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History of joint forces staff college.

In the 1930s, few officers were qualified, either by training or experience, to engage in joint operations A general term to describe military actions conducted by joint forces or by Service forces in relationships (e.g., support, coordinating authority) which, of themselves, do not create joint forces. . The demands of World War II brought out the urgent need for joint action by ground, sea, and air forces. To alleviate the friction and misunderstanding resulting from lack of joint experience, the Joint Chiefs of Staff established an Army and Navy Staff College (ANSCOL) in 1943. ANSCOL conducted a four-month course that was successful in training officers for joint command and staff duties.

After the war, educational requirements for the armed forces were fully examined. Although thorough contingency planning was recognized as essential for waging war on a joint and combined scale, ANSCOL, which had been established to meet the immediate needs of war, was discontinued. A joint committee was appointed to prepare a directive for a new school. This directive, which was approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff on 28 June 1946, established the Joint Forces Staff College (JFSC JFSC Joint Forces Staff College (Norfolk, VA)
JFSC Jersey Financial Services Commission
). Responsibility for the operation and maintenance of its facilities was charged to the Chief of Naval Operations chief of naval operations
n. pl. chiefs of naval operations Abbr. CNO
The ranking officer of the U.S. Navy, responsible to the secretary of the Navy and to the President.
.

Following a temporary residence in Washington, D.C., JFSC was established in Norfolk, Virginia Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States of America. With a population of 234,403 as of the 2000 census, Norfolk is Virginia's second-largest incorporated city. , on 13 August 1946. The site, formerly a U.S. Naval Receiving Station, was selected by the Secretaries of War and Navy because of its immediate availability and its proximity to varied high-level military activities. There were 150 students from all Services in the first class.

They assembled in converted administration buildings The Administration Buildings are a historic site in Boca Raton, Florida, United States. They are located at 2 Camino Real. On June 27, 1985, they were added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.  on 3 February 1947 to be greeted by the first commandant, Air Force Lieutenant General Delos C. Emmons. The faculty officers came from joint assignments in all theaters of World War II. With the construction of Normandy Hall in 1962, JFSC completed its transition from a temporary to a permanent institution. JFSC was assigned to the National Defense University on 12 August 1981. In the summer of 1990, JFSC changed from an intermediate joint professional military education school to a temporary duty (TDY TDY
abbr.
temporary duty
) institution where Phase II of the Chairman's Program for Joint Education is taught.

In the last three years, JFSC has added the Joint Advanced Warfighting School, a single phase JPME JPME Joint Professional Military Education  advanced program; the Advanced Joint Professional Military Education program, a distance learning program targeting the Reserve Component; and several other specialized educational programs. Today's JFSC has eleven different programs serving the Joint, Interagency in·ter·a·gen·cy  
adj.
Involving or representing two or more agencies, especially government agencies.
 and Multinational education community.

Joint Advanced Warfighting School

Having now graduated its first two classes, the Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS) experienced growth in its third year. In 2006, JAWS added a third seminar that brought its student capacity to 36, with potential for expansion. This past year also saw the school's first Coast Guard, Reserve Component (RC), and international students in addition to an already joint and interagency class composition. To accommodate the JAWS growth, a new high technology "generation III" seminar collaborative learning Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of approaches in education that involve joint intellectual effort by students or students and teachers. Collaborative learning refers to methodologies and environments in which learners engage in a common task in which each  platform (classroom) was recently constructed.

Feedback from the first class of JAWS graduates was exceptionally positive; it validated much of the course curriculum while also prompting change for selected portions of the overall program. Graduates and their supervisors alike confirmed that the first JAWS class was producing the world-class campaign planners envisioned in the CJCS's original program concept. Of the 54 JAWS graduates, well over half are filling critical planning billets in the combatant commands A unified or specified command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander established and so designated by the President, through the Secretary of Defense and with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.  (COCOMs) and on the Joint Staff while others are contributing as planners in their Services.

