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History of joint forces staff college.

In the 1930s, few officers were qualified, either by training or experience, to engage in joint operations. The demands of World War II brought out the urgent need for joint action by ground, sea, and air forces. To alleviate the friction and misunderstanding resulting from lack of joint experience, the Joint Chiefs of Staff established an Army and Navy Staff College (ANSCOL) in 1943. ANSCOL conducted a four-month course that was successful in training officers for joint command and staff duties.

After the war, educational requirements for the armed forces were fully examined. Although thorough contingency planning was recognized as essential for waging war on a joint and combined scale, ANSCOL, which had been established to meet the immediate needs of war, was discontinued. A joint committee was appointed to prepare a directive for a new school. This directive, which was approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff on 28 June 1946, established the Joint Forces Staff College (JFSC). Responsibility for the operation and maintenance of its facilities was charged to the Chief of Naval Operations.

Following a temporary residence in Washington, D.C., JFSC was established in Norfolk, Virginia, on 13 August 1946. The site, formerly a U.S. Naval Receiving Station, was selected by the Secretaries of War and Navy because of its immediate availability and its proximity to varied high-level military activities. There were 150 students from all Services in the first class.

They assembled in converted administration buildings on 3 February 1947 to be greeted by the first commandant, Air Force Lieutenant General Delos C. Emmons. The faculty officers came from joint assignments in all theaters of World War II. With the construction of Normandy Hall in 1962, JFSC completed its transition from a temporary to a permanent institution. JFSC was assigned to the National Defense University on 12 August 1981. In the summer of 1990, JFSC changed from an intermediate joint professional military education school to a temporary duty (TDY) institution where Phase II of the Chairman's Program for Joint Education is taught.

In the last three years, JFSC has added the Joint Advanced Warfighting School, a single phase JPME advanced program; the Advanced Joint Professional Military Education program, a distance learning program targeting the Reserve Component; and several other specialized educational programs. Today's JFSC has eleven different programs serving the Joint, Interagency and Multinational education community.

Joint Advanced Warfighting School

Having now graduated its first two classes, the Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS) experienced growth in its third year. In 2006, JAWS added a third seminar that brought its student capacity to 36, with potential for expansion. This past year also saw the school's first Coast Guard, Reserve Component (RC), and international students in addition to an already joint and interagency class composition. To accommodate the JAWS growth, a new high technology "generation III" seminar collaborative learning platform (classroom) was recently constructed.

Feedback from the first class of JAWS graduates was exceptionally positive; it validated much of the course curriculum while also prompting change for selected portions of the overall program. Graduates and their supervisors alike confirmed that the first JAWS class was producing the world-class campaign planners envisioned in the CJCS's original program concept. Of the 54 JAWS graduates, well over half are filling critical planning billets in the combatant commands (COCOMs) and on the Joint Staff while others are contributing as planners in their Services.

With ten highly qualified faculty members, the rigorous eleven month JAWS program confers a fully accredited Master of Science degree in Joint Campaign Planning and Strategy while providing Joint Professional Military Education Phase I and II credit. With well over 1000 scheduled classroom hours, the curriculum concentrates on military history, warfighting theory, strategy formulation, operational art, information operations, counterinsurgency planning, campaign design and joint operations planning processes. Students hone their campaigning skills through critical discussion, systems thinking, strategic analysis and refinement of joint warfighting expertise.

In today's highly complex operational environment, innovative and resourceful planners play a greater role than ever before. The fast-paced and challenging adaptive planning arena demands planners that are competent in applying all elements of national power at the nexus of the operational and strategic levels of war. JAWS is working to provide those planners.

