HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs among pre-service and in-service school counselors. (General Features).Human Immunodeficiency Virus human immunodeficiency virus
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A transmissible retrovirus that causes AIDS in humans. (HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. ) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, see AIDS. (AIDS) are major and growing concerns in American education (McFarland & Oliver, 1999). Numerous public health experts and health promotion advocates have identified several reasons HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome has become an important issue for education professionals including: (a) an increasing number of reported HIV/AIDS cases among young people (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. [CDC See Control Data, century date change and Back Orifice.
CDC - Control Data Corporation ], 1999); (b) the need for HIV/AIDS education among students (Langer, Tubman, & Duncan, 1998) and staff (Brucker & Hall, 1996); and (c) the availability of resource personnel within the school community to provide support on HIV positive students and/or their families (McFarland & Oliver).
Between 500,000 and one million people in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. currently are believed to be infected with HIV (CDC, 1998). It is estimated that at least half of all new infections in the United States occur in people younger than 25, and the majority of the young people are infected sexually (Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, 1999; CDC, 1999).
There is little question that school-age children and youth are at risk of either contracting HIV/AIDS themselves or being affected by the infection in a friend or significant adult (CDC, 1998). In this context, students who are infected with the virus or who are confronted with HIV/AIDS in a loved one may face grief, loss, shame, abandonment, depression, anger, anxiety, and hopelessness that can compromise academic success (Hedge, 1996; Holt, Houg, & Romano, 1999).
Role of the School Counselor A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term. in Context of HIV/AIDS Issues
School counselors routinely interact with students on the following topics: divorce, substance abuse, teen sexuality, depression, suicide, sexual and physical abuse, problems with family and friends, concerns about career and future, and questions about the meaning of life. School counselors contribute unique and valuable services within the school setting and therefore play a vital role in children's lives.
HIV/AIDS education, prevention, and support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services in school are best approached using a collaborative model In psycholinguistics, the collaborative model(or conversational model) is a theory for explaining how speaking and understanding work in conversation, specifically how people in conversation coordinate to determine definite references. (Allensworth & Kolbe, 1987). Whereas health educators may be experts in dealing with the education and prevention strategies used when teaching students and staff about HIV/AIDS, counseling services provided by school counselors are essential for students experiencing pervasive issues such as psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. problems, stressful situations, and crises and emergencies that are often associated when working with a student infected or affected by the disease (Adelman, 1998). In addition, intervention strategies that address psychosocial factors such as low self-esteem and peer pressure, and use techniques such as problem solving problem solving
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. , decision making, and assertiveness training assertiveness training Psychiatry A procedure in which subjects are taught appropriate interpersonal responses involving frank, honest, and direct expression of their feelings, both positive and negative , can help promote healthy behaviors that reduce the risk of contracting HIV.
As the number of children and adolescents infected or affected by HIV/AIDS has increased, so have the identified responsibilities of school counselors who work with this population (Cobia cobia
Swift-moving, slim marine game fish (Rachycentron canadum), the only member of the family Rachycentridae. Found in most warm oceans, this voracious predator may grow as long as 6 ft (1.8 m) and weigh 150 lbs (70 kg) or more. , Carney, & Waggoner, 1998; McFarland & Oliver, 1999). It is predicted that in the near future all professionals who work in schools will have direct or indirect contact with a student who is infected with or affected by HIV disease (Landau lan·dau
1. A four-wheeled carriage with front and back passenger seats that face each other and a roof in two sections that can be lowered or detached.
2. A style of automobile with a similar roof. , Pryor, & Haefli, 1995).
The American School Counselor Association (ASCA ASCA American School Counselor Association
ASCA Australian Shepherd Club of America
ASCA Arab Society of Certified Accountants
ASCA American Swimming Coaches Association
ASCA American Society of Consulting Arborists
ASCA Association of State Correctional Administrators , 1999), in a position statement titled The School Counselor and HIV/AIDS, suggested the following:
The school counselor focuses on AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as a disease and not as a moral issue. The in-service school counselor promotes prevention, health, and education, while providing a vital link to the well being of students, staff, parents, and the community. (p. 1)
This research investigated in-service and pre-service school counselors' current levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes, and the demographic factors potentially associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. In this context, the research questions used to guide this study were:
1. What are the HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors in Ohio?
2. Are there differences among in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors in their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS?
3. Are there differences among in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors in their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS when controlling for age?
4. Are there differences in in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors in their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS when controlling for setting?
