Heavy equipment industry in Indonesia.
Heavy equipment industry recovered strongly in 2010 from deep slump in 2009 when global financial crisis hit almost all sectors including the property and construction sectors, which are among the major users of heavy equipment.
Heavy equipment industry was badly hurt by the global financial crisis resulting in a sharp fall in the country's production of heavy equipment to 1,814 units in 2009 from 5,914 units in 2008. Main producers of heavy equipment in Indonesia including Komatsu, Caterpillar and Hitachi suffered a setback.
The slump in 2009 came after rapid growth of heavy equipment industry in 2008 boosted by strong demand for heavy equipment from various sector notably coal mining industry and oil palm plantations. Demands were also strong from the construction and property sectors. That year delivery had to be delayed for up to six months as demands far exceeded production capacity.
The impact of the global financial crisis, which struck late 2008 were, felt strongly early 2009. Until end of 2008, sales of heavy equipment were normal to meet orders already made earlier. Early 2009, however, many orders were shelved as the projects mainly construction and property projects that needed the equipment were also shelved. The main problem was difficulty in securing funds from lenders which tended to be more cautious and selective.
The condition, however, changed for the better in entering 2010. Demand for heavy equipment surged again especially as the country managed to go through the difficult period relatively unscathed. Indonesia was among the few countries recording a positive growth in 2009 as unlike many other countries the country's economy is oriented more too domestic market with growth sustained and driven mainly by the consumption sector. In addition, demand for coal rose again especially from China and India, which recorded high economic growth amid the global malaise. The price of crude palm oil also raised prompting expansion of oil palm plantations that need heavy equipment.
Heavy equipment industrialists see with optimism the turn of condition in 2010. In the first half of 2010, the country's production of heavy equipment reached 2,495 units exceeding the production of 1,814 units in the whole of 2009.
Type of Products
The type of heavy equipment produced in Indonesia is dominated by small size ones. For example, the main type of excavator, produced by Komatsu is PC 200 model weighing 20 tons. The type of bulldozers is mainly ones weighing 20 tons although the factory could produce 45-tons excavators and 28-tons bulldozers.
There are various types of heavy equipment produced in Indonesia. Komatsu has the largest types of product including excavators, bulldozers, motor graders and dump trucks. Natra Raya, the brand holder of Caterpillar, produces excavators, bulldozers and motor graders. Caterpillar product of excavator with the type of 320 C is the competitor of Komatsu product of 20-tons PC-200 in the market.
Determined to maintain lead in the market which is bristling with aggressive competitors, United Tractor (UT) launched a new product of excavator, its latest series of PC 200-8, PC 400-8 and PC 130-8 in March 2010.
PC 200-8 is offered wit a price of US$ 111,000 or around Rp 1 billion. The company also launched the excavator series of PC 130F-7 and PC 400-8. The three types have been equipped with KOMTRAX (Komatsu Machine Tracking System), which has website, that it could be monitored any time and any place.
With its product of latest technology, UT is more confident in meeting its competitor's especially heavy equipment products from China.
The following table shows types of heavy equipment produced by companies grouped in HINABI (the Association of Heavy Equipment Industry Indonesia).
The products of heavy equipment produced in the country industry had a local content of 30%-50% in 2009. In 2010, the local content is to be increased to 50%-60%.
Last year, excavators had a local content of 50%, dump trucks 30%, bulldozer 45%, motor graders 40%, and forklift 40%.
The basic materials for heavy equipment imported by the country include center brackets, monitor panels, engines and hydraulic parts. Heavy equipment components such as cutting plates, tires, batteries, and under carriage parts have been produced domestically.
Komatsu Indonesia built the second foundry, which produces cast iron spare part with a capacity of 1,800 tons a month to increase local content of its heavy equipment products.
Producers of Heavy Equipment in Indonesia
Indonesia has three producers of heavy equipment with products including excavators, bulldozers, motor graders and dump trucks. The three companies are PT Komatsu Indonesia producing heavy equipment with the brand of Komatsu, PT Caterpillar Indonesia (previously PT Natra Raya) with the brand of Caterpillar, PT Hitachi Construction Machinery with the brand of Hitachi. There is another producer PT United Tractors Pandu Engineering which produces forklifts with the brand of Patria.
PT Komatsu Indonesia
PT Komatsu Indonesia was established in 1982 in Cakung, North Jakarta. The production facility of the company, which is integrated in a single site, covers an area of approximately 18.2 hectares, including 15,876 sq.m. For assembly plant, 15,390 sq.m. For fabrication plant, 11,800 sq.m. For foundry plant 1, 10,000 sq.m. For foundry plant 2 and 3 stories of office building.
