Grammatical change in Old English strong verbs: early traces of elimination.ABSTRACT
The original Proto-Germanic Pro·to-Ger·man·ic
The reconstructed prehistoric ancestor of the Germanic languages. consonantal con·so·nan·tal
1. Of, relating to, or having the nature of a consonant.
2. Containing a consonant or consonants.
con alternations of voiceless and voiced fricatives, generated by the operation of Verner's Law Ver·ner's Law
A law stating essentially that Proto-Germanic noninitial voiceless fricatives in voiced environments became voiced when the previous syllable was unstressed in Proto-Indo-European. , though slightly modified, were relatively well attested at·test
v. at·test·ed, at·test·ing, at·tests
1. To affirm to be correct, true, or genuine: The date of the painting was attested by the appraiser.
2. in Old English Old English: see type; English language; Anglo-Saxon literature.
Language spoken and written in England before AD 1100. It belongs to the Anglo-Frisian group of Germanic languages. . They were most regularly preserved in the strong verb verb, part of speech typically used to indicate an action. English verbs are inflected for person, number, tense and partially for mood; compound verbs formed with auxiliaries (e.g., be, can, have, do, will) provide a distinction of voice. paradigm where they emerged as: [thorn thorn, in botany
thorn, sharp-pointed projection on some plants, usually protective in function. Botanically, thorns are distinguished as modified stems (as in the honey locust and hawthorn) from spines, which are modified leaves (as in the barberry), and ] ~ d, h ~ g/w, h ~ ng, s ~ r, as in sni[thorn]an: sna[thorn]: snidon: sniden, ceosan: ceas: curon: coren, teon: teah: tugon: togen. The focus of the present paper is the process of gradual elimination of the effects of Vernerian voicing from the Old English strong verb system. While a wholesale process of elimination The process of elimination is a basic logical tool to solve real world problems. By subsequently removing options that may be deemed impossible, illogical, or can be easily ruled out due to some sort of explicit understanding relative to the entire set of options, the pool of must be dated no earlier than the (Early) Middle English Middle English
Vernacular spoken and written in England c. 1100–1500, the descendant of Old English and the ancestor of Modern English. It can be divided into three periods: Early, Central, and Late. period, available data indicate clearly that the tendencies towards the decay The reduction of strength of a signal or charge.
decay - [Nuclear physics] An automatic conversion which is applied to most array-valued expressions in C; they "decay into" pointer-valued expressions pointing to the array's first element. of Vernerian alternations can be traced back to Old English. A close examination of the Old English textual tex·tu·al
Of, relating to, or conforming to a text.
textu·al·ly adv. evidence is intended to capture and reveal peculiarities and tendencies which charasterised this very early stage of elimination.
1. Introductory remarks
The original Proto-Germanic consonantal alternations of voiceless and voiced fricatives, induced induced /in·duced/ (in-dldbomacst´)
1. produced artificially.
2. produced by induction.
adj artificially caused to occur.
induction. by the operation of Verner's Law, had been considerably obliterated o·blit·er·ate
tr.v. o·blit·er·at·ed, o·blit·er·at·ing, o·blit·er·ates
1. To do away with completely so as to leave no trace. See Synonyms at abolish.
2. by the time of the earliest attestations of Old English, yet their modified reflexes were relatively well preserved and systematically displayed in the Old English strong verb paradigm. (1) The modifications, taking place on the way from Proto-Germanic to Old English, involved various phonological pho·nol·o·gy
n. pl. pho·nol·o·gies
1. The study of speech sounds in language or a language with reference to their distribution and patterning and to tacit rules governing pronunciation.
2. developments pertinent PERTINENT, evidence. Those facts which tend to prove the allegations of the party offering them, are called pertinent; those which have no such tendency are called impertinent, 8 Toull. n. 22. By pertinent is also meant that which belongs. Willes, 319. to different stages within this period. They included rhotacism Rho´ta`cism
n. 1. (Phylol.) An oversounding, or a misuse, of the letter r; specifically
A subdivision that has common differentiating characteristics within a larger branch. , the West Germanic West Germanic
A subdivision of the Germanic languages that includes High German, Low German, Yiddish, Dutch, Afrikaans, Flemish, Frisian, and English.
