Grappling with internationalisation of the curriculum at the secondary school level: issues and tensions for educators.Increasing global flows of students, information and ideas, the realities of globalisation globalisation - internationalisation , and an increasingly interdependent in·ter·de·pen·dent
Mutually dependent: "Today, the mission of one institution can be accomplished only by recognizing that it lives in an interdependent world with conflicts and overlapping interests" world have meant that many educators at the secondary school level are currently grappling with the issue of how to internationalise v. t. 1. Same as internationalize.
Verb 1. internationalise - put under international control; "internationalize trade of certain drugs"
internationalize the curriculum and increase inter-cultural understanding among students. In addition, complex and troubling issues in the world have added urgency to the need for consideration of what knowledge, skills, and pedagogies schools should focus on in the curriculum into the future. This article discusses views in the literature and research on how educators are grappling with the issues and tensions of internationalisation (programming) internationalisation - (i18n, globalisation, enabling, software enabling) The process and philosophy of making software portable to other locales.
For successful localisation, products must be technically and culturally neutral. in Australian Australian
pertaining to or originating in Australia.
Australian bat lyssavirus disease
see Australian bat lyssavirus disease.
Australian cattle dog
a medium-sized, compact working dog used for control of cattle. secondary schools.
While many of the current debates about internationalisation in Australia Australia (ôstrāl`yə), smallest continent, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. With the island state of Tasmania to the south, the continent makes up the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary state (2005 est. pop. have focused on education at the higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. level, there has been increasing interest in the issue of internationalisation of the curriculum among educators at the secondary school level. More schools are grappling with this issue, and developing policies and strategies to encourage the inclusion of both international and intercultural in·ter·cul·tur·al
Of, relating to, involving, or representing different cultures: an intercultural marriage; intercultural exchange in the arts. dimensions in the curriculum. Increasing interdependence in·ter·de·pen·dent
Mutually dependent: "Today, the mission of one institution can be accomplished only by recognizing that it lives in an interdependent world with conflicts and overlapping interests" in the world, the realities of globalisation, and global flows of students, information and ideas have meant that many educators see the need to internationalise the curriculum. Australian schools are indeed more international, with students who feel that they belong to, are connected with, or are concerned about, issues that relate to multiple nations, and transcend national boundaries. Students in these schools require and deserve an intercultural education that encourages recognition of and dialogue about different cultures. A flow on from this should be respect and tolerance for difference in education settings.
In addition to these reasons for internationalisation in schools, complex and troubling issues in the world, including global terrorism, issues of ecological ecological
emanating from or pertaining to ecology.
the state of balance in an ecosystem when its inhabitants have established their permanent relationships with each sustainability, and the global divides between rich and poor, have added urgency to the need for schools to re-consider what knowledge, skills and pedagogies they should focus on into the future, in planning whole school curriculum emphases, and teaching and learning in schools. There is no doubt that many educators are recognising the need to achieve what Bremer Bremer may refer to:
imp. os> of Wene. (1995) defined as:
curricula with an international orientation in content, aimed at preparing students for performing (professionally/socially) in an international and multicultural context, and designed for domestic students and/or foreign students.
In considering how schools are grappling with this issue, this paper draws on views in the literature, and research which involved focus group discussions and interviews with senior school leaders and teachers from 30 Victorian Victorian
one reflecting an unshaken confidence in piety and temperance, as during Queen Victoria’s reign. [Am. and Br. Usage: Misc.]
See : Prudery government, Catholic and independent schools, and detailed case studies of three schools, to investigate their views on policies and practices to internationalise the curriculum. Their opinions on these questions were explored: 'Why should schools develop an internationalised curriculum, what should an internationalised curriculum include, and what teaching and learning strategies does your school use to engage young people in developing the understandings and skills they need now and in their future lives in an internationalised world?'. The research also included discussions with local and full fee-paying fee-paying adj [school] → Privat-;
fee-paying pupils → Schüler, deren Eltern Schulgeld zahlen overseas students, to investigate their views on the school curriculum. The studies revealed many tensions in developing and implementing an internationalised curriculum and a range of views on what kinds of pedagogical ped·a·gog·ic also ped·a·gog·i·cal
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of pedagogy.
2. Characterized by pedantic formality: a haughty, pedagogic manner. practices and curriculum should be developed in the future. These issues do require further debate, as Kemmis (1990) argued:
Curricula reveal how nations and states interpret themselves and how they want to be interpreted. Equally, debates about curriculum reveal the fundamental concerns, uncertainties and tensions which preoccupy nations and states as they struggle to adapt to changing circumstances.
One senior staff member involved in the study said that an internationalised curriculum should:
enable students to develop the skills to become employable in international situations, and include strategies to promote cultural exchange, the development of tolerance and intercultural understanding, and curriculum perspectives that transcend national perspectives and incorporate global ones. These goals of internationalisation should be compulsory in schools to adequately prepare students for today's world.
The teacher acknowledged that his school was not effectively achieving these goals, and needed to develop a range of approaches through systematic whole-school planning in staff teams, with representatives from all faculties and interests across the school. Other teachers agreed that there is still a great deal of work to be done to achieve effective and meaningful internationalisation. In this article, Knight's (1999) list of varied approaches to internationalisation (Table 1) has been used as a framework for analysis of how various schools are grappling with the issue of internationalisation of the curriculum.
Activity-based approaches to internationalisation
Knight (1999) identified three main 'activity-based approaches' to internationalisation including: curriculum development, student/faculty exchanges, and international students. Although Knight's framework was developed with reference to higher education, it provides a useful starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo
commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the for analysis of internationalisation in secondary schools. In the following section, some of the tensions and issues identified in the research and in the literature in connection with each of these activities are discussed.
There was a consensus view among students and teachers interviewed that the internationalisation of the curriculum and development of intercultural understanding should be a priority, and schools need to do more to tackle this issue. A few schools have already developed policies on internationalisation. In the early stages of the development of their international program, Stephen Stephen, 1097?–1154, king of England (1135–54). The son of Stephen, count of Blois and Chartres, and Adela, daughter of William I of England, he was brought up by his uncle, Henry I of England, who presented him with estates in England and France and Newton, Principal of Caulfield Grammar school Caulfield Grammar School is a coeducational Anglican independent school in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The school is a member of the Associated Public Schools of Victoria (APS). It was founded in 1881 as a boys' school, and began admitting girls exactly one hundred years later. (CGS CGS centimeter-gram-second system.
CGS or cgs
CGS, c.g.s. ), Melbourne Melbourne, city, Australia
Melbourne, city (1991 pop. 2,761,995), capital of Victoria, SE Australia, on Port Phillip Bay at the mouth of the Yarra River. Melbourne, Australia's second largest city, is a rail and air hub and financial and commercial center. , commented that a commitment to internationalism in·ter·na·tion·al·ism
1. The condition or quality of being international in character, principles, concern, or attitude.
2. A policy or practice of cooperation among nations, especially in politics and economic matters. is:
a recognition that our students are not only citizens of Australia, but citizens of the world ... they will be faced with many opportunities to live and to work in countries other than our own, and they will be members of the competitive international workforce of the future. (CGS, 1998, p. 3)
At CGS, the internationalisation of the curriculum occurs in a variety of ways. Special programs to develop international understanding are offered for Year 9 students either through the five-week elective elective
non-urgent; at an elected time, e.g. of surgery.
elective adjective Referring to that which is planned or undertaken by choice and without urgency, as in elective surgery, see there noun Graduate education noun overseas campus experience in Nanjing Nanjing (nän`jĭng`) or Nanking (năn`kĭng`) [southern capital], city (1994 est. pop. 2,224,200), capital of Jiangsu prov., E central China, in a bend of the Chang (Yangtze) River. , China, or through a specially designed 'International' course based in Australia. Malcolm Malcolm, Máel Coluim, or Maol Choluim may refer to: Nobility
prepare students to meet the challenges of contributing to an evolving and interdependent global community ... [and encourage the] ... education and nurturing of forward thinking and internationally minded citizens. This unit is designed as a student-centred and largely student-negotiated learning experience, with a focus on exposure to Chinese culture and language. The campus embodies CGS's commitment to preparing students for a future with a global focus. In establishing its first international campus in China, the school has chosen a target country that will have a most profound influence on the evolution of the global community in the coming century, politically, culturally, and particularly economically. Participants learn a great deal about themselves--cultural awareness [is] to enhance self-awareness ... [and] students are encouraged to question and modify their existing cultural paradigm through objective observation, critical examination, active participation, accurate reflection, and finally, a personal reconceptualisation of the participants' world view. The program promotes personal independence through active learning in a less structured, and less teacher-dependent, setting. Participants will acquire many practical skills associated with coping and operating in a foreign linguistic and cultural environment. These skills and experiences form an important part of each student's preparation for a future in a truly internationalised global economy.
However another teacher expressed a view that was typical of many others:
Internationalisation is not clearly defined. It has grown topsy-turvy, not with an underlying philosophical agenda ... There has not been a global plan to consider the possibilities and problems that might happen.
Many senior staff shared this view:
Teachers are beginning to conceptualise internationalisation by osmosis, both through having to respond to the needs of international students in their schools, and the reality that, in an increasingly globalised society, it is unavoidable.
Other educators said that the curriculum must, at the bare minimum, be audited to ensure inclusion of international perspectives. Both the nature of student populations and global realities were frequently cited as critical reasons for a review of curriculum and as core reasons for internationalisation. Teachers expressed the view that all students need to develop greater international understanding, but many staff emphasised that, where there are international students, the curriculum must meet the needs of these students, as well as the local population.
Senior staff from one school identified a number of humanities subjects where international perspectives occur naturally within the curriculum offered at the school because the content draws on content and examples from many parts of the world. These subjects included English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is , religious education, international studies and ethics ethics, in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a . However the teachers were concerned that there was no coordinated approach to ensure that international perspectives were being included in a systematic way across the curriculum--this was left to individual teachers. They were worried that tensions arise because of the crowded curriculum, and suggested that teachers need professional development to challenge their thinking about big-picture global issues that should be dealt with in schools. They noted that the majority of students, especially at senior levels, do not choose humanities subjects, and opt instead for subjects perceived to be more vocationally valuable, but which limit their opportunity to engage in debates encompassing international perspectives.
In Australia, high quality print and electronic materials for students and teachers relevant to the internationalisation of the curriculum have been published by the Curriculum Corporation, who have worked with organisations including the Asia Education Foundation (AEF AEF: see World War I. ) which has developed nationally agreed approaches to learning about Asia. These include Studies of Asia: A statement for Australian schools (Curriculum Corporation, 2001), the Access Asia publications series and the Access Asia website. These materials provide valuable guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. for educators developing curriculum approaches about Asia and the wider world. In the publication, Global perspectives: A statement on global education for Australian schools (Curriculum Corporation, 2002), the following view was presented:
In Australia and worldwide, it ... [is] ever more widely accepted that issues of global poverty and development, human rights and social justice, environmental challenges, peace and conflict, and thinking about and creating better futures are inextricably linked. A future-focused curriculum demands approaches which see these interconnections, and fosters knowledge, skills and values to equip young people to involve themselves in building solutions. (p. 1)
Interviews with senior staff showed they were aware of these documents, but believed they were under utilised by teachers in planning curriculum. They argued that further professional development opportunities should be available for teachers to discuss internationalisation. They said that, although the curriculum should prepare students to function effectively in their personal and vocational lives in local and national settings, as well as in the wider global context, deciding on the pedagogies and strategies to ensure the achievement of these goals requires more thinking. Schools still need to question what is being taught in their schools, why, and how. They need to debate what the internationalisation of the curriculum might mean in theory and practice. Teachers also commented that there are tensions created by the competing demands in the curriculum between the need to develop educational goals for international understanding, and the focus on achieving students' focus on achieving high tertiary tertiary (tûr`shēârē), in the Roman Catholic Church, member of a third order. The third orders are chiefly supplements of the friars—Franciscans (the most numerous), Dominicans, and Carmelites. entrance scores. There was strong agreement that the crowded curriculum creates many tensions for educators.
Knight's (1999) framework identified student/faculty exchanges as one approach to internationalisation. Kell n. 1. A kiln.
1. A sort of pottage; kale. See Kale, 2.
1. The caul; that which covers or envelops as a caul; a net; a fold; a film.
I'll have him cut to the kell.
- Beau. & Fl.
2. The cocoon or chrysalis of an insect. (1997) agreed that these exchanges play an important part in:
establishing long-term linkages in which Australian students and teachers can learn about Asian communities and connect with developments in those communities ... it means educational organisations will have to develop networks and links which span traditional disciplines; industries and corporations; and integrate with other multi-national corporations.
Although there are no statistics available in the literature quantifying the number of schools in Australia engaged in exchanges, most of the private schools represented in the research seminars were actively involved in student and/or and/or
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.
Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing. staff exchange, not just in Asia, but worldwide. Many of the student exchanges were based on language study tours and the opportunities these provide for students to develop language skills. Students interviewed agreed that trips to other countries provided them with valuable insights into other cultures, particularly when they spent extended periods of time in home-stay accommodation. Teachers argued that in-country experiences provide worthwhile professional development and encouraged them to develop knowledge and understanding of other countries, and both the ability and motivation to develop international understanding in the curriculum. Clearly these opportunities are limited by financial constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.
["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)]. but, for more than a decade, the AEF has provided a range of scholarships for teachers' in-country experiences.
One teacher commented that two years of teaching at an international school in Malaysia Malaysia (məlā`zhə), independent federation (2005 est. pop. 23,953,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital. provided her with invaluable professional development. She had the opportunity to teach subjects in the International Baccalaureate (IB) program with colleagues who had experience teaching in many other countries. She said that although the IB program cultivates internationalism and respect for other cultures, there is also an emphasis on students becoming active learners and engaged citizens, who gain practical experience of being part of an international community through service learning. Other schools in the research study agreed that teaching outside Australia meant that teachers gained an international focus in their teaching and in their own intercultural understanding.
International students in secondary schools
The numbers of overseas students in secondary schools provide another measure of increasing internationalisation. More schools are now juggling the varied needs of local and overseas students as they continue their push into the lucrative global education market. In 2004 in Victoria alone, there were 115 full fee-paying overseas students in government schools and in 2003, there were 942 students in independent schools. In addition, increasing numbers of students are 'global nomads': young people who move across borders and nations with their families for employment or other reasons.
Although international students can positively enhance international dimensions in schools and provide valuable education experiences for the overseas students who come to Australia, various tensions arise in meeting their educational, social and pastoral pastoral, literary work in which the shepherd's life is presented in a conventionalized manner. In this convention the purity and simplicity of shepherd life is contrasted with the corruption and artificiality of the court or the city. care needs. Teachers commented that they need to include overseas students in classes with local students, but are often grappling with the issue of how to provide appropriate curriculum, language, social and pastoral care support. Teachers need to tackle the question of how to enhance students' learning when conceptual understanding is limited by language. Overseas students frequently struggle with issues of unfamiliar content and pedagogies, alongside issues of cultural difference and adjusting to new school systems. Teachers argued that schools must commit adequate funding to provide appropriate levels of support to overseas students and to staff who lack experience in meeting the needs of students with limited English language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations. skills and different cultural backgrounds. Many of the international students said that they found the student-centred approaches to learning very different from the more teacher-directed approaches in their home countries. Schools need to grapple with to enter into contest with, resolutely and courageously.
See also: Grapple the curriculum and teaching and learning challenges, and teachers' professional development needs, so that they also have the opportunity to identify and improve their responses to the needs of international students.
Although there is no doubt that the commitment to providing staff and programs to meet the needs of overseas students is an issue, other teachers agreed with the following view:
There should be greater consideration of the wider advantages of having international students in schools. International students enrich schools, both through the additional funds they provide for school budgets and, more importantly, through the potential opportunities for local students to develop cross-cultural relationships and understanding of a range of cultures.
In one school where there are more than 100 overseas students, staff commented that, in the first few years of the unabashed marketing drive to attract full fee-paying students, local students exhibited racist attitudes, and showed very little interest in mixing socially with the international students. Now that the reality of internationalisation is being embraced in a range of ways by the whole school community, attitudes have changed. As one teacher noted:
Through the increased numbers of international students, cultural difference has been demystified. The local students are now less likely to hold exotic views of 'them' and 'us' and real friendships are developing amongst the students.
Evidence from conversations with Victorian school staff and students, and from Heyward's (2002) study of internationalisation, suggests that some schools need to work harder to meet the social needs of international students and develop strategies such as 'cultural mediation'; the pairing of students with a friend or mentor Mentor, in Greek mythology
Mentor (mĕn`tər, –tôr'), in Greek mythology, friend of Odysseus and tutor of Telemachus. who can assist them to develop their repertoire Repertoire may mean Repertory but may also refer to:
American writer whose novel Porgy (1925) and its dramatization (1927) became the basis of George Gershwin's folk opera Porgy and Bess.
Noun 1. , 2002.) However Singh For the fictional global crime syndicate, see .
Singh is a Sanskrit word meaning "lion". It is used as a common surname and middle name in North India by many communities, especially by the Sikhs and the Rajputs. (2002) argued that there is still evidence to suggest that both local and overseas students are expected to assimilate as·sim·i·late
1. To consume and incorporate nutrients into the body after digestion.
2. To transform food into living tissue by the process of anabolism. to the dominant culture, and have no opportunity to explore non-western traditions in their studies or indeed in their social life here in Australia.
Curriculum and pedagogy to encourage internationalisation
More than 25 years ago, Pike pike, in zoology
pike, common name for the family Esocidae, freshwater game and food fishes of Europe, Asia, and North America. The pike, the muskellunge, and the pickerel form a small but well-known group of long, thin fishes with spineless dorsal fins, and Selby (1988) argued the case for the internationalisation of education. They believed that students should learn about global ecological, social, technological, economic and political issues, and their interdependence, through a model that included learning for, through and about global perspectives in order to understand the world and their connections with it. They suggested that students should undertake a broad range of activities that include:
* experiential ex·pe·ri·en·tial
Relating to or derived from experience.
ex·peri·en learning in which students learn from their own and other people's experiences and feelings;
* inquiry learning in which students form hypotheses, devise questions, determine how and where to obtain information, critically analyse an·a·lyse
v. Chiefly British
Variant of analyze.
analyse or US -lyze
[-lysing, -lysed] or -lyzing, their findings, take action and reflect upon outcomes;
* collaborative learning Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of approaches in education that involve joint intellectual effort by students or students and teachers. Collaborative learning refers to methodologies and environments in which learners engage in a common task in which each where students work in pairs, small groups or larger groups, cooperating and negotiating to solve problems or achieve intended outcomes. (pp. 49-50)
Further they suggested that students could experience what they are learning through the very nature of the classroom environment, for example, through students' and teachers' clear respect of each other's rights and awareness of responsibilities, and teachers' modelling of appropriate values, attitudes and behaviours. As students move beyond the classroom, they learn through active and positive participation in, and interaction with, the natural or social environment.
Cope and Kalantsis (1997) suggested that, in a progressive view of curriculum development, the substantive essence of the curriculum is not pre-determined, but arises from an open inquiry process, and the key content is based on contemporary issues. In this approach, students are far more engaged in the process of negotiating what they learn and how. Beane Coordinates: Beane is a village in Hertfordshire, England. and Broadhagen (1993) argued that this approach to curriculum development can lead to worthwhile student learning outcomes, when students work through this model:
Stage 1 Personal concerns Students brainstorm a list of questions they have about themselves.
Stage 2 Finding common personal concerns Students in small groups share their questions about themselves and decide which are 'common' questions, and of interest to a number of members of the group.
Stage 3 World concerns Students brainstorm a list of questions they have about their world.
Stage 4 Finding common global questions Students in small groups share their questions about their world, and decide which are 'common' questions.
Stage 5 Finding themes Small groups (with adult support if possible) consider ways in which some of their personal and social questions may be connected and developed into themes.
Stage 6 Sharing themes Small groups share their ideas for themes.
Stage 7 Selecting themes Students vote on themes to identify the most popular themes and the curriculum is negotiated for working on the themes.
Stage 8 Connecting questions to themes A group of students decides on the questions.
Stage 9 Selecting activities Each question relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc the current themes is written on the top of a separate piece of butchers' paper. In pairs or groups of three, students walk around the room adding ideas to the sheets.
Stage 10 Unit planning Students' suggested activities (and teacher-chosen ones) are used as the basis for unit planning around the themes chosen by the students.
Broad topics that arise out of the intersection intersection /in·ter·sec·tion/ (-sek´shun) a site at which one structure crosses another.
a site at which one structure crosses another. of these personal and social concerns and the associated skills and knowledge base form the basis of the curriculum. Some examples of commonly negotiated themes in classrooms are: interdependence among peoples, problems in the environment, political processes and structures, the place and future of current technologies, and self-destructive behaviours Self-destructive behaviour is a widely used phrase describing a broad set of extreme actions and emotions including self-harm and drug abuse. It can take a variety of forms, and be undertaken for a variety of reasons. such as abuse and crime. Very few of the teachers interviewed from 30 schools said that negotiated curriculum was a common strategy in their schools.
Where schools develop approaches whereby subjects studied by all students, across the curriculum, are broadened by international content and ideas, the enrichment enrichment Food industry The addition of vitamins or minerals to a food–eg, wheat, which may have been lost during processing. See White flour; Cf Whole grains. can be pervasive pervasive,
adj indicates that a condition permeates the entire development of the individual. and deep (Edwards & Tudball, 2000). There is evidence that schools have sometimes been reluctant to re-appraise and re-consider whether the curriculum does meet the needs of all students and face the realities of new times (Edwards & Tudball, 2002). Regardless of their backgrounds, all students are affected by the realities of an increasingly interdependent world. The process of internationalisation must be a two-way street, meeting the needs of both local and international students (Edwards & Tudball, 2001; Fleming Flem·ing , Sir Alexander 1881-1955.
British bacteriologist who discovered penicillin in 1928. He shared a 1945 Nobel Prize for this achievement. , 2003). There is now a need for all students, international and local, to experience an internationalised curriculum, otherwise we run the risk of accepting an inadequate curriculum that is inconsistent with the realities students will face in their day-to-day day-to-day
1. Occurring on a routine or daily basis: the day-to-day movements of the stock market.
2. lives. As Tsolidis (2001) argued:
We need to engage with reciprocal and egalitarian cross-cultural curriculum and pedagogy ... It is no longer a matter of 'us' providing 'them' with something they need. Instead, the consumer cooperative classroom requires a mutually beneficial relationship for all involved.
Competency-based approaches to internationalisation
Knight (1999) argued that, through internationalisation of the curriculum, both students and staff can develop new skills, knowledge, values, and attitudes, and their interest in defining global/international competencies grows. The Citizenship Education There are two very different kinds of Citizenship education,
The first is education intended to prepare noncitizens to become legally and social accepted as citizens. Policy Study project, discussed by Cogan Cogan is a suburb of Penarth in the Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales. It has one of four of the vale's Leisure Centre's. The Cogan railway line serves Barry, Rhoose and Bridgend and Cardiff. & Derricott (2000), a four-year, cross-national cross-na·tion·al
Of, relating to, or involving two or more nations. , cross-cultural study, solicited trends and opinions from policy shapers in nine nations about what kinds of professional and social competencies and understandings students internationally will need as citizens in the future. Cogan (2001) said that the study concluded that students require: the ability to look at problems globally; the ability to work co-operatively and take responsibilities for roles/duties in society; the ability to understand, accept and tolerate tol·er·ate
1. To allow without prohibiting or opposing; permit.
2. To put up with; endure.
3. To have tolerance for a substance or pathogen. cultural differences; capacity to think in a critical and systemic systemic /sys·tem·ic/ (sis-tem´ik) pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole.
1. Of or relating to a system.
2. way; willingness to resolve conflict in a non-violent manner; willingness to change one's lifestyle and consumption habits to protect the environment; the ability to be sensitive towards and to defend human rights; and willingness and ability to participate in politics at local, national and international levels (p. 9). The development of these competencies does create a need for educators to review the curriculum.
The goals formalised Adj. 1. formalised - concerned with or characterized by rigorous adherence to recognized forms (especially in religion or art); "highly formalized plays like `Waiting for Godot'"
formalistic, formalized by the Australian government in the nationally agreed National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century recognised the need for Australian students to develop new competencies and greater intercultural understanding. They include the following goal:
Schooling should fully develop the talents and capacities of all students. In particular, when students leave school they should ... understand and acknowledge the value of cultural and linguistic diversity, and possess the knowledge, skills and understanding to contribute to, and benefit from, such diversity in the Australian community and internationally. (Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, 2000)
It is difficult for teachers to translate this goal into tangible classroom practice, and teachers do struggle with the question of what knowledge and pedagogies schools should focus on into the future. Possible answers to this question will be contested, since the potential scope of an internationalised curriculum in schools is so broad. Add to this the issues of the crowded curriculum and the desire among many practitioners to protect the existing curriculum, and the challenge for individual schools to negotiate and decide what their internationalised curriculum should include becomes even more problematic.
What knowledge should students acquire in an internationalised curriculum?
Rawlings-Sanaei (2003) argued that students should develop an awareness of realities in their world.
Dual processes of integration and disintegration are apparent. On the one hand, positive signs of a new global order are emerging: the rapid expansion of knowledge, increasing international interdependence and the electronic unification of the world. Also of significance are, inter alia, the promotion of universal education; the growing acceptance of racial equality of men and women; the unabated though encumbered efforts of the UN to establish world peace; the wider recognition of the importance of human rights; the marked increase in international gatherings to foster co-operation in matters of mutual interest; and broadening participation of NGO's on the world stage. (p. 4)
Although she argued that it is vital for young people to learn about these positive elements of increasing globalisation, Rawlings-Sanaei believes that students must also know about negative forces including:
the absence of a common ethic; cultural domination; knowledge asymmetries; civil strife; the weakening of the family as a social institution; environmental degradation; poverty; terrorism; and drug trafficking ... [These] world problems cannot be dealt with in isolation--they demand unprecedented levels of co-operation and action for their effective resolution. (p. 5)
Singh (2002) argued that, through an internationalised curriculum, young people can be assisted to develop a more critical understanding of their own identity, who they are, and how they might position themselves and their views in relation to dominant views. For instance, Singh commented that 'many people around the world, including Australians, experience contemporary globalisation as US/Americanisation, or at least the global diffusion diffusion, in chemistry, the spontaneous migration of substances from regions where their concentration is high to regions where their concentration is low. Diffusion is important in many life processes. of US/American (southern) neo-conservative politics and economic ideology' (p. 4). Through classroom teaching and learning activities, teachers can make students aware of the dominating identity formation that is occurring through US/American movies, technology and other consumerist forces. Singh (2003) argued that teachers have an opportunity to 'confront the emptiness of dominating identities and offer alternatives including: ... constructing the family on an egalitarian e·gal·i·tar·i·an
Affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people. basis; the de-gendering of public institutions; the use of science and technology for sustaining ecological and culturally diverse forms of life' (p. 5).
In Global perspectives (Curriculum Corporation, 2002), the following view is put:
Learners should be able to move beyond simplistic media images and challenge stereotyped views. They should develop the ability to identify and deconstruct the assumptions behind the way the world is imagined and described in particular contexts.
Teachers say that students need to be able competently to clarify their views on what it means to be Australian. In addition, Singh (2003) believes that students need to be able to answer these questions: How do I relate to other people in the world? How do I relate to the nation-state in a changing world of relationships? How do I relate to trans-national and supranational Supranational
An international organization, or union, whereby member states transcend national boundaries
or interests to share in the decision-making and vote on issues pertaining to the wider grouping. organisations? How do I relate to humanity? How do I relate to the global/local ecology ecology, study of the relationships of organisms to their physical environment and to one another. The study of an individual organism or a single species is termed autecology; the study of groups of organisms is called synecology. ? (p. 5). There will be multiple answers to these kinds of questions depending on factors including students' own ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and sense of connectedness with the world. Teachers agree that students must have opportunities to study content that empowers them to consider diverse and conflicting points of view and encourages them to think critically about their own identity and its social construction. Cogan (2001) believed that citizens of the future will see themselves as members of several overlapping communities: local, regional, national and multinational. The challenges of the 21st century will transcend national boundaries and require multinational solutions. However people's sense of identity is and is likely to remain rooted in the local and the personal in terms of nation and culture.
Singh (2003) commends the view of Castells (1997) that young people deserve the opportunity to:
understand the type of human civilization needed to sustain the earth and its ecological support system. This means drawing from both the diversity of existing traditional (indigenous) cultural practices for sustaining eco-cultural systems, as well as efforts to create new identities committed to eco-cultural sustainability. (p. 8)
These are challenging ideas that will require many schools to reconstruct re·con·struct
tr.v. re·con·struct·ed, re·con·struct·ing, re·con·structs
1. To construct again; rebuild.
2. their curriculum. Educators are recognising that for students to be motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo in their learning, they must be engaged in critical thinking and discussion of issues that concern them and their world (Beane, 1999; Curriculum Corporation, 2002; University of Melbourne
In 2006, Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne 22nd in the world. Because of the drop in ranking, University of Melbourne is currently behind four Asian universities - Beijing University, , 2001; Rawlings, 1999; World Council, 2003). Triolo (2000) argued:
Few of our students consciously think of themselves living in an interdependent world, despite evidence such as international communications links, patterns of migration, and global vulnerability to environmental phenomena such as ozone deletion. Through incorporating a global perspective, teachers are able to help students understand challenges and opportunities, develop positive values, attitudes and behaviours and feel confident about their roles in creating a 'better world for all'. (p. 1)
Internationalisation and civics civics, branch of learning that treats of the relationship between citizens and their society and state, originally called civil government. With the large immigration into the United States in the latter half of the 19th cent. and citizenship education
In recent years, there has been substantial investment by the Australian government in developing curriculum materials and teacher professional development to lead to the enhancement of students' knowledge and competencies as citizens. There are clear links between the challenge to internationalise the curriculum and the renewed emphasis on civics and citizenship education (CCE CCE Cornell Cooperative Extension
CCE Corporate and Continuing Education
CCE Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc.
CCE Commission de Coopération Environnementale
CCE Centre for Continuing Education
CCE College of Continuing Education
CCE Certified Computer Examiner ). Australian teachers in the IEA IEA International Energy Agency
IEA International Environmental Agreements
IEA International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement
IEA Institute of Economic Affairs
IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation
IEA International Ergonomics Association civic education study said:
The values they affirmed as the key learning outcomes of civic education are: to develop consciousness about the needs of the whole world (98%), to develop honesty (97%), to fight against injustice (96%), to stand up for one's own opinion (96%), and to ensure opportunities for minorities to express their own cultures (91%). What is more, 90 per cent of teachers thought that what is important in civic education could be taught in schools. (Mellor, 2002)
The teachers showed that they see international understanding as a key part of active global citizenship Global Citizenship is both a moral and ethical disposition which might guide an individual or groups' understanding of the local and global contexts — and their relative responsibilities within different communities. , and they interpret the concept of CCE far more broadly than as a study of civic knowledge of Australian society. Rawlings-Sanaei (2003) agreed that CCE should include:
[a] global ethic with significant implications for human development ... when individuals see themselves as world citizens--that is, their loyalties extend and they regard themselves as trustees of the planet ... prejudices disappear and a new sense of responsibility emerges ... it dispels feelings of selfishness and imbues a sense of self-worth. (p. 10)
Clearly the challenge is for teachers and curriculum planners to make choices about what the learning goals should be in an internationalised curriculum that has such broad possibilities.
An ethos e·thos
The disposition, character, or fundamental values peculiar to a specific person, people, culture, or movement: "They cultivated a subversive alternative ethos" Anthony Burgess. supporting internationalisation
Knight's (1999) framework of approaches to internationalisation includes the creation of a culture or climate which promotes and supports international/intercultural initiatives as central to the process. Senior teachers in particular agreed that schools need to embrace the idea and ethos of internationalisation across school programs and policies. Many international organisations Noun 1. international organisation - an international alliance involving many different countries
global organization, international organization, world organisation, world organization have also argued the importance of developing an ethos supporting internationalisation in schools. The World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (2003) stated:
As members of the world community, educators have a responsibility to ensure that education contributes to the promotion of equity, peace, social justice and the universal realization of human rights ... Programs should aim to develop, in every person, self-respect, social awareness, and the capacity to participate at all levels of world society, from local to global. (p. 1)
In Learning, the treasure within: Report to UNESCO UNESCO: see United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
in full United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, 1998), Chairman Jacques Delors Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (born July 20 1925 in Paris) is a French economist and politician, the only person to have served two terms as President of the European Commission (between 1985 and 1995). affirmed af·firm
v. af·firmed, af·firm·ing, af·firms
1. To declare positively or firmly; maintain to be true.
2. To support or uphold the validity of; confirm.
v.intr. the belief that education has a fundamental role to play in personal and social development and internationalism.
The Commission does not see education as a miracle cure or a magic formula opening the door to a world in which all ideals will be attained, but as one of the principal means available to foster a deeper and more harmonious form of human development and thereby to reduce poverty, exclusion, ignorance, oppression and war. (p. 2)
Delors did however recognise that there are tensions between the global and the local, since people need to become world citizens without losing their roots, and while continuing to play an active part in the life of their nation and their local community. Teachers find that these varied dimensions can create tensions as they try to choose and balance curriculum goals. Delors warned that it is difficult for schools to balance the tensions between long-term Long-term
Three or more years. In the context of accounting, more than 1 year.
1. Of or relating to a gain or loss in the value of a security that has been held over a specific length of time. Compare short-term. and short-term Short-term
Any investments with a maturity of one year or less.
1. Of or relating to a gain or loss on the value of an asset that has been held less than a specified period of time. considerations in planning because of:
the predominance of the ephemeral and the instantaneous, in a world where an over-abundance of transient information and emotions continually keeps the spotlight on immediate problems. Public opinion cries out for quick answers and ready solutions, whereas many problems call for a patient, concerted, negotiated strategy of reform. This is precisely the case where education policies are concerned.
Grappling with internationalisation of education is a complex process, and UNESCO reports have recognised the tensions between the extraordinary expansion of knowledge and human beings' capacity to assimilate it. These challenges can only be resolved through careful program planning and consideration of curriculum choices.
The process of internationalisation
Knight (1999) made the point that infusion of international/intercultural dimensions into the curriculum needs to occur through a combination of a range of activities, policies and procedures Policies and Procedures are a set of documents that describe an organization's policies for operation and the procedures necessary to fulfill the policies. They are often initiated because of some external requirement, such as environmental compliance or other governmental . At the most basic level, a school can be said to have an internationalised curriculum, and to be resolving at least some of these issues, if the curriculum includes specific subjects such as international studies or global education. But this can mean that only the students studying these subjects will develop international understandings. Where schools actively develop an approach whereby subjects across the curriculum are broadened by international content and ideas, then the enrichment has the potential to be more pervasive and deep. This could include studies with diverse perspectives on scientific, economic, political, environmental and social issues of international importance. But focusing on international content alone is insufficient to claim successful internationalisation. Whalley (1997) argued that there must be opportunities in the curriculum for students to develop intercultural competence Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. This ability can exist in someone at a young age, or may be developed and improved due to willpower and competence. with an awareness of other cultures and perspectives, as well as their own and, to achieve this, learning should draw on the ideas of local and international students. Further Whalley stressed that schools need to engage local and overseas students in the mutual construction of international knowledge so that they can empathise with other world views.
Lawton (2001) proposed the development of a 'reconstructionsist curriculum' aimed at individual and societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. improvement, and suggested these questions as important in guiding the development of curriculum: What kind of society already exists, in what ways is it developing, how do its members appear to want it to develop, what kinds of values and principles should be central? (p. 28). Teachers need to debate these kinds of questions as they engage in conversations about curriculum reform.
Schools need to develop policies on internationalisation to inform curriculum planning. Existing curricula need to be audited and analysed for international perspectives. The possible scope of content and themes in an internationalised curriculum make the process of making curriculum choices daunting daunt
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.
[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin for teachers. In English studies English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other , there are endless lists of potential texts and films and international issues for exploration through reading, writing, speaking and listening. Through studies of art and design in other cultures and periods, cross-cultural influences and varied art technologies can be investigated to increase international perspectives. In the health sciences, the study of food and nutrition Food and Nutrition
See also cheese; dining; milk.
Rare. the act or habit of reclining at meals.
Medicine. thescience of nutrition.
Pathology. can be enriched by international case studies. Through the investigation of the origins of mathematics, algebra algebra, branch of mathematics concerned with operations on sets of numbers or other elements that are often represented by symbols. Algebra is a generalization of arithmetic and gains much of its power from dealing symbolically with elements and operations (such as and geometry geometry [Gr.,=earth measuring], branch of mathematics concerned with the properties of and relationships between points, lines, planes, and figures and with generalizations of these concepts. , or the use of international statistics in authentic application of mathematical solutions, students' mathematical studies can be internationalised. Through the study of international sporting achievements or sport played in other parts of the world, students can also develop intercultural understanding and, through a study of world music or the international popular music scene, students' world views can be extended.
From her research study of the United World College (UWC UWC University of the Western Cape (RSA)
UWC University Writing Center
UWC United World Colleges (international college network)
UWC Ultimate Warrior Challenge ) in Wales Wales, Welsh Cymru, western peninsula and political division (principality) of Great Britain (1991 pop. 2,798,200), 8,016 sq mi (20,761 sq km), west of England; politically united with England since 1536. The capital is Cardiff. , Rawlings (1999) found that 'curricular and pedagogical interventions which aim to transmit To send data over a communications line. See transfer. a vision of a global society [author's emphasis] are effective tools for the development of globally oriented o·ri·ent
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
3. , participatory student communities' (p. 176). This vision can be operationalised through purposeful pur·pose·ful
1. Having a purpose; intentional: a purposeful musician.
2. Having or manifesting purpose; determined: entered the room with a purposeful look. activities of the student community and through teacher-initiated activities in classrooms, the residential life, services and activities program, and the 'hidden curriculum' (Table 2).
Rawlings (1999) noted that UWC students genuinely want to be agents of change in their world and have expressed these various views of the college's explicit international education vision:
[It] makes me realize that there is a world out there and if I want to succeed in life, it's me who is to make the effort. If I don't, failure is looking straight into my eyes. The future is not necessarily good, but we have the opportunity to do something with it. Now I see I am a citizen of the world When I look back, I was living in a little bubble. Now I have the tools to participate in society.
Students in the school are actively engaged in programs to generate social, political and environmental concern through groups such as Amnesty International Amnesty International (AI,) human-rights organization founded in 1961 by Englishman Peter Benenson; it campaigns internationally against the detention of prisoners of conscience, for the fair trial of political prisoners, to abolish the death penalty and torture of , Crisis Response and World Affairs Noun 1. world affairs - affairs between nations; "you can't really keep up with world affairs by watching television"
affairs - transactions of professional or public interest; "news of current affairs"; "great affairs of state" which meet weekly, and special programs such as a visit to Israel and the West Bank for 'project week' and a Peace and Conflict Resolution Program. The UWC principal argued:
Students need to share in the concept that they are and certainly will be building the world of the future. They need to be part of that construction and delivery of this educational experience. (Jenkins, 1998, as cited in Rawlings, 1999)
There is also a critical need to ensure that staff can develop the knowledge, understandings and skills to engage confidently in the internationalisation process. It is vitally important that all stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. participate. Most importantly Adv. 1. most importantly - above and beyond all other consideration; "above all, you must be independent"
above all, most especially , the whole process should be a two-way street, meeting both overseas and local staff and student concerns about internationalisation.
Internationalisation has the potential to change schools' curriculum, character and culture. Schools are already primary carriers of the global flows of internationalisation, through people, information and communication technologies, cultures, and ideas. These flows increase education's trans-national potential (Dolby & Marginson, 2000). Kennedy (2000) argued that understanding complex global issues requires 'knowledge and values based responses':
The kind of knowledge required is interdisciplinary and integrated, while the values must be firmly embedded in a vision that focuses on the good of all rather than the selfish demands of individuals ... Citizens of the future will be international citizens. They will require a knowledge base that will help them feel comfortable in other countries as they do in their own.
In this paper it has been argued that, in responding to these realities, there are many issues and tensions for curriculum planners, school leaders, teachers and students. There needs to be further debate about how school programs should be structured, and what they should include in a curriculum to give students the opportunity to grow into young global citizens with the knowledge, skills and abilities they will need in their lives now and in the future. In the past, curriculum has often been constructed without reference to big global questions but, in these times, such a response is not possible. The nature of school populations also necessitates an internationalised curriculum. Confronting issues, such as the events of September 11, the war in Iraq and its aftermath, and terrorism in Bali, Spain and Jakarta, were all brought vividly to students of all ages on television screens and through all facets of the media. These events should not be ignored in school classrooms. Young people should not be expected to bury Bury (bĕ`rē), city (1991 pop. 60,785) and metropolitan district, NE England, located in the Manchester metropolitan area on the Irwell River and linked by canal with Bolton and Manchester. their heads in the sand and carry on with the study of less relevant curriculum issues when events of such global magnitude occur. There are sensitive ways in which teachers can allow students to ask and explore questions which concern them. Young people deserve the opportunity to engage in civic realities and the chance to inquire in·quire also en·quire
v. in·quired, in·quir·ing, in·quires
1. To seek information by asking a question: inquired about prices.
2. , question, debate opinions, develop futures orientations, and decide on actions they might take for their world. But as Delors (International Commission, 1998) warned:
People today have a dizzying feeling of being torn between a globalization whose manifestations they can see and sometimes have to endure, and their search for roots, reference points and a sense of belonging. There is, therefore, every reason to place renewed emphasis on the moral and cultural dimensions of education. (p. 3)
The new Essential learning statement developed by the Tasmanian Education Department (2003) in consultation with teachers, parents, students and other members of the community emphasised the need to prepare learners to live full and healthy lives and to equip e·quip
tr.v. e·quipped, e·quip·ping, e·quips
a. To supply with necessities such as tools or provisions.
b. them to help shape a future they want to live in. Curriculum for the future is to be organised around these ideas: thinking, communicating, personal futures, social responsibility and world futures. It is crucial that we remember that our main goal as educators is to develop curriculum that engages young people in issues of critical importance in understanding their world and their future. An internationalised curriculum, that also develops intercultural competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. , is a vital element in that process. This challenges educators to be courageous about auditing and cleaning out the curriculum, to take away some content and strategies that do not have the same pressing relevance in today's world, and to develop strategies that empower empower verb To encourage or provide a person with the means or information to become involved in solving his/her own problems young people to be active participants in an increasingly interdependent world.
Table 1 Approaches to internationalisation Approach Description Activity Curriculum development, student/ faculty exchanges, international students Competency Development of new skills, knowledge, values, attitudes in students, faculty and staff Interest in defining global/international competencies grows Ethos Creation of a culture or climate on campus, which promotes and supports international/ intercultural initiatives Process Integration or infusion of international/ intercultural dimensions through a combination of a range of activities, policies and procedures Source: Knight (1999, p. 15) Table 2 Key interventions to build a globally oriented and participatory student community Interventions which transmit ability to imagine alternatives in a an idealistic vision, lead to: global context, abandonment of fear and pessimism, and a will to act. Interventions which transmit a recognition of global vision of the current world interdependence, an informed situation, lead to: critical perspective, and commitment to action; student- initiated projects that develop individual responsibility and motivation. Interventions which transmit a promotion of tolerance, and vision of the school community, collective participation. lead to: Interventions which transmit a increased sense of individual vision of human potential, lead responsibility--a pre-condition to: for global responsibility. Service learning leads to: personal encounter with human diversity, a more acute observation of common humanity, and the knowledge that prejudicial barriers can be dismantled and people of diverse backgrounds can work together; also, a sense of fulfillment and participation in civic life. Pedagogical interventions which interest in the world's cultural foster inquisitiveness and heritage and cosmopolitan attitudes curiosity, lead to: and the will to act. Residential activities (amongst improved understanding of social peers from diverse backgrounds) relationships, and consciousness lead to: of world citizenship through social encounters and a service ethic.
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Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
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The quality or condition of being exotic.
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1. To provide or brighten with light.
2. To decorate or hang with lights.
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Process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. Factors that have contributed to globalization include increasingly sophisticated communications and transportation , curriculum and international student communities: A case study of the United World College of the Atlantic Curriculum
The school's curriculum is based on human ecology, and every freshman is required to take an introductory core course in human ecology during their first term. . PhD thesis, University of London For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 19 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Within the university federation they are known as Recognised Bodies , Institute of Education.
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Libby Tudball is a Lecturer lecturer A person who is primarily–if not entirely—involved in the teaching activities of an academic center, who is not expected to perform research or Pt management; in general, lectureships are non-tenured positions in the Faculty of Education at Monash University, Clayton, Victoria Clayton is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Its Local Government Area is the City of Monash. Overview
The main focus for the suburb of Clayton is the shopping strip that runs along Clayton Rd. 3800.