With ten highly qualified faculty members, the rigorous eleven month JAWS program confers a fully accredited accredited

recognition by an appropriate authority that the performance of a particular institution has satisfied a prestated set of criteria.


accredited herds
cattle herds which have achieved a low level of reactors to, e.g.
 Master of Science degree in Joint Campaign Planning The process whereby combatant commanders and subordinate joint force commanders translate national or theater strategic and operational concepts through the development of campaign plans.  and Strategy while providing Joint Professional Military Education Phase I and II credit. With well over 1000 scheduled classroom hours, the curriculum concentrates on military history, warfighting theory, strategy formulation, operational art, information operations Actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems while defending one's own information and information systems. Also called IO. See also defensive information operations; information; offensive information operations; operation. , counterinsurgency coun·ter·in·sur·gen·cy  
n.
Political and military strategy or action intended to oppose and forcefully suppress insurgency.



coun
 planning, campaign design and joint operations planning processes. Students hone their campaigning skills through critical discussion, systems thinking, strategic analysis and refinement of joint warfighting expertise.

In today's highly complex operational environment, innovative and resourceful planners play a greater role than ever before. The fast-paced and challenging adaptive planning arena demands planners that are competent in applying all elements of national power All the means that are available for employment in the pursuit of national objectives.  at the nexus of the operational and strategic levels of war. JAWS is working to provide those planners.

Joint and Combined Warfighting School

The Joint and Combined Warfighting School (JCWS JCWS Johnson Controls World Services
JCWS Jefferson County Wireless Solutions
) educates military officers and national security leaders in operational level planning with a focus on joint, multinational, and interagency issues. The 10-week curriculum, implemented in 2005, has at its core the new Joint Operational Planning Process. The curriculum incorporates emerging joint doctrine Fundamental principles that guide the employment of US military forces in coordinated action toward a common objective. Joint doctrine contained in joint publications also includes terms, tactics, techniques, and procedures. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application.  and reflects the realities of the modern security environment with a significant emphasis on irregular warfare, stability operations, homeland defense, and consequence management. It has been re-designed to address the increasingly complex security environment found most notably in dealing with the multifarious multifarious adj., adv. reference to a lawsuit in which either party or various causes of action (claims based on different legal theories) are improperly joined together in the same suit. This is more commonly called "misjoinder." (See: misjoinder)  political and religious aspects of the worldwide radical Islam movement. The incorporation of a systems perspective of the battlespace provides students the tools to analyze complex global security challenges and synthesize To create a whole or complete unit from parts or components. See synthesis.  plans that are exercised in a series of advanced war-games.

Enhancing the educational experience, classes consist of small seminars that reflect the diversity of background, skill, and experience of the student body. Led by joint teaching teams and supplemented with an extensive array of guest speakers that add depth and breadth, the seminar is the incubator for student driven discussions. Increasing participation by non-Department of Defense (DoD) government officials and international officers provides students a solid foundation in the challenges of synchronizing synchronizing,
n a technique that a therapist uses to coordinate his or her breath with that of the client; builds trust and establishes relationship.
 efforts across multinational government and non-government agencies.

The College's close partnership with the COCOMs and governmental agencies allows students to examine experimental concepts and emerging U.S. Joint Doctrine in an academic environment. Prominent security experts, including current and former military, civilian and international leaders, round out the students' education, offering a broad perspective on the global security environment. The College's senior fellow program, utilizing former ambassadors and senior military leaders, allows students the opportunity to discuss timeless decision-making principles and the most exigent EXIGENT, or EXIGI FACIAS, practice. A writ issued in the course of proceedings to outlawry, deriving its name and application from the mandatory words found therein, signifying, "that you cause to be exacted or required; and it is that proceeding in an outlawry which, with the writ of  issues of our day in a non-attribution small group setting. The end result is a JCWS graduate who is strategically-minded, well versed Versed® Midazolam Pharmacology A preoperative sedative  in our nation's current security challenges, and who understands how to bring all instruments of national power to bear in achieving national objectives.