The participants for this study consisted of two groups, in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors. For the purposes of this study, in-service school counselors were defined as public school counselors working in elementary, middle, or high schools in Ohio This is a list of high schools in the state of Ohio. Adams County
An academic degree conferred by a college or university upon those who complete at least one year of prescribed study beyond the bachelor's degree.
Noun 1. in school counseling from institutions of higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. in Ohio at the time of this study. Data were collected in fall 1999 from 486 participants, 276 were in-service school counselors and 210 were pre-service school counselors. The majority of participants were White (93%) and female (77%). The majority of in-service school counselors ranged in age from 40 to 57 (72%), whereas the majority of pre-service school counselors ranged in age from 22 to 39 (66%). The school settings of in-service school counselors were: 29.5% elementary school elementary school: see school. , 23.4% middle school, and 45.3% high school. Pre-service counselors reported the following school settings: 31.4% elementary school, 25.7% middle school, and 35.7% high school. For the in-service counselors, 73% of the counties in Ohio This is a list of the eighty-eight counties in the U.S. state of Ohio. The Ohio Constitution allows counties to set up a charter government as many cities and villages do, but only Summit County has done so. were represented. For the pre-service counselors, 49% of the counties in Ohio were represented.
In-service school counselors were randomly sampled (n = 558) from the state membership list of the Ohio School Counselor Association (N = 1750). Dillman's Total Design Method (Salant & Dillman, 1994) was followed: Survey packets (cover letter, survey, postage-paid return envelope) were mailed to the sample of 558 school counselors in September 1999, and a follow-up postcard was mailed to all participants one week later. Four weeks after the initial mailing, follow-up survey packets were sent to participants who had not yet responded (n = 326). Respondents were ensured confidentiality. Surveys were numbered for follow-up purposes only and names were not connected to the data. Some 279 surveys were completed, resulting in a 50% response rate for this group.
Pre-service school counselors were made up of a convenience sample. The researcher contacted faculty members in counselor education programs at 13 Ohio universities Ohio University, main campus at Athens; state supported; coeducational; chartered 1804, opened 1809 as the first college in the Old Northwest. There are additional campuses at Chiillicothe, Lancaster, and Zanesville, as well as facilities throughout the state. that offered school counseling programs. Eleven faculty members from 11 schools agreed to participate in the study. Participating counselor educators were asked to request voluntary participation from their school counseling students during class time, collect completed instruments, and return them to the investigator. The surveys were distributed during only one class session in school-counseling-specific courses. Prior to data collection, the Human Participants Review Boards of all participating universities approved this study.
The HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes Scales for Teachers (Koch & Singer, 1998) were developed to assess teachers' level of knowledge and attitudes toward HIV disease in general, and the level of their knowledge and attitudes about specific educational issues. The scales were adapted from previously used national surveys and reviewed by a panel of HIV/AIDS experts (Koch & Singer). The scales can also be used with pre-service education students and practicing educators other than teachers (Koch & Singer).
The HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scale for Teachers consists of two parts. The first part, General Knowledge, includes 14 true-false items regarding HIV/AIDS such as cause, symptoms, diagnosis, effects, and treatment and four true-false items specific to classroom issues. The second part, Likelihood of Transmission, contains 17 possible modes of HIV transmission and asks participants to rate likelihood of transmission on a five-point Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc (very likely, somewhat likely, somewhat unlikely, very unlikely, definitely not possible). As with the true-false questions, the Likelihood of Transmission questions answered on the Likert scale have only one correct answer (very likely or definitely not possible) Thus, the entire knowledge scale contains 35 items. Respondents receive one point for each correct answer. Scores on the HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scale for Teachers can range from 0 (least knowledge, 35 questions answered incorrectly) to 35 (most knowledge, 35 questions answered correctly). Selected items from the General Knowledge Scale are presented in Table 1. (See page 82.)
The HIV/AIDS Attitudes Scale for Teachers contains 25 items regarding persons with HIV/AIDS and educational issues. This scale is formatted in a five-point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, strongly disagree). A mean score can be calculated with a mean of 1.00 representing the most unsupportive attitudes and 5.00 indicating the most supportive attitudes. Scores on the HIV/AIDS Attitudes Scale for Teachers can range from 25 (unsupportive attitudes) to 125 (most supportive attitudes). Selected items from the Attitudes Scale are presented in Table 2. (See p. 82.)
