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Health and safety inspection of hairdressing and nail salons by local authority environmental health practitioners.

Introduction

Hairdressing and nail salons are expanding small-business sectors, and a number of reports in the literature highlight health concerns associated with working in these environments. During nail enhancement work, technicians are potentially exposed to a number of substances, such as solvents, lacquers, acrylic polymers (including ethyl methacrylate [EMA]), adhesives, and dust. Studies have highlighted respiratory symptoms and musculoskeletal and skin problems in this population (Harris-Roberts et al., 2011; Roelofs, Azaroff, Holcroft, Nguyen, & Doan, 2008; Spencer, Estill, McCammon, Mickelson, & Johnston, 1997). Hairdressing work has been associated with occupational asthma (Slater et al., 2000), rhinitis, and occupational contact dermatitis (Ferrari, Moscato, & Imbriani, 2005; Khumalo, Jessop, & Ehrlich, 2006; Moscato et al., 2005; Moscato & Galdi, 2006), and a recent study reported musculoskeletal, skin, and respiratory symptoms in hairdressers (Bradshaw, Harris-Roberts, Bowen, Rahman, & Fishwick, 2011). In November 2006, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE; the regulator for work-related health and safety in Great Britain), in collaboration with local authorities and the hairdressing industry, launched the "Bad Hand Day?" campaign to raise awareness of work-related dermatitis in the hairdressing industry (www.badhandday.HSE. gov.uk).

Given the potential health concerns highlighted in the literature, the "Bad Hand Day?" campaign, and a perception from local authority environmental health practitioners (EHPs) that the application of control measures in this industry is varied, hairdressing and nail salons were highlighted by a local authority for a planned inspection campaign.

The objective of our study was to analyze the information gained from this series of inspections to provide EHPs with a baseline evaluation of the current levels of understanding of, and compliance with, health and safety legislation in hairdressing and nail salons as well as good control practice in this sector.

Methods

Health and Safety Inspection

Study salons were selected for inspection from a database held by the local EHPs. As part of the usual inspection process, EHPs undertook an initial walk-through survey to assess products being used, treatments provided, premises, staffing, the health and safety risks, and provision of any control measures.

In addition, duty holders were asked whether risk assessments had been carried out and how these had been carried out. EHPs also requested to see any relevant health and safety documentation.

EHPs were also asked to collect where possible specific data, including knowledge of appropriate regulations by senior employees (collected during general inspection discussions with senior employees), awareness of sector-specific Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) essentials guidance, glove use, and "Risk Control Indicator" data in line with Health and Safety Executive/Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA) general risk control indicators (www.hse.gov.uk/foi/internalops/fod/ inspect/rcisummary.htm). Completed inspection checklists were returned to the study team for subsequent analysis.

Salon Inspections and Checklist Returns

Data from 205 of 380 anticipated inspections of hairdressing and nail salons over an eight-month study period were returned to the study team for analysis. One hundred twenty-two (59.5%) of these sites were hairdressers, 36 (17.6%) were nail salons, and 47 (22.9%) were salons providing both hairdressing and nail services.

Statistical Analysis

Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 10. A number of inspection checklists were returned with incomplete data. Descriptive statistical analysis was calculated using the total number of responses for each question and Pearson Chi squared analysis was used to identify differences between salon types and to determine any significant associations between variables.

Results

General Requirements: COSHH Regulations and Health and Safety Training

Overall, hairdressing and nail salons did not keep written records of health and safety assessments and procedures. Less than half (44.0% [85/193]) kept lists of products used (and recorded which of the products were potentially hazardous to health) and only 28.3% (54/191) had written procedures covering exposure control. Additionally, only 38.6% (76/197) of senior employees understood COSHH assessments and could provide evidence of assessments completed. From the inspectors' perspectives, however, 88% (161/183) of the senior employees in the salons sampled appeared to understand the main risks to employee health associated with the use of hairdressing and beauty products. The majority of salons (79.7% [153/192]) had evidence of steps in place to control the risk to health from hazardous products used by employees and 58.9% (116/197) considered the possible associated health risks when buying new hairdressing/nail salon products. The majority of salons generally stored and mixed beauty products (83.0% [166/200]) and disposed of used and unused products/ chemicals in an appropriate fashion (84.8% [168/198]). In most of the salons inspected (88.9% [168/189]), the EHPs considered that employees had been trained and made aware of the health hazards associated with carrying out their work. Furthermore, in a similar number of salons (89.0% [162/182]) the employees took suitable and sufficient precautions to protect themselves and clients.