The company started business assembling heavy equipment such as bulldozers, wheel loaders, motor graders and hydraulic excavators imported in the form of completely-knocked-down components from Komatsu Ltd. in Japan. Some of the components, however, have been manufactured in Indonesia.
In 1987, in compliance with the government's call for the use of more local content, the company built own facilities to manufacture components. In 1998, the company even began to export part of its components to Japan for Komatsu Ltd.
In 1991, the company built a foundry plant. Komatsu Indonesia now manufactures components to be supplied to all Komatsu production units around the world. In 1992, it built a frame fabrication plant aimed at increasing its production of components.
The company has exported components since 1988 and 1995 marked the first export of a complete unit of heavy equipment from Komatsu Indonesia. In only a little longer than a decade, the company had transformed itself from an assembler of heavy equipment to an export-oriented manufacturer of heavy equipment.
In November, 2005, Komatsu Indonesia built its second foundry plant, Foundry Plant 2, to produce cast iron components from carbon and low alloyed steel with an installed capacity of 900 tons a month.
In 1995, PT Komatsu Indonesia became a public company but on January 2 in 2006 it was de-listed. Komatsu Ltd., the principal of PT Komatsu Indonesia acquired 13% stake in the company from PT United Tractors Indonesia reducing UT's stake to 5% in that company.
Komatsu's production capacity is 3,600 units a year of heavy equipment including 240 units of dump trucks.
PT Caterpillar Indonesia (PT Natra Raya)
Caterpillar heavy equipment products in Indonesia are assembled by PT Caterpillar Indonesia, previously PT Natra Raya, in Cileungsi, Bogor, West Java. PT Caterpillar Indonesia is 80% owned by Caterpillar from the United States and the rest is owned by PT Marga Tiara Trakindo. The sole agent of Caterpillar in Indonesia is PT Trakindo Nusantara
PT Hitachi Construction Machinery Indonesia
PT Hitachi Construction Machinery Indonesia (HCMI) in Cibitung, Bekasi, is a joint venture between Hitachi Construction Machinery Co. Ltd of Japan, Itochu Corporation also of Japan, PT Murinda Iron Steel, PT Anggaputra Dhananjaya and Hitachi Construction Machinery Singapore, Pte. Ltd.of Singapore. It was established in May, 1991 and started operation in October in the same year.
HCMI produces excavators, the types of heavy equipment with the largest market in the country. Since 2000, demand for excavators has increased prompting PT HCMI to increase its production capacity from 700 units to 1,000 units a year. The company invested US$ 10 million to expand its capacity.
In 2005, Hitachi increased its production capacity to become 1,000 units/year and to 1,200 units/year in 2007
HCM has two production facilities in Bekasi, one in Cibitung producing excavators and another factory in Rawa Pasung for engineering, heavy equipment fabrication & machining.
* Producing excavators
* Engineering Products:
** Power Plant: Intake Filtration & Exhaust Sys
** Material Handling: Cranes, Conveyor Systems
** Rolling Mill: Roller Changer, Cooling Conveyor
** Oil-Gas: Piping & Various of Storage Tank
** Pressure Vessel Tank & Boiler
** Industrial: Processing Facilities & Others
** Infrastructure: Bridges
* Heavy Equipment Components:
** Ultra Large
** Dump Truck
** Side Frame
** Crane Frame
** Main Frame
* Hydraulics Excavators: 1,200 units/year
* Engineering Products: 10,000 tons/year
* Components: 7,000 tons/year
Production by types of product
The global financial crisis in 2009 rendered a big blow to the country's heavy equipment industry. Based on data form HINAB, in 2009, the country's production of heavy equipment reached only 1,814 units, shrinking 69% from 5,914 units in 2008.
The main buyers of heavy equipment are the mining sector accounting for 70%, the plantation and forestry sector for 10%, and the construction sector for 20% of the total sales.
The condition, however, improved in 2010. The country's heavy equipment industry recovered fast as Indonesia's economy was able to ward off the impact of the crisis and managed to chalk up a growth of 4.5% in 2009. In 2010, the growth is expected to rise to at least 6%.
Sharp fall in sales in 2009 was recorded mainly in the construction and property sector. Many construction and property projects were shelved that year.
Decline in sales in the mining and plantation sectors was mainly caused by difficulties in securing loan funds from banks, which became more cautious selective in extending loans. Lenders are more cautious after the traumatic experience huge non performing loans following the 1997/1998 monetary crisis. In fact the global financial crisis had no significant effect on the mining sector especially coal mining industry as market demand for coal remained strong.
In 2010, Hinabi predicted that the country's production of heavy equipment will rise to 4,000-5,000 units. In the first half of the year the country's production of heavy equipment already reached 2,495 units.
The production target is still below the peak production of 5,914 units in 2008.
The shrinking production in 2009, when the installed capacity was 6,500 units a year, resulted in a sharp fall in capacity utilization to 34% from 90% in 2008. In 2010, the capacity utilization is expected to average 70%.