The Joint Continuing and Distance Education School

The Joint Continuing and Distance Education School comprises the Reserve Component Joint Professional Military Education, the Senior Enlisted Joint Professional Military Education, the Joint Planning Orientation Course Noun 1. orientation course - a course introducing a new situation or environment
orientation

course, course of instruction, course of study, class - education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings; "he took a course in basket weaving"; "flirting is not
, the Flag and General Officer Seminar, and the Joint Transition Course.

Advanced Joint Professional Military Education

Advanced Joint Professional Military Education (AJPME AJPME Advanced Joint Professional Military Education (Army) ) is patterned on the same Officer Professional Military Education Policy objectives as the JCWS curriculum and educates RC officers in the deployment, employment, synchronization (1) See synchronous and synchronous transmission.

(2) Ensuring that two sets of data are always the same. See data synchronization.

(3) Keeping time-of-day clocks in two devices set to the same time. See NTP.
, and support of joint and multinational forces A force composed of military elements of nations who have formed an alliance or coalition for some specific purpose. Also called MNF. See also multinational force commander; multinational operations. . Particular emphasis is placed on areas identified as vital to planning successful joint force operations. The AJPME forty-week curriculum blends Advanced Distributed Learning Distributed Learning means a method of instruction that relies primarily on indirect communication between students and teachers, including internet or other electronic-based delivery, teleconferencing or correspondence; (British Columbia, School Act, 2006).  online instruction with traditional face-to-face classroom instruction.

Joint Planning Orientation Course and the Flag and General Officer Seminar

The Joint Planning Orientation Course (JPOC JPOC joint planning orientation course (US DoD)
JPOC Joint Project Optic Cobra
JPOC Joint Psychological Operations Center
) and the Flag and General Officer Seminar (FGOS FGOS Flamingo Gardens Orchid Society, Inc (Florida, USA)
FGOS From Grains of Sand (Makawao, Maui, Hawaii) 
) program provides a synopsis to current members of the Joint Planning and Execution Community Those headquarters, commands, and agencies involved in the training, preparation, movement, reception, employment, support, and sustainment of military forces assigned or committed to a theater of operations or objective area.  which include:

* National Security Strategy

* National Defense Strategy

* Joint Strategic Planning Systems The primary means by which the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the combatant commanders, carries out the statutory responsibilities to assist the President and Secretary of Defense in providing strategic  

* Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution

* Joint Operational Planning and Execution System

Joint Transition Course

The Joint Transition Course (JTC (standard, body) JTC - Joint Technical Committee. ) is a JCWS preparatory course for DoD and interagency civilians, international officers and those who have not completed JPME Phase I.

Senior Noncommissioned Officers non·com·mis·sioned officer
n. Abbr. NCO
An enlisted member of the armed forces, such as a corporal, sergeant, or petty officer, appointed to a rank conferring leadership over other enlisted personnel.
 Joint Professional Military Education

The Senior Noncommissioned Officers Joint Professional Military Education (SNCO SNCO Senior Non-Commissioned Officer
SNCO Staff Non-Commissioned Officer
SNCO Stockbridge and New Town Community Orchestra (Edinburgh, UK)
SNCO Seaport Navigation Company
 JPME) course is an e-learning course offered via the internet. It is designed to educate and prepare senior enlisted leaders (SELs) assigned to or slated to serve in a joint organization. It provides the necessary information required to improve an enlisted member's performance as a member of a joint staff. The goal is to produce confident and competent SELs who are more fully prepared to quickly assimilate and effectively contribute in joint assignments and mentor junior enlisted leaders.

The Joint Command, Control, and Information Operations School

The Joint Command, Control, and Information Operations School (JC2IOS (1) (Internetwork Operating System) An operating system from Cisco that is the primary control program used in its routers. IOS is widely used and robust system software that supports the common functions of all products under Cisco's CiscoFusion architecture. ) is comprised of two divisions:

* The Information Operations (IO) Division

* The Joint Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C4I C4I Command, Control, Communications, Computers, & Intelligence (US DoD)
C4I Command Control Communications Computer and Intelligence
) Division

The school offers a variety of courses that educate U.S. operational level planners, civilian equivalents and select allied officers. Our main emphasis is on individuals assigned or en route to IO or C4I positions on joint and combatant command (COCOM COCOM Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls
COCOM Coordinating Committee
COCOM Combatant Commander
COCOM Corporate Communications
COCOM combatant command (command authority) (US DoD) 
) staffs.