Although the intent of our study was not to compare hairdressing and nail salons, various descriptive differences between salon type are shown in Table 1 and salon type appeared to influence certain outcome measures. For example, hairdressing salons were more likely to keep listings of products and record which were potentially hazardous to health in comparison to nail salons (49.6% vs. 29.0%, p = .041). Nail salons noted a significantly greater use of antibacterial hand gels and sanitizers (61.3% vs. 31.2%, p = .002), although this may reflect differences in the techniques used between the differing salon types.

General Skin Care and Glove Use

Most salons (99.0% [195/197]) provided hot and cold running water facilities for employees, with 98.0% (196/200) also providing hand cleaning products. Additionally, most of the salons (94.9% [188/198]) provided good-quality soft clean towels in the wash area and 88.8% (174/196) provided skin creams for employee use.

Table 2 contains details specifically of glove use within salons. While the recorded provision of gloves was commonplace, inspectors found visual evidence in only 75% (123/164) of salons providing gloves that the gloves were actually used (for example, used gloves in the waste bin). Less than half of the salons provided instructions or guidance on how to put on and remove gloves without contaminating the hands, and over three-quarters of salons provided latex gloves. Information regarding nature and type of glove, e.g., single use or powdered, was not provided, however.

Use of Products and Tools in Salons Providing Nail Services

Table 3 details the approaches taken by salons carrying out some form of nail work. It is clear that while general hygiene measures were well attended to (for example, treatment tables were wiped clean between services in 92.1% of salons), the provision of specific pieces of equipment designed to reduce operator and client exposure were less commonplace. For example, only 16% of salons used an autoclave and 15.7% used ventilated tables. In salons providing artificial nail treatments, 34% (17/50) used a combination of UV, powder/acrylic, and wraps, 30% (15/50) used powder/acrylic systems only, 20% (10/50) used UV systems only, and 2% (1/50) used wraps only.

Of those salons that used UV or powder/ acrylic excluding wrap systems, approximately half (48.8% [20/41]) reported that they did not contain either ethyl methacrylate (EMA) or methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) ingredients; the remaining salons used systems thought to contain EMA 48.8% (20/41) and MMA (1/41).

Influence of Prior Training

In terms of the benefits of previous training at any salon, those salons who had previously trained their employees and made them aware of health hazards associated with their work more often took suitable and sufficient precautions to protect themselves and their clients (91.9%) in comparison to salons without previous training (61.1%, p < .001). Similarly, salons with training more commonly considered the possible health risks associated with buying new hairdressing or nail products (71.1%) in comparison to those salons without previous training (37.5%, p = .006).

Inspectors more often found visual evidence that the gloves were actually used in salons that provided instructions or guidance on how to put on and remove gloves (80.9%) in comparison to salons with no provision of instructions for glove use (66.7%, p = .043).

HELA General Risk Control Indicators

Table 4 details salon "Risk Control Indicators." Just over a third (38.9% [72/185]) of salons either had full or broad compliance in their management systems (which will have covered adequate COSHH assessment, provision of health and safety information, employees' training, and management commitment). Just over half (51.9% [96/185]) had full or broad compliance in their strategy to control exposures.

Approximately one quarter of salons (27.2% [47/173]) had full or broad compliance with health surveillance requirements, which included consideration of the need for health surveillance and appropriate provision if required. Just over half of all salons (55.1%, [102/185]) were considered to have full or broad compliance with "Management of Risk," which includes the identification of hazards and associated risks and the implementation of the necessary steps to control the risks to health.