Among the types of heavy equipment already assembled in the country are excavators, bulldozers, motor graders, dump trucks, and forklifts. Excavators dominate the country's production of heavy equipment. In the first half of 2010, production of excavators totaled 1,324 units or 53% of the country's total production of heavy equipment. Bulldozer production made up 23% of the country's total production of 2,495 units of heavy equipment.
The country has only one company producing forklift. The company is PT United Tractors Pandu Engineering, a subsidiary of PT United Tractor Tbk, with the brand of Patria.
The largest producer of heavy equipment in the country is Komatsu. In 2007 Komatsu's total production of heavy equipment was 2,400 units including 1,530 units of excavators. See the following table.
In 2007-2008, the installed capacity of the country's heavy equipment industry was expanded by 3,500 units with an new investment of US$ 180 million including US$50 million for investment in heavy equipment component industry.
Heavy equipment producer, PT Komatsu Indonesia plans to increase investment by US$ 100 million in three years starting 2008 to expand its production capacity. Part of the fund will also be used to finance research and technology development through 10 subsidiaries including PT Komatsu Undercarriage Indonesia (KUI), PT Komatsu Forging Indonesia (KOFI), and PT Pandu Dayatama Patria (PDP), and PT Komatsu Reman Indonesia.
In 2005 and 2006, Komatsu Ltd increased investment by Rp235 billion or US$24.6 million and in 2007 PT Komatsu Indonesia invested again Rp111 billion or US$12.2 million. With the additional investment the production capacity of Komatsu Indonesia rose to 3,600 units per year dominated by hydraulic excavators and bulldozers.
Capacity expansion is planned by Hitachi. Hitachi Construction Machinery Indonesia (HCMI) plans to expand its production capacity to 4,000 units in 2013 from 3,000 units at present.
Import of Heavy Equipment
Growing domestic demand has boosted the country's imports of heavy equipment excepting in 2006 when the country's economy was hit by slump following a sharp rise in the prices of oil fuels (BBM) late 2005, resulting in an increase in inflation.
In 2007, imports of heavy equipment rose again from US$ 404 million in 2006 to US$ 558 million.
Imports of heavy equipment have come mainly from Japan, the United States, South Korea and Singapore.
Exports of Heavy Equipment
Exports of heavy equipment have been recorded by Komatsu mainly to other Asian countries. In 2006, exports of excavators and other types of heavy equipment increased with the decline in demand on the domestic market. Producers sought to increase exports to make up for the decline in sales in the country. In 2007, however, demand grew in the country resulting in a decline in exports.
Market of Heavy Equipment rebound in 2010
In the first half of 2010, sales of heavy equipment in Indonesia shot up 108% to 2,600 units from 1,250 units in the same period in 2009. Demands in the first half of 2010 grew mainly from the mining, plantation and forestry sectors.
Hendrik K. Hadiwinata, chairman of the Indonesian association of sole agents of heavy equipment (PAABI), said the growing demand followed the price hikes of mining and plantation commodities. The prices of coal, palm oil, rubber, cacao and other agricultural commodities increased in 2010 compared with in 2009. Increase in demands from the construction and property sector is not very significant.
PAABI predicted that sales of heavy equipment in the country this year will exceed 10,000 units, based on the trend in the first half of the year. In 2009, sales totaled 6,000 units, down from 9,700 units in 2008.
Market Size of heavy equipment by market segment
Based on data at PAABI, in 2010, the mining sector remains the largest user and buyer of heavy equipment in the country. Sales to the mining sector are forecast to reach 5,000 units or 50% of the total sales in the country predicted for this year.
Sales of heavy equipment to this sector totaled 4,600 units in 2008, down to 3,200 units in 2009. Meanwhile, sales to the plantation sector were estimated at 2,400 units in 2010 were expected to be higher than in 2008's sales of 2,200 units and 2009's sales of 1,350 units.
The surge in demand in the first half of 2010 resulted in a shrinking stock of heavy equipment held by agents (distributors). Buyers even began to place prepaid orders for several models of model heavy equipment.
PAABI predicted that the country's production of heavy equipment will raise 55%-60% this year from 2009. Early this year Hinabi predicted the country's production of heavy equipment would reach 4,000 units from 2,200 units in 2009.
In the first quarter of 2010, PT United Tractors Tbk (UNTR) reported sales of heavy equipment at 1,218 unit almost the same as sales in the first half of 2009. UNTR's sales of heavy equipment in the first six months of 2009 totaled 1,399 units, shrinking from 2,492 units in the same period in 2008.
Given the trend, local producers of heavy equipment are optimistic the production target of 5,000 units this year would be achieved. The production target represents a sharp rise from 1,814 units in 2009, but is still below peak production of 5,914 units in 2008.
