprise, Bio went on: "Most of my values, the driving principles of my life, I acquired from my mother. She was a calm, hardworking and calculated person, and she had a strong belief in God." Bio is associated, among his friends and colleagues, with three of those qualities. And a strong belief in God? "Yes, I am a life-long Catholic. I went to a Roman Catholic primary school, and was baptised early. My belief in God has remained unshaken through all these years."

The Bio family home was too crowded: 35 children and nine wives (not to mention the many dependants of a ruling house). It was more like a village than a home.

For his studies, Bio had to move elsewhere. He went to stay with his elder sister Agnes, who was a schoolteacher in Pujehun, many miles away. Bio stayed with Agnes for five years, and remembers those years with great fondness. From the way he speaks about it, Agnes was more of a mother than an elder sister to him. Her influence over him was overwhelming.

Agnes sent Bio off to the Bo School, a famous boarding school some miles away from Pujehun, where he spent seven years, and became Prefect prefect or praefect (both: prē`fĕkt), in ancient Rome, various military and civil officers. Under the empire some prefects were very important. The Praetorian prefects (first appointed 2 B.C.  for Discipline. He left in 1984 with 'A' levels and became a teacher at a Methodist secondary school. He taught there for a year.

The army

Aged 21, Bio applied in 1985 to enter Fourah Bay College which, founded in 1827, is the oldest Western-style university in West Africa West Africa

A region of western Africa between the Sahara Desert and the Gulf of Guinea. It was largely controlled by colonial powers until the 20th century.

West African adj. & n.
, and perhaps the region's most famous. Shortly after he did so, however, someone mentioned to him that the army was recruiting new cadets. "I was instantly thrilled. I had always wanted to do public service: it was the way I was brought up. And the army offered the most direct and unambiguous opportunity for that, so I applied immediately," Bio recounted.

This explanation appears correct--but only correct: the Sierra Leone army did not have a high reputation for public service in 1985. It had been politicised and degraded by the then president, Siaka Stevens, and his All People's Congress
"All People's Congress" is also the name of a sister organization of the International Action Center in the United States.

The All People's Congress is a political party in Sierra Leone.
 (APC (1) (American Power Conversion Corporation, West Kingston, RI, The leading manufacturer of UPS systems and surge suppressors, founded in 1981 by Rodger Dowdell, Neil Rasmussen and Emanual Landsman, three electronic power engineers who had worked at MIT. ) one-party state. The army was headed by a pliable Falstaffian character named Joseph Momoh, who Stevens had made a member of parliament, and would soon become his successor as president.

By the time Bio applied to become a cadet, it was already clear that Momoh would replace Stevens as president. This would have provided an attraction of sorts for an ambitious young man, in more ways than one. Bio's colleague and exact contemporary, Valentine Strasser, told Ann Bushby of the London Observer newspaper shortly after he became leader of the NPRC that he had joined the army, at about the same time as Bio, primarily to carry out a coup against the "rotten" APC regime.

Bio trained at Benguema, and graduated in October 1987 as a Second Lieutenant. He was posted at the Lungi lun·gi or lun·gyi   also lon·gyi
n. pl. lun·gis or lun·gyis
A cloth, often of brightly colored silk or cotton, that is used as a piece of clothing, especially the traditional skirtlike garment of India, Pakistan, and
 Airport, and then later in the Kambia District as part of the Economic Emergency Unit created by the already faltering Momoh regime to combat the deepening meltdown and criminality of the state.

The following year, 1988, Bio was re-posted at Lungi to be trained by the UN in aviation security. After the training, somewhat curiously, he was sent to Benguema as a platoon commander. In 1990, he was brought back to Lungi. War had broken out in Liberia, triggering a massive humanitarian crisis. Tens of thousands of Liberians were fleeing to Sierra Leone every week, exposing the country's fragile security and adding to the economic hardship.

West African leaders, including Sierra Leone's, decided to set up a peacekeeping force called ECOMOG ECOMOG ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) Monitoring Group
ECOMOG Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group
 to stem the tide Stem The Tide

An attempt to stop a prevailing trend. Sometimes referred to as "stop the bleeding."

If a stock is continually falling, stemming the tide would be an attempt to halt the free fall and change its direction.
See also: Reversal, Trend
 of the Liberian carnage. Sierra Leone contributed troops to the force: the first batch that left included Strasser.