Discussion

Our study is the first to report baseline EHP evaluation of the current levels of understanding of, and compliance with, health and safety legislation in hairdressing and nail salons as well as good control practice in this sector.

As cosmetic products are subject to COSHH (Health and Safety Executive [HSE], 2002), employers are required to carry out a risk assessment under these regulations. Furthermore, if employers have five or more employees, a record must be kept of the main findings of the COSHH assessment, either in writing or in electronic form. The CHIP regulations (Chemical Hazard Information & Packaging for Supply, 2005), however, do not apply to cosmetics, so suppliers of many products used in these salons would not be required by law to provide a material safety data sheet. Under these circumstances, the duty holder or enforcement officers (for example, local authorities or trading standards) may obtain further information from the supplier directly. In addition, various regional differences exist. For example, nail salons and beauty salons (but not hairdressers) in London must hold a special treatment license. Although a system for registration (but not licensing) of some special treatments outside London exists, this process does not apply specifically to manicure treatments.

Our study found a variable level of practice in comparison to what would be regarded as ideal. While it was clear that EHPs thought that most of the senior employees in the hairdressing and nail salons understood the main risks to employee health associated with the use of hairdressing/beauty products, documented evidence of this information was not generally available. Indeed, less than two-fifths of salons inspected were found to be compliant with these requirements under COSHH. Reassuringly, however, a positive association existed between those salons where most employees had been trained and made aware of the health hazards associated with carrying out their work and 1) taking suitable and sufficient precautions to protect themselves and their clients and 2) considering the possible health risks associated with buying new hairdressing or nail products. This association corresponds with a recent literature review that found a positive effect of training on occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (Robson et al., 2011).

With regard to glove usage, COSHH essentials guidance (HSE, 2005, 2006), Habia Dermatitis and Glove Use Guidance (Habia, 2007), and HSE's "Bad Hand Day?" campaign advises that protective gloves are provided for certain nail services and hairdressing activities. Generally, the inspected salons were compliant with this guidance, as over four-fifths of salons provided single-use gloves for all work involving products/chemicals or wet work. Only approximately half of the salons, however, provided instructions or guidance on how to put on and remove gloves without hand contamination. Interestingly, inspectors more often found visual evidence that the gloves were actually used in those salons that provided instructions or guidance on how to put on and remove gloves.

Over three quarters of the salons who provided gloves provided latex gloves for their employees, although the "Bad Hand Day?" campaign and COSHH essentials SR11 and SR13 advocate the use of nonlatex gloves. Indeed, the SR13 for nail salons states, "If you must use latex gloves, use only 'low protein, powder-free' gloves." As this finding was not anticipated prior to the EHP inspection, the checklist did not inquire if the latex gloves in use were powdered, low protein, or powder free.

It also raises the possibility that hairdressers, nail salons, and beauty salons could be using powdered latex gloves, although further investigation would be required to clarify this. Joint initiatives such as the "Bad Hand Day?" campaign, inspection initiatives, and COSHH essentials, however, have helped to raise the levels of awareness of risks of dermatitis among hairdressers and nail technicians and aim to support good control practice in salons.

COSHH essentials SR13 describes good practice and suitable equipment to control nuisance odors and dusts. In particular, the guidance suggests that sterile single-use instruments are provided for use whenever possible, precluding the need for an autoclave. Approximately two-thirds of the salons inspected used single-use sterile instruments whenever possible. If nondisposable equipment was used, however, over four-fifths of salons were reported to have effectively cleaned, disinfected, or sterilized equipment in between clients. In addition, SR13 guidance suggests that caps and lids are "put back on containers straight away"; most salons were found to be compliant with this practice, so reducing the risk of exposure. Similarly, a "good standard" of ventilation is recommended, and an extractor hood or downdraft table is suggested. Our study, however, only identified approximately one in 10 salons using ventilated tables for nail manicuring.