Therefore, the Indonesian Association of Heavy Equipment (Hinabi) is optimistic the capacity utilization of the country's heavy equipment industry could rise to 75%-76% from 25%-27% in 2009.
The following table shows heavy equipment requirement by sectors in the country including for Excavators, Bulldozers, Motor graders, Backhoe loaders, Wheel loaders, and dump trucks.
Market of heavy equipment by types
Excavators dominate the market of heavy equipment in Indonesia, followed by bulldozers and dump trucks. The largest heavy equipment user is the mining sector. See the following table.
Sales of the five main products of heavy equipment Excavator, Bulldozer. Motor grader, wheel loader and dump truck were valued around US$ 1,228.1 million in the country in 2007. Excavators had the largest market value of US$ 699 million or 56.9% of the total sales value of heavy equipment , followed by bulldozer accounting for 22.8% valued at US$ 280 million.
Komatsu Still the Market Leader
Komatsu is still the leader in the market of heavy equipment in Indonesia. Based on official data, Komatsu had a 47.7% share of the market of heavy equipment in 2007 with Caterpillar having a 26.1% share and Hitachi 10.8%. The remaining 15% was split between more than 19 brands including Volvo.
Characteristics of Heavy Equipment Users
There are a number of groups of heavy equipment users by lines of business, business scale, and function/role of heavy equipment.
By lines of business , the users of heavy equipment are grouped in:
* Mining especially coal mining companies
* Construction and infrastructure sector
Coal mining companies
The technolgy and equipment used in coal mining depend on the types of coal and coal mining scale.
Large coal mining companies use equipment and technolgy to support and speed up the process of production.
Most coal mines in Indonesia are open pit mines with coal reserve located less than 20 meters below the ground surface.
The main types of equipment used are :
* Excavators are used as the main equipment for digging the ground. Excavators are also used in the process of removing the overburden and for land clearing.
* Bulldozers are used to remove the overburden and in land clearing and construction of mining infrastructure.
* Dump trucks are used for the transport of mining production.
* Spreaders are used to spread the soil in the piling location.
* Stacker reclaimers are used to handle coal in the stockpile.
* Shovels and trucks are used to support the operation.
Coal mining operations generally need large heavy equipment in large quantity including excavators, loaders, bulldozers, and dump trucks.
Small open pit mining operations need only shovels and trucks. Shovels are needed for digging and trucks to remove the overburden. Transport to the stockpile will be by highway trucks.
Heavy equipment in the forestry sector is needed in the process of preparing infrastructure and transport.
The users in the forestry sectors generally use different attachment as heavy equipment is needed in the production and transport of logs. Currently forestry industry is being in the doldrum that many units of heavy equipment lie idle.
Currently the users of heavy equipment in the forestry sectors are mainly industrial timber estate (HTI) companies growing trees mainly for pulp and paper industry. The main type of heavy equipment used by HTI companies is excavators. In Indonesia many forestry companies also use excavators to transport logs by replacing the attachment.
Heavy equipment in large plantation is needed during the preparation of lands such as in the oil palm plantations. The types of heavy equipment used are bulldozers, backhoe loaders, and excavators.
The types of heavy equipment used in the construction sector is more varying including excavators, bulldozers, loaders, motor graders, road roller, etc. but the sizes are not as large as those used in the mining sector. The types of excavator used in the construcitons sector are generally smaller in size such as Komatsu PC 200 or Caterpillar type 320 C. The types of bulldozer are medium or small ones.
Characteristics of heavy equipment users by business scale
Based on business scale, the users of heavy equipment are grouped as follows:
* Large users and
* Small and medium users.
* Heavy equipment rental companies
Larger users are mining and forestry companies generally using more than 50 units of heavy equipment each. Now, however, many mining concession holders have handed over the job of mining that requires heavy equipment to contractors. Many contractors, therefore, have increased the number of their heavy equipment units to be competitive in their line of business.
Business has also expanded in heavy equipment rental hiring out heavy equipment to mining contractors having no heavy equipment.
Small users are generally small mining companies having heavy equipment less than 10 units or construction companies using heavy equipment in small number of 3-5 units.
Based on functions, the users of heavy equipment could be put in the following categories :
* Those using heavy equipment as main equipment in business operations
* Those using heavy equipment as supporting equipment
Coal mining and forestry companies use heavy equipment as the main equipment in their operations. They need to maintain their heavy equipment in good condition. Therefore, the availability of spare parts is vital to ensure the continuity of their business operations.
Many large mining companies have used the service of contractors to handle the job of mining, therefore, they do not need too many units of heavy equipment.
PT Adaro, one of the largest coal producers in the country previously had a large number of units of heavy equipment , but now it has only around 20 left needed to support work in stockpile.
