Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,741,889 articles and books

High and low achieving education students on processing, retaining, and retrieval of information.

High Achievers (students whose Educational Psychology grades were 90% and above) and Low Achievers (students whose grades were 79% and below) were compared on how they process, retrain re·train  
tr. & intr.v. re·trained, re·train·ing, re·trains
To train or undergo training again.

, and retrieve information. The Information of Learning Processes, an instrument used to collect the data, consists of four independent scales: Deep Processing, Elaborative Processing, Fact Retention, and Methodical me·thod·i·cal   also me·thod·ic
1. Arranged or proceeding in regular, systematic order.

2. Characterized by ordered and systematic habits or behavior. See Synonyms at orderly.
 Study, showed differences between the two groups on Deep Processing and Fact Retention scales. In each case, the High Achievers reported significantly higher scores than the Low Achievers. The data can be interpreted that the High Achievers analyze information, retain and retrieve it better than do the Low Achievers. The question raised is how will these learning styles affect these students (who are potential teachers) in teaching and evaluation of their students.


Educational psychologists This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline.  and researchers have attempted to understand how students differed in processing, retaining, and retrieval of the information. To explore these differences, researchers used various types of personality, attitudinal, cognitive style Cognitive style is a term used in cognitive psychology to describe the way individuals think, perceive and remember information, or their preferred approach to using such information to solve problems. , and ability measures (Cowell Cowell is a surname of English origin.[1] It is a habitational name from several places in the counties of Lancashire and Gloucestershire called Cowhill, composed the Old English cu (cow) + hyll (hill).  & Entwistle, 1971; Cropley & Field, 1969; Schmeck, 1983). Most researchers agreed that learning is related to ones personality, attitude, and thinking. They also agreed that learning strategies are modifiable due to ones perception of how information learned is to be measured and evaluated. However, some of these earlier learning measures were not very useful in assessing classroom activities (Schmeck, 1983).

Consistent with the thinking of Craik Craik may refer to:


  • Dinah Maria Craik (1826-1887), an English novelist
  • Donald Craik (1935-1981), a Canadian politicain
  • George Lillie Craik (1798-1866), an English man of letters
 and Lockhart Lockhart is the name of: Places
In the United States:
  • Lockhart, Alabama
  • Lockhart, Florida
  • Lockhart, South Carolina
  • Lockhart, Texas
  • Lockhart Township, Minnesota
  • Lockhart Stadium
In Australia:
 (1972) that memory is a 'by product of thinking: traces left behind by past information-processing,' Schmeck (1983) defined learning strategy as "a pattern of how information-processing activities are used to prepare for an anticipated test of memory" (p.234). Schmeck (1983) agreed with Tallmadge Tallmadge, city (1990 pop. 14,870), Summit co., NE Ohio, an industrial suburb E of Akron; settled 1807, inc. 1950. Its historic architecture includes a 19th-century Congregational church near the city's center.  and Shearer shearer

person whose occupation is shearing sheep.
 (1969, 1971) that the "learning style would be a more useful concept than the traditional personality and cognitive style constructs in accounting for the variances in academic performances" (p.233).

Agreeing with Craik and Lockhart (1972) on their levels of processing model, Pask's (1976) operational learning strategies, and achievement motivation theory, Schmeck, Ribich, and Ramanaiah, (1977) saw the need for developing a learning assessment from a behavioral-process orientation. They developed the Inventory of Learning Processes (ILP ILP Inductive Logic Programming
ILP Instruction-Level Parallelism
ILP Individual Learning Plan
ILP Independent Labour Party
ILP Independent Living Program
ILP Institut Latihan Perindustrian (Malaysia) 
) which assesses information-processes in academic settings. That is, the inventory assesses how students' process, retain, and retrieve the information they study.

The ILP provides four independent scale scores (Schmeck et al., 1977). The Deep Processing (DP) scale assesses the extent to which one critically evaluates, conceptually organizes, and compare and contrasts information under study. The Elaborative Processing (EP) scale assesses the extent to which one translates new information into his/her own terminology. The Fact Retention (FR) scale assesses how one processes specific factual information. The Methodical Study (MS) scale assesses whether one uses systematic techniques recommended in 'how-to-study' manuals.