SR13 guidance also suggests that dust masks are not acceptable as a control measure, yet in approximately half of the salons inspected, employees wore a disposable dust mask when carrying out nail services. Also, half of the nail salons visited used makeup brushes to dust down equipment, which could increase, rather than reduce, the quantity of airborne dust.

Both EMA and MMA have traditionally been used in acrylic-based nail extension systems. The use of MMA was banned, however, in around 23 U.S. states in 1999 (Beauty for Nails, 2006). Although MMA is not banned in the UK, its use is in decline. This is thought to be due to good working practices, which has resulted in it being largely replaced by EMA.

Of those salons inspected that used UV or acrylic/powder nail extension systems, approximately half were reported not to contain either EMA or MMA. This is surprising as EMA is the monomer commonly used in these systems.

Regarding the five HELA general risk control indicators, a lack of compliance was observed under "Management Systems" in two-thirds of the salons inspected. This suggested they did not have adequate COSHH assessment, provision of information, employee training, and management commitment. This lack of compliance in management systems may have contributed to the fact that only just over half of the salons had full or broad compliance in their strategy to control exposure or management of risk. This information suggests that further advice and awareness-raising initiatives could be directed at this industry (including suppliers of products) to improve the knowledge and implementation of COSHH and ensure an adequate assessment and control of the risks to health.

HSE's "Bad Hand Day?" campaign provided guidance and instructions on how to prevent dermatitis by the correct use of gloves, washing, drying, and moisturizing the hands and by encouraging employees to check their hands for early signs of dermatitis. While focused specifically on hairdressers, this type of approach may have had impact on other related workers such as those in nail salons. Indeed, most of the salons inspected complied with HSE dermatitis prevention advice and provided hot and cold running water facilities, hand-cleaning products, good-quality soft clean towels, and skin creams for employees.

Despite our study noting areas of good practice and knowledge of appropriate risks posed by beauty products, significant scope remains for further improvement in these areas. In particular, the findings of our study would support the development of a practical tool to assist risk assessment by illustrating the principles upon which COSHH is based and to encourage written documentation of any risk assessment findings in order to develop a more systematic approach to health and safety management in this sector.

Conclusion

Our study, the first to report baseline EHP evaluation of the current levels of understanding of, and compliance with, health and safety legislation in hairdressing and nail salons, identified a variable level of practice in comparison to what would be regarded as ideal. Most of the senior employees in the hairdressing and nail salons understood the main risks to employee health associated with the use of hairdressing/beauty products, although documentation to support these issues was generally less easy to identify. Most employees had been trained and made aware of the health hazards associated with carrying out their work and took suitable and sufficient precautions to protect themselves and their clients. Various differences between salon type were evident and prior training of employees appeared to have certain benefits. Health issues in this sector are important, and their assessment is important to integrate practically into the risk assessment process.

Acknowledgements: This publication and the work it describes were commissioned in 2006 by the Local Authorities for the London Boroughs and LACoRS through the Local Authority Science and Technology Programme, which was funded by the Health and Safety Executive. Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy.

Corresponding Author: Joanne Harris-Roberts, Human Sciences Unit and Centre for Workplace Health, Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, SK17 9JN United Kingdom. E-mail: jo.harris-roberts@hsl.gov.uk.

References

Beauty for Nails. (2006). MMA the safety issue for nails. Retrieved from http://www.creativenailplace.com/Products/mma.htm

Bradshaw, L., Harris-Roberts, J., Bowen, J., Rahman, S., & Fishwick, D. (2011). Self-reported work-related symptoms in hairdressers. Occupational Medicine, 61(5), 328-334.

Chemical Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply Regulations, SI2002 No. 1689 (2002).

Ferrari, M., Moscato, G., & Imbriani, M. (2005). Allergic cutaneous diseases in hairdressers. La Medicina del Lavoro, 96(2), 102-118.