Bio had in the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile
 been deployed at Gendema on the Sierra Leonean-Liberian border. "While at Gendema," Bio reveals, "we had cogent intelligence relating to plans by some of Charles Taylor's forces to invade Sierra Leone. We informed the army intelligence officer about these plans, and despatched him straight to Freetown to inform the government. Nothing came out of this."

Shortly after, Bio was despatched to Liberia as part of the second batch of Sierra Leone's contribution to ECOMOG. The soldiers sent to Liberia were the best that the country had; as such, after their departure the borders of Sierra Leone were left largely unprotected. Momoh appeared too busy with other matters to envisage that there would be repercussions repercussions nplrépercussions fpl

repercussions nplAuswirkungen pl 
 for such negligence. Of course in Liberia, "there was no peace to keep," Bio said. "I really wonder why, given how tense the situation was at our own borders with Liberia, we were sent to ECOMOG at all."

In March 1991, Foday Sankoh's Revolutionary United Front (RUF Noun 1. RUF - a terrorist group formed in the 1980s in Sierra Leone; seeks to overthrow the government and gain control of the diamond producing regions; responsible for attacks on civilians and children, widespread torture and murder and using children to commit ) invaded Sierra Leone from Liberia, and overran o·ver·ran  
Past tense of overrun.
 the border regions in the Eastern and Southern Provinces. It was not until September that year that Bio and some of his colleagues were redeployed to Sierra Leone, in the Kailahun District.

"We were part of a new battalion called Gladio, under Major Anderson," Bio said. "This battalion was hastily put together. SAJ Musa was a part of it as well. There were 600 men in all, but most of these were hasty new recruits, poorly trained, and not at all prepared for combat. It was a mishmash mish·mash  
A collection or mixture of unrelated things; a hodgepodge.

[Middle English misse-masche, probably reduplication of mash, soft mixture; see mash.
 really, not a team. Within five minutes of our deployment in Kailahun, we were attacked by the rebels with heavy bombardment. Two-thirds of our battalion simply ran away. Yes, two-thirds. It was a disaster."

The army was also poorly armed. The soldiers had guns from the Second World War: often the guns couldn't fire. "Our weapons were no match for those that the rebels had," Bio remembers. "We felt that we were set up to be slaughtered. Our guns were not firing at crucial moments. This was what created the myth of Rambo: the invincible rebel whose body was impervious to bullets. Well, the bullets weren't getting to him, you see."

At the time, it riled. Bio said: "I spent four weeks with Gladio, and then I was transferred to Segbwema, where Prince Benjamin Hirsch was the commanding officer. Prince and I had trained together, and we were friends. We formed a team. We were both very bitter officers, very concerned about the rot that passed for our government in Freetown. Then we started talking--there was really no plan at this point--we started talking about changing the system."

Many other young officers, it turned out, were doing the same thing. Strasser, who had also fought in the Kailahun area and had sustained a bullet wound in the leg (which partially disabled him), was now at Benguema as paymaster. But he was in touch with Bio and Hirsch; he visited them any time he could.

"One evening, we were sitting at 'Bodehose' in Segbwema--myself, Strasser, Prince and some others. We vented our bitterness," Bio recounted. "We were not getting food, our [weapons] weren't firing, we were neglected. And here was this government which created the conditions for the war itself, seen as benefitting from the war. We were being killed for their crimes and profit. We knew Momoh and his APC weren't interested in the multiparty business; they were trying to sit it out. We decided that they had to go. We wanted a clean slate."

That romantic language--a "clean slate", suggesting optimism about the depth of possible change--is unusual with Bio, who does not even use the word "comrade", preferring "colleagues" or "friends".

In the event, while Bio and Hirsch were preparing to launch an attack against the RUF at Lalehun, Hirsch was murdered. "My hunch tells me that he was killed by ULIMO [an anti-Taylor faction that was being supported by the Sierra Leone government at the time].

"Hirsch was very strict with soldiers who engaged in looting; we were alter all operating in his home district. He had apprehended a few ULIMO fighters that week while they were looting, and he was rather harsh with them," Bio recalled. "He was killed close to a ULIMO checkpoint. He had left us on the way to Lalehun to collect some stuff in Segbwema. The RUF was not active in the area. We found his bullet-riddled body, and ULIMO didn't say a word. They simply vanished from the area."