Noun 1. voicing of the dental fricative Dental fricative can refer to:
A measure of the rate of decline in the value of an option due to the passage of time. Theta can also be referred to as the time decay on the value of an option. If everything is held constant, then the option will lose value as time moves closer to the maturity of the option. ] and its subsequent occlusion occlusion /oc·clu·sion/ (o-kloo´zhun)
2. the trapping of a liquid or gas within cavities in a solid or on its surface.
3. in clusters with a nasal nasal /na·sal/ (na´zil) pertaining to the nose.
Of, in, or relating to the nose.
pertaining to the nose. and a liquid (l[theta] > ld, n[theta] > nd), as well as voicing of medial medial /me·di·al/ (me´de-il)
1. situated toward the median plane or midline of the body or a structure.
2. pertaining to the middle layer of structures.
adj. voiceless fricatives (f, [theta], s), and finally, loss of the voiceless velar fricative The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is x, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is x. *[chi] in medial position. All of these processes occasioned the emergence of a new pattern of alternations in Old English with the following alternating pairs: [thorn] ~ d, h/o ~ g, h/o ~g/w, h/o ~ ng and s ~ r. The ensuing en·sue
intr.v. en·sued, en·su·ing, en·sues
1. To follow as a consequence or result. See Synonyms at follow.
2. To take place subsequently. pattern, viewed against the original Germanic Ger·man·ic
a. Of, relating to, or characteristic of Germany or its people, language, or culture.
b. Of or relating to the Teutons.
2. proto-alternants, is presented in Table 1.
The emergence of these alternations in the shape in which they surface in Old English entailed the following phonological developments:
a) [thorn], [eth] ~ d
The change *[eth] > d took place already in the West Germanic stage and was unconditioned unconditioned /un·con·di·tion·ed/ (un?kon-dish´und) not a result of conditioning; unlearned; occurring naturally or spontaneously. ; the fricative fricative (frik´tiv),
n a speech sound made by forcing the airstream through such a narrow opening that audible high-frequency air in the cluster *l[theta] was very early occluded (West Germanic) and the sequence appeared as ld in the very early stage, e.g., PGmc. *fal[thorn]an- an-
Variant of a-. (Go. fal[thorn]an) > OE faldan, fealdan 'fold', OE wilde 'wild' (Go. wil[thorn]eis). Probably the earliest shift, dated as early as the Proto-Germanic period, was the occlusion of *[eth] in the neighbourhood of a nasal *n[eth] > nd, a process which affected also other voiced fricatives ([beta], [gamma], [[gamma].sup.w]) in medial position after the corresponding nasal, e.g., OE findan vs. Go. fin[thorn]an, OE (Go., OS) bindan 'bind' vs. Skt. bandhanam 'a binding' (< *bhendh-). The voiceless *[theta] remained a fricative and, just like the other voiceless fricatives in Old English was subject to voicing in voiced environment /[theta]/ > [[eth]]. Finally, in word-final position the voiced fricative underwent devoicing.
b) h/[phi] ~ g
Although the reflex of the original Proto-Germanic voiced fricative *[gamma] was Old English <g>, it was used to represent either a fricative [gamma], continuing the Proto-Germanic value (e.g, slogun Slogun, real name John Balistreri, is a music performer usually associated with bands like Sickness, Control, Skm-Etr and Bloodyminded in the "Harsh", or "Power Electronics" genre. , flogon, belagen, getogen) or a palatal pal·a·tal
palatal (pal´t fricative, occasionally made distinct in spelling and marked as <g> (e.g., betigen, [thorn]igen, [thorn]wegen, forsleginum). The voiceless velar fricative /[chi]/ was lost in a few contexts, among others, in the intervocalic in·ter·vo·cal·ic
Occurring between vowels. position, relevant hem, which yielded the alternation alternation /al·ter·na·tion/ (awl?ter-na´shun) the regular succession of two opposing or different events in turn.