Habia. (2007). Dermatitis and glove use for hairdressers. Retrieved from http://www.habia.org/uploads/Dermatitis%20Booklet.pdf

Harris-Roberts, J., Bowen, J., Sumner, J., Stocks-Greaves, M., Bradshaw, L., Fishwick, D., & Barber, C.M. Work-related symptoms in nail salon technicians. Occupational Medicine, 61 (5), 335-340.

Health and Safety Executive. (2002). Working with substances hazardous to health: What you need to know about COSHH. Retrieved from http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg136.pdf

Health and Safety Executive. (2005). SR11 COSHH essentials, hair-dressing. Retrieved from http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/guidance/ sr11.pdf

Health and Safety Executive. (2006). SR13 COSHH essentials, nail salons. Retrieved from http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/guidance/sr13.pdf

Khumalo, N.P., Jessop, S., & Ehrlich, R. (2006). Prevalence of cutaneous adverse effects of hairdressing: A systematic review. Archives of Dermatology, 142(3), 377-383.

Moscato, G., & Galdi, E. (2006). Asthma and hairdressers. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 6(2), 91-95.

Moscato, G., Pignatti, P., Yacoub, M.R., Romano, C., Spezia, S., & Perfetti, L. (2005). Occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis in hairdressers. Chest, 128(5), 3590-3598.

Robson, L.S., Stephenson, C.M., Schulte, P.A., Amick, B.C., Irvin, E.L., Eggerth, D.E., Chan, S., Bielecky, A.R., Wang, A.M., Heidotting, T.L., Peters, R.H., Clarke, J.A., Cullen, K., Rotunda, C.J., & Grubb, P.L. (2011). A systematic review of the effectiveness of occupational health and safety training. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, doi: 10.5271/sjweh.3259. [Epub ahead of print].

Roelofs, C., Azaroff, L.S., Holcroft, C., Nguyen, H., & Doan, T. (2008). Results from a community-based occupational health survey of Vietnamese-American nail salon workers. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 10(4), 353-361.

Slater, T., Bradshaw, L., Fishwick, D., Cheng, S., Kimbell-Dunn, M., Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen, R., Douwes, J., & Pearce, N. (2000). Occupational respiratory symptoms in New Zealand hairdressers. Occupational Medicine, 50(8), 586-590.

Spencer, A.B., Estill, C.F, McCammon, J.B., Mickelsen, R.L., & Johnston, O.E. (1997). Control of ethyl methacrylate exposures during the application of artificial fingernails. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58(3), 214-218.

Although most of the information presented in the Journal refers to situations within the United States, environmental health and protection know no boundaries. The Journal periodically runs International Perspectives to ensure that issues relevant to our international membership, representing over 20 countries worldwide, are addressed. Our goal is to raise diverse issues of interest to all our readers, irrespective of origin.

Did You Know?

Besides bacterial infections, nail fungus and ringworm infections can be transmitted to nail salon patrons during their visits.

Source: WebMD Health News, www.webmd.com/healthy-beauty/news/20010504/nail-salon-health-hazards

Joanne Harris-Roberts

Jo Bowen

Jade Sumner

David Fishwick

Human Sciences Unit and

Centre for Workplace Health

Health and Safety Laboratory
TABLE 1

General Questions About the Control Of Substances Hazardous to
Health (COSHH) Regulations and Health and Safety Training

Question                           Hairdressers           Nail
                                                         Salons

                               Yes       No      N/A      Yes

Does the business keep a      57/115   58/115   0/115     9/31
list of the hairdressing      49.6%    50.4%      0%     29.0%
and beauty products that
they use and record which
of these products are
potentially hazardous to
human health?

Does the business keep any    35/111   76/111   0/111     6/33
written procedures on how     31.5%    68.5%      0%     18.2%
to control exposure, etc.?

Do they consider the          65/122   34/122   23/122   22/32
possible associated health    53.3%    27.9%    18.8%    68.8%
risks when buying a new
hairdressing/nail salon
product?

