Helping students cope in an age of terrorism: strategies for school counselors.School counselors A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term. experience unique challenges as they struggle to provide students with coping skills A coping skill is a behavioral tool which may be used by individuals to offset or overcome adversity, disadvantage, or disability without correcting or eliminating the underlying condition. Virtually all living beings routinely utilize coping skills in daily life. geared to the outside world including acts of terrorism. School-aged students in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. are one of the most vulnerable populations in the event of a terrorist act. This article offers a review of the current and most relevant literature on the topic of helping students cope in an age of terrorism. The authors provide an overview of a six-step strategic model for school counselors to help prepare students to live and cope in an age of terrorism.
During the 20th century, historians recorded both a rise in the number of armed conflicts and a change in the nature of these conflicts. As residential and urban areas around the world are increasingly affected by violence and armed conflict, the number of civilians who become victims likely will increase (Tawil, 2003). These conflicts strongly impact the U.S. population. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Sullivan (2002), more lives were lost on September 11, 2001, in the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of than during the attack on Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor, land-locked harbor, on the southern coast of Oahu island, Hawaii, W of Honolulu; one of the largest and best natural harbors in the E Pacific Ocean. In the vicinity are many U.S. military installations, including the chief U.S. .
The nature of today's conflicts includes school terrorism such as the April 20, 1999, Columbine columbine, in botany
columbine (kŏl`əmbīn), any plant of the genus Aquilegia, temperate-zone perennials of the family Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), popular both as wildflowers and as garden flowers. tragedy (Pascopella, 2004) and the March 23, 2005, Red Lake shootings (Jans, 2005). Over one-fifth of the U.S. population can be found in its 119,000 public and private schools on any given weekday during the academic year (Bowman, 2003). With such a large number of people housed in schools across America, acts of terrorism pose a challenge to school counselors and other school personnel as they struggle to provide students with coping skills geared to the needs of the 21st century.
The chair of the National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism (NACCT NACCT North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology
NACCT National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism
NACCT Nebraska Association of Community College Trustees
NACCT Naval Academy Cross Country Team (US) ), Angela Diaz, provided recommendations to the Secretary of Health and Human Services Noun 1. Secretary of Health and Human Services - the person who holds the secretaryship of the Department of Health and Human Services; "the first Secretary of Health and Human Services was Patricia Roberts Harris who was appointed by Carter" regarding children and terrorism. In her 2003 correspondence taken from the NACCT Web site (www.bt.cdc.gov/children/index.asp), Diaz indicated that children in the United States (more than 70 million under the age of 18) would be one of the most vulnerable populations in the event of a terrorist act. Diaz wrote in that same letter that "while significant resources have been dedicated to the protection of bridges, national monuments national monument
In the U.S., any of numerous areas reserved by the federal government for the protection of objects or places of historical, scientific, or prehistoric interest. and other physical assets, comparatively little has been done to safeguard the health and well-being of children" (NACCT, 2003, [paragraph] 2).
One of the recommendations made by Diaz and the committee called for psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. initiatives that address children's needs and those of their families in the event of an act of terrorism. Addressing the psychosocial needs of students and their families is one of the primary roles of school counselors as outlined by the American School Counselor Association (ASCA ASCA American School Counselor Association
ASCA Australian Shepherd Club of America
ASCA Arab Society of Certified Accountants
ASCA American Swimming Coaches Association
ASCA American Society of Consulting Arborists
ASCA Association of State Correctional Administrators , 2005) in its recently developed ASCA National Model[R] for School Counseling Programs. Meeting the personal and social needs of schoolchildren schoolchildren school npl → écoliers mpl;
(at secondary school) → collégiens mpl; lycéens mpl
schoolchildren school has long been one of the important areas of involvement for school counselors (Campbell & Dahir, 1997; Cobia cobia
Swift-moving, slim marine game fish (Rachycentron canadum), the only member of the family Rachycentridae. Found in most warm oceans, this voracious predator may grow as long as 6 ft (1.8 m) and weigh 150 lbs (70 kg) or more. & Henderson, 2003; Gysbers & Henderson, 2000).
The purpose of this article is to provide a review of current literature relative to (a) students' responses to trauma and disaster in general, (b) current models and curricula useful to school counselors as they help students and their families cope with terrorism and the fear of terrorism, and (c) practical application tips and suggestions for school counselors.