Joint and Combined Warfighting School

The Joint and Combined Warfighting School (JCWS) educates military officers and national security leaders in operational level planning with a focus on joint, multinational, and interagency issues. The 10-week curriculum, implemented in 2005, has at its core the new Joint Operational Planning Process. The curriculum incorporates emerging joint doctrine and reflects the realities of the modern security environment with a significant emphasis on irregular warfare, stability operations, homeland defense, and consequence management. It has been re-designed to address the increasingly complex security environment found most notably in dealing with the multifarious political and religious aspects of the worldwide radical Islam movement. The incorporation of a systems perspective of the battlespace provides students the tools to analyze complex global security challenges and synthesize plans that are exercised in a series of advanced war-games.

Enhancing the educational experience, classes consist of small seminars that reflect the diversity of background, skill, and experience of the student body. Led by joint teaching teams and supplemented with an extensive array of guest speakers that add depth and breadth, the seminar is the incubator for student driven discussions. Increasing participation by non-Department of Defense (DoD) government officials and international officers provides students a solid foundation in the challenges of synchronizing efforts across multinational government and non-government agencies.

The College's close partnership with the COCOMs and governmental agencies allows students to examine experimental concepts and emerging U.S. Joint Doctrine in an academic environment. Prominent security experts, including current and former military, civilian and international leaders, round out the students' education, offering a broad perspective on the global security environment. The College's senior fellow program, utilizing former ambassadors and senior military leaders, allows students the opportunity to discuss timeless decision-making principles and the most exigent issues of our day in a non-attribution small group setting. The end result is a JCWS graduate who is strategically-minded, well versed in our nation's current security challenges, and who understands how to bring all instruments of national power to bear in achieving national objectives.

The Joint Continuing and Distance Education School

The Joint Continuing and Distance Education School comprises the Reserve Component Joint Professional Military Education, the Senior Enlisted Joint Professional Military Education, the Joint Planning Orientation Course, the Flag and General Officer Seminar, and the Joint Transition Course.

Advanced Joint Professional Military Education

Advanced Joint Professional Military Education (AJPME) is patterned on the same Officer Professional Military Education Policy objectives as the JCWS curriculum and educates RC officers in the deployment, employment, synchronization, and support of joint and multinational forces. Particular emphasis is placed on areas identified as vital to planning successful joint force operations. The AJPME forty-week curriculum blends Advanced Distributed Learning online instruction with traditional face-to-face classroom instruction.

Joint Planning Orientation Course and the Flag and General Officer Seminar

The Joint Planning Orientation Course (JPOC) and the Flag and General Officer Seminar (FGOS) program provides a synopsis to current members of the Joint Planning and Execution Community which include:

* National Security Strategy

* National Defense Strategy

* Joint Strategic Planning Systems

* Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution

* Joint Operational Planning and Execution System

Joint Transition Course

The Joint Transition Course (JTC) is a JCWS preparatory course for DoD and interagency civilians, international officers and those who have not completed JPME Phase I.

Senior Noncommissioned Officers Joint Professional Military Education

The Senior Noncommissioned Officers Joint Professional Military Education (SNCO JPME) course is an e-learning course offered via the internet. It is designed to educate and prepare senior enlisted leaders (SELs) assigned to or slated to serve in a joint organization. It provides the necessary information required to improve an enlisted member's performance as a member of a joint staff. The goal is to produce confident and competent SELs who are more fully prepared to quickly assimilate and effectively contribute in joint assignments and mentor junior enlisted leaders.

The Joint Command, Control, and Information Operations School

The Joint Command, Control, and Information Operations School (JC2IOS) is comprised of two divisions:

* The Information Operations (IO) Division

* The Joint Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C4I) Division

The school offers a variety of courses that educate U.S. operational level planners, civilian equivalents and select allied officers. Our main emphasis is on individuals assigned or en route to IO or C4I positions on joint and combatant command (COCOM) staffs.

The primary course offering from the IO Division is the Joint Information Operations Planning Course. This four-week resident course has been validated by the DoD as the primary qualification course for joint IO planners. The IO Division also conducts a one-week Joint Information Operations Orientation Course that can be delivered via resident course attendance, Mobile Training Team (MTT), or online study.