Bio first met John Benjamin, the elder brother of Hirsch, at the "40 days" funeral ceremony of Hirsch at Segbwema. "Benjamin was naturally very bitter about the death of his brother, and about the terrible conditions we soldiers endured," Bio said. "He intensely disliked the Momoh regime. So I thought he would be safely brought into the plan. I told him we planned to unseat the government, and of course he was enthusiastic."

Strasser and Bio did all the planning. Bio said SAJ Musa, Tom Nyuma and Lt. Sandy were later brought in. "We had planned to move against Momoh on 30 April," Bio said. "But overzealous Nyuma and SAJ Musa forced our hands [so we had] to act earlier, a day before. They commandeered a vehicle belonging to Major S.B. Kami in Kenema on the 28th, and drove it all the way to Freetown.

"You can see from this that the state had collapsed. Two junior officers commandeering a vehicle belonging to a senior officer, who they simply pushed out, and [they] drive that vehicle past Bo right down to Freetown! And there was nobody to stop them!"

Bio and Strasser had already mobilised 40 hardened soldiers in Freetown, who were ready to spring into action. Strasser was in Freetown, while Bio was still in Segbwema planning to move to Freetown the night of the 27th (Sierra Leone's independence anniversary day).

Nyuma and Musa crashed into Freetown on the 29th, and Strasser quickly mobilised the 40 waiting men. The soldiers easily occupied State House, and the slothful sloth·ful  
Disinclined to work or exertion; lazy. See Synonyms at lazy.

slothful·ly adv.
 Momoh fled to Guinea. The NPRC was launched. Bio was 28 at the time, and Strasser 25.

And what about Major Yayah Kanu? I asked Bio. "He knew nothing about the coup plot," Bio replied. "He was commanding officer for Nyuma and Sandy. After Nyuma and the others occupied State House, he approached them. Perhaps he was sent by the APC to talk his boys out of it. But later, after Momoh fled, I think he wanted to commandeer com·man·deer  
tr.v. com·man·deered, com·man·deer·ing, com·man·deers
1. To force into military service.

2. To seize for military use; confiscate.

3. To take arbitrarily or by force.
 the coup by using Nyuma to take power for him.

"Nyuma is a decisive man, but he can be easily swayed. And Yayah Kanu nearly got him to do his bidding. But Musa and Strasser quickly intervened. That was the start of Kanu's troubles. SAJ had him immediately detained."

NPRC and executions

Surprisingly, giving the leading role he played in the coup, Bio initially took the fairly minor position of secretary of state for the south, and then, quickly, the post of secretary of information and broadcasting, though he was a key member of the Supreme Council of State, the NPRC governing body.

Strasser became head of state and chairman of the NPRC, and SAJ Musa the deputy. Nyuma was appointed secretary of state for the east; and Benjamin, the only civilian member of the coup, was made chief secretary of state, or prime minister.

On 29 December 1992, the NPRC, barely seven months in power, announced that it had foiled an attempted coup. Strasser announced that "a group of officers and civilians had attacked the presidential residence at Kabassa Lodge" in Freetown. The very next day, he announced that the coup plotters, according to him numbering 26, had been executed after a trial by a military court. Much of what preceded this announcement became clearer only later.

It emerged that Lt. SAJ Musa, Strasser's choleric chol·er·ic
1. Easily angered; bad-tempered.

2. Showing or expressing anger.
 deputy, had coordinated the arrests and brutal murder of the alleged plotters who, in fact, numbered 29, and they included: a palm wine tappet; a pregnant woman of no known political affiliation; about half a dozen newly-recruited police trainees; several people who had been in detention at Pademba Road prison at the time of the alleged plot; and a fortune teller or "herbalist herb·al·ist
1. One who grows, collects, or specializes in the use of herbs, especially medicinal herbs.

2. See herb doctor.
" who had been allegedly consulted by the alleged plotters.



Even for a nation inured to brutality, the announcement was shocking, and was made even more bewildering be·wil·der  
tr.v. be·wil·dered, be·wil·der·ing, be·wil·ders
1. To confuse or befuddle, especially with numerous conflicting situations, objects, or statements. See Synonyms at puzzle.

 by the NPRC's press statement that day. It baldly stated: "The special military tribunal convened by His Excellency HIS EXCELLENCY. A title given by the constitution of Massachusetts to the governor of that commonwealth. Const. part 2, c. 2, s. 1, art. 1. This title is customarily given to the governors of the other states, whether it be the official designation in their constitutions and laws or not.  the Captain to immediately try the suspects apprehended has met and they have proved beyond all reasonable doubt that [the alleged plotters] did try to overthrow the government of the NPRC and has found each of them guilty of treason and has sentenced them to death by fifing squad. The confirming authority of the NPRC have met and endorsed the sentence recommended and have ordered that the executions take place immediately."