Change in the characteristics of heavy equipment users
A significant change has taken place in the characteristics of heavy equipment market in the past several years. The change was caused by development of small coal mining legal or illegal as a result of regional autonomy policy, which allows regional administrations to issue mining license and the soaring prices of coal in the world market.
More small mining companies need and bought one or two units of heavy equipment.
In the beginning heavy equipment was owned and used only by large coal producers and logging copmpanies.
After the monetary crisis in 1997/1998, many small companies bought heavy equipment to be used by them or to be leased out.
The prices of heavy equipment of major brands like Komatsu. Caterpillar and Hitachi are highly competitive especially among widely used products. The prices of Komatsu PC 200 C, Caterpillar 320C and Hitachi ZX200 is around Rp 1 billion (US$ 199,000) per unit.
The price of a unit of heavy equipment generally depends on the attachment needed. See the following table.
After Sales Service
After sales service is important to guarantee success in marketing of heavy equipment. Suppliers need to be ready with spare parts and technicians to attract consumers. United Tractors offers a number of after sales services as well as pre sales service in the form of consulting service, maintenance and training for operators. The services are provided by 18 branch offices, 15 site support offices and 12 representative offices all over the country.
Earning from after sales recorded by United Tractors peaked at Rp 2 trillion in 2008 or an increase of 43% from Rp 1.4 trillion in 2006. The earning included 87% from the sales of spare parts and 13% from maintenance service.
The company has renovated its branch office in Balikpapan, East Kalimantan to expand its spare part warehouse capacity to meet growing demand for after sales service in Kalimantan.
PT Trakindo Utama has after sales service offered in 69 branch offices in Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia. Apart from spare parts of Caterpillar, Trakindo also provides spare parts of other heavy equipment products such as Sykes (pump), Sullair (compressor), Olympian (generator set), etc.
Trakindo offers a complete set of programs for maintenance and technical examination such as Parts Exchange Service, Planned Component Replacement, Custom Track Service and Custom Hydraulic Service.
PT Hexindo Adiperkasa Tbk has 33 branch offices offering sales and after sales services for Hitachi heavy equipment. The company has available 69,148 items of spare parts of Hitachi heavy equipment.
PT Daya Kobelco provides sales and after sales services for the excavator and loader products of Kobelco with a number of branches in Indonesia. PT Daya Kobelco has established cooperation with a number of companies in heavy equipment maintenance and repairs with technicians from PT Daya Kobelco Construction Machinery Indonesia.
After sales services provided by PT Daya Kobelco include Inspection of Units, offering advices about spare parts that need replacement. It also offers maintenance contract, overhaul and repair, training program, etc.
PT Daya Kobelco keeps large stock of spare parts that are ready to be sent any place in the country.
PT Swadaya Traktor Adiperkasa, which is the official distributor of Hyundai Construction Equipment, has a number of branch offices providing after sales service, especially in the provision of spare parts. Its sales agents are found in Pontianak in 5 locations, Jakarta 2 locations, Pekanbaru 6 locations, Balikpapan 3 locations and Banjarmasin 4 locations.
Government Regulations on Heavy Equipment Industry
Development of the country's heavy equipment industry has been hampered partly by lack of synchronization in import duties between finished products and basic materials and components.
The import duties on basic materials and finished products of heavy equipment are not proportional the import duty in finished products of heavy equipment is 5% and the import duties on basic materials and components are even higher at 7.5%-15%. The high import duties on components discourage production of heavy equipment. Importing finished product is more profitable than producing it in the country.
In addition, locally produced basic materials or components are not sufficient in quantity and are not up to standard in quality. Local products, therefore, are less competitive although the government has issued regulations to boost local industry. Bidders that could provide 40% in local content will get additional points in tender for the procurement of heavy equipment.
Tax on heavy equipment
The Indonesian Chamber of Commerce (Kadin) representing five associations in the heavy equipment service and related construction and mining industries protested the government's plan to impose tax on heavy equipment and transfer of the title of motor vehicle ownership tax PKB/BBNKB) on heavy equipment. Kadin demand revision of the regulation on PKB/BBNKB.
A draft law on regional tax and public facility fee now being deliberated at the House of Representatives heavy equipment is categorized as taxable object like motor5 vehicles.
Kadin Chairman Muhammad Suleiman Hidayat said the five association will not refuse to pay tax on heavy equipment but the regulation must be clear adding imposition of PKB/BBNKB could not be made every year.
After the monetary crisis was over, the market of heavy equipment has changed. Previously corporate users accounted for 80% and small users having 1-5 units, accounted for the remaining 20% of heavy equipment market. Now, however, especially with the expansion of coal mining industry notably in Sumatra and Kalimantan, there are many small companies buying heavy equipment for own use and for rent to small cola mining companies.