The C4I Division conducts the Joint C4I Staff and Operations Course. The course is designed to train joint C4I decision makers on C4I concepts in joint, coalition, and interagency environments, how DoD supports the C4I process, and the management and operation of current strategic and theater/ tactical C4I systems. While separate and distinct from the other schools in the College, JC2IOS also lends extensive support to the Joint Professional Military Education by providing subject matter expertise, curriculum development, and instructor support to the other schools in the College. By giving all students a solid understanding of critical IO and C4I concepts and skills, JC2IOS advances the DoD goal of fully integrating C4I and IO throughout the operational planning, execution, and assessment process.

Interview with Colonel Fred Kienle, Dean, Joint Advanced Warfighting School. What are some of the future plans for Joint Advanced Warfighting School?

Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS) has grown from 25 students during our first year (2004) to the 41 students currently in the 2007-2008 class. We envision continued growth to approximately 48 students in four seminars. We continue to increase the amount of support, throughout the academic year, to real world planners and our participation in research for national decision makers has also increased. In our first three years, we have gone from a pure multi-service student population to a true multi-service, multinational, interagency mix. We continue to stay in touch with our graduates, who provide an ongoing list of recommendations and updates to insure the course stays relevant and "cutting edge." JAWS continues to thrive.

What is the real-world application for this course?

Real world applications are most evident when you see the assignments our graduates get! For example, JAWS graduates are leading planning efforts across the COCOMs, on the Joint Staff, and in a variety of agencies. Our "world class" campaign planners are very successfully applying the competencies developed and honed in JAWS.

Why should international officers apply to be Joint Advanced Warfighting School students?

JAWS is mutually beneficial to both U.S. and international officers. For the U.S. students, receiving an "other than U.S." view on a broad range of issues allows them to widen their apertures. Likewise, the international officers get a view of how U.S. officers really approach both warfighting and decision making and they become steeped in proven planning processes. For all students, they have an opportunity to challenge diverse, varied, and multicultural ideas.

If you were trying to convince an international forum to send students to JFSC, what would your "pitch" be?

We are going to fight and respond to crises in coalitions! We must have strong working relationships and understanding to achieve mutual success around our globe. The global environment precludes the thought that any one nation can go it alone. No one nation's military or agencies can respond in isolation. Our officers need to know how to work on an Interagency/Multinational team, beginning in the classroom.

What would you like the Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management (DISAM) audience to know about the JAWS course and its students?

JAWS endeavors to be the leader among courses that produce world-class campaign planners. JAWS benefits from support received from the entire JFSC and National Defense University community, the professional military education community at large, U.S. Joint Forces Command and a host of others interested in improving national security capabilities. What was once only a vision of Congressman Ike Skelton is now a vibrant, thriving reality at JFSC.

To paraphrase General Douglas MacArthur:
 In the classrooms of spirited discussion between multinational
 partners are sown the seeds that in other days and other fields
 will bear the fruits of victory.

 On the fields of friendly strife are sown the seeds that on other
 days and other fields will bear the fruits of victory.


In JAWS, we are creating the conditions around our seminar tables for future campaign planning. We rely on our partners to give us their candid, frank, unvarnished views when responding to conflict. To enable JAWS to achieve its potential of providing a core of "world class" campaign planners, we need a diverse and multinational student population--and our multinational graduates wholeheartedly agree that they benefited as well.

Interview with Captain David DiOrio, Dean, Joint and Combined Warfighting School: Why should International Officers be in the JCWS program?

International Officers bring an international perspective to each seminar. An International Officer (IO) provides the JCWS seminar with an intense flavor of culture and a huge helping of regional perspective. IO presence provides a balanced view point and enhances effective cooperation in a Combined Planning Group (CPG).

What does JCWS offer to International Officers?

JCWS offers a world class joint military education and a great investment of time and money to international offers. The course of instruction focuses on joint, interagency, and multinational operations by offering a ten-week graduate level course teaching military officers how to plan for complex contingencies and operate as joint and multinational warfighters.