Does anyone check that the    89/110   21/110   0/110    19/28
employees follow health and   80.9%    19.1%      0%     67.9%
safety procedures and that
they implement their health
and safety training?

Question                      Nail Salons      Hairdressing and
                                                 Nail Services

                               No     N/A     Yes      No     N/A

Does the business keep a      22/31   0/31   19/47    28/47   0/47
list of the hairdressing      71.0%    0%    40.4%    59.6%    0%
and beauty products that
they use and record which
of these products are
potentially hazardous to
human health?

Does the business keep any    27/33   0/33   13/47    34/47   0/47
written procedures on how     81.8%    0%    27.7%    72.3%    0%
to control exposure, etc.?

Do they consider the          8/32    2/32   29/43    13/43   1/43
possible associated health    25.0%   6.3%   67.4%    30.2%   2.3%
risks when buying a new
hairdressing/nail salon
product?

Does anyone check that the    9/28    0/28   35/44    9/44    0/44
employees follow health and   32.1%    0%    79.5%    20.5%    0%
safety procedures and that
they implement their health
and safety training?

TABLE 2

General Skin Care and Glove Use

Question                      Hairdressers          Nail Salons

                          Yes       No      N/A     Yes     No

Are gloves provided     103/121   16/121   2/121   23/32   9/32
by the business for      85.1%    13.2%    1.7%    71.9%   28.1%
all work involving
products/chemicals
and wet work?

Are gloves provided      72/78     5/78    1/78    16/16   0/16
on a personal and        92.3%     6.4%    1.3%    100%     0%
single-use only
basis?

Is there evidence       77/101    23/101   1/101   16/23   6/23
that these gloves        76.2%    22.8%    1.0%    69.6%   26.1%
are actually being
used (e.g., evidence
of them in the waste
bin)?

Does management         49/102    51/102   2/102   7/23    15/23
provide instructions/    48.0%    50.0%    2.0%    30.4%   65.2%
guidance on how to
put on and remove
gloves without
contaminating the
hands?

What type of glove      Latex: 75.0% (39/52)       Latex: 90.9%
is used?                Vinyl: 19.2% (10/52)         (10/11)
                        Polythene: 3.8% (2/52)     Vinyl: 9.1%
                        Nitrile: 1.9% (1/52)         (1/11)

Question                 Nail     Hairdressing and
                        Salons     Nail Services

                         N/A     Yes     No      N/A

Are gloves provided      0/32    43/46   3/46    0/46
by the business for       0%     93.5%   6.5%    0%
all work involving
products/chemicals
and wet work?

Are gloves provided      0/16    33/33   0/33    0/33
on a personal and         0%     100%    0%      0%
single-use only
basis?

Is there evidence        1/23    30/40   8/40    2/40
that these gloves        4.3%    75.0%   20.0%   5.0%
are actually being
used (e.g., evidence
of them in the waste
bin)?

Does management          1/23    17/42   25/42   0/42
provide instructions/    4.3%    40.5%   59.5%   0%
guidance on how to
put on and remove
gloves without
contaminating the
hands?

What type of glove               Latex: 78.3% (18/23)
is used?                         Vinyl: 17.4% (4/23)
                                 Nitrile: 4.3% (1/23)

TABLE 3

Use of Products and Tools in Salons Providing Nail Services

Question                   Nail Salons            Hairdressing
                                               and Nail Services

                        Yes     No     N/A     Yes     No      N/A

Are treatment tables   30/34   3/34    1/34   40/42   2/42    0/42
wiped clean between    88.2%   8.8%    2.9%   95.2%   4.8%     0%
clients?

Do you use makeup      17/34   17/34   0/34   11/40   29/40   0/40
brushes for dusting     50%     50%     0%    27.5%   72.5%    0%
down equipment?

Are single-use,        21/31   8/31    2/31   30/40   10/40   0/40
sterile instruments    67.7%   25.8%   6.5%   75.0%    25%     0%
used whenever
possible?