The primary course offering from the IO Division is the Joint Information Operations Planning Course. This four-week resident course has been validated by the DoD as the primary qualification course for joint IO planners. The IO Division also conducts a one-week Joint Information Operations Orientation Course that can be delivered via resident course attendance, Mobile Training Team (MTT MTT 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide
MTT Machine Tool Technology
MTT Microwave Theory and Techniques
MTT Mobile Task Team
MTT Multi-Table Tournament (poker) 
), or online study.

The C4I Division conducts the Joint C4I Staff and Operations Course. The course is designed to train joint C4I decision makers on C4I concepts in joint, coalition, and interagency environments, how DoD supports the C4I process, and the management and operation of current strategic and theater/ tactical C4I systems. While separate and distinct from the other schools in the College, JC2IOS also lends extensive support to the Joint Professional Military Education by providing subject matter expertise, curriculum development, and instructor support to the other schools in the College. By giving all students a solid understanding of critical IO and C4I concepts and skills, JC2IOS advances the DoD goal of fully integrating C4I and IO throughout the operational planning, execution, and assessment process.

Interview with Colonel Fred Kienle, Dean, Joint Advanced Warfighting School. What are some of the future plans for Joint Advanced Warfighting School?

Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS) has grown from 25 students during our first year (2004) to the 41 students currently in the 2007-2008 class. We envision continued growth to approximately 48 students in four seminars. We continue to increase the amount of support, throughout the academic year, to real world planners and our participation in research for national decision makers has also increased. In our first three years, we have gone from a pure multi-service student population to a true multi-service, multinational, interagency mix. We continue to stay in touch with our graduates, who provide an ongoing list of recommendations and updates to insure the course stays relevant and "cutting edge." JAWS continues to thrive.

What is the real-world application for this course?

Real world applications are most evident when you see the assignments our graduates get! For example, JAWS graduates are leading planning efforts across the COCOMs, on the Joint Staff, and in a variety of agencies. Our "world class" campaign planners are very successfully applying the competencies developed and honed in JAWS.

Why should international officers apply to be Joint Advanced Warfighting School students?

JAWS is mutually beneficial Adj. 1. mutually beneficial - mutually dependent
interdependent, mutualist

dependent - relying on or requiring a person or thing for support, supply, or what is needed; "dependent children"; "dependent on moisture"
 to both U.S. and international officers. For the U.S. students, receiving an "other than U.S." view on a broad range of issues allows them to widen their apertures. Likewise, the international officers get a view of how U.S. officers really approach both warfighting and decision making and they become steeped in proven planning processes. For all students, they have an opportunity to challenge diverse, varied, and multicultural ideas.

If you were trying to convince an international forum to send students to JFSC, what would your "pitch" be?

We are going to fight and respond to crises in coalitions! We must have strong working relationships and understanding to achieve mutual success around our globe. The global environment precludes the thought that any one nation can go it alone. No one nation's military or agencies can respond in isolation. Our officers need to know how to work on an Interagency/Multinational team, beginning in the classroom.

What would you like the Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management (DISAM DISAM Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management
DISAM Direct Indexed Sequential Access Method
) audience to know about the JAWS course and its students?

JAWS endeavors to be the leader among courses that produce world-class campaign planners. JAWS benefits from support received from the entire JFSC and National Defense University community, the professional military education community at large, U.S. Joint Forces Command and a host of others interested in improving national security capabilities. What was once only a vision of Congressman Ike Skelton Isaac Newton "Ike" Skelton IV (born December 20 1931) has been a member of the United States House of Representatives since 1977. A Democrat, he represents Missouri's At-large congressional district.  is now a vibrant, thriving reality at JFSC.

To paraphrase General Douglas MacArthur:
   In the classrooms of spirited discussion between multinational
   partners are sown the seeds that in other days and other fields
   will bear the fruits of victory.