There are also small tin miners needing more heavy equipment in Bangka Belitung. Meanwhile, large holders of mining concessions have handed over the job of mining to contractors boosting the growth of rental companies
It is estimated that small users now account for 30% of the heavy equipment market in the country.
There are three brands competing sharply on the domestic market of heavy equipment Komatsu, Caterpillar, and Hitachi. Since the demand for heavy equipment surged in 2003, the producers of the three brands in the country could not meet the market demand. In 2004, order by indent could take up to 6 months before delivery was made. Since then brands like Volvo and Kobelco began to have substantial share of the market.
Other brands of heavy equipment from Korea like Hyundai and Samsung also began to gain from the strong demand in the country.
In 2000, Chinese products of heavy equipment also began to enter the domestic market. Many contractors of construction including infrastructure projects used heavy equipment from China as the prices were relatively cheap, but they soon lost the market as they were not competitive in quality.
The growing demand for heavy equipment in the country has encouraged investment in heavy equipment business but domination by the three major brands remain unchallenged in the market..
Competition in the market of heavy equipment especially for corporate users lies mainly in the after sales service and the ability to guarantee maintenance and availability of spare parts around the clock. Therefore, sole agents of heavy equipment like PT United Tractors (Komatsu), Trakindo Utama (Caterpillar), and Hexindo (Hitachi) have opened branches and offices to serve customers in the regions. The branches have workshops, technicians and keep sufficient stocks of spare parts and components.
With such high demand for services, it would not be easy for new players to enter the competition in the market.
Competition is open the wider for small users and rental companies as they need more different products of heavy equipment allowing more brands an opportunity. Prices and availability of spare parts will determine success in competition in this market
Market Prospect of Heavy Equipment in Indonesia
Heavy equipment market in 2010 is projected to increase by 100%. Many orders have come from mining, plantation, construction, and forestry sectors, encouraging producers to boost production.
The Association of Heavy Equipment Industry of Indonesia (Hinabi) recorded that in 2007-2008, the country's heavy equipment producers set aside around US$200 million for capital expenditures. This investment was used to expand their production capacity to meet growing demand. Capacity expansion is needed to increase production capacity from 5,500 units per year to 6,500 units this year.
PT Komatsu Indonesia (KI), for example, prepares capital expenditure of US$ 100 million until 2009. The company that dominates heavy equipment market in Indonesia plans to increase its total production from 250 units to 300 units per month on the average.
Hitachi and other players also plan capacity expansion. Hitachi had set aside US$ 50 million in investment for capacity expansion. The company built a new factory, completed in April 2008 to increase its production capacity for excavators of 10-20 tons in weight to 250 units per months from 200 units per month earlier.
After a drastic decline of heavy equipment sales in 2009 as an impact of global finance crisis, the market for heavy equipment in Indonesia rebound in 2010. Until the mid 2010, the sale of heavy equipment has increased by more than 100% compare to sales in the same period in the previous year. Sales in 2010 are predicted to reach 10,000 units or pass the peak sales in 2008 that reach 9700 units.
Based on data at PAABI, in 2010, the mining sector remains the largest user and buyer of heavy equipment in the country. A sale to the mining sector is forecast to reach 5,000 units or 50% of the total sales in the country predicted for this year.
In 2011 and 2012 the demand is still projected to increase but it will lower than that in 2010
Excavators are expected to continue to dominate the market of heavy equipment in the country. In 2012, demand for excavators is predicted to reach 7500 units as against 2750 units for bulldozers. See the following table.
Conclusion and Recommendations
* The market of heavy equipment in Indonesia has expanded rapidly since 2003 when the prices of primary commodities like coal, tin, palm oil and rubber began to scale up to follow the soaring prices of crude oil.
* Strong demands from coal mining, oil palm plantation and industrial timber estate HTI) companies were the main contributors to the expansion of heavy equipment market in the country.
* The types of heavy equipment used more in the country are excavators, bulldozers, dump trucks, motor graders and loaders.
* Excavators account for 56% of the market of heavy equipment in value, followed by bulldozers for 22%.
* The two types of heavy equipment have been produced locally and part of the production has been exported.
* Competition in the heavy equipment industry in Indonesia is sharp. There are more than 18 brands sold in the country, but Komatsu, Caterpillar and Hitachi dominate 85% of the market. The three brands have been produced in Indonesia.
* The growing demand, brands of heavy equipment like Volvo/Samsung and Kobelco began to gain substantial share of the market.
* The users of heavy equipment include large users, small users and rental companies. The role of small users begins to increase with the growing number of small coal or tin mines that need heavy equipment. Meanwhile business in heavy equipment rentals has expanded in small and medium scale hiring out heavy equipment to small users. Large users or corporate users are generally loyal to certain brands.