It was a sordid moment in the life of the regime, and it certainly helped change the trajectory of the NPRC from the course of brash reform and national and international embrace, to condemnation and a lapse into self-defensive neurosis neurosis, in psychiatry, a broad category of psychological disturbance, encompassing various mild forms of mental disorder. Until fairly recently, the term neurosis was broadly employed in contrast with psychosis, which denoted much more severe, debilitating mental .

What was Bio's responsibility for this? He says he stands by his testimony to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC TRC

(in South Africa) Truth and Reconciliation Commission: a commission which encourages people who committed human rights abuses or acts of terror during the apartheid era to reveal the truth about their crimes in return for immunity from prosecution
); its report in 2004/05 had this to say: "SAJ Musa had known some of those implicated in the coup from their time together in the army; he regarded them unambiguously as traitors who had betrayed him, personally and politically.

"According to Maada Bio, who had known in advance of SAJ Musa's volatile temperament and the likelihood that he would attempt to carry out some kind of summary justice, some of the implicated men were taken to Musa's own residence and subjected to torture by Musa himself: 'When I went there at night, he had actually tortured them very seriously--their ears were cut off and they were practically dead".

"SAJ realised that by daybreak they had been really badly tortured in his compound: 'It was better to do away with them, than to keep them on his hands in this terrible state'--he was then alleged to have organised the summary executions.

"Maada Bio lamented their inability to put the coup plotters through proper judicial process, blaming it on SAJ Musa's ambitions for power: 'To a very large extent, SAJ was somebody who liked power and could do anything to retain it. ... that was the darkest side of our whole period in power'," Bio told the TRC. "SAJ Musa's quest for power was an obsession for the man; and he had a wife who inculcated that into him; so it was a terrible combination.

"SAJ was also responsible for the killings of looters. At this point in time, he was actually the key actor; Strasser was much more laid back, and to an extent he let SAJ get on with his business."

This account has been corroborated by others who were in a position to know at the time, and who are no friends of Bio's. The TRC, however, concluded with a non-sequitur: "Maada Bio's account is an attempt to shift responsibility for a gross failure of leadership by their government to the shoulders of one person. The execution of the alleged coup plotters did not advance SAJ Musa's lust for power in any way." It somewhat betrays an ignorance of how the early NPRC, a ramshackle junta, operated. Strasser, weak, often dissipated, was hardly in control, and SAJ Musa was virtually running riot. But again, why did some members of the NPRC, including Strasser himself, defend and continue to defend the killings? Clearly there was no trial, though the NPRC's spokesman at the time, Karefa Kargbo, told the BBC BBC
 in full British Broadcasting Corp.

Publicly financed broadcasting system in Britain. A private company at its founding in 1922, it was replaced by a public corporation under royal charter in 1927.
 shortly after the killings that he and his colleagues had concrete evidence of the coup plot, including the most telling: "a written agreement" between the coup plotters and "an illiterate herbalist".

Talking about the 30 December killings was the most uncomfortable point of my conversation with Bio: he still clearly thinks that it was the most disastrous thing that happened under the NPRC, and Bio's bitterness at SAJ Musa's murderous behaviour that day was undisguised.

Bio as head of state

The revulsion that the killings caused for the NPRC became very infectious. Things began to fall apart for the junta. In a move that was orchestrated by Bio, SAJ Musa was chased out of the country, and Bio, tapidly promoted to brigadier, became Strasser's deputy and chief secretary of state. In that position, Bio became the most powerful man in the country. Strasser, now remote and unengaged, was, rather, something of a figurehead. He wasn't even attending cabinet meetings, and he became too beholden be·hold·en  
Owing something, such as gratitude, to another; indebted.

[Middle English biholden, past participle of biholden, to observe; see behold.
 to certain civilian members of the NPRC who had formed a political patty, the National Unity Party (NUP n. 1. Same as Nupson. ), to contest elections scheduled for 1996. As a result, Strasser was dispatched out of the country, in a helicopter, to Guinea in 1995, and Bio took over as head of state. The palace coup was an anti-climax of sorts. I asked Bio what his proudest achievements were. "We had three goals as a government," he said." We wanted to end the war, revive the economy, and then hand over to a democratically elected government. You can judge us on what we did. The war derailed most of out plans."