   On the fields of friendly strife are sown the seeds that on other
   days and other fields will bear the fruits of victory.


In JAWS, we are creating the conditions around our seminar tables for future campaign planning. We rely on our partners to give us their candid, frank, unvarnished views when responding to conflict. To enable JAWS to achieve its potential of providing a core of "world class" campaign planners, we need a diverse and multinational student population--and our multinational graduates wholeheartedly whole·heart·ed  
adj.
Marked by unconditional commitment, unstinting devotion, or unreserved enthusiasm: wholehearted approval.



whole
 agree that they benefited as well.

Interview with Captain David DiOrio, Dean, Joint and Combined Warfighting School: Why should International Officers be in the JCWS program?

International Officers bring an international perspective to each seminar. An International Officer (IO) provides the JCWS seminar with an intense flavor of culture and a huge helping of regional perspective. IO presence provides a balanced view point and enhances effective cooperation in a Combined Planning Group (CPG CPG

central pattern generators.
).

What does JCWS offer to International Officers?

JCWS offers a world class joint military education and a great investment of time and money to international offers. The course of instruction focuses on joint, interagency, and multinational operations A collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations, usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance. See also alliance; coalition; coalition action.  by offering a ten-week graduate level course teaching military officers how to plan for complex contingencies and operate as joint and multinational warfighters.

International officers enter a rigorous residential academic environment where they join with officers from all U.S. branches of the military, other international officers and other national security leaders in a seminar environment that encourages open classroom dialogue and facilitates collaborative work during practical exercises.

International officers gain valuable insight of the inter-working of the U.S. military and government. They participate in a venue that provides a framework of international contacts to enhance joint teamwork, attitudes and perspectives--strategies that will serve them well in the coming years.

What is the real world application of JCWS?

JCWS educates military officers in joint planning that builds a team of international planners to handle complex real world international contingency operations A military operation that is either designated by the Secretary of Defense as a contingency operation or becomes a contingency operation as a matter of law (10 United States code (USC) 101[a][13]). It is a military operation that: a. .

What are your future plans for JCWS?

To increase the participation of IOs and non-DoD agencies, i.e., Department of State, United States Agency for International Development The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. An independent federal agency, it receives overall foreign policy guidance from the U.S. , Department of Transportation, Department of Homeland Security Noun 1. Department of Homeland Security - the federal department that administers all matters relating to homeland security
Homeland Security

executive department - a federal department in the executive branch of the government of the United States
, Department of Justice in the school and in the capstone exercises.

Why do you do what you do?

On a professional level, I take pride in leading a team of military and civilian faculty to teach a quality program for our professional military cadre of officers. I know that the efforts in joint planning education here at the Joint and Combined Warfighting School will pay big dividends during real world operations when excellence in planning really matters.

Interview with Captain John McCabe John McCabe may refer to:
  • John McCabe (composer) (born 1939), British composer and pianist
  • John McCabe (writer) (1920–2005), Shakespearean scholar and biographer
, Dean, Joint, Joint Command, Control and Information Operations School about JFSC's Joint Information Operations Course (JIOC JIOC Joint Information Operations Center
JIOC Joint Intelligence Operations Center (Pearl Harbor, HI)
JIOC Joint Intelligence Operations Command
).

Why should international officers be in the JIOC program?

International officers participation in the JIOC enhances cooperation among coalition partners through familiarization fa·mil·iar·ize  
tr.v. fa·mil·iar·ized, fa·mil·iar·iz·ing, fa·mil·iar·iz·es
1. To make known, recognized, or familiar.

2. To make acquainted with.
 with U.S. doctrine and capabilities as well as U.S. planning methodology. In a broader view, the nature of influence operations and the ability to influence a target audience is often more effectively conducted through coalition partners who, through previous interaction and/or geographic proximity to a target audience, are more favorably situated to effectively influence that audience.

What does JIOC offer to international officers?

JIOC offers a two week in residence course in Joint Information Operations that familiarizes allied students with U.S. IO doctrine and the U.S. military joint planning process. This course provides the student with the necessary tools to coordinate planning efforts in a multinational coalition environment.