Is nondisposable       28/32   4/32    0/32   33/38   4/38    1/38
equipment              87.5%   12.5%    0%    86.8%   10.5%   2.6%
effectively cleaned,
disinfected,
and/or sterilized
between clients?

Does the business      6/33    26/33   1/33   6/42    36/42   0/42
use an autoclave?      18.2%   78.8%   3.0%   14.3%   85.7%    0%

Do employees wear a    21/33   12/33   0/33   18/38   19/38   1/38
disposable dust mask   63.6%   36.4%    0%    47.4%   50.0%   2.6%
when carrying out
nail services?

Are containers that    33/33   0/33    0/33   32/40   4/40    4/40
aren't being used      100%     0%      0%    80.0%   10.0%   10.0%
kept closed thus
reducing exposure?

Are ventilated         6/32    26/32   0/32   5/38    30/38   3/38
treatment tables       18.8%   81.3%    0%    13.2%   78.9%   7.9%
used that vent to
the outside?

Are electric drills    17/33   15/33   1/33   9/38    27/38   2/38
used?                  51.5%   45.5%   3.0%   23.7%   71.1%   5.3%

If yes, is use         14/15   1/15    0/15    9/9     0/9     0/9
restricted to          93.3%   6.7%     0%    100%     0%      0%
filing artificial
nails only (not
natural nails)?

What type of nail      UV nails: 14.8%        UV nails: 26.1%
extension system is    (4/27)                 (6/23)
used?
                       Powder/acrylic:        Powder/acrylic:
                       40.7% (11/27)          17.4% (4/23)

                       All: 37.0%             Wraps: 4.3% (1/23)
                       (10/27)
                                              All: 30.4% (7/23)
                       N/A: 7.4% (2/27)
                                              N/A: 21.7% (5/23)

TABLE 4

General Risk Control Indicators

Indicator                            Hairdressers
                                      Compliance

Management systems: Effective    Full: 5.2% (6/116)
organization and arrangements
including adequate Control Of    Broad: 35.3% (41/116)
Substances Hazardous to Health
assessment, provision of         Some: 47.4% (55/116)
information, instruction,
training, and supervision;       Limited/no: 12.1%
evidence of management           (14/116)
commitment and arrangements
for review

Control strategy: Substitution   Full: 6.9% (8/116)
considered and effected where
possible; adequate engineering   Broad: 47.4% (55/116)
controls provided, used,
maintained, examined, and        Some: 32.8% (38/116)
tested at suitable intervals;
suitable personal protective     Limited/no: 12.9%
equipment (PPE) provided, worn   (15/116)
and stored correctly, suitably
cleaned, and well maintained;
appropriate instruction and
training in proper use of
engineering controls and PPE

Health surveillance: A           Full: 1.9% (2/107)
competent person has
considered the need for          Broad: 23.4% (25/107)
health surveillance and
provides it for everyone at      Some: 52.3% (56/107)
risk and it is repeated as
necessary; health records are    Limited/no: 22.4%
kept; reportable cases of        (24/107)
occupational ill health are
reported under the Reporting
of Injuries, Diseases, and
Dangerous Occurrences
Regulations

Management of risk: Management   Full: 6.9% (8/116)
enthusiastic and competent,
has identified the main risks    Broad: 53.4% (62/116)
and knows the relevant health
and safety standards for each    Some: 35.3% (41/116)
one; the necessary measures
have been put in place and       Limited/no: 4.3%
checks are made to see they      (5/116)
are used properly; evidence
of effective self-regulation

Working environment: Workplace   Full: 39.7% (46/116)
is well lit, well ventilated,
tidy, and clean (if inspected,   Broad: 50.0% (58/116)
good welfare facilities)
                                 Some: 7.8% (9/116)

                                 Limited/no: 2.6%
                                 (3/116)

Indicator                            Nail Salons
                                     Compliance