RESPONSES TO TRAUMA AND DISASTER
Students respond to trauma and disaster in a variety of ways. Age and level of development make a difference in responses and coping abilities (National Institute of Mental Health The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the federal government of the United States and the largest research organization in the world specializing in mental illness. [NIMH], n.d.). NIMH has provided a list of behaviors related to age and development as a guide to behaviors a student might exhibit following a traumatic event A traumatic event is an event that is or may be a cause of trauma. The term may refer to one of the followiong:
1. Habitual failure to appear, especially for work or other regular duty.
2. The rate of occurrence of habitual absence from work or duty. .
According to the National Association of School Psychologists The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) is the first and largest national professional organization created for the purpose of serving school psychologists. (NASP NASP National Association of School Psychologists
NASP National Aerospace Plane
NASP National Association of Safety Professionals
NASP National Application Service Provider
NASP National Association for Shoplifting Prevention
NASP National Airport System Plan ), some students may respond to trauma and disaster by experiencing "fear, loss of control, anger, loss of stability, isolation, and confusion" (NASP, n.d.). Younger children may feel confused about terrorist attacks and war and also may experience difficulty differentiating between the reality of war and the fantasy of war as portrayed in the media (NASP).
In their book Children's Fears of War and Terrorism, Moses, Aldridge, Cellitti, and McCorquodale (2003) presented three factors that impact a child's response and must be considered when helping a child to cope with fears of war and terrorism. These include (a) the child's context and personal circumstances, (b) the child's temperament and personality, and (c) the child's age. Context and culture are powerful influences on a student's ability to cope. The environment in which a student lives impacts his or her sense of security. For example, if a child is from an active military family or a family in which a member has to be deployed quickly, such as with a Reserve military unit or the National Guard, he or she may feel out of control or unstable (ASCA, 2003).
Socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. is another example of a personal circumstantial EVIDENCE, CIRCUMSTANTIAL. The proof of facts which usually attend other facts sought to be, proved; that which is not direct evidence. For example, when a witness testifies that a man was stabbed with a knife, and that a piece of the blade was found in the wound, and it is found to fit factor that may influence a student's fear response and ability to cope. As cited in Moses et al. (2003), the fear of terrorism is greater if a student is from an impoverished background than from a middle-class background. Students from low-income homes experience more fears with greater intensity than do students of middle-class homes (Coeyman, 2001). Lower socioeconomic status also affects proficiency in social situations and academic achievement.
Some students may respond to trauma with such intensity that problems such as posttraumatic stress disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder
An anxiety disorder in some individuals who have experienced an event that poses a direct threat to the individual's or another person's life. (PTSD PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder.
posttraumatic stress disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ) may result. PTSD may occur at any age and symptoms usually begin within 3 months of the traumatic experience. According to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders /Di·ag·nos·tic and Sta·tis·ti·cal Man·u·al of Men·tal Dis·or·ders/ (DSM) a categorical system of classification of mental disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, that delineates objective (DSM-IV DSM-IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). This reference book, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the diagnostic standard for most mental health professionals in the United States. ), a person who has been exposed to trauma, such as an act of terrorism, may respond with "intense fear, feelings of helplessness and/or horror" (American Psychiatric Association The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the most influential world-wide. Its some 148,000 members are mainly American but some are international. , 2000, p. 463). The DSM-IV also references omen formation as something children may experience following trauma; omen formation is defined as believing in "an ability to foresee future untoward events" (p. 466). According to the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (n.d.), the symptoms and criteria for PTSD in children and adolescents differ from those of adults. Children may experience frightening dreams without understandable content and will reenact the traumatic event through repetitive play. Factors that increase the likelihood of a student developing PTSD include the severity of the traumatic event, the physical proximity to it, and parental reaction to the event (see www.ncptsd.org).
School counselors are often the first professional whom students and families encounter immediately following a disaster. The action taken by the school counselor at the point of trauma is critical to the impacted student's long-range well-being. Crisis intervention crisis intervention Psychiatry The counseling of a person suffering from a stressful life event–eg, AIDS, cancer, death, divorce, by providing mental and moral support. See Hotline. theories and crisis response models signify that the immediate response following a traumatic event may determine the long-term mental health outcome of the individual impacted by the trauma (Brock brock
n. Chiefly British
[Middle English brok, from Old English broc, of Celtic origin.] , Sandoval, & Lewis, 2001; James & Gilliland, 2001). Students living in the 21st century in America are facing the possibility of terrorist attacks and are likely to experience fears related to terrorism and other violent acts.
Auger auger (ô`gər): see drill.
Tool (or bit) used with a carpenter's brace for drilling holes, usually in wood. It looks like a corkscrew and produces extremely clean holes, almost regardless of how large the bit is. , Seymour, and Roberts (2004) surveyed 89 school counselors and related helping professionals regarding the aftermath that the terrorist action toward the United States on September 11, 2001, had on students and staff in 1(-12 schools. The results of the survey indicated that students were highly distressed immediately following the September 11th attacks On September 11, 2001, in the deadliest case of domestic Terrorism in the history of the United States, a group of 19 terrorists hijacked four U.S. airliners for use as missiles against targets in New York City and Washington, D.C. . However, approximately 6 weeks later, the level of student distress had significantly decreased. Based upon these findings, school counselors evidently need to have strategies specifically designed to aid in helping students cope with terrorism.