* In the next five years demand for heavy equipment is expected to continue to increase although not as fast as in the past several years. Demand peaked in the past three years. Now demand has slowed with the falling prices of a number of primary commodities especially plantation commodities like palm oil. In 2012, demand for heavy equipment is predicted to reach 14,000 units.
* Apart from being competitive in quality and prices, sole agents of heavy equipment need to have service centers close to users with workshops, mechanics and spare parts easily available round the clock.
* The prospects of heavy equipment industry in Indonesia remain encouraging with the abundant natural resources the exploitations of which will need heavy equipment
Table - 1 Types of heavy equipment by weight produced in Indonesia Heavy equipment Operating Weight Capacity (HP) Excavators 10 - 45 tons 70 - 325 HP Bulldozers 17 - 28 tons 160 - 250 HP Motor Graders 10 - 13 tons 125 -135 HP Wheel Loaders 10 - 28 tons 120 - 235 HP Dump Trucks 40 - 70 tons 730 - 1100 HP (empty) Source: HINABI Table - 2 Type of products produced by main heavy equipment assemblers in Indonesia Name of Company Type of Product Type/model Capacity/ operating weight 1. Komatsu Excavators PC-200-7 20.7 tons Indonesia PC-200-8 (Komatsu) 300 LC-7 31.5 tons 300 SE-7 33.5 tons 400 LCSE-7 44.2 tons Bulldozers D 68 E SS-12 19 tons D 85 E SS-2 21.5 tons Motor Graders GD 511 A-1 10.8 tons Dump Trucks HD 465 - 7 98.8 tons HD 785 - 5 166 tons 2. Hitachi Excavators Zaxis 110 M 10 tons Indonesia Zaxis 200 19.4 tons (Hitachi) Zaxis 210 MF 20.7 tons Zaxis 110 MF 11.5 tons 3. Caterpillar Bulldozers D7 3306 DIT 149 kw Indonesia Excavators 320 C 96 kw Motor Graders 120 H 93 kw 140 H 104 kw Source: Data Consult Table - 3 Local content of heavy equipment produced in Indonesia Type of heavy Local Content (%) equipment 2008 2009 Excavator 45 50 Bulldozer 35.6 45 Motor Grader 28 40 Wheel Loader 20 - Forklift 30 40 Dump Truck 19.5 30 Source: Hinabi Table - 4 Producers of heavy equipment in Indonesia, 2009 Producers (Brand) Shareholders Types of products PT Komatsu Komatsu Limited Japan hydraulic Indonesia Tbk. 68.42% excavators, Jakarta PT United Tractors Tbk. bulldozers, motor (Komatsu) 5.00% graders, off- Sumitomo Corp. highway dump 4.25% trucks Marubeni Corp. 2.83% Public 19.5% PT Caterpillar Caterpillar USA Excavator, Indonesia 80% Bulldozer, wheel (previously Marga Tiara Trakindo loader, motor PT Natra Raya), 20% grader Bogor (Caterpillar) PT Hitachi --Hitachi Construction Excavator, Construction Machinery Construction Machinery Co. Ltd Japan Machinery Indonesia 48.09% (Hitachi) --Hitachi Construction Machinery (Singapore) Pte. Ltd 33.87% --PT Murinda Iron Steel (Ind) 3.23% --Itochu Corporation Co. Ltd 11.03% --PT Anggapura Dhananjaya 3.78% PT United --PT United Tractors Tb. Forklift, Tractors Pandu --99% aicraft towing, Engineering ground power unit, (Patria) heavy equipment components Producers (Brand) Production capacity (unit/year) PT Komatsu 3600 Indonesia Tbk. Jakarta (Komatsu) PT Caterpillar 1290 Indonesia (previously PT Natra Raya), Bogor (Caterpillar) PT Hitachi 1200 Construction Machinery Indonesia (Hitachi) PT United 150 Tractors Pandu Engineering (Patria) Source: Hinabi, Data Consult Table - 5 Production of heavy equipment by types, 2006 - 2010 *) (units) Types of heavy 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 *) equipment Excavators 1.494 3.195 3.717 1.258 1.324 Bulldozers 864 1.222 1.680 319 582 Motor Graders 148 246 262 35 - Off-road Dump Trucks 112 126 232 107 72 Other 55 105 23 95 517 Total 2.618 4.789 5.914 1.814 2.495 Growth (%) -19% 83% 23.5%*) -69% - Note: *) January to June 2010 Source : Industry Ministry, HINABI, Data Consult Table - 6 Production of excavators by producers - 2007 Brands Production (Unit) Komatsu 1530 Caterpillar 980 Hitachi 685 Total 3195 Sumber: Data Consult Table - 7 Import of heavy equipment by types, 2006 - 2008 Equipment 2006 Tons US$'000 Bulldozers 14.942 87.511 Graders 4.560 35.401 Loaders 17.849 92.887 Excavators 42.938 175.078 Forklifts 4.031 13.886 Total 84.320 404.763 Equipment 2007 Tons US$'000 Bulldozers 9.364 120.217 Graders 6.510 55.095 Loaders 4.743 69.603 Excavators 12.146 288.704 Forklifts 6.541 24.826 Total 39.304 558.445 Equipment 2008 Tons US$'000 Bulldozers 34.572 220.662 Graders 26.383 170.066 Loaders 22.946 125.556 Excavators 159.345 737.095 Forklifts 26.664 118.614 Total 406.309 1.983.532 Source: BPS, Data Consult, Processed Table - 8 Exports of heavy equipment by types, 2006 - 2008 Type of Equipment 2006 Tons US$'000 Bulldozers 10.316 40.116 Graders 2.335 8.737 Loaders Excavators 25.258 79.995 Forklifts 237 467 Total 38.146 129.315 Type of Equipment 2007 Tons US$'000 Bulldozers 3.156 25.168 Graders 1.225 5.234 Loaders Excavators 16.298 51.587 Forklifts 68 168 Total 20.747 82.157 Type of Equipment 2008 Tons US$'000 Bulldozers 14.526 32.388 Graders 1.453 8.343 Loaders Excavators 16.762 53.340 Forklifts 1455 2999 Total 34.196 97.070 Source: BPS/ Data Consult, processed Table - 9 Market size of heavy equipment in Indonesia, 2007 - 2010 (unit) Year Production Import Export Market Size 2007 4.750 1.157 1.143 7.050 2008 3.838 5.244 618 9.700 2009 1.909 3.598 493 6.000 Estimate 2010 n.a n.a n.a 10.000 Source: HINABI, PAABI, Data Consult processed Table - 10 Market Size for heavy equipment by sectors, 2006 - 2009 (Unit) Sectors 2006 2007 2008 *) 2009 *) Construction 877 1.186 1.300 600 Forestry 1.001 1.542 1.600 850 Agro 1.183 1.966 2.200 1.350 Mining 1.694 2.363 4.600 3.200 Total 4.755 7.057 9.700 6.000 Note: *) estimate Source : Indonesian Association of Heavy Equipments Sole Agents (PAABI), Data Consult Table - 11 Market size of heavy equipment by types, 2005 - 2007 (Units) Types of equipment 2005 2006 2007 Excavators 2,961 2,896 4112 Bulldozers 1,064 987 1400 Backhoe loaders 106 134 189 Types of equipment 2005 2006 2007 Motor graders 240 222 314 Wheel loaders 178 146 207 Dump trucks 814 589 835 Total 5.363 4.974 7.057 Growth (%) 19.3% -7.3% 41.9% Source: Data Consult Table - 12 Estimated Market Value by types of products, 2007 Type of Product Market value (US '000) % Excavator 699,0 56,9% Bulldozer 280,0 22,8% Motor grader 56,5 4,6% Backhoe Loader 32,1 2,6% Wheel loader 35,2 2,9% Dump truck 125,2 10,2% Forklift 25,4 - Total 1228,1 100,0% Source : Data Consult Table - 13 Heavy equipment brands and market shares, 2007 Estimate of market Brands share Share % (US million) Komatsu 582.4 47.7% Caterpillar 318.7 26.1% Hitachi 131.9 10.8% Volvo 29.7 2.4% Others 157.1 12.9% Total 1220 100.0% Source : Data Consult Table - 14 Price list of Volvo heavy equipment - August 2008 Brands Type/ Model Capacity Price (US$) KOMATSU Excavator PC-200 20 tons 110,000 KOMATSU Excavator PC-3000 300 tons 1,650,000 KOMATSU Excavator PC - 5000 500 tons >3,000,000 HITACHI Excavator ZX200 20 tons 107,800 Source: Hexindo Table - 15 Number of branches providing after sales service for heavy equipment by brands Brands of heavy Companies Number of branches providing equipment after sales service Komatsu PT United Tractors 18 branch offices, 15 site support, 12 representatives Caterpillar PT Trakindo 69 branch offices Hitachi PT Hexindo Adiperkasa 33 branch offices Kobelco PT Daya Kobelco 16 branch office Hyundai PT Swadaya Traktor 6 branch offices Adiperkasa Source : Data Consult Table - 16 Projected demand for heavy equipment by sectors, 2010 - 2012 (Unit) Market Segment 2010 2011 2012 Construction 800 1.600 2.000 Forestry 1.600 1.900 2.200 Agro 2.400 2.750 3.200 Mining 5.000 6.000 6.600 Total 9.800 12.250 14.000 Growth (%) 67 % 20% 14% Source: Data Consult