Management systems: Effective    Full: 13.3% (4/30)
organization and arrangements
including adequate Control Of    Broad: 20.0% (6/30)
Substances Hazardous to Health
assessment, provision of         Some: 50.0% (15/30)
information, instruction,
training, and supervision;       Limited/no: 16.7%
evidence of management           (5/30)
commitment and arrangements
for review

Control strategy: Substitution   Full: 13.3% (4/30)
considered and effected where
possible; adequate engineering   Broad: 30.0% (9/30)
controls provided, used,
maintained, examined, and        Some: 46.7% (14/30)
tested at suitable intervals;
suitable personal protective     Limited/no: 10.0%
equipment (PPE) provided, worn   (3/30)
and stored correctly, suitably
cleaned, and well maintained;
appropriate instruction and
training in proper use of
engineering controls and PPE

Health surveillance: A           Full: 3.6% (1/28)
competent person has
considered the need for          Broad: 28.6% (8/28)
health surveillance and
provides it for everyone at      Some: 39.3% (11/28)
risk and it is repeated as
necessary; health records are    Limited/no: 28.6%
kept; reportable cases of        (8/28)
occupational ill health are
reported under the Reporting
of Injuries, Diseases, and
Dangerous Occurrences
Regulations

Management of risk: Management   Full: 10.0% (3/30)
enthusiastic and competent,
has identified the main risks    Broad: 26.7% (8/30)
and knows the relevant health
and safety standards for each    Some: 53.3% (16/30)
one; the necessary measures
have been put in place and       Limited/no: 10.0%
checks are made to see they      (3/30)
are used properly; evidence
of effective self-regulation

Working environment: Workplace   Full: 53.3% (16/30)
is well lit, well ventilated,
tidy, and clean (if inspected,   Broad: 30.0% (9/30)
good welfare facilities)
                                 Some: 16.7% (5/30)

Indicator                          Hairdressing and
                                    Nail Services
                                      Compliance

Management systems: Effective    Full: 5.1% (2/39)
organization and arrangements
including adequate Control Of    Broad: 33.3% (13/39)
Substances Hazardous to Health
assessment, provision of         Some: 48.7% (19/39)
information, instruction,
training, and supervision;       Limited/no: 12.8%
evidence of management           (5/39)
commitment and arrangements
for review

Control strategy: Substitution   Full: 0% (0/39)
considered and effected where
possible; adequate engineering   Broad: 51.3% (20/39)
controls provided, used,
maintained, examined, and        Some: 43.6% (17/39)
tested at suitable intervals;
suitable personal protective     Limited/no: 5.1%
equipment (PPE) provided, worn   (2/39)
and stored correctly, suitably
cleaned, and well maintained;
appropriate instruction and
training in proper use of
engineering controls and PPE

Health surveillance: A           Full: 2.6% (1/38)
competent person has
considered the need for          Broad: 26.3% (10/38)
health surveillance and
provides it for everyone at      Some: 42.1% (16/38)
risk and it is repeated as
necessary; health records are    Limited/no: 28.9%
kept; reportable cases of        (11/38)
occupational ill health are
reported under the Reporting
of Injuries, Diseases, and
Dangerous Occurrences
Regulations

Management of risk: Management   Full: 5.1% (2/39)
enthusiastic and competent,
has identified the main risks    Broad: 48.7% (19/39)
and knows the relevant health
and safety standards for each    Some: 41.0% (16/39)
one; the necessary measures
have been put in place and       Limited/no: 5.1%
checks are made to see they      (2/39)
are used properly; evidence
of effective self-regulation

Working environment: Workplace   Full: 51.3% (20/39)
is well lit, well ventilated,
tidy, and clean (if inspected,   Broad: 38.5% (15/39)
good welfare facilities)
                                 Some: 7.7% (3/39)

                                 Limited/no: 2.6%
                                 (1/39)
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Title Annotation:INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES
Author:Harris-Roberts, Joanne; Bowen, Jo; Sumner, Jade; Fishwick, David
Publication:Journal of Environmental Health
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Jan 1, 2013
Words:5451
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