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Koch and Singer (1998), the psychometric psy·cho·met·rics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and properties of the instrument were: Test-retest reliability test-retest reliability Psychology A measure of the ability of a psychologic testing instrument to yield the same result for a single Pt at 2 different test periods, which are closely spaced so that any variation detected reflects reliability of the instrument , knowledge scale, r = .87 and attitudes scale, r = .89; internal consistencies In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. , General Knowledge, K-R 20 = .78, Likelihood of Transmission, K-R 20 = .88, and entire scale, K-R 20 = .89; Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments. coefficient was .89.
The accuracy of data entry was examined by checking 5% of the sample for data input errors. Two errors were found indicating that the rate of error was .00006. Descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. were generated to develop the demographic profile A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. This typically involves age bands (as teenagers do not wish to purchase denture fixant), social class bands (as the rich may want of the sample and analyzed to indicate the HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes of both in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors. Multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.
n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. of variance tests were used to examine whether significant differences did occur between in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors on the total knowledge score and total attitude score when controlling for school setting. A multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model. analyses of covariance Covariance
A measure of the degree to which returns on two risky assets move in tandem. A positive covariance means that asset returns move together. A negative covariance means returns vary inversely. test found whether a significant difference occurred between in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors on the knowledge and attitude subscales using age as a covariate.
Examinations of the most commonly evaluated assumptions of multivariate normality normality, in chemistry: see concentration. were undertaken with the data using the procedures outlined by Hair, Anderson, Tatham, and Black (1998). The examination of normality, homoscedasticity, absence of correlated errors, and linearity all resulted in suggestion of a violation of multivariate normality. However, as the detection of violations of multivariate normality are currently rather gross estimates, it is important to note that research to date suggests that multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of the Variance ) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA MANCOVA Multivariate Analysis of Covariance ) are relatively robust to violation of multivariate normality (Hair et al.). Further, a conservative approach was used in the selection of omnibus tests Omnibus tests are a kind of statistical test. They test whether the explained variance in a set of data is significantly greater than the unexplained variance, overall. One example is the F-test in the analysis of variance. . In this case, the use of Wilk's lambda and Pillai-Bartlett trace were used in conjunction. Wilk's lambda is the most commonly reported omnibus test and Pillai-Bartlett trace is the most robust to violation of multivariate normality (Bray & Maxwell, 1985).
Research question 1: What are the HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors in Ohio? For the in-service school counselor group, scores on the HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scale for Teachers ranged from 6 to 28 (M = 18.86, SD = 3.89). For the pre-service school counselor group, scores on the knowledge measure ranged from 9 to 27 (M = 18.46, SD = 3.41). For the in-service school counselors, scores on the HIV/AIDS Attitude Scale ranged from 41 to 125 (M = 97.39, SD = 12.65). For the pre-service school counselors, scores on the attitude measure ranged from 66 to 125 (M = 97.64, SD = 11.12).
Selected items from the General Knowledge and Attitude Scales are presented in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-related topics was fairly high in some areas, and alarmingly low in others. For example, only 12% of participants knew than transmission of AIDS by mosquito mosquito (məskē`tō), small, long-legged insect of the order Diptera, the true flies. The females of most species have piercing and sucking mouth parts and apparently they must feed at least once upon mammalian blood before their eggs can bites is not possible. On the attitude scale, 94% would support an AIDS curriculum in their school, but only 57% would feel comfortable answering students' questions about HIV/AIDS.
Research question 2: Are there differences among in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors in their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS? MANOVA was performed to determine if there were differences on HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes between in-service and pre-service school counselors. No significant differences between in-service and pre-service school counselors were found F(2, 477) = 1.070, p > .344.
Research question 3: Are there differences among in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors in their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS when controlling for age? A MANCOVA with age as a covariate was performed to determine the effects age might have on HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes between in-service and pre-service school counselors. No significant differences for age were found F(2, 477) = .229, p > .795.
Research question 4: Are there differences among in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors in their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS when controlling for school setting? A MANCOVA was performed to determine the effects school setting may have on HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes between in-service and pre-service school counselors. No significant differences for school setting were found F(4, 910) = .766, p > .548.
The primary results of this study revealed that in-service and pre-service school counselors in Ohio had equivalent knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Both groups had lower than expected levels of knowledge as confirmed by answering the knowledge questions correctly only 53% of the time. All participants appeared to know more about HIV/AIDS general knowledge, 66% correct, than knowledge of transmission, 40% correct. Overall, the participants in this study appeared to possess uncertain to slightly positive attitudes toward HIV/AIDS, with an average score of 97 (M = 3.88 on a 1 to 5 scale). These findings are consistent with other studies that have examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among counselors or school personnel. Carney, Werth, and Emanuelson (1994) reported that pre-service counselors had only moderate knowledge of HIV/AIDS information. In a similar study, researchers found that special educators had limited knowledge of verified and nonverified modes of HIV/AIDS transmission (Foley & Kittleson, 1993). Bowd (1987) found significant deficiencies in the knowledge of both experienced teachers and student teachers.
Additional results of the present study suggest no significant differences in knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with HIV/AIDS between the in-service school counselor and pre-service school counselor groups by age or school setting (elementary, middle, or high schools). These findings do not support the results of previous research that suggested age (Brucker & Hall, 1991) and school setting (Boscarino & DiClemente, 1996; Dawson, Chunis, Smith, & Carboni, 2001) might make some impact on the HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes of school personnel.
Results also suggest that HIV/AIDS education for in-service and pre-service school counselors may be inadequate, since a substantial number of the participants in this study appear to be misinformed about HIV/AIDS. Current research suggests that an intensive HIV/AIDS education model approach for counselors could have positive effects that are maintained over a substantial period of time (Britton, Cimini, & Rak, 1999; Britton, Rak, Cimini, & Shepherd, 1999). Specific topics to be included in HIV/AIDS education may include general facts about transmission, medical aspects, prevention, psychological aspects, and understanding the diverse subgroups of the population infected or affected (Holder, 1989).
Implications for School Counselors
The results of this study suggest that counselor education programs and school districts need to do a better job in educating school counselors about HIV/AIDS. School counselors in particular need to be prepared to do AIDS prevention and counseling with adolescents and young adults, one of the populations at highest risk of contracting HIV. To obtain this education, counselor education faculty may consider partnering with health educators to provide in-services for school counselors already in the field. In turn, the counselors in the field could help with educating students and staff about HIV/AIDS.
Of greater concern, however, was the lack of knowledge many participants appeared to have about the transmission of HIV/AIDS. There seems to be a great deal of misinformation mis·in·form
tr.v. mis·in·formed, mis·in·form·ing, mis·in·forms
To provide with incorrect information.
mis about the spread of the disease. These knowledge deficits and faulty thoughts about transmission may be debunked by teaching school counselors the clinical facts about the transmission of the disease. Rather than just stating the routes of transmission as fact, a scientific lesson on transmission may help school counselors come to a clearer understanding of how HIV/AIDS can be transmitted based on knowledge rather than fear. In addition, it may be important to educate school counselors on the most effective ways to protect oneself from transmission. Finally, training on how to protect oneself and others in the school setting may also be particularly beneficial.
Initially, in-service and pre-service school counselors need an education on basic knowledge about HIV/AIDS, particularly in the area of how HIV is and is not transmitted. It is important for in-service school counselors and pre-service school counselors to also explore their attitudes about the disease, and feelings about people who have the disease. In particular, school counselors must understand that the school-age population is at risk for HIV infection, and that HIV/AIDS can affect people of all ages, ethnicities, socioeconomic classes, education levels, and sexual orientations sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces. .
Sensitivity training is critical, especially when one considers the role of a school counselor. It appears that one third of the participants in this study viewed HIV/AIDS as a "gay disease," or a disease that is caused due to "immoral behavior" such as sexual promiscuity Promiscuity
See also Profligacy.
constantly flits from one girl to another. [Aust. Drama: Schnitzler Anatol in Benét, 33]
promiscuous goddess of sensual love. [Gk. Myth. or drug use. Oftentimes of·ten·times also oft·times
Adv. 1. oftentimes - many times at short intervals; "we often met over a cup of coffee"
frequently, oft, often, ofttimes the school counselor is the individual in a school to whom a student turns. Therefore, school counselors should explore their feelings and fears about the disease in order to be able to support a student who is either infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in some way.
This study had limitations. The sample was drawn only from in-service and pre-service school counselors in Ohio, which limits generalizability. A limitation of this study can also be found in the use of the Ohio School Counselor Association mailing list An automated e-mail system on the Internet, which is maintained by subject matter. There are thousands of such lists that reach millions of individuals and businesses. New users generally subscribe by sending an e-mail with the word "subscribe" in it and subsequently receive all new to solicit in-service school counselor participants. A 50% response rate from the in-service counselors may also reflect some bias in this study. In addition, the instrument used may have only examined samples of knowledge and attitudes. Other important aspects of knowledge or attitudes may have gone unexamined.
Based on the results of the present study, however, there are several recommendations for future research. The first recommendation involves replicating the study in other states. Since very few studies have explored school counselors' knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS, further examination is warranted. In addition, the HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes Scales for Teachers provide no norming groups for populations of school counselors and school counseling students. A replication study replication study Internal medicine A clinical study that seeks to verify data from a prior study may possibly substantiate To establish the existence or truth of a particular fact through the use of competent evidence; to verify.
For example, an Eyewitness might be called by a party to a lawsuit to substantiate that party's testimony. the findings of the present study and contribute to the creation of a norming group for school counselors and school counseling students.
Research to date has not explored the type or amount of HIV/AIDS education that in-service school counselors or pre-service school counselors are receiving from their graduate programs or other school-based in-service programs. It may also be beneficial to use the instrument as a pre-test/post-test measure before and after school counselors receive further HIV/AIDS education. In addition, qualitative research Qualitative research
Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections. is needed in order to assess additional variables that may contribute to the HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes of pre-service and in-service school counselors.
Table 1. Pre-Service and In-Service School Counselors' Knowledge of General HIV/AIDS Issues Correct Percent Knowledge Statements Response Correct Knowledge Statements with Highest Percent Correct There is no cure for AIDS at the present time True 99 Transmission to baby during birth is likely True 97 It might be more than 5 years before a person with HIV develops AIDS True 96 Transmission by sharing needles with someone with AIDS is very likely True 96 Transmission by anal intercourse with no condom is very likely True 91 Drugs slow the disease and lengthen life of infected person True 91 Knowledge Statements with Lowest Percent Correct AIDS can damage the brain True 38 AIDS breaks down immunity by destroying B cells False 34 AIDS can be transmitted by eating in a restaurant where cook has AIDS False 16 Transmission of AIDS by mosquito bites is possible False 12 Transmission through oral sex on an infected woman using protective barriers is likely False 02 More than one-half of states have AIDS education in curricula False 01 Table 2. Pre-Service and In-Service School Counselors' Attitudes about HIV/AIDS Positive Percent Attitude Statements Response Positive Attitude Statements with Highest Percent Positive I would support an AIDS curriculum in the school where I am working Yes 94 I would not quit my job if I found out I was working with someone with AIDS Yes 93 Teacher with AIDS should be allowed to continue teaching Yes 89 Attitude Statements with Lowest Percent Positive I would not feel comfortable answering students' questions about AIDS No 57 Parents should be notified if there is a student with AIDS in their child's school No 54 An elementary school teacher should not have to teach AIDS education No 30 School personnel should be notified if a student in the school has AIDS No 15
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welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Teachers College Press.
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Relating to or derived from experience.
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In 1913, law professor Dr. .
Hedge, B. (1996). Counseling people with AIDS The People With AIDS (PWA) Self-Empowerment Movement was a movement of those diagnosed with AIDS and grew out of San Francisco. The PWA Self-Empowerment Movement believes that those diagnosed as having AIDS should "take charge of their own life, illness, and care, and to minimize , their partners, family and friends. In J. Green & A. McCreaner (Eds.), Counseling in HIV infection and AIDS (2nd ed., pp. 66-82). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific.
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Of or relating to pediatrics. HIV: School-based sequelae sequelae Clinical medicine The consequences of a particular condition or therapeutic intervention and curricular interventions for prevention and social acceptance. School Psychology Review, 24, 213-229.
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Salant, P., & Dillman, D. A. (1994). How to conduct your own survey. New York: John Wiley John Wiley may refer to:
Amanda C. Costin, Ph.D., NCC NCC
See National Clearing Corporation (NCC). , is an assistant professor, and Betsy J. Page, Ed.D., LPCC LPCC Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor
LPCC Leadless Plastic Chip Carrier
LPCC Lincoln Park Chamber of Commerce
LPCC Linear Prediction Cepstral Coefficients
LPCC Louisiana Poison Control Center
LPCC Light Pass Cricket Club , NCC, ACS (Asynchronous Communications Server) See network access server. , is an associate professor; both are with Counseling and Human Development Services, Kent State University, Kent, OH. Dale R. Pietrzak, Ed.D., LPC-MH, CCMHC CCMHC Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselors , is an associate professor, Counseling and Psychology in Education, University of South Dakota Nomenclature