This inventory has been used extensively throughout the country in various classroom settings. Numerous studies (Albaili, 1993; Gadzella, 1995; Gadzella, Ginther, & Williamson Wil·liam·son   , Mount

A peak, 4,382.9 m (14,370 ft) high, in the Sierra Nevada of east-central California.
, 1986; Gadzella, Stephens Ste·phens   , Alexander Hamilton 1812-1883.

American politician who was vice president of the Confederacy (1861-1865) under Jefferson Davis.
, & Baloglu, 2002; Miller, Alway Al´way

adv. 1. Always.
I would not live alway.
- Job vii. 16.
, & McKinney McKinney, city (1990 pop. 21,283), seat of Collin co., N Tex.; inc. 1849. It is a shipping point for cotton, cattle, and grains. Manufacturing includes electronic equipment, leather and food products, marble items, and copper wire. , 1987; Schmeck, 1982; Schmeck & Grove, 1979; Schmeck & Phillips Phil·lips  

A trademark used for a screw with a head having two intersecting perpendicular slots and for a screwdriver with a tip shaped to fit into these slots.
, 1982; Schmeck et al., 1997) have shown that there are significant relationships between students' learning style responses and their course grades and GPAs, respectively. However, are there differences between high and low academic achievers on the ILP scores.

In one study (Gadzella, 1995), scores on the ILP scales (for 86 freshmen enrolled in psychology classes) were compared with the students' course grades. Data showed that students who earned A grades in the course (compared to students who earned B, C, or D grades) reported significantly higher scores on the DP, EP, and MS scales of the ILP. In another study (Gadzella et al., 1987), the median of the students' GPA GPA
grade point average

Noun 1. GPA - a measure of a student's academic achievement at a college or university; calculated by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number attempted
 was used to identify High and Low Academic Achievers (for 158 students enrolled in Psychology classes). The responses to the ILP scales were used to compare differences between the High and Low Academic Achievers. The results showed that the High Achievers reported significantly higher scores on DP and FR scales. A study (Schmeck & Grove, 1979) on relationships (for 790 college students) between GPAs and ILP scores showed that students with high GPAs reported high scores on DP, EP, and FR scales. Similar results were found in another study (Schmeck, 1983) in that, high academic achievers tended to score high on DP, EP, and FR scales of the ILP.

In the above mentioned studies, subjects were pursuing higher education higher education

Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art.
 in colleges and universities but no mention was made as to their majors or possible careers. The focus of the present study was on students who were potential teachers. How do they process the information that they study?

Teacher training institutions require students to take several courses to prepare them for the teaching profession. One such course is Educational Psychology. Usually, the course includes subject areas such as: research and methodology, moral and cognitive development, learning theories, and measurement and evaluation.

In a recent study (Gadzella et al., 2002) with 105 students enrolled in Educational Psychology classes, data showed significant relationships between two ILP scale scores (DP and FR) and Educational Psychology course grades. The average course grade was a B. In the present study, the purpose was to investigate whether there were differences between students who earned A grades (High Achievers) in Educational Psychology and students who earned C or D grades (Low Achievers) in the course on the ILP scales. Specifically, the aim was to determine if there were differences between students, identified as High and Low Achievers in Educational Psychology, on how they process, retain, and retrieve the information they study.


Subjects. There were 61 students majoring in Education, of which 38 (one man and 37 women) were referred to as High Achievers and 23 students (7 men and 16 women) were referred to as Low Achievers. Their ages ranged from 19 to 54 years (M = 28.6, SD = 8.4). In this group, there were 10 sophomores, 33 juniors, 8 seniors, and 9 graduates. One person did not report the college classification.

Instrument. The Inventory of Learning Processes, ILP, (Schmeck et al., 1977) was used to collect the data. The instrument is a self-reporting questionnaire with 62-items, assessing one's style of processing information. The four independent scales derived from the ILP were described above. The reliability and validity of the ILP scales have been studied and reported in detail. For instance, Schmeck et al. (1977) reported internal consistencies In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores.  for the four ILP scales ranging from .52 to .82 and test retest re·test  
tr.v. re·test·ed, re·test·ing, re·tests
To test again.

A second or repeated test.
 reliabilities ranging from .78 to .88. Albaili (1993) reported test-retest reliability test-retest reliability Psychology A measure of the ability of a psychologic testing instrument to yield the same result for a single Pt at 2 different test periods, which are closely spaced so that any variation detected reflects reliability of the instrument  coefficients for ILP scales ranging from .68 to .80 and House and Gadzella (1995) reported test-retest reliabilities ranging from .79 to .88.