CURRENT MODELS, CURRICULUM GUIDES, AND PROGRAMS
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing de·brief·ing
1. The act or process of debriefing or of being debriefed.
2. The information imparted during the process of being debriefed.
Noun 1. Model Mitchell and Everly (as cited in Juhnke, 1997) developed a critical incident stress debriefing (CISD CISD Conroe Independent School District (Texas)
CISD Critical Incident Stress Debrief(ing)
CISD Carthage Independent School District (Texas) ) model to use with adult emergency workers who experienced extremely traumatic events. CISD is a structured small group process that consists of seven stages in which participants discuss their reactions and feelings following the witnessing of a tragic or violent event. Practitioners conducting the group processes are trained briefly in CISD. Mitchell (2003) stated that crisis intervention techniques are not simple and are most effective when applied by skilled interventionists. Thompson (1993) discussed the use of this model in schools with students who experienced sudden loss, such as the suicide of a classmate. Juhnke (1997) proposed an adapted version of CISD to be used with elementary and middle school students as a post-violence intervention. Juhnke's model is different from Mitchell and Everly's original form of the model. Juhnke's model is designed for use with mental health professionals who specifically have knowledge surrounding the developmental needs of children. School counselors do have the intensive educational training surrounding children and their developmental needs necessary to implement this model. In addition, Juhnke's model differs from the original with its use of a separate debriefing for parents and a joint student-parent debriefing. Because the model is designed for a minimum of three debriefing team members, with the help of other counselors, staff, and administrators, school counselors could employ this model to help students and parents in the event of a violent episode. Juhnke (2002) suggested the use of the adapted family debriefing model for helping both students and parents regarding ongoing terrorist threats and post-terrorism concerns.
Mental health care practitioners and researchers are currently debating the efficacy and appropriateness of debriefings (Appleton, 2001). The issue of this debate is not that emergency psychological services are needed, but what is the most effective method of providing these services. According to Appleton, finding one particular method of intervention that is complete probably will never occur.
"Facing Fear" Curriculum
The American Red Cross American Red Cross: see Red Cross. (2001) has developed a K-12 curriculum (supplemental to its "Masters of Disaster The Masters of Disaster are an airshow team that performs edge of your seat aerobatics in combination with ground based jet-propelled trucks and pyrotechnics. The show did include at one time a jet-propelled biplane. ") entitled en·ti·tle
tr.v. en·ti·tled, en·ti·tling, en·ti·tles
1. To give a name or title to.
2. To furnish with a right or claim to something: Facing Fear: Helping Young People Deal with Terrorism and Other Tragic Events, which includes lesson plans, activities, and demonstrations that can be incorporated within core subject areas. The lesson plans and activities are arranged in three chapters: Chapter 1, "Feelings," focuses on loss, sadness, and anger and is appropriate for use immediately following a tragic event. Chapter 2, "Facts and Perspectives," provides information on the media's role and how to discriminate facts from the media's portrayal of events. In addition, chapter 2 teaches the principles of the Red Cross. Chapter 3, "Future," discusses ways for children and their families to assimilate as·sim·i·late
1. To consume and incorporate nutrients into the body after digestion.
2. To transform food into living tissue by the process of anabolism. the past and plan for the uncertainties of the future. The materials consist of four lesson plans (divided by grade level) for each of the three chapters with approximately 27 hands-on student and family-oriented activities. The lessons are aligned with national health, social studies, and language arts language arts
The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills, usually taught in elementary and secondary school. curriculum standards. Facing Fear is available in printed form from local American Red Cross chapters, and the lessons and activity sheets can be downloaded from the Red Cross Web site at www.redcross.org.
The hands-on activities included in this curriculum would be useful as school counselors implement the guidance curricula as outlined in the ASCA National Model (Davis, 2005). For example, lesson plan 7 for Grades 9-12 includes the following activity for students:
An act of terrorism or other tragic event may have far-reaching effects on many facets of life. Help students apply the concept of the ripple effect to understand the chain of events. Set up the bulletin board with several paper "stones" in the center. Assign each ripple of the event a marker of a different color. Have students compare the ripple effect of tossing a stone into water with the impact of the event under discussion. If the stone represents the event, what would be the first ripple, the second, the third and so on (the families, the community where the event occurred, the state, the nation, the world; the immediate impact, the ongoing impact, the far-reaching impact). (American Red Cross, 2001, p. 26)
Tips on Children and Fear of War and Terrorism
The National Association of School Psychologists has posted tips for parents and teachers in regard to terrorism at www.nasponline.org. NASP has provided these tips online under the heading of "Children and Fear of War and Terrorism." Basic recommendations include parents and teachers remaining calm, helping children determine real from imagined fears, providing children a chance to discuss their concerns, and limiting exposure to media coverage and violence (NASP, n.d.).
ASCA Counselor Immediate Response Guide
ASCA has provided a "Counselor Immediate Response Guide" for critical incidents on its Web site at www.schoolcounselor.org. These suggestions are provided under the headings of "During Incident," "First 24 Hours After Incident," "First Three Days," "First Week," "Staff Assistance," and "Responses." Each heading lists several practical suggestions for school counselors. ASCA also states that these suggestions are not meant to take the place of to be substituted for.
See also: Place existing district and school policies. Although the guidelines of offered are helpful and very specific to the role of school counselors in critical incidents, they do not offer strategies as directly related to the threat or aftermath of a terrorist act.
Counselor's Guide on "Terrorism, Trauma, and Tragedies"
The American Counseling Association The American Counseling Association (ACA) is a non-profit, professional organization that is dedicated to the counseling profession. ACA is the world's second largest association exclusively representing professional counselors. (ACA ACA - Application Control Architecture ) Foundation has published the second edition of the resource guide Terrorism, Trauma, and Tragedies: A Counselor's Guide to Preparing and Responding, edited by Webber, Bass, and Yep (2005). This guide was written for counselors, teachers, administrators, parents, and others focusing on practical strategies, techniques, and plans to help those who may experience trauma and/or a tragic event. The guide is divided into six sections: (a) personal reflections on September 11, 2001; (b) responding to terrorism; (c) responding to tragedies in schools; (d) counseling strategies; (e) hurricanes, wars, accidents, and other crises; and (f) coping resources. Several organizations such as NASP, the National Mental Health Association, and the American Association American Association refers to one of the following professional baseball leagues:
Crisis Management Institute
The Crisis Management Institute (CMI (Computer-Managed Instruction) Using computers to organize and manage an instructional program for students. It helps create test materials, tracks the results and monitors student progress. ) has worked with schools in the aftermath of trauma and tragedy (Lovre, 2001). CMI designs training manuals to offer comprehensive resources. After major traumatic events occur, information is posted on the Web site, which may be downloaded and can be used immediately in classrooms. Guidelines on a variety of topics that would be useful for school counselors and parents at the elementary, middle, and high school levels also may be downloaded from CMI's Web site (www.cmionline.org).
Use of Children's Literature children's literature, writing whose primary audience is children.
See also children's book illustration. The Beginnings of Children's Literature
The earliest of what came to be regarded as children's literature was first meant for adults. to Develop Coping Strategies The German Freudian psychoanalyst Karen Horney defined four so-called coping strategies to define interpersonal relations, one describing psychologically healthy individuals, the others describing neurotic states.
Nicholson and Pearson (2003) suggested the use of children's literature in classroom guidance as helpful in teaching coping skills to children who are dealing with adult fears such as death, crime, and war. Nicholson and Pearson stated that media coverage and the emphasis on terrorism have served to heighten height·en
v. height·ened, height·en·ing, height·ens
1. To raise or increase the quantity or degree of; intensify.
2. To make high or higher; raise.
v.intr. children's fears about death. Acknowledging that bibliotherapy bibliotherapy /bib·lio·ther·a·py/ (bib?le-o-ther´ah-pe) the reading of selected books as part of the treatment of mental disorders or for mental health.
n. helps children in their ability to develop coping strategies by identifying internal and external resources, these authors provided a listing of books for classroom guidance suitable for Grades K-3. For each book, themes and coping strategies are described as well as detailed guidance activities. Bibliotherapy is valuable for all ages and similar listings for other age groups are available.
Need for Specific Materials
Although useful materials are available, based upon our review, we found a need for materials specific for school counselors to help children cope with terrorism and the fear of terrorism. The next section proposes strategies for the school counselor and provides suggestions for preventing or minimizing the fear of terrorism and building coping skills for use in an age of terrorism.
STRATEGIES FOR PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL COUNSELORS
Counselors' Emotional Stability
Prior to working with children, school counselors need to be aware of their own personal level of trauma. Counselors need to understand that if they are feeling vulnerable and under attack, their ability to work with children is hampered. Myers-Walls (2002) wrote that in these situations a cycle of silence may result. According to Myers-Walls, children may respond to trauma by displaying a tendency to get back to routine and a normal life as soon as possible. When adults also are traumatized, they may assume that this response indicates that the children are not upset and do not need to discuss the event. Also, the adults may wish to maintain silence and get back to routine in order to avoid the pain of the reality of the experience. However, the opposite is true. The children need to have the freedom to talk with their parents and supportive adults (see www.apa.org). School counselors need to be emotionally stable enough to provide the setting for such freedom of discussion to exist. If personal issues, past or present, inhibit a school counselor during a traumatic event, the need for help and/or assistance from other counselors should be recognized and utilized.
We have developed a strategic model for school counselors to prepare students to cope in an age of terrorism. This model includes six steps and is a preventive, developmental tool to be implemented in its entirety as a step-by-step training model in an ongoing guidance curriculum. This model is designed to alleviate fear of terrorism and to strengthen students' resilience in the event of an actual terrorist act within or outside of the school community. In the event of an actual terrorist act, the model then becomes an intervention as the skills previously learned are applied. At the point of an actual event, the model is to be used more as an integration of skills rather than sequential steps. The six steps are as follows:
1. Staying reality based
2. Expressing emotions
3. Developing concepts of life and death
4. Developing self-efficacy and a sense of control
5. Developing coping skills
6. Encouraging action by engagement in humanitarian efforts.
Step 1: Staying reality based. The first step is to build a reality-based foundation by being honest and factual about current concerns and events (ASCA, 2003). This attitude and understanding will provide reassurance to students while also being honest with them about the possible events and procedures necessary if an event occurs. A major focus should be on developing a feeling of safety within the students. This includes the description of safety measures safety measures,
n.pl actions (e.g., use of glasses, face masks) taken to protect patients and office personnel from such known hazards as particles and aerosols from high-speed rotary instruments, mercury vapor, radiation exposure, anesthetic and that may need to be taken. Explain the school safety procedures in the event of any acts of violence and terrorism within the school or community and provide information about any community-based resources and/or crisis plans in the event of terrorist activity. Students also may benefit from suggested precautions precautions Infectious disease The constellation of activities intended to minimize exposure to an infectious agent; precautions imply that the isolation of an infected Pt is optional, but not mandatory. to be taken at home or in the community. Adolescents and young adults may be able to take an active role in providing safety measures in their communities and homes. School counselors need to remember to be honest without being fearful or invoking fear in students.
Step 2: Expressing emotions. The second strategy is to acknowledge the feelings of students and to provide help in allowing them to express and understand the intensity of their emotions. The American Psychological Association's (APA, 2004) Reactions and Guidelines for Children Following Trauma/ Disaster states that students need to be encouraged to talk about confusing feelings and be allowed opportunities to express thoughts and emotions about the tragedy. In addition, students should be reminded that their reactions are normal following a very scary event (APA). Knowing and understanding the impact of emotions enables one to integrate thought, feeling, and action. This may help students to develop their emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence describes one's knowledge and capacity to understand and process emotions experienced in daily life (Advanced Communications, 2003).
This step is intended to increase the student's emotional quotient quotient - The number obtained by dividing one number (the "numerator") by another (the "denominator"). If both numbers are rational then the result will also be rational. (EQ). The term emotional quotient was coined by Bar-On (2000) to distinguish emotional intelligence from cognitive intelligence (IQ). Elksnin and Elksnin (2003) discussed the five domains of EQ, as outlined by Goleman (1995) and Mayer and Salovey (1997), as (a) knowing one's emotions, (b) managing one's emotions, (c) motivating oneself, (d) recognizing emotions of others, and (e) effectively using social skills when interacting with others. These areas of emotional intelligence will help students to understand and express their feelings and those of others in the face of fears. Children as young as 3 years of age can begin to understand the underlying causes of their emotions (Elksnin & Elksnin). A suggestion, in line with this step, might be to use a visual aid such as a "feeling thermometer thermometer, instrument for measuring temperature. Galileo and Sanctorius devised thermometers consisting essentially of a bulb with a tubular projection, the open end of which was immersed in a liquid. " to gauge the level of emotion. The counselor could provide a listing of emotions to help students expand their emotional vocabulary. Younger students also could "act out" the emotion that they are feeling. Rating scales may be used with older students. This step in the model is a training step and also is to be used as an intervention step in an actual crisis. Helping students to express their emotions is basic to successful coping with a fearful incident.
Step 3: Developing concepts of life and death. It is helpful to encourage students to discuss their perceptions about life and death with parents or community leaders. The school counselor is in the position to teach students about grief and loss issues and to prepare them for acceptance when experiencing loss. Children's understanding of death is based upon their developmental stage. Young children under the age of 5 usually see death as "reversible reversible,
adj capable of going through a series of changes in either direction, forward or backward (e.g., reversible chemical reaction).
n See hydrocolloid, reversible. , temporary, and impersonal" (Hospice Net, 2004). Children ages 5-9 begin to see death as final and understand that all living things Living Things may refer to:
adj incapable of being reversed or returned to the original state. and that all living things must die, including them. Adolescents may become intrigued with the concept of death and may begin developing philosophical beliefs about death (NASP, n.d.). According to Mishara (1999), if children have experienced death in the immediate family, their concept of death is more mature. In coping with life's inexplicable in·ex·pli·ca·ble
Difficult or impossible to explain or account for.
in·expli·ca·bil happenings, children need to have the opportunity and freedom to discuss their personal perceptions with a caring adult. This type of discussion may serve to comfort the child and is certainly within the role of a well-trained and competent school counselor. Curriculum guides such as Growing Through Grief." A K-12 Curriculum to Help Young People Through All Kinds of Loss (O'Toole, 1989) are useful in this step.
Step 4: Developing self-efficacy and a sense of control. The fourth step is to employ various methods of empowering students so that they are able to develop a sense of control over their immediate environment (Kleinke, 1991). Gray and Ropeik (2002) stated that the ability to feel control over events decreases the level of fear. Three constructs have been described that enable children to feel confident in controlling events and challenges in their lives. These constructs are self-worth, security, and control (Robinson & Rotter, 1991). Students who feel personally powerful are less vulnerable to fear. Personal power can be achieved through having been given opportunities to make decisions. Also, helping students to focus on the present and future, rather than the past, will enable them to see possibilities for change, which is empowering (Sklare, 1997). Providing children with opportunities for developing self-efficacy, competence, and mastery enables them to learn that they can have an effect on their social and physical surroundings (Kleinke).
Step 5: Developing coping skills. The fifth step involves teaching and practicing the use of the various coping skills needed to deal with the stressors encountered in today's world (Kleinke, 1991). Breslin (2005) stated that educators can foster the development of coping skills in young children through heightened sensory awareness Sensory awareness
Bringing attention to the sensations of tension and/or release in the muscles.
Mentioned in: Alexander Technique , positive expectations, a clear understanding of one's strengths relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc accomplishment, and developing a sense of humor Noun 1. sense of humor - the trait of appreciating (and being able to express) the humorous; "she didn't appreciate my humor"; "you can't survive in the army without a sense of humor"
sense of humour, humor, humour . Taking action is among the coping skills helpful to strengthen students' sense of self-control. Sklare (1997) wrote, "Getting clients to take action first shows them that they are able to succeed regardless of previous obstacles" (p. 14). Action and movement help overcome a feeling of helplessness that often arises from fear.
The use of play interventions for small group and individual counseling in the school setting has been encouraged by researchers and recommended for use with elementary-aged children suffering from trauma (Drewes, Carey, & Schaefer, 2001). Ways to express emotions and feelings and cope with experiences are discussed in play intervention literature. Included among several recommendations made to school counselors by Shen Shen, in the Bible, place, perhaps close to Bethel, near which Samuel set up the stone Ebenezer. and Sink (2002) are sand trays, toy ambulances, police cars, airplanes, stress-reducing materials, squishy squish·y
adj. squish·i·er, squish·i·est
1. Soft and wet; spongy.
2. Sloppily sentimental.
Adj. 1. balls, chalkboards, white boards, musical instruments, and dress-up costumes. Adolescents and young adults may benefit from such activities as writing a letter to an editor or collecting money or clothing for victims.
Step 6: Encouraging action by engagement in humanitarian efforts. The last step involves developing a humanitarian view, taking action, and expressing that action in a humanitarian effort. In order to aid students in the assimilation of knowledge as related to acts of terrorism, the development of a larger picture of the world in which they live is helpful. Acquiring a global perspective may be attained by an understanding of the three basic concepts of humanitarian education as defined by the Polish Humanitarian Organization (PHO, 2002): (a) human rights, (b) tolerance, and (c) helping others. The PHO has created a program for regular schools in Poland that emphasizes social responsibility and humanitarian work. Its humanitarian education program is built upon the belief that children and adolescents can actively influence positive changes in society. School counselors might wish to review this program and/or develop a similar approach for use with local schools and communities. It can be beneficial to discuss and employ methods that enable students to be seen as a humanitarian in their existing worldview world·view
n. In both senses also called Weltanschauung.
1. The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world.
2. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group. .
The Exploring Humanitarian Law project The Humanitarian Law Project (founded 1985) is a U.S.-based non-profit organization organization, working to protect human rights and promote "the peaceful resolution of conflict by using established international human rights laws and humanitarian law. was initiated by the International Committee of the Red Cross
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. in 1998. The purpose of the project was to provide core learning modules for students ages 13-18 in the areas of citizenship and ethics education. The goal of the project was to integrate education in humanitarian law into secondary curricula around the world. Tawil (2003) stated that the education of students in humanitarian law (a) motivates an increased interest level in international current events and humanitarian action; (b) increases the ability to view conflicts at home from a humanitarian perspective; and (c) creates increased involvement in community service, which promotes humanitarian attitudes.
One way to promote awareness of human rights, anti-racism, and the value of community action is through classroom guidance lessons. Using the school community as a model and making changes in the school that reflect humanitarian perspectives can provide a greater understanding and, perhaps, an incentive for students to make similar changes in their homes and communities in which they live. An example of a humanitarian action led by the school counselor following classroom guidance is a school-sponsored clothing closet and/or food bank for the community. Students at the middle and high school levels could operate the bank. Elementary-level students could be involved in helping to supply the food and clothing. Resources outside of the school such as business partners could be utilized to aid the counselor and students in these efforts. Schools would respond to the community based upon the needs of their community. In addition, local community agencies and churches may be available to the counselor in providing humanitarian education to students.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
We have provided a review of the most current and relevant literature on the topic of helping students cope in an age of terrorism. It is clear that fear and trauma are common products when disaster strikes our own land and people, as well as throughout the entire world. We are dealing with an age of terrorism with many unknown variables. School counselors once again must be prepared to provide the necessary help for students and their families in order to minimize fears and develop coping skills for dealing with the realities of the 21st century. We have provided an overview of a strategic model with six steps for preparing students to live and cope in an age of terrorism. If the model were implemented consistently and uniformly, we believe that it could have a profound impact upon decreasing school terrorism and, ultimately, worldwide terrorist acts. If counselors work with students in a reality-based manner with honesty and integrity, they could enable students to express their emotions and develop self-efficacy. Developing these skills along with the other coping skills described in the model, followed by taking action in a humanitarian effort, will increase understanding of others around the world.
Advanced Communications. (2003).Active education and the role of emotional intelligence. Retrieved October 4, 2004, from http://www.advancedcommunication.com
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. . (2004). Reactions and guidelines for children following trauma/disaster. Retrieved September 7, 2004, from http://www.apa.org
America n Red Cross. (2001). Facing fear: Helping young people deal with terrorism and other tragic events. Retrieved September 7, 2004, from http://www.redcross.org/disaster/masters/facingfear
American School Counselor Association. (2003). Counselor immediate response guide. Retrieved September 21,2004, from http://www.cc.ain.com/asca.crisis.htm
American School Counselor Association. (2005). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Author.
Appleton, J. A. (2001). Coping with the psychological consequences of terror: In the fallout fallout, minute particles of radioactive material produced by nuclear explosions (see atomic bomb; hydrogen bomb; Chernobyl) or by discharge from nuclear-power or atomic installations and scattered throughout the earth's atmosphere by winds and convection currents. of disaster, mental health experts take sides. Retrieved June 8, 2005, from http://www.gnc.com/health_notes/newswire/default.aspx?doc_id
Auger, R.W., Seymour, J.W, & Roberts, W. B. (2004). Responding to terror: The impact of September 11 on K-12 schools and schools' responses. Professional School Counseling, 7, 222-231.
Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the emotional quotient inventory. In R. Bar-on & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace (pp. 368-388). San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden : Jossey Bass.
Bowman, D. H. (2003). Terrorism addresses children's needs. Education Week, 22(42), 5.
Breslin, D. (2005). Children's capacity to develop resiliency: How to nurture it. Young Children, 60, 47-48, 50-53.
Brock, S., Sandoval, J., & Lewis, S. (2001). Preparing for crisis in the schools: A manual for building school crisis response teams (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley John Wiley may refer to:
Campbell, C. A., & Dahir, C. A. (1997). Sharing the vision: National standards for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.
Cobia, D. C., & Henderson, D. A. (2003). Handbook of school counseling. Upper Saddle River Saddle River may refer to:
Coeyman, M. (2001). Facing down fear: Lessons from city schools. Christian Science Christian Science, religion founded upon principles of divine healing and laws expressed in the acts and sayings of Jesus, as discovered and set forth by Mary Baker Eddy and practiced by the Church of Christ, Scientist. Monitor, 93, 14.
Davis, T. E. (2005). Exploring school counseling: Professional practices and perspectives. New York: Houghton Mifflin Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. The company's headquarters is located in Boston's Back Bay. It publishes textbooks, instructional technology materials, assessments, reference works, and fiction and non-fiction for both young readers .
Drewes, A. A., Carey, L.J., & Schaefer, C. E. (Eds.). (2001). School-based play therapy. New York: John Wiley.
Elksnin, L. K., & Elksnin, N. (2003). Fostering social-emotional learning in the classroom. Education, 124, 63.
Goleman, D. (I 995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Bantam
Former city and sultanate, Java. It was located at the western end of Java between the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean. In the early 16th century it became a powerful Muslim sultanate, which extended its control over parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Books.
Gray, G. M., & Ropeik, D. P. (2002). Dealing with the dangers of fear: The role of risk communication. Health Affairs, 21(6), 106-116.
Gysbers, N. C., & Henderson, P. (2000). Developing and managing your school guidance program (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Hospice Net. (2004). Talking to Noun 1. talking to - a lengthy rebuke; "a good lecture was my father's idea of discipline"; "the teacher gave him a talking to"
rebuke, reprehension, reprimand, reproof, reproval - an act or expression of criticism and censure; "he had to children about death. Retrieved October 4, 2004, from http://www.hospicenet.org/html/ talking.html
James, R., & Gilliland, B. (2001). Crisis intervention strategies (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Jans, N. (2005, April 5). Red Lake: A tragedy of denial. USA Today USA Today
National U.S. daily general-interest newspaper, the first of its kind. Launched in 1982 by Allen Neuharth, head of the Gannett newspaper chain, it reached a circulation of one million within a year and surpassed two million in the 1990s. . Retrieved June 21, 2005, from http://web20.epnet.com/citation
Juhnke, G. A. (1997). After school violence: An adapted critical incident stress debriefing model for student survivors and their parents. Elementary School elementary school: see school. Guidance and Counseling guidance and counseling, concept that institutions, especially schools, should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust to social realities. , 31, 163-170.
Juhnke, G. A. (2002).When terrorists strike: What school counselors can do. ERIC Digest. Retrieved October 6, 2004, from http://www.ericdigests.org/2003-4/terrorists.html
Kleinke, C. L. (1991). Coping with life challenges. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Lovre, C. (2001). Crisis Management Institute. Retrieved June 21, 2005, from http://www.cmionline.org
Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 30-31). New York: Basic Books.
Mishara, B. (I 999). Conceptions of death and suicide in children ages 6-12 and their implications for suicide prevention Suicide prevention is an umbrella term for the collective efforts of mental health practitioners and related professionals to reduce the incidence of suicide through proactive preventive measures. . Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 29, 105-118.
Mitchell, J. T. (2003). Crisis intervention & CISM (Certified Information Security Manager) The award for successful completion of an examination in information security management from the Information Security Audit and Control Association. See ISACA. : A research summary. Retrieved June 8, 2005, from http://www.icisf.org
Moses, L. F., Aldridge, J., Cellitti, A., & McCorquodale, G. (2003). Children's fears of war and terrorism: A resource for teachers and parents. Olney, MD: Association for Childhood Education International.
Myers-Walls, J. A. (2002, Winter/Spring).Talking to children about terrorism and armed conflict. The Forum for Family and Consumer Issues, 7. Available from North Carolina State University History
National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism. (2003). Recommendations to the Secretary [Electronic version]. Retrieved September 22, 2004, from http://www.bt.cdc.gov/children/index.asp
National Association of School Psychologists. (n.d.). Children and fear of war and terrorism: Tips for parents and teachers. Retrieved September 21, 2004, from http://www.nasponline.org/
National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. (n.d.). Terrorist attacks and children. Retrieved February 1,2005, from http://www.ncptsd.org/facts/specific
National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Information about coping with traumatic events. Retrieved October 8, 2004, from http://www.nimh.gov
Nicholson, J. L., & Pearson, Q. M. (2003). Helping children cope with fears: Using children's literature in classroom guidance. Professional School Counseling, 7, 15-19.
O'Toole, D. (1989). Growing through grief: A K-12 curriculum to help young people through all kinds of loss. Burnsville, NC: Compassion Books Inc.
Pascopella, A. (2004). Columbine revisited. District Administrator, 40(4), 27-30.
Polish Humanitarian Organization. (2002). Humanitarian Education Program. Retrieved February 6, 2006, from http://www.pah.org.pl/7136.html
Robinson, E. H., III, & Rotter, J. C. (1991). Coping with fears and stress. ERIC Digest Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services. Retrieved August 26, 2004, from http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigest/ed341888
Robinson, E. H., III, Rotter, J. C., Fey, M. A., & Robinson, S. L. (1991). Children's fears: Toward a preventive model. The School Counselor, 38, 187-202.
Shen, Y. J., & Sink, C. (2002). Helping elementary-age children cope with disasters. Professional School Counseling, 5, 320-322.
Sklare, G. B. (1997). Brief counseling that works. Thousand Oaks Thousand Oaks, residential city (1990 pop. 104,352), Ventura co., S Calif., in a farm area; inc. 1964. Avocados, citrus, vegetables, strawberries, and nursery products are grown. , CA: Corwin Press.
Sullivan, R. (Ed.). (2002). One nation: America remembers September 11, 2001. New York: Little, Brown & Co.
Tawil, S. (2003). International humanitarian law International humanitarian law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus "comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and basic education. International Review of the Red Cross The International Review of the Red Cross (ISSN 1560-7755) is an academic quarterly periodic journal published by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) which, according to its publisher, , 839, 581-599.
Thompson, R. A. (1993). Posttraumatic posttraumatic /posttrau·mat·ic/ (post?traw-mat´ik) occurring as a result of or after injury.
Following or resulting from injury or trauma. stress and posttraumatic loss debriefing: Brief strategic intervention for survivors of sudden loss. The School Counselor, 42, 16-22.
Webber, J., Bass, D. D., & Yep, R. (Eds.). (2005). Terrorism, trauma, and tragedies: A counselor's guide to preparing and responding (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association Foundation.
Julia S. Chibbaro and C. Marie Jackson are assistant professors with the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology, University of West Georgia In recent years, the university has been named by the Princeton Review as one of the Best Southeastern Colleges and one of America's Best Value Colleges. Its 109 programs of study include 60 at the bachelor's level, 45 at the master's and specialist's, two at the doctoral level and two , Carrollton. E-mail: email@example.com