But even so, under the NPRC, he said, electricity was largely restored, there were no longer long queues for petrol and rice (as was common under Momoh), roads were being constructed, substantive peace talks were begun with the RUF, and "most important, we handed over the government to a democratically-elected president. We reintroduced credible plural politics, and we left peacefully, setting a standard which would be hard to mess with."

There had been some speculations that Bio was not serious about either the peace talks or the democratic process. I followed both very closely at the time, attending the peace talks in Cote d'Ivoite as well as coveting the democratic process daily.

On taking over from Strasser, Bio made a terse appeal, broadcast live on national TV and radio: "To you, Corporal Foday Sankoh, the message from my government is that we are prepared to meet with you anywhere, any time and without preconditions."

The RUF, it seemed, had been waiting for such a gesture. Sankoh quickly sent word through the International Committee of the Red Cross
"ICRC" redirects here. For other uses, see ICRC (disambiguation).

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland.
 that he was willing to talk to Bio, who responded publicly that he too was ready to talk. He announced that both Ivorian president Henri Konan Bedie and Burkina Faso's Blaise Compaore were actively attempting "to get the NPRC and the RUF to the table".

A few days later, over an ICRC ICRC
International Committee of the Red Cross

ICRC n abbr (= International Committee of the Red Cross) → CICR m

ICRC n abbr
 radio hook-up at the British High Commission (which I witnessed), Sankoh told Bio that he had to postpone the scheduled elections before any progress towards negotiations could be made. Bio's response was that such a decision was ultimately up to Sierra Leoneans and suggested that the two meet in Cote d'Ivoire or Burkina Faso.

Sankoh rejected the two venues at first in favour of talks within Sierra Leone, but his resistance quickly evaporated and a meeting was set up in Abidjan for the end of February 1996. I arrived in Abidjan a week or so before the peace delegates did. With my friend the late Ambrose Ganda, I visited the place where some of the RUF representatives in the country were living, a gated house in one of the suburbs of Abidjan.

The peace talks, at least as far as Bio's involvement went, did not at all appear rigged. Bio certainly kept w the timetable to hand over power. That power went to the SLPP and its new leader, Ahmad Tejan Kabbah. Some of Bio's colleagues were not at all happy: they had set up a new party, the National Unity Patty (NUP), and they had expected Bio to manipulate the outcome of the polls to give power to them.

The future

Bio left the country after handing over power, and took two degrees in the USA. Strasser, on the other hand, flunked his studies at Warwick University in the UK, and returned to Sierra Leone a diminished man. I asked Bio which candidate he takes most seriously as a rival for the SLPP flag-bearer position. He didn't hesitate. "Three people really, and for various reasons," he said. "The first is Dr Kadie Sesay. She has excited potentially the same people who would support me, and many of them are coming to me to suggest that she and I pool together. I'm very open to that.

"The other is Andrew Kellie, for similar reasons. And then there is Usman Boie Kamara, for the simple reason that he has a lot of money, and this current phase is about winning [over] delegates. You see what I mean." Knowing what odds he has had to overcome in his life, underestimating Bio may not be well advised.
Sierra Leone at a glance

1961  Sierra Leone becomes independent

      Siaka Stevens becomes president and creates a one-party state

1971  Major-General Joseph Momoh takes over

1991  Start of civil war. Foday Sankoh (RUF) begins campaign against

1992  Momoh is ousted in a coup led by Captain Strasser. Bio plays a
      major role. The National Provisional Ruling Council is formed
      with Strasser as its leader

1996  Strasser is ousted in a military coup led by his defence
      minister, Brigadier Bio

1996  Ahmad Tejan Kabbah is elected president, signing peace accord
      with Sankoh's rebels

1997  The peace deal unravels. President Kabbah is deposed by Major
      Johnny Paul Koroma

1998  Kabbah returns to Freetown, winning the 2002 presidential

2007  Ernest Bai Koroma becomes president

2010  UN Security Council lifts the last remaining sanctions against
      Sierra Leone
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Title Annotation:Sierra Leone
Author:Gberie, Lansana
Publication:New African
Geographic Code:6SIER
Date:Apr 1, 2011
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