In 1977, Schmeck et al. reported significant correlations between multi-choice psychology test and scores on the DP and EP scales (r = .42 and r =.51, respectively). In another study (Schmeck et al., 1977), data showed significant relationships between memory on a word-list test and scores on DP (r = .59) and EP (r = .35) scales. Bartling (1988) reported predictive validity In psychometrics, predictive validity is the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure.

For example, the validity of a cognitive test for job performance is the correlation between test scores and, for example, supervisor performance ratings.
 coefficients of the ILP scales by correlating them with college and high school GPAs and ACT scores. The correlations ranged from .34 to .58. A number of studies (Gadzella, Ginther, & Williamson, 1987; Miller et al., 1987; Schmeck & Grove, 1979) have shown good predictive

validity coefficients for the individual ILP scales with reference to the GPAs.

Procedure. Students responded to the ILP during class periods. They signed a research release form indicating that their course grades and responses to the ILP may be used for research purposes. They received bonus points for participating in the study. The average of the four tests administered in Educational Psychology classes was the student' s course grade. Students whose average grades on the tests were 90% and above received A grades and were referred to as High Achievers. Students who received an average grade of 79% and below received C/D grades and were referred to as Low Achievers. For the two groups, t-tests were used to analyze the responses to each of the four ILP scales.


Means, standard deviation In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.

(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers.
, and t-tests for the two groups on the four ILP scales are presented in Table 1. The data show that the High Achievers reported significantly higher scores than the Low Achievers on two ILP scales: Deep Processing and Fact Retention. What does this mean?

Discussion and Conclusion

The tests administered in the Educational Psychology classes consisted of objective-type items which measured primarily two types of learning processes: deep processing (analyzing information) and retention of facts. The data from the Deep Processing scale mean that the High Achievers (more than the Low Achievers) evaluate the information that they study more critically, organize it conceptually, and make comparisons and contrasts. The data from the Fact Retention scale indicate that the High Achievers process, retain, and retrieve specific information (such as, dates of special events, etc.) more effectively than do the Low Achievers. These findings concur CONCUR - ["CONCUR, A Language for Continuous Concurrent Processes", R.M. Salter et al, Comp Langs 5(3):163-189 (1981)].  with those previously cited (Gadzella, 1995; Gadzella et al., 1987; Schmeck & Grove, 1979; Schmeck, 1983) that High Achievers report higher scores on Deep Processing and Fact Retention scales. From the findings in the present study, one can conclude that High and Low Achievers in Educational Psychology (both potential teachers) process these types of information differently. The question that can be raised is, how will it reflect their teaching and evaluation of their students on these types of learning and evaluation.

Further studies should be encouraged to determine how essay-type tests and activities, such as projects on computers or laboratory assignments are evaluated for High and Low Achievers in Educational Psychology classes. Some students prefer to use their own words to indicate what they know. Therefore, they might perform better on essay-type tests and/or and/or  
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.

Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing.
 on projects than they do on objective-type tests. The two scale scores, Elaborative Processing and Methodical Study of the ILP, might correlate more effectively with measures on the essay-type tests and/or projects. Lockhart and Schmeck (1983) showed that there are significant relationships between the different types of classroom measures and evaluations with the Elaborative Processing and Methodical Study scales as well as with the Deep Processing and Fact Retention scales. In addition, future studies should be conducted with larger number of students including those aiming to teach different subject matter and at different levels.
Table 1

Means, Standard Deviations, and t-tests on the Inventory of Learning
Style Scales for High and Low Achievers (df = 2/59)

Inventory of    Achiever    N       M       SD     t-test
Learning        Group
Style Scale

Deep            High        38    12.11    3.76    2.23 *
Processing      Low         23     9.70    4.32

Elaborative     High        38    10.21    2.63    1.19
Processing      Low         23     9.35    2.92

Fact            High        38     5.76    1.15    3.19 **
Retention       Low         23      .74    1.32

Methodical      High        38    10.16    4.56    1.18
Study           Low         23     8.70    4.89

* p < .03 ** p < .01


Albaili, M. A. (1993). Psychometric psy·cho·met·rics  
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and
 properties of the Inventory of Learning Processes: Evidence from United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates, federation of sheikhdoms (2005 est. pop. 2,563,000), c.30,000 sq mi (77,700 sq km), SE Arabia, on the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.  college students. Psychological Reports, 72, 1331-1336.