What is the real world application of JIOC?

The integration of IOs into larger operational plans has moved to the forefront of concerns for combatant commanders A commander of one of the unified or specified combatantcommands established by the President. See also combatant command; specified combatant command; unified combatant command.  in pursuing the Global War on Terrorism Terrorist acts and the threat of Terrorism have occupied the various law enforcement agencies in the U.S. government for many years. The Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, as amended by the usa patriot act  (GWOT GWOT Global War on Terrorism ). Our graduates provide their leaders with planners capable of conceiving operational plans that include the integration of IOs into the larger operational plans. The course also familiarizes the student with U.S. Information Operations doctrine and organization in order to facilitate coordination of coalition and allied information operations efforts.

What are your future plans for JIOC?

We are currently exploring avenues for expanding the number of participating countries in our JIOC either by opening the existing course to additional countries or offering additional courses.

Why do you do what you do?

U.S. and Coalition leaders understand that winning the GWOT will require prevailing in the arena of strategic communications. Military information operations is an element of strategic communications along with public diplomacy Those overt international public information activities of the United States Government designed to promote United States foreign policy objectives by seeking to understand, inform, and influence foreign audiences and opinion makers, and by broadening the dialogue between American  and public affairs Those public information, command information, and community relations activities directed toward both the external and internal publics with interest in the Department of Defense. Also called PA. See also command information; community relations; public information. . The Information Operations Division of the Joint Command, Control and Information Operations School is tasked through the DoD IO Roadmap to conduct Joint IO courses, including a course for international officers.

Interview with Colonel Jon Stull, USMC-RET, Coordinator, Joint, Interagency, and Multinational Planner's Course (JIMPC)

What countries have attended the JIMPC course, to date?

Korea, Bulgaria, Australia, the Netherlands, and Canada. The course has been taught eight times, to date. It was taught five times during fiscal year (FY) 2007, and three times in FY 2006.

What are some of the future plans for JIMPC?

We have four courses scheduled for FY 2008. Please see http://www.fjsc.ndu.edu/schoolsprograms/jimpc/default.asp for additional information. In addition, we are looking to create a three-day MTT version.

What is the real-world application for this course?

Based on the hurdles found in Afghanistan and Iraq, reconstructing infrastructure to enable civil authorities to conduct successful stabilization, and answering the complex nature of human assistance and disaster relief operations, it is necessary that all members of the international community learn how to work together effectively. I find it exciting, because we are actually investigating new concepts on how to operationalize civilian strategic guidance. We are trying to find the intersection of policy implementation and operational design. We are breaking ground! We are seeking new concepts with the awareness of doctrine, but as importantly, with the vitality of new perspectives.

Why should international officers apply to be JIMPC students?

If we do not want complex contingencies to have a unilateral remedy, then we all have to participate together. International officers should be involved so their perspectives on resolution are identified early on, and become part of the solution. The JIMPC course will assist the international officer in understanding U.S. organization and process and more importantly, give U.S. officers an opportunity to appreciate the international perspective.

If you were trying to convince an international forum to send students to JFSC, what would your "pitch" be?

Our national strategy asks us to operate, when possible, in a multi-national environment, and asks that we champion human dignity Human dignity is an expression that can be used as a moral concept or as a legal term. Sometimes it means no more than that human beings should not be treated as objects. Beyond this, it is meant to convey an idea of absolute and inherent worth that does not need to be acquired and . Because of the fragile nature of many countries (infrastructure, national disasters, etc.) they seek international assistance. Whether it is a United Nations or a U.S.-led multinational effort, we are working to overcome these complex contingencies. Even in the event that it is a U.S.-unilateral action, often we find that we are not the only ones on the scene. Accordingly, all international players have to be able to coordinate the capabilities of many entities, including militaries, host-nation capacity, intergovernmental agencies, and non-governmental organizations.

Hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions volcanic eruptions

discharging of fumes, dust and lava from volcanoes. They have damaging potential in addition to those of being physically overpowering by the lava flow or the ash or dust fallout.
, famine, typhoons, floods--these are monthly occurrences, and we have to do better to respond to the overwhelming needs resulting from these natural disasters. JIMPC can play a small part in helping people understand the environment. Our students learn new concepts to apply to plausible, present-day contingencies, and brief experienced senior leaders on possible solutions.

Interview with JFSC's Program Coordinator for the Pakistan and United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  Senior Officers Program, Dr. David Winterford.

What are some of the future plans for JFSC's Pakistan and United States Senior Officers program?

A proposal has been made to hold the next iteration One repetition of a sequence of instructions or events. For example, in a program loop, one iteration is once through the instructions in the loop. See iterative development.

(programming) iteration - Repetition of a sequence of instructions.
 of the program in Pakistan. Pakistan is a key partner in the GWOT. Our goal is to provide a forum for an open and frank discussion of the mutual threat that terrorism poses to Pakistan, the U.S., and the global community, and to explore ways of countering this threat in a collaborative manner. During the program, instructors present and explore American ideas on defense policy and planning and new operational concepts while exposing American participants to the ways Pakistan conducts military planning. Similarly, and equally important, the program affords the Central Command (CENTCOM CENTCOM US Central Command
CENTCOM Coalition Central Command
) officer participants the opportunity to talk with their Pakistani counterparts, in a low-risk, friendly environment. Program participants are mid-career and higher level officers, on both sides, so this gives them an excellent opportunity for open, friendly, and frank discussions.

We found during the first program last year and during this year's program that it can take awhile for the "barriers" to come down and for participants to feel comfortable in sharing their views in a free and open exchange. The lecture sessions, which all program participants attend, seminars, each with 15-20 students, with a mix of both services and nationalities, and a culminating exercise offer an environment that is conducive to information sharing See data conferencing. .

What is the real-world application for this program?

The program, which was first held from in June 2006, on the Norfolk, Virginia campus of JFSC, targets U.S. officers at the Lieutenant Colonel and Colonel levels, and Pakistani officers at the Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel, and Brigadier General levels. The program is designed to improve U.S.-Pakistani interoperability and cooperation in a joint and coalition environment. Prior to the beginning of the program, JFSC coordinators send specific materials to students, such as the National Military Strategy, the National Defense Strategy, the National Security Strategy, Joint Pub 3-0 and Joint Pub 5-0 because course lessons and discussions are built around these documents. Students want to know what the American Joint Operational Planning process involves. The program covers new constructs and processes, including elements of operational design, and the new six-phase planning construct, with significant emphasis on Phase Four--Stabilization.

What would you like the DISAM audience to know about this program?

The United States and Pakistan Senior Officers Program is an effort to provide a forum for an open and frank discussion of the mutual threat that terrorism poses to Pakistan, the U.S., and the global community, and to explore ways of countering this threat in a collaborative manner. In a culminating exercise, two different Course of Action teams, both bi-national, one headed by a Pakistani officer, the other by a U.S. officer, focus on the same crisis scenario. We use an exercise centered on Nigeria to stimulate discussion and alternatives, and to articulate both Pakistani and U.S. national goals and interests. Two senior mentors, one from each country, help facilitate the program. A senior JFSC faculty member, Lieutenant General Charles Cunningham, USAF-Ret, was this year's U.S. mentor. The senior mentor from Pakistan was Lieutenant General Ghazi gha·zi  
n. pl. gha·zies Islam
1. A man who has fought successfully against infidels.

2. Often used as a title for such a warrior.
 from the Pakistan Army The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan . Lieutenant General Ghazi was recently Defense Secretary for Pakistan. The mentors are each attached to one of the seminars, but they also work with the larger group. We tap into the expertise of JFSC faculty members to present various lectures and to act as significant military equipment (SMEs) for the participants. To facilitate intermingling, all participants are billeted at the same location. Social activities are also critical to the program's success. During the most recent program, a tour of the National Mall National Mall: see National Parks and Monuments (table). , presentations on the role of Congress in a democracy, a tour of the National Air and Space Museum's Steven E Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles International Airport and the new National Museum of the Marine Corps The National Museum of the Marine Corps is the new historical museum of the United States Marine Corps. It is located in Quantico, Virginia and is free to the public. The museum had its grand opening on November 10, 2006 at which President Bush came to give a dedication and to also  and Heritage Center were essential and well-received inclusions.