International officers enter a rigorous residential academic environment where they join with officers from all U.S. branches of the military, other international officers and other national security leaders in a seminar environment that encourages open classroom dialogue and facilitates collaborative work during practical exercises.

International officers gain valuable insight of the inter-working of the U.S. military and government. They participate in a venue that provides a framework of international contacts to enhance joint teamwork, attitudes and perspectives--strategies that will serve them well in the coming years.

What is the real world application of JCWS?

JCWS educates military officers in joint planning that builds a team of international planners to handle complex real world international contingency operations.

What are your future plans for JCWS?

To increase the participation of IOs and non-DoD agencies, i.e., Department of State, United States Agency for International Development, Department of Transportation, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Justice in the school and in the capstone exercises.

Why do you do what you do?

On a professional level, I take pride in leading a team of military and civilian faculty to teach a quality program for our professional military cadre of officers. I know that the efforts in joint planning education here at the Joint and Combined Warfighting School will pay big dividends during real world operations when excellence in planning really matters.

Interview with Captain John McCabe, Dean, Joint, Joint Command, Control and Information Operations School about JFSC's Joint Information Operations Course (JIOC).

Why should international officers be in the JIOC program?

International officers participation in the JIOC enhances cooperation among coalition partners through familiarization with U.S. doctrine and capabilities as well as U.S. planning methodology. In a broader view, the nature of influence operations and the ability to influence a target audience is often more effectively conducted through coalition partners who, through previous interaction and/or geographic proximity to a target audience, are more favorably situated to effectively influence that audience.

What does JIOC offer to international officers?

JIOC offers a two week in residence course in Joint Information Operations that familiarizes allied students with U.S. IO doctrine and the U.S. military joint planning process. This course provides the student with the necessary tools to coordinate planning efforts in a multinational coalition environment.

What is the real world application of JIOC?

The integration of IOs into larger operational plans has moved to the forefront of concerns for combatant commanders in pursuing the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). Our graduates provide their leaders with planners capable of conceiving operational plans that include the integration of IOs into the larger operational plans. The course also familiarizes the student with U.S. Information Operations doctrine and organization in order to facilitate coordination of coalition and allied information operations efforts.

What are your future plans for JIOC?

We are currently exploring avenues for expanding the number of participating countries in our JIOC either by opening the existing course to additional countries or offering additional courses.

Why do you do what you do?

U.S. and Coalition leaders understand that winning the GWOT will require prevailing in the arena of strategic communications. Military information operations is an element of strategic communications along with public diplomacy and public affairs. The Information Operations Division of the Joint Command, Control and Information Operations School is tasked through the DoD IO Roadmap to conduct Joint IO courses, including a course for international officers.

Interview with Colonel Jon Stull, USMC-RET, Coordinator, Joint, Interagency, and Multinational Planner's Course (JIMPC)

What countries have attended the JIMPC course, to date?

Korea, Bulgaria, Australia, the Netherlands, and Canada. The course has been taught eight times, to date. It was taught five times during fiscal year (FY) 2007, and three times in FY 2006.

What are some of the future plans for JIMPC?

We have four courses scheduled for FY 2008. Please see http://www.fjsc.ndu.edu/schoolsprograms/jimpc/default.asp for additional information. In addition, we are looking to create a three-day MTT version.

What is the real-world application for this course?

Based on the hurdles found in Afghanistan and Iraq, reconstructing infrastructure to enable civil authorities to conduct successful stabilization, and answering the complex nature of human assistance and disaster relief operations, it is necessary that all members of the international community learn how to work together effectively. I find it exciting, because we are actually investigating new concepts on how to operationalize civilian strategic guidance. We are trying to find the intersection of policy implementation and operational design. We are breaking ground! We are seeking new concepts with the awareness of doctrine, but as importantly, with the vitality of new perspectives.

Why should international officers apply to be JIMPC students?

If we do not want complex contingencies to have a unilateral remedy, then we all have to participate together. International officers should be involved so their perspectives on resolution are identified early on, and become part of the solution. The JIMPC course will assist the international officer in understanding U.S. organization and process and more importantly, give U.S. officers an opportunity to appreciate the international perspective.

If you were trying to convince an international forum to send students to JFSC, what would your "pitch" be?

Our national strategy asks us to operate, when possible, in a multi-national environment, and asks that we champion human dignity. Because of the fragile nature of many countries (infrastructure, national disasters, etc.) they seek international assistance. Whether it is a United Nations or a U.S.-led multinational effort, we are working to overcome these complex contingencies. Even in the event that it is a U.S.-unilateral action, often we find that we are not the only ones on the scene. Accordingly, all international players have to be able to coordinate the capabilities of many entities, including militaries, host-nation capacity, intergovernmental agencies, and non-governmental organizations.

Hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, famine, typhoons, floods--these are monthly occurrences, and we have to do better to respond to the overwhelming needs resulting from these natural disasters. JIMPC can play a small part in helping people understand the environment. Our students learn new concepts to apply to plausible, present-day contingencies, and brief experienced senior leaders on possible solutions.

Interview with JFSC's Program Coordinator for the Pakistan and United States Senior Officers Program, Dr. David Winterford.

What are some of the future plans for JFSC's Pakistan and United States Senior Officers program?

A proposal has been made to hold the next iteration of the program in Pakistan. Pakistan is a key partner in the GWOT. Our goal is to provide a forum for an open and frank discussion of the mutual threat that terrorism poses to Pakistan, the U.S., and the global community, and to explore ways of countering this threat in a collaborative manner. During the program, instructors present and explore American ideas on defense policy and planning and new operational concepts while exposing American participants to the ways Pakistan conducts military planning. Similarly, and equally important, the program affords the Central Command (CENTCOM) officer participants the opportunity to talk with their Pakistani counterparts, in a low-risk, friendly environment. Program participants are mid-career and higher level officers, on both sides, so this gives them an excellent opportunity for open, friendly, and frank discussions.

We found during the first program last year and during this year's program that it can take awhile for the "barriers" to come down and for participants to feel comfortable in sharing their views in a free and open exchange. The lecture sessions, which all program participants attend, seminars, each with 15-20 students, with a mix of both services and nationalities, and a culminating exercise offer an environment that is conducive to information sharing.

What is the real-world application for this program?

The program, which was first held from in June 2006, on the Norfolk, Virginia campus of JFSC, targets U.S. officers at the Lieutenant Colonel and Colonel levels, and Pakistani officers at the Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel, and Brigadier General levels. The program is designed to improve U.S.-Pakistani interoperability and cooperation in a joint and coalition environment. Prior to the beginning of the program, JFSC coordinators send specific materials to students, such as the National Military Strategy, the National Defense Strategy, the National Security Strategy, Joint Pub 3-0 and Joint Pub 5-0 because course lessons and discussions are built around these documents. Students want to know what the American Joint Operational Planning process involves. The program covers new constructs and processes, including elements of operational design, and the new six-phase planning construct, with significant emphasis on Phase Four--Stabilization.

What would you like the DISAM audience to know about this program?

The United States and Pakistan Senior Officers Program is an effort to provide a forum for an open and frank discussion of the mutual threat that terrorism poses to Pakistan, the U.S., and the global community, and to explore ways of countering this threat in a collaborative manner. In a culminating exercise, two different Course of Action teams, both bi-national, one headed by a Pakistani officer, the other by a U.S. officer, focus on the same crisis scenario. We use an exercise centered on Nigeria to stimulate discussion and alternatives, and to articulate both Pakistani and U.S. national goals and interests. Two senior mentors, one from each country, help facilitate the program. A senior JFSC faculty member, Lieutenant General Charles Cunningham, USAF-Ret, was this year's U.S. mentor. The senior mentor from Pakistan was Lieutenant General Ghazi from the Pakistan Army. Lieutenant General Ghazi was recently Defense Secretary for Pakistan. The mentors are each attached to one of the seminars, but they also work with the larger group. We tap into the expertise of JFSC faculty members to present various lectures and to act as significant military equipment (SMEs) for the participants. To facilitate intermingling, all participants are billeted at the same location. Social activities are also critical to the program's success. During the most recent program, a tour of the National Mall, presentations on the role of Congress in a democracy, a tour of the National Air and Space Museum's Steven E Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles International Airport and the new National Museum of the Marine Corps and Heritage Center were essential and well-received inclusions.