Bartling, C. A. (1988). Longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts.
 changes in study habits of successful college students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48, 527-535.

Cowell, M.D., & Entwistle, N. J. (1971). The relationship between personality, study attitudes, and academic performance in a technical college. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 41, 85-90.

Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework of memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-684.

Cropley, A. J., & Field, T. W. (1969). Achievement in science and intellectual style. Journal of Applied Psychology Journal of Applied Psychology is a publication of the APA. It has a high impact factor for its field. It typically publishes high quality empirical papers.

, 53, 132-135.

Gadzella, B. M. (1995). Differences in processing information among psychology course grade groups. Psychological Reports, 77, 1312-1314.

Gadzella, B. M., Ginther, D. W., & Williamson, J. D. (1986). Differences in self-concepts between deep and shallow processors. Psychological Reports, 59, 544-546.

Gadzella, B. M., Ginther, D. W., & Williamson, J. D. (1987). Differences in learning processes and academic achievement. Perceptual per·cep·tu·al
Of, based on, or involving perception.
 and Motor Skills, 20, 151-156.

Gadzella, B. M., Stephens, R., & Baloglu, M. (2002). Prediction of Educational Psychology course grades by age and learning style scores. College Student Journal, 36, 62-68.

House, W. G., & Gadzella, B. M. (1995). Reliability of the lnvento.rv of Learning Processes. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, New Orleans New Orleans (ôr`lēənz –lənz, ôrlēnz`), city (2006 pop. 187,525), coextensive with Orleans parish, SE La., between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, 107 mi (172 km) by water from the river mouth; founded , LA.

Lockhart, D., & Schmeck, R. R. (1983). Learning styles and classroom evaluation methods: Different strokes for different folks. College Student Journal, 17, 94-100.

Miller, D. C., Alway, M., & McKiney, D. L. (1987). Effects of learning styles and strategies on academic success. Journal of College Student Personnel College Student Personnel (CSP) is an academic discipline offered at the master’s and above level at several universities. A degree in this field often leads to a career in Student Affairs or Enrollment Management. , 28, 399-404.

Pask n. 1. See Pasch. , G. (1976). Styles and strategies of learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 26, 128-148.

Schmeck, R. R. (1982). Learning styles of college students. In Dillon, R., & Schmeck, R. R., Individual Differences in Cognition cognition

Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing.
. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
. Academic Press.

Schmeck, R. R., & Grove, E. (1979). Academic achievement and individual differences in learning processes. Applied Psychological Measurement, 3, 43-49.

Schmeck, R. R., & Phillips, J. (1982). Levels of processing as a dimension of differences between undergraduates. Human Learning, 1, 95-103.

Schmeck, R. R., Ribich, F. D., & Ramanaiah, N. (1977). Development of a self-report inventory Noun 1. self-report inventory - a personality inventory in which a person is asked which of a list of traits and characteristics describe her or him or to indicate which behaviors and hypothetical choices he or she would make
self-report personality inventory
 for assessing individual differences in learning processes. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 41-43.

Tallmadge, G. K., & Shearer, J. W. (1969). Relationships among learning styles, instructional methods, and the nature of learning experiences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 60, 222-230.

Tallmadge, G. K., & Shearer, J. W. (1971). Interactive relationships among learner characteristics, types of learning, instructional methods and subject matter variables. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62, 31-38.

Bernadette M. Gadzella, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychology and Special Education, Texas A&M University-Commerce and Mustafa Baloglu, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Counseling, Texas A& M University-Commerce.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. B. M. Gadzella, Department of Psychology and Special Education, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, Texas 75429.
COPYRIGHT 2003 George Uhlig Publisher
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2003, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Baloglu, Mustafa
Publication:Journal of Instructional Psychology
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 1, 2003
Previous Article:Paraprofessionals in reading.
Next Article:The relationship between tolerance for ambiguity and need for course structure.

Related Articles
Increasing students' library confidence.
Compressed video learning environments.
New York targets social promotion of third graders.
Psychological perspectives in assessing mathematics learning needs.
The guidance role of the instructor in the teaching and learning process.
Future outlook among African American students.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters