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Heavy equipment industry in Indonesia.

Current issues

Heavy equipment industry recovered strongly in 2010 from deep slump Slump

A temporary fall in performance, often describing consistently falling security prices for several weeks or months.
 in 2009 when global financial crisis hit almost all sectors including the property and construction sectors, which are among the major users of heavy equipment.

Heavy equipment industry was badly hurt by the global financial crisis resulting in a sharp fall in the country's production of heavy equipment to 1,814 units in 2009 from 5,914 units in 2008. Main producers of heavy equipment in Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago.  including Komatsu Komatsu (kōmä`ts), city (1990 pop. 106,075), Ishikawa prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. , Caterpillar caterpillar (kăt`əpĭl'ər, kăt`ər–), common name for the larva of a moth or butterfly. Caterpillars have distinct heads and are segmented and wormlike.  and Hitachi suffered a setback setback

In architecture, a steplike recession in the profile of a high-rise building. Usually dictated by building codes to allow sunlight to reach streets and lower floors, the building must take another step back from the street for every specified added height interval.

The slump in 2009 came after rapid growth of heavy equipment industry in 2008 boosted by strong demand for heavy equipment from various sector notably coal mining industry and oil palm plantations PLANTATIONS. Colonies, (q.v.) dependencies. (q.v.) 1 Bl. Com. 107. In England, this word, as it is used in St. 12, II. c. 18, is never applied to, any of the British dominions in Europe, but only to the colonies in the West Indies and America. 1 Marsh. Ins, B. 1, c. 3, Sec. 2, page 64. . Demands were also strong from the construction and property sectors. That year delivery had to be delayed for up to six months as demands far exceeded production capacity.

The impact of the global financial crisis, which struck late 2008 were, felt strongly early 2009. Until end of 2008, sales of heavy equipment were normal to meet orders already made earlier. Early 2009, however, many orders were shelved as the projects mainly construction and property projects that needed the equipment were also shelved. The main problem was difficulty in securing funds from lenders which tended to be more cautious and selective.

The condition, however, changed for the better in entering 2010. Demand for heavy equipment surged again especially as the country managed to go through the difficult period relatively unscathed. Indonesia was among the few countries recording a positive growth in 2009 as unlike many other countries the country's economy is oriented o·ri·ent  
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.

a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.

b. A pearl having exceptional luster.

 more too domestic market with growth sustained and driven mainly by the consumption sector. In addition, demand for coal rose again especially from China and India India, officially Republic of India, republic (2005 est pop. 1,080,264,000), 1,261,810 sq mi (3,268,090 sq km), S Asia. The second most populous country in the world, it is also sometimes called Bharat, its ancient name. India's land frontier (c. , which recorded high economic growth amid the global malaise malaise /mal·aise/ (mal-az´) a vague feeling of discomfort.

A vague feeling of bodily discomfort, as at the beginning of an illness.
. The price of crude palm oil also raised prompting expansion of oil palm plantations that need heavy equipment.

Heavy equipment industrialists see with optimism the turn of condition in 2010. In the first half of 2010, the country's production of heavy equipment reached 2,495 units exceeding the production of 1,814 units in the whole of 2009.

Type of Products

The type of heavy equipment produced in Indonesia is dominated by small size ones. For example, the main type of excavator ex·ca·va·tor
An instrument, such as a sharp spoon or curette, used in scraping out pathological tissue.

excavator (eks´k
, produced by Komatsu is PC 200 model weighing 20 tons. The type of bulldozers is mainly ones weighing 20 tons although the factory could produce 45-tons excavators and 28-tons bulldozers.

There are various types of heavy equipment produced in Indonesia. Komatsu has the largest types of product including excavators, bulldozers, motor graders and dump trucks. Natra The Natra Group, is a Spanish corporation involved in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. It has five business divisions: Natra Cacao (cocoa), Natraceutical (nutraceuticals), and Torre Oria (wines and champagne-style cavas), with facilities in Quart de Poblet and  Raya, the brand holder of Caterpillar, produces excavators, bulldozers and motor graders. Caterpillar product of excavator with the type of 320 C is the competitor of Komatsu product of 20-tons PC-200 in the market.

Determined to maintain lead in the market which is bristling bristling

see hackles.
 with aggressive competitors, United Tractor tractor, in agriculture, vehicle used to pull such equipment as plows, cultivators, and mowers; to power stationary devices such as saws and winches; and to push snowplows and earth-moving implements.  (UT) launched a new product of excavator, its latest series of PC 200-8, PC 400-8 and PC 130-8 in March 2010.

PC 200-8 is offered wit a price of US$ 111,000 or around Rp 1 billion. The company also launched the excavator series of PC 130F-7 and PC 400-8. The three types have been equipped with KOMTRAX (Komatsu Machine Tracking System), which has website, that it could be monitored any time and any place.

With its product of latest technology, UT is more confident in meeting its competitor's especially heavy equipment products from China.

The following table shows types of heavy equipment produced by companies grouped in HINABI (the Association of Heavy Equipment Industry Indonesia).

The products of heavy equipment produced in the country industry had a local content of 30%-50% in 2009. In 2010, the local content is to be increased to 50%-60%.

Last year, excavators had a local content of 50%, dump trucks 30%, bulldozer 45%, motor graders 40%, and forklift 40%.

The basic materials for heavy equipment imported by the country include center brackets brackets: see punctuation. , monitor panels, engines and hydraulic parts. Heavy equipment components such as cutting plates, tires, batteries, and under carriage parts have been produced domestically.

Komatsu Indonesia built the second foundry A semiconductor manufacturer that makes chips for third parties. It may be a large chip maker that sells its excess manufacturing capacity or one that makes chips exclusively for other companies. , which produces cast iron spare part with a capacity of 1,800 tons a month to increase local content of its heavy equipment products.

Producers of Heavy Equipment in Indonesia

Indonesia has three producers of heavy equipment with products including excavators, bulldozers, motor graders and dump trucks. The three companies are PT Komatsu Indonesia producing heavy equipment with the brand of Komatsu, PT Caterpillar Indonesia (previously PT Natra Raya) with the brand of Caterpillar, PT Hitachi Construction Machinery with the brand of Hitachi. There is another producer PT United Tractors Pandu In the Mahabharata epic, Pandu (Sanskrit: पाण्‍डु) is the son of Vichitravirya and his second wife, Ambalika from Vyasa. He is more popularly known as the father of the Pandavas.  Engineering which produces forklifts with the brand of Patria PATRIA. The country; the men of the neighborhood competent to serve on a jury; a jury. This word is nearly synonymous with pais. (.q.v.) .

PT Komatsu Indonesia

PT Komatsu Indonesia was established in 1982 in Cakung Cakung is a subdistrict (kecamatan) of East Jakarta, Indonesia.

The subdistrict is divided into 7 administrative villages (kelurahan): East Cakung, West Cakung, Jatinegara, Penggilingan, Pulogebang, Rawa Trate, and Ujung Menteng.
, North Jakarta North Jakarta (Indonesian: Jakarta Utara) is a city (kota) of Jakarta, Indonesia. It has an area of 154.11 km². The current mayor is Effendi Anas. . The production facility of the company, which is integrated in a single site, covers an area of approximately 18.2 hectares, including 15,876 sq.m. For assembly plant, 15,390 sq.m. For fabrication fabrication (fab´rikā´shn),
n the construction or making of a restoration.
 plant, 11,800 sq.m. For foundry plant 1, 10,000 sq.m. For foundry plant 2 and 3 stories of office building.

The company started business assembling heavy equipment such as bulldozers, wheel loaders, motor graders and hydraulic excavators imported in the form of completely-knocked-down components from Komatsu Ltd. in Japan. Some of the components, however, have been manufactured in Indonesia.

In 1987, in compliance with the government's call for the use of more local content, the company built own facilities to manufacture components. In 1998, the company even began to export part of its components to Japan for Komatsu Ltd.

In 1991, the company built a foundry plant. Komatsu Indonesia now manufactures components to be supplied to all Komatsu production units around the world. In 1992, it built a frame fabrication plant aimed at increasing its production of components.

The company has exported components since 1988 and 1995 marked the first export of a complete unit of heavy equipment from Komatsu Indonesia. In only a little longer than a decade, the company had transformed itself from an assembler Software that translates assembly language into machine language. Contrast with compiler, which is used to translate a high-level language, such as COBOL or C, into assembly language first and then into machine language.  of heavy equipment to an export-oriented manufacturer of heavy equipment.

In November November: see month. , 2005, Komatsu Indonesia built its second foundry plant, Foundry Plant 2, to produce cast iron components from carbon and low alloyed al·loy  
1. A homogeneous mixture or solid solution of two or more metals, the atoms of one replacing or occupying interstitial positions between the atoms of the other: Brass is an alloy of zinc and copper.
 steel with an installed capacity of 900 tons a month.

In 1995, PT Komatsu Indonesia became a public company but on January January: see month.  2 in 2006 it was de-listed. Komatsu Ltd., the principal of PT Komatsu Indonesia acquired 13% stake in the company from PT United Tractors Indonesia reducing UT's stake to 5% in that company.

Komatsu's production capacity is 3,600 units a year of heavy equipment including 240 units of dump trucks.

PT Caterpillar Indonesia (PT Natra Raya)

Caterpillar heavy equipment products in Indonesia are assembled as·sem·ble  
v. as·sem·bled, as·sem·bling, as·sem·bles
1. To bring or call together into a group or whole: assembled the jury.

 by PT Caterpillar Indonesia, previously PT Natra Raya, in Cileungsi, Bogor Bogor (bō`gôr), formerly Buitenzorg (boi`tənzôrkh) [Du.,=free from care], city (1990 pop. 271,341), W Java, Indonesia. , West Java. PT Caterpillar Indonesia is 80% owned by Caterpillar from the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  and the rest is owned by PT Marga Marga can refer to:
  • Marga (Indian Philosophy)
  • Marga, a commune in Caraş-Severin County, Romania
  • Magga, one of the Four Noble Truths, in Buddhism
  • Marga (Batak), a family name in Batak society
  • Efraín Abdiel Alveo a.k.a.
 Tiara Trakindo. The sole agent of Caterpillar in Indonesia is PT Trakindo Nusantara

PT Hitachi Construction Machinery Indonesia

PT Hitachi Construction Machinery Indonesia (HCMI HCMI Human Capital Management Inc (Wayne, PA) ) in Cibitung, Bekasi This article is about Bekasi city. For Bekasi Regency, see Bekasi Regency.
Bekasi is a growing city in Indonesia, located in the east of Jakarta in the Jabotabek region. As a sub-province (kabupaten) , Bekasi is located in the West Java province.
, is a joint venture between Hitachi Construction Machinery Co. Ltd of Japan, Itochu Itochu Corporation (伊藤忠商事株式会社   Corporation also of Japan, PT Murinda Iron Steel, PT Anggaputra Dhananjaya and Hitachi Construction Machinery Singapore, Pte. Ltd.of Singapore. It was established in May, 1991 and started operation in October in the same year.

HCMI produces excavators, the types of heavy equipment with the largest market in the country. Since 2000, demand for excavators has increased prompting PT HCMI to increase its production capacity from 700 units to 1,000 units a year. The company invested US$ 10 million to expand its capacity.

In 2005, Hitachi increased its production capacity to become 1,000 units/year and to 1,200 units/year in 2007

HCM HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.  has two production facilities in Bekasi, one in Cibitung producing excavators and another factory in Rawa Pasung for engineering, heavy equipment fabrication & machining.

Business Activities:

* Producing excavators

* Engineering Products:

** Power Plant: Intake Filtration filtration: see sewerage; water supply.

The separation of solid particles from a fluidsolids suspension of which they are a part by passage of most of the fluid through a septum or membrane that retains most of the solids
 & Exhaust Exhaust may refer to:

In mathematics:
  • Proof by exhaustion, proof by examining all individual cases
  • Exhaustion by compact sets, in analysis, a sequence of compact sets that converges on a given set

** Material Handling: Cranes, Conveyor Conveyor

A horizontal, inclined, declined, or vertical machine for moving or transporting bulk materials, packages, or objects in a path predetermined by the design of the device and having points of loading and discharge fixed or selective.

** Rolling Mill rolling mill: see steel. : Roller roller, common name for brightly colored Old World birds noted for performing somersaults in flight. They include the rollers proper (subfamily Coraciinae) and ground rollers (subfamily Brachypteraciinae  Changer Changer

The name given to a clearing member that is willing to assume the opposite position of a futures contract within a larger alternative exchange, of which it also is a clearing member.
, Cooling Conveyor

** Oil-Gas: Piping & Various of Storage Tank

** Pressure Vessel Pressure vessel

A cylindrical or spherical metal container capable of withstanding pressures exerted by the material enclosed. Pressure vessels are important because many liquids and gases must be stored under high pressure.
 Tank & Boiler boiler, device for generating steam. It consists of two principal parts: the furnace, which provides heat, usually by burning a fuel, and the boiler proper, a device in which the heat changes water into steam.  

** Industrial: Processing Facilities & Others

** Infrastructure: Bridges

* Heavy Equipment Components:

** Ultra Large

** Dump Truck

** Side Frame

** Crane Frame

** Main Frame

Production Capacity:

* Hydraulics hydraulics, branch of engineering concerned mainly with moving liquids. The term is applied commonly to the study of the mechanical properties of water, other liquids, and even gases when the effects of compressibility are small.  Excavators: 1,200 units/year

* Engineering Products: 10,000 tons/year

* Components: 7,000 tons/year

Production by types of product

The global financial crisis in 2009 rendered a big blow to the country's heavy equipment industry. Based on data form HINAB, in 2009, the country's production of heavy equipment reached only 1,814 units, shrinking 69% from 5,914 units in 2008.

The main buyers of heavy equipment are the mining sector accounting for 70%, the plantation Plantation, city (1990 pop. 66,692), Broward co., SE Fla., a residential suburb of Fort Lauderdale; inc. 1953. The city has grown rapidly along with the development of S Florida.  and forestry sector for 10%, and the construction sector for 20% of the total sales.

The condition, however, improved in 2010. The country's heavy equipment industry recovered fast as Indonesia's economy was able to ward off the impact of the crisis and managed to chalk up chalk  
1. A soft compact calcite, CaCO3, with varying amounts of silica, quartz, feldspar, or other mineral impurities, generally gray-white or yellow-white and derived chiefly from fossil seashells.

 a growth of 4.5% in 2009. In 2010, the growth is expected to rise to at least 6%.

Sharp fall in sales in 2009 was recorded mainly in the construction and property sector. Many construction and property projects were shelved that year.

Decline in sales in the mining and plantation sectors was mainly caused by difficulties in securing loan funds from banks, which became more cautious selective in extending loans. Lenders are more cautious after the traumatic experience huge non performing loans following the 1997/1998 monetary crisis. In fact the global financial crisis had no significant effect on the mining sector especially coal mining industry as market demand for coal remained strong.

In 2010, Hinabi predicted that the country's production of heavy equipment will rise to 4,000-5,000 units. In the first half of the year the country's production of heavy equipment already reached 2,495 units.

The production target is still below the peak production of 5,914 units in 2008.

The shrinking production in 2009, when the installed capacity was 6,500 units a year, resulted in a sharp fall in capacity utilization Capacity Utilization measures the rate at which a firm makes use of their capital productive capacities, such as factories and machinery. Capacity Utilization generally rises when the economy is healthy and falls when demand softens.  to 34% from 90% in 2008. In 2010, the capacity utilization is expected to average 70%.

Among the types of heavy equipment already assembled in the country are excavators, bulldozers, motor graders, dump trucks, and forklifts. Excavators dominate the country's production of heavy equipment. In the first half of 2010, production of excavators totaled 1,324 units or 53% of the country's total production of heavy equipment. Bulldozer production made up 23% of the country's total production of 2,495 units of heavy equipment.

The country has only one company producing forklift. The company is PT United Tractors Pandu Engineering, a subsidiary of PT United Tractor Tbk, with the brand of Patria.

The largest producer of heavy equipment in the country is Komatsu. In 2007 Komatsu's total production of heavy equipment was 2,400 units including 1,530 units of excavators. See the following table.

New Investment

In 2007-2008, the installed capacity of the country's heavy equipment industry was expanded by 3,500 units with an new investment of US$ 180 million including US$50 million for investment in heavy equipment component industry.

Heavy equipment producer, PT Komatsu Indonesia plans to increase investment by US$ 100 million in three years starting 2008 to expand its production capacity. Part of the fund will also be used to finance research and technology development through 10 subsidiaries including PT Komatsu Undercarriage Indonesia (KUI), PT Komatsu Forging Indonesia (KOFI), and PT Pandu Dayatama Patria (PDP (1) (Plasma Display Panel) See plasma display.

(2) (Policy Decision Point) See COPS and XACML.

(3) (Programmed Data P
), and PT Komatsu Reman re·man  
tr.v. re·manned, re·man·ning, re·mans
1. To supply with new personnel: reman a ship.

2. To imbue with new manliness or courage.

In 2005 and 2006, Komatsu Ltd increased investment by Rp235 billion or US$24.6 million and in 2007 PT Komatsu Indonesia invested again Rp111 billion or US$12.2 million. With the additional investment the production capacity of Komatsu Indonesia rose to 3,600 units per year dominated by hydraulic excavators and bulldozers.

Capacity expansion is planned by Hitachi. Hitachi Construction Machinery Indonesia (HCMI) plans to expand its production capacity to 4,000 units in 2013 from 3,000 units at present.

Import of Heavy Equipment

Growing domestic demand has boosted the country's imports of heavy equipment excepting in 2006 when the country's economy was hit by slump following a sharp rise in the prices of oil fuels (BBM BBM Brokeback Mountain (book/movie)
BBM Bureau of Broadcast Measurement
BBM Bachelor of Business Management
BBM Break Before Make
BBM Bread Board Model
BBM Bulk Business Mail
BBM Bahn Brenner Motorsport
) late 2005, resulting in an increase in inflation.

In 2007, imports of heavy equipment rose again from US$ 404 million in 2006 to US$ 558 million.

Imports of heavy equipment have come mainly from Japan, the United States, South Korea and Singapore.

Exports of Heavy Equipment

Exports of heavy equipment have been recorded by Komatsu mainly to other Asian countries. In 2006, exports of excavators and other types of heavy equipment increased with the decline in demand on the domestic market. Producers sought to increase exports to make up for the decline in sales in the country. In 2007, however, demand grew in the country resulting in a decline in exports.

Market of Heavy Equipment rebound rebound (rē´bownd),
n/v 1. a recovery from illness.
n 2. an outbreak of fresh reflex activity after withdrawal of a stimulus

rebound adjective
 in 2010

In the first half of 2010, sales of heavy equipment in Indonesia shot up 108% to 2,600 units from 1,250 units in the same period in 2009. Demands in the first half of 2010 grew mainly from the mining, plantation and forestry sectors.

Hendrik K. Hadiwinata, chairman of the Indonesian association of sole agents of heavy equipment (PAABI), said the growing demand followed the price hikes of mining and plantation commodities. The prices of coal, palm oil, rubber, cacao and other agricultural commodities increased in 2010 compared with in 2009. Increase in demands from the construction and property sector is not very significant.

PAABI predicted that sales of heavy equipment in the country this year will exceed 10,000 units, based on the trend in the first half of the year. In 2009, sales totaled 6,000 units, down from 9,700 units in 2008.

Market Size of heavy equipment by market segment

Based on data at PAABI, in 2010, the mining sector remains the largest user and buyer of heavy equipment in the country. Sales to the mining sector are forecast to reach 5,000 units or 50% of the total sales in the country predicted for this year.

Sales of heavy equipment to this sector totaled 4,600 units in 2008, down to 3,200 units in 2009. Meanwhile, sales to the plantation sector were estimated at 2,400 units in 2010 were expected to be higher than in 2008's sales of 2,200 units and 2009's sales of 1,350 units.

The surge in demand in the first half of 2010 resulted in a shrinking stock of heavy equipment held by agents (distributors). Buyers even began to place prepaid pre·pay  
tr.v. pre·paid, pre·pay·ing, pre·pays
To pay or pay for beforehand.

pre·payment n.
 orders for several models of model heavy equipment.

PAABI predicted that the country's production of heavy equipment will raise 55%-60% this year from 2009. Early this year Hinabi predicted the country's production of heavy equipment would reach 4,000 units from 2,200 units in 2009.

In the first quarter of 2010, PT United Tractors Tbk (UNTR) reported sales of heavy equipment at 1,218 unit almost the same as sales in the first half of 2009. UNTR's sales of heavy equipment in the first six months of 2009 totaled 1,399 units, shrinking from 2,492 units in the same period in 2008.

Given the trend, local producers of heavy equipment are optimistic op·ti·mist  
1. One who usually expects a favorable outcome.

2. A believer in philosophical optimism.

 the production target of 5,000 units this year would be achieved. The production target represents a sharp rise from 1,814 units in 2009, but is still below peak production of 5,914 units in 2008.

Therefore, the Indonesian Association of Heavy Equipment (Hinabi) is optimistic the capacity utilization of the country's heavy equipment industry could rise to 75%-76% from 25%-27% in 2009.

The following table shows heavy equipment requirement by sectors in the country including for Excavators, Bulldozers, Motor graders, Backhoe loaders, Wheel loaders, and dump trucks.

Market of heavy equipment by types

Excavators dominate the market of heavy equipment in Indonesia, followed by bulldozers and dump trucks. The largest heavy equipment user is the mining sector. See the following table.

Market Value

Sales of the five main products of heavy equipment Excavator, Bulldozer. Motor grader A grader, also commonly referred to as a blade or a motor grader, is an engineering vehicle with a large blade used to create a flat surface. Typical models have three axles, with the engine and cab situated above the rear axles at one end of the vehicle and a third , wheel loader and dump truck were valued around US$ 1,228.1 million in the country in 2007. Excavators had the largest market value of US$ 699 million or 56.9% of the total sales value of heavy equipment , followed by bulldozer accounting for 22.8% valued at US$ 280 million.

Komatsu Still the Market Leader

Komatsu is still the leader in the market of heavy equipment in Indonesia. Based on official data, Komatsu had a 47.7% share of the market of heavy equipment in 2007 with Caterpillar having a 26.1% share and Hitachi 10.8%. The remaining 15% was split between more than 19 brands including Volvo.

Characteristics of Heavy Equipment Users

There are a number of groups of heavy equipment users by lines of business, business scale, and function/role of heavy equipment.

By lines of business , the users of heavy equipment are grouped in:

* Mining especially coal mining companies

* Forestry

* Plantation

* Construction and infrastructure sector

Coal mining companies

The technolgy and equipment used in coal mining depend on the types of coal and coal mining scale.

Large coal mining companies use equipment and technolgy to support and speed up the process of production.

Most coal mines in Indonesia are open pit mines with coal reserve located less than 20 meters below the ground surface.

The main types of equipment used are :

* Excavators are used as the main equipment for digging the ground. Excavators are also used in the process of removing the overburden o·ver·bur·den  
tr.v. o·ver·bur·dened, o·ver·bur·den·ing, o·ver·bur·dens
1. To burden with too much weight; overload.

2. To subject to an excessive burden or strain; overtax.

 and for land clearing.

* Bulldozers are used to remove the overburden and in land clearing and construction of mining infrastructure.

* Dump trucks are used for the transport of mining production.

* Spreaders are used to spread the soil in the piling location.

* Stacker reclaimers are used to handle coal in the stockpile stock·pile  
A supply stored for future use, usually carefully accrued and maintained.

tr.v. stock·piled, stock·pil·ing, stock·piles
To accumulate and maintain a supply of for future use.

* Shovels and trucks are used to support the operation.

Coal mining operations generally need large heavy equipment in large quantity including excavators, loaders, bulldozers, and dump trucks.

Small open pit mining operations need only shovels and trucks. Shovels are needed for digging and trucks to remove the overburden. Transport to the stockpile will be by highway trucks.


Heavy equipment in the forestry sector is needed in the process of preparing infrastructure and transport.

The users in the forestry sectors generally use different attachment as heavy equipment is needed in the production and transport of logs. Currently forestry industry is being in the doldrum that many units of heavy equipment lie idle.

Currently the users of heavy equipment in the forestry sectors are mainly industrial timber estate (HTI HTI Haiti (ISO Country code)
HTI High Tech Institute
HTI Hand Tools Institute
HTI Hamilton Island, Queensland, Australia (Airport Code)
HTI Horizontal Technology Integration
) companies growing trees mainly for pulp and paper industry The global pulp and paper industry is dominated by North American (United States, Canada), northern European (Finland, Sweden) and East Asian countries (such as Japan). Australasia and Latin America also have significant pulp and paper industries. . The main type of heavy equipment used by HTI companies is excavators. In Indonesia many forestry companies also use excavators to transport logs by replacing the attachment.


Heavy equipment in large plantation is needed during the preparation of lands such as in the oil palm plantations. The types of heavy equipment used are bulldozers, backhoe loaders, and excavators.


The types of heavy equipment used in the construction sector is more varying including excavators, bulldozers, loaders, motor graders, road roller, etc. but the sizes are not as large as those used in the mining sector. The types of excavator used in the construcitons sector are generally smaller in size such as Komatsu PC 200 or Caterpillar type 320 C. The types of bulldozer are medium or small ones.

Characteristics of heavy equipment users by business scale

Based on business scale, the users of heavy equipment are grouped as follows:

* Large users and

* Small and medium users.

* Heavy equipment rental companies

Larger users are mining and forestry companies generally using more than 50 units of heavy equipment each. Now, however, many mining concession holders have handed over the job of mining that requires heavy equipment to contractors. Many contractors, therefore, have increased the number of their heavy equipment units to be competitive in their line of business.

Business has also expanded in heavy equipment rental hiring out heavy equipment to mining contractors having no heavy equipment.

Small users are generally small mining companies having heavy equipment less than 10 units or construction companies using heavy equipment in small number of 3-5 units.

Based on functions, the users of heavy equipment could be put in the following categories :

* Those using heavy equipment as main equipment in business operations Business operations are those activities involved in the running of a business for the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders. Compare business processes. The outcome of business operations is the harvesting of value from assets  

* Those using heavy equipment as supporting equipment

Coal mining and forestry companies use heavy equipment as the main equipment in their operations. They need to maintain their heavy equipment in good condition. Therefore, the availability of spare parts Spare parts, also referred to as Service Parts is a term used to indicate extra parts available and in proximity to the mechanical item, such as a automobile, boat, engine, for which they might be used.

Spare parts are also called “spares.
 is vital to ensure the continuity of their business operations.

Many large mining companies have used the service of contractors to handle the job of mining, therefore, they do not need too many units of heavy equipment.

PT Adaro, one of the largest coal producers in the country previously had a large number of units of heavy equipment , but now it has only around 20 left needed to support work in stockpile.

Change in the characteristics of heavy equipment users

A significant change has taken place in the characteristics of heavy equipment market in the past several years. The change was caused by development of small coal mining legal or illegal as a result of regional autonomy policy, which allows regional administrations to issue mining license and the soaring soaring: see flight; glider.
 or gliding

Sport of flying a glider or sailplane. The craft is towed behind a powered airplane to an altitude of about 2,000 ft (600 m) and then released.
 prices of coal in the world market.

More small mining companies need and bought one or two units of heavy equipment.

In the beginning heavy equipment was owned and used only by large coal producers and logging copmpanies.

After the monetary crisis in 1997/1998, many small companies bought heavy equipment to be used by them or to be leased out.


The prices of heavy equipment of major brands like Komatsu. Caterpillar and Hitachi are highly competitive especially among widely used products. The prices of Komatsu PC 200 C, Caterpillar 320C and Hitachi ZX200 is around Rp 1 billion (US$ 199,000) per unit.

The price of a unit of heavy equipment generally depends on the attachment needed. See the following table.

After Sales Service

After sales service is important to guarantee success in marketing of heavy equipment. Suppliers need to be ready with spare parts and technicians to attract consumers. United Tractors offers a number of after sales services as well as pre sales service in the form of consulting service Noun 1. consulting service - service provided by a professional advisor (e.g., a lawyer or doctor or CPA etc.)
service - work done by one person or group that benefits another; "budget separately for goods and services"
, maintenance and training for operators. The services are provided by 18 branch offices, 15 site support offices and 12 representative offices all over the country.

Earning from after sales recorded by United Tractors peaked at Rp 2 trillion One thousand times one billion, which is 1, followed by 12 zeros, or 10 to the 12th power. See space/time.

(mathematics) trillion - In Britain, France, and Germany, 10^18 or a million cubed.

In the USA and Canada, 10^12.
 in 2008 or an increase of 43% from Rp 1.4 trillion in 2006. The earning included 87% from the sales of spare parts and 13% from maintenance service.

The company has renovated its branch office in Balikpapan, East Kalimantan East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. Kaltim) is Indonesian province on the east of Borneo island. The resource-rich province has two major cities, Samarinda (the capital and a center for timber product) and Balikpapan (a petroleum center with oil  to expand its spare part warehouse capacity to meet growing demand for after sales service in Kalimantan.

PT Trakindo Utama has after sales service offered in 69 branch offices in Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia. Apart from spare parts of Caterpillar, Trakindo also provides spare parts of other heavy equipment products such as Sykes (pump), Sullair (compressor compressor, machine that decreases the volume of air or other gas by the application of pressure. Compressor types range from the simple hand pump and the piston-equipped compressor used to inflate tires to machines that use a rotating, bladed element to achieve ), Olympian (generator generator, in electricity, machine used to change mechanical energy into electrical energy. It operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction, discovered (1831) by Michael Faraday.  set), etc.

Trakindo offers a complete set of programs for maintenance and technical examination such as Parts Exchange Service, Planned Component Replacement, Custom Track Service and Custom Hydraulic Service.

PT Hexindo Adiperkasa Tbk has 33 branch offices offering sales and after sales services for Hitachi heavy equipment. The company has available 69,148 items of spare parts of Hitachi heavy equipment.

PT Daya Kobelco provides sales and after sales services for the excavator and loader products of Kobelco with a number of branches in Indonesia. PT Daya Kobelco has established cooperation with a number of companies in heavy equipment maintenance and repairs with technicians from PT Daya Kobelco Construction Machinery Indonesia.

After sales services provided by PT Daya Kobelco include Inspection of Units, offering advices about spare parts that need replacement. It also offers maintenance contract, overhaul and repair, training program, etc.

PT Daya Kobelco keeps large stock of spare parts that are ready to be sent any place in the country.

PT Swadaya Traktor Adiperkasa, which is the official distributor of Hyundai Construction Equipment, has a number of branch offices providing after sales service, especially in the provision of spare parts. Its sales agents are found in Pontianak in 5 locations, Jakarta 2 locations, Pekanbaru 6 locations, Balikpapan 3 locations and Banjarmasin 4 locations.

Government Regulations on Heavy Equipment Industry

Import Duties

Development of the country's heavy equipment industry has been hampered partly by lack of synchronization (1) See synchronous and synchronous transmission.

(2) Ensuring that two sets of data are always the same. See data synchronization.

(3) Keeping time-of-day clocks in two devices set to the same time. See NTP.
 in import duties between finished products and basic materials and components.

The import duties on basic materials and finished products of heavy equipment are not proportional proportional

values expressed as a proportion of the total number of values in a series.

proportional dwarf
the patient is a miniature without disproportionate reductions or enlargements of body parts.
 the import duty in finished products of heavy equipment is 5% and the import duties on basic materials and components are even higher at 7.5%-15%. The high import duties on components discourage production of heavy equipment. Importing finished product is more profitable than producing it in the country.

In addition, locally produced basic materials or components are not sufficient in quantity and are not up to standard in quality. Local products, therefore, are less competitive although the government has issued regulations to boost local industry. Bidders that could provide 40% in local content will get additional points in tender for the procurement The fancy word for "purchasing." The procurement department within an organization manages all the major purchases.  of heavy equipment.

Tax on heavy equipment

The Indonesian Chamber of Commerce (Kadin) representing five associations in the heavy equipment service and related construction and mining industries protested the government's plan to impose tax on heavy equipment and transfer of the title of motor vehicle ownership tax PKB/BBNKB) on heavy equipment. Kadin demand revision of the regulation on PKB/BBNKB.

A draft law on regional tax and public facility fee now being deliberated at the House of Representatives heavy equipment is categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.

 as taxable object like motor5 vehicles.

Kadin Chairman Muhammad Suleiman Hidayat said the five association will not refuse to pay tax on heavy equipment but the regulation must be clear adding imposition The printing of pages on a single sheet of paper in a particular order so that they come out in the correct sequence when cut and folded.  of PKB/BBNKB could not be made every year.

Competitive Analysis

After the monetary crisis was over, the market of heavy equipment has changed. Previously corporate users accounted for 80% and small users having 1-5 units, accounted for the remaining 20% of heavy equipment market. Now, however, especially with the expansion of coal mining industry notably in Sumatra and Kalimantan, there are many small companies buying heavy equipment for own use and for rent to small cola mining companies.

There are also small tin miners needing more heavy equipment in Bangka Belitung. Meanwhile, large holders of mining concessions have handed over the job of mining to contractors boosting the growth of rental companies

It is estimated that small users now account for 30% of the heavy equipment market in the country.

There are three brands competing sharply on the domestic market of heavy equipment Komatsu, Caterpillar, and Hitachi. Since the demand for heavy equipment surged in 2003, the producers of the three brands in the country could not meet the market demand. In 2004, order by indent To align text some number of spaces to the right of the left margin. See hanging paragraph.  could take up to 6 months before delivery was made. Since then brands like Volvo and Kobelco began to have substantial share of the market.

Other brands of heavy equipment from Korea like Hyundai and Samsung also began to gain from the strong demand in the country.

In 2000, Chinese products of heavy equipment also began to enter the domestic market. Many contractors of construction including infrastructure projects used heavy equipment from China as the prices were relatively cheap, but they soon lost the market as they were not competitive in quality.

The growing demand for heavy equipment in the country has encouraged investment in heavy equipment business but domination domination

the relationship between animals and humans in which little consideration is given to the rights of the animals. The prevailing sentiment is one of proprietary domination.
 by the three major brands remain unchallenged in the market..

Competition in the market of heavy equipment especially for corporate users lies mainly in the after sales service and the ability to guarantee maintenance and availability of spare parts around the clock. Therefore, sole agents of heavy equipment like PT United Tractors (Komatsu), Trakindo Utama (Caterpillar), and Hexindo (Hitachi) have opened branches and offices to serve customers in the regions. The branches have workshops, technicians and keep sufficient stocks of spare parts and components.

With such high demand for services, it would not be easy for new players to enter the competition in the market.

Competition is open the wider for small users and rental companies as they need more different products of heavy equipment allowing more brands an opportunity. Prices and availability of spare parts will determine success in competition in this market

Market Prospect of Heavy Equipment in Indonesia

Heavy equipment market in 2010 is projected to increase by 100%. Many orders have come from mining, plantation, construction, and forestry sectors, encouraging producers to boost production.

The Association of Heavy Equipment Industry of Indonesia (Hinabi) recorded that in 2007-2008, the country's heavy equipment producers set aside around US$200 million for capital expenditures. This investment was used to expand their production capacity to meet growing demand. Capacity expansion is needed to increase production capacity from 5,500 units per year to 6,500 units this year.

PT Komatsu Indonesia (KI), for example, prepares capital expenditure of US$ 100 million until 2009. The company that dominates heavy equipment market in Indonesia plans to increase its total production from 250 units to 300 units per month on the average.

Hitachi and other players also plan capacity expansion. Hitachi had set aside US$ 50 million in investment for capacity expansion. The company built a new factory, completed in April 2008 to increase its production capacity for excavators of 10-20 tons in weight to 250 units per months from 200 units per month earlier.

After a drastic decline of heavy equipment sales in 2009 as an impact of global finance crisis, the market for heavy equipment in Indonesia rebound in 2010. Until the mid 2010, the sale of heavy equipment has increased by more than 100% compare to sales in the same period in the previous year. Sales in 2010 are predicted to reach 10,000 units or pass the peak sales in 2008 that reach 9700 units.

Based on data at PAABI, in 2010, the mining sector remains the largest user and buyer of heavy equipment in the country. A sale to the mining sector is forecast to reach 5,000 units or 50% of the total sales in the country predicted for this year.

In 2011 and 2012 the demand is still projected to increase but it will lower than that in 2010

Excavators are expected to continue to dominate the market of heavy equipment in the country. In 2012, demand for excavators is predicted to reach 7500 units as against 2750 units for bulldozers. See the following table.

Conclusion and Recommendations

* The market of heavy equipment in Indonesia has expanded rapidly since 2003 when the prices of primary commodities like coal, tin, palm oil and rubber began to scale up to follow the soaring prices of crude oil.

* Strong demands from coal mining, oil palm plantation and industrial timber estate HTI) companies were the main contributors to the expansion of heavy equipment market in the country.

* The types of heavy equipment used more in the country are excavators, bulldozers, dump trucks, motor graders and loaders.

* Excavators account for 56% of the market of heavy equipment in value, followed by bulldozers for 22%.

* The two types of heavy equipment have been produced locally and part of the production has been exported.

* Competition in the heavy equipment industry in Indonesia is sharp. There are more than 18 brands sold in the country, but Komatsu, Caterpillar and Hitachi dominate 85% of the market. The three brands have been produced in Indonesia.

* The growing demand, brands of heavy equipment like Volvo/Samsung and Kobelco began to gain substantial share of the market.

* The users of heavy equipment include large users, small users and rental companies. The role of small users begins to increase with the growing number of small coal or tin mines that need heavy equipment. Meanwhile business in heavy equipment rentals has expanded in small and medium scale hiring out heavy equipment to small users. Large users or corporate users are generally loyal to certain brands.

* In the next five years demand for heavy equipment is expected to continue to increase although not as fast as in the past several years. Demand peaked in the past three years. Now demand has slowed with the falling prices of a number of primary commodities especially plantation commodities like palm oil. In 2012, demand for heavy equipment is predicted to reach 14,000 units.

* Apart from being competitive in quality and prices, sole agents of heavy equipment need to have service centers close to users with workshops, mechanics and spare parts easily available round the clock.

* The prospects of heavy equipment industry in Indonesia remain encouraging with the abundant natural resources the exploitations of which will need heavy equipment
Table - 1

Types of heavy equipment by weight produced in Indonesia

Heavy equipment          Operating Weight        Capacity (HP)

Excavators                 10 - 45 tons           70 - 325 HP

Bulldozers                 17 - 28 tons           160 - 250 HP

Motor Graders              10 - 13 tons           125 -135 HP

Wheel Loaders              10 - 28 tons           120 - 235 HP

Dump Trucks                40 - 70 tons          730 - 1100 HP

Source: HINABI

Table - 2

Type of products produced by main heavy equipment assemblers in

Name of Company   Type of Product   Type/model           Capacity/
                                                  operating weight

1. Komatsu        Excavators        PC-200-7             20.7 tons
Indonesia                           PC-200-8
(Komatsu)                           300 LC-7             31.5 tons
                                    300 SE-7             33.5 tons
                                    400 LCSE-7           44.2 tons
                  Bulldozers        D 68 E SS-12           19 tons
                                    D 85 E SS-2          21.5 tons
                  Motor Graders     GD 511 A-1           10.8 tons

                  Dump Trucks       HD 465 - 7           98.8 tons
                                    HD 785 - 5            166 tons

2. Hitachi        Excavators        Zaxis 110 M            10 tons
Indonesia                           Zaxis 200            19.4 tons
(Hitachi)                           Zaxis 210 MF         20.7 tons
                                    Zaxis 110 MF         11.5 tons

3. Caterpillar    Bulldozers        D7 3306 DIT             149 kw
Indonesia         Excavators        320 C                    96 kw
                  Motor Graders     120 H                    93 kw
                                    140 H                   104 kw

Source: Data Consult

Table - 3

Local content of heavy equipment produced in Indonesia

Type of heavy          Local Content (%)

                               2008                   2009

Excavator                       45                     50
Bulldozer                      35.6                    45
Motor Grader                    28                     40
Wheel Loader                    20                     -
Forklift                        30                     40
Dump Truck                     19.5                    30

Source: Hinabi

Table - 4

Producers of heavy equipment in Indonesia, 2009

Producers (Brand)   Shareholders               Types of

PT Komatsu          Komatsu Limited Japan      hydraulic
Indonesia Tbk.      68.42%                     excavators,
Jakarta             PT United Tractors Tbk.    bulldozers, motor
(Komatsu)           5.00%                      graders, off-
                    Sumitomo Corp.             highway dump
                    4.25%                      trucks
                    Marubeni Corp.

PT Caterpillar      Caterpillar USA            Excavator,
Indonesia           80%                        Bulldozer, wheel
(previously         Marga Tiara Trakindo       loader, motor
PT Natra Raya),     20%                        grader

PT Hitachi          --Hitachi Construction     Excavator,
Construction        Machinery                  Construction
Machinery           Co. Ltd Japan              Machinery
Indonesia           48.09%
(Hitachi)           --Hitachi Construction
                    (Singapore) Pte. Ltd
                    --PT Murinda Iron Steel
                    --Itochu Corporation Co.
                    --PT Anggapura

PT United           --PT United Tractors Tb.   Forklift,
Tractors Pandu      --99%                      aicraft towing,
Engineering                                    ground power unit,
(Patria)                                       heavy equipment

Producers (Brand)         Production

PT Komatsu                    3600
Indonesia Tbk.

PT Caterpillar                1290
PT Natra Raya),

PT Hitachi                    1200

PT United                     150
Tractors Pandu

Source: Hinabi, Data Consult

Table - 5

Production of heavy equipment by types, 2006 - 2010 *)


Types of heavy           2006      2007      2008      2009    2010 *)

Excavators              1.494     3.195     3.717     1.258     1.324

Bulldozers                864     1.222     1.680       319       582

Motor Graders             148       246       262        35         -

Off-road Dump Trucks      112       126       232       107        72

Other                      55       105        23        95       517

Total                   2.618     4.789     5.914     1.814     2.495

Growth (%)               -19%       83%    23.5%*)     -69%         -

Note: *) January to June 2010

Source : Industry Ministry, HINABI, Data Consult

Table - 6

Production of excavators by producers - 2007

Brands                   Production (Unit)

Komatsu                               1530

Caterpillar                            980

Hitachi                                685

Total                                 3195

Sumber: Data Consult

Table - 7

Import of heavy equipment by types, 2006 - 2008

Equipment                                        2006

                                      Tons                US$'000

Bulldozers                          14.942                 87.511
Graders                              4.560                 35.401
Loaders                             17.849                 92.887
Excavators                          42.938                175.078
Forklifts                            4.031                 13.886
Total                               84.320                404.763

Equipment                                        2007

                                      Tons                US$'000

Bulldozers                           9.364                120.217
Graders                              6.510                 55.095
Loaders                              4.743                 69.603
Excavators                          12.146                288.704
Forklifts                            6.541                 24.826
Total                               39.304                558.445

Equipment                                        2008

                                      Tons                US$'000

Bulldozers                          34.572                220.662
Graders                             26.383                170.066
Loaders                             22.946                125.556
Excavators                         159.345                737.095
Forklifts                           26.664                118.614
Total                              406.309              1.983.532

Source: BPS, Data Consult, Processed

Table - 8

Exports of heavy equipment by types, 2006 - 2008

Type of Equipment                                2006

                                      Tons                US$'000

Bulldozers                          10.316                 40.116
Graders                              2.335                  8.737
Excavators                          25.258                 79.995
Forklifts                              237                    467

Total                               38.146                129.315

Type of Equipment                                2007

                                      Tons                US$'000

Bulldozers                           3.156                 25.168
Graders                              1.225                  5.234
Excavators                          16.298                 51.587
Forklifts                               68                    168

Total                               20.747                 82.157

Type of Equipment                                2008

                                      Tons                US$'000

Bulldozers                          14.526                 32.388
Graders                              1.453                  8.343
Excavators                          16.762                 53.340
Forklifts                             1455                   2999

Total                               34.196                 97.070

Source: BPS/ Data Consult, processed

Table - 9 Market size of heavy equipment in Indonesia, 2007 - 2010


Year            Production   Import   Export   Market Size

2007                 4.750    1.157    1.143         7.050

2008                 3.838    5.244      618         9.700

2009                 1.909    3.598      493         6.000

Estimate 2010          n.a      n.a      n.a        10.000

Source: HINABI, PAABI, Data Consult processed

Table - 10

Market Size for heavy equipment by sectors, 2006 - 2009


Sectors             2006         2007      2008 *)      2009 *)

Construction         877        1.186        1.300          600
Forestry           1.001        1.542        1.600          850
Agro               1.183        1.966        2.200        1.350
Mining             1.694        2.363        4.600        3.200
Total              4.755        7.057        9.700        6.000

Note: *) estimate

Source : Indonesian Association of Heavy Equipments Sole Agents
(PAABI), Data Consult

Table - 11

Market size of heavy equipment by types, 2005 - 2007


Types of equipment          2005         2006         2007

Excavators                 2,961        2,896         4112
Bulldozers                 1,064          987         1400
Backhoe loaders              106          134          189

Types of equipment          2005         2006         2007

Motor graders                240          222          314
Wheel loaders                178          146          207
Dump trucks                  814          589          835
Total                      5.363        4.974        7.057
Growth (%)                 19.3%        -7.3%        41.9%

Source: Data Consult

Table - 12

Estimated Market Value by types of products, 2007

Type of Product        Market value (US '000)                   %

Excavator                            699,0                  56,9%
Bulldozer                            280,0                  22,8%
Motor grader                          56,5                   4,6%
Backhoe Loader                        32,1                   2,6%
Wheel loader                          35,2                   2,9%
Dump truck                           125,2                  10,2%
Forklift                              25,4                      -
Total                               1228,1                 100,0%

Source : Data Consult

Table - 13

Heavy equipment brands and market shares, 2007

              Estimate of market
Brands                     share      Share %
                    (US million)

Komatsu                    582.4        47.7%

Caterpillar                318.7        26.1%

Hitachi                    131.9        10.8%

Volvo                       29.7         2.4%

Others                     157.1        12.9%

Total                       1220       100.0%

Source : Data Consult

Table - 14

Price list of Volvo heavy equipment - August 2008

Brands     Type/ Model           Capacity    Price (US$)

KOMATSU    Excavator PC-200       20 tons       110,000

KOMATSU    Excavator PC-3000     300 tons     1,650,000

KOMATSU    Excavator PC - 5000   500 tons    >3,000,000

HITACHI    Excavator ZX200        20 tons       107,800

Source: Hexindo

Table - 15

Number of branches providing after sales service for heavy
equipment by brands

Brands of heavy   Companies                Number of branches providing
equipment                                  after sales service

Komatsu           PT United Tractors       18 branch offices, 15 site
                                           support, 12 representatives

Caterpillar       PT Trakindo              69 branch offices

Hitachi           PT Hexindo Adiperkasa    33 branch offices

Kobelco           PT Daya Kobelco          16 branch office

Hyundai           PT Swadaya Traktor        6 branch offices

Source : Data Consult

Table - 16

Projected demand for heavy equipment by sectors, 2010 - 2012


Market Segment       2010       2011       2012

Construction          800      1.600      2.000
Forestry            1.600      1.900      2.200
Agro                2.400      2.750      3.200
Mining              5.000      6.000      6.600
Total               9.800     12.250     14.000
Growth (%)           67 %        20%        14%

Source: Data Consult
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Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Date:Jun 1, 2010
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