How does this program benefit the United States and its strategic partners?

By the end of the program, participants have a better understanding of the U.S. drivers of policy and planning, of Pakistan national interests and contributions to the GWOT, and of each other. The personal relationships that are formed during these programs are exceptionally helpful in facilitating understanding and in facilitating coalition operations. During the most recent program, the Pakistan participants were also introduced to the State Partnership Program with the U.S. National Guard. Pakistani officers were able to meet and work with National Guard officers. This is quite important, as our Guard assists in humanitarian efforts as well as a range of other vital missions in the GWOT. The CENTCOM desk officer for Pakistan and the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad were critical to the program's success.

Interview with Dr. Keith Dickson, Director of the Joint Forces Staff College's Russian Colonels Program.

This program started in 2004. Dr. Keith Dickson, who is also a professor in the Joint and Combined Warfighting School, developed the program with guidance from the DoD and the National Defense University. Its origins were in the Russian Generals Program at Harvard, which began in 1991.

The academic model that Dr. Dickson developed has since been adopted by the European Command (EUCOM) and also focuses on Russian and U.S. colonels. That program has now been running for two years. Dr. Dickson hopes that the Russians will host the program at their Staff College in the near future. "That will be a measure of the growth and viability of the program."

What is the real-world application for this program?

What we find is that some of the Russian officers participate in the EUCOM Shared Response exercise and provide guidance for their colleagues during the process of working through the American planning process. You will now encounter the officers who have come through our Russian Colonels Program on the Russian General Staff. The program benefits participants from the U.S. as well. Some of the U.S. participants go on to positions in EUCOM. We have found both tangible and intangible enduring benefits, because the program is a true approach to partnership. Bonds of respect are created and are durable. I have had the opportunity to work with Russian generals and senior Russian officers and this has been very gratifying and professionally rewarding.

What would you like the DISAM audience to know about this program?

The program provides a unique opportunity for both U.S. and Russian colonels to come together, gain trust and confidence in working together, and understand how each other's military planning system works. The knowledge and confidence gained has enormous benefits for both the United States and Russia. The participants discover that their counterparts are well spoken, professional, and capable. They also learn that the two planning systems are not that different. Once they discover this fact, cooperation and coordination among the Russian and American staff officers is enhanced.

This is a program that has established close United States and Russian cooperation over the last several years. There are both professional and personal benefits to the participants, not the least of which are mutual trust, respect, learning together, working out problems together. The formula we use has been tested and is successful and the program continues to be funded and continues to thrive.

How does this program benefit the U.S. and its strategic partners?

Two recurring themes that arise when the President and the Secretary of Defense meet with their Russian counterparts are efforts to improve military interoperability and cooperation. Despite the ups and downs of recent United States and Russian relations, the United States and Russian Colonels Program endures. Thus, the larger strategic goals of both nations are served, even at this modest level. At JFSC, we are pursuing these mutual goals and building good relationships. It is conceivable that, in a possible future crisis situation where both United States and Russian interests are at stake, a core of Russian and United States officers who have participated in this program could form a coalition staff and plan effectively together. The program has allowed us to recognize that Russian and United States officers share the same professional standards and have a similar approach to military planning. I am confident that the program will continue to provide benefits to both nations.
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Publication:DISAM Journal
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2008
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