How does this program benefit the United States and its strategic partners?

By the end of the program, participants have a better understanding of the U.S. drivers of policy and planning, of Pakistan national interests and contributions to the GWOT, and of each other. The personal relationships that are formed during these programs are exceptionally helpful in facilitating understanding and in facilitating coalition operations. During the most recent program, the Pakistan participants were also introduced to the State Partnership Program with the U.S. National Guard. Pakistani officers were able to meet and work with National Guard officers. This is quite important, as our Guard assists in humanitarian efforts as well as a range of other vital missions in the GWOT. The CENTCOM desk officer for Pakistan and the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad were critical to the program's success.

Interview with Dr. Keith Dickson, Director of the Joint Forces Staff College's Russian Colonels Program.

This program started in 2004. Dr. Keith Dickson, who is also a professor in the Joint and Combined Warfighting School, developed the program with guidance from the DoD and the National Defense University. Its origins were in the Russian Generals Program at Harvard, which began in 1991.

The academic model that Dr. Dickson developed has since been adopted by the European Command (EUCOM EUCOM European Command (USEUCOM)
EUCOM European Union Forces
) and also focuses on Russian and U.S. colonels. That program has now been running for two years. Dr. Dickson hopes that the Russians will host the program at their Staff College in the near future. "That will be a measure of the growth and viability of the program."

What is the real-world application for this program?

What we find is that some of the Russian officers participate in the EUCOM Shared Response exercise and provide guidance for their colleagues during the process of working through the American planning process. You will now encounter the officers who have come through our Russian Colonels Program on the Russian General Staff. The program benefits participants from the U.S. as well. Some of the U.S. participants go on to positions in EUCOM. We have found both tangible and intangible enduring benefits, because the program is a true approach to partnership. Bonds of respect are created and are durable. I have had the opportunity to work with Russian generals and senior Russian officers and this has been very gratifying grat·i·fy  
tr.v. grat·i·fied, grat·i·fy·ing, grat·i·fies
1. To please or satisfy: His achievement gratified his father. See Synonyms at please.

2.
 and professionally rewarding.

What would you like the DISAM audience to know about this program?

The program provides a unique opportunity for both U.S. and Russian colonels to come together, gain trust and confidence in working together, and understand how each other's military planning system See spreadsheet and financial planning system.  works. The knowledge and confidence gained has enormous benefits for both the United States and Russia. The participants discover that their counterparts are well spoken, professional, and capable. They also learn that the two planning systems are not that different. Once they discover this fact, cooperation and coordination among the Russian and American staff officers is enhanced.

This is a program that has established close United States and Russian cooperation over the last several years. There are both professional and personal benefits to the participants, not the least of which are mutual trust, respect, learning together, working out problems together. The formula we use has been tested and is successful and the program continues to be funded and continues to thrive.

How does this program benefit the U.S. and its strategic partners?

Two recurring themes that arise when the President and the Secretary of Defense meet with their Russian counterparts are efforts to improve military interoperability and cooperation. Despite the ups and downs ups and downs  
pl.n.
Alternating periods of good and bad fortune or spirits.


ups and downs
Noun, pl

alternating periods of good and bad luck or high and low spirits
 of recent United States and Russian relations, the United States and Russian Colonels Program endures. Thus, the larger strategic goals of both nations are served, even at this modest level. At JFSC, we are pursuing these mutual goals and building good relationships. It is conceivable that, in a possible future crisis situation where both United States and Russian interests are at stake, a core of Russian and United States officers who have participated in this program could form a coalition staff and plan effectively together. The program has allowed us to recognize that Russian and United States officers share the same professional standards and have a similar approach to military planning. I am confident that the program will continue to provide benefits to both nations.
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Publication:DISAM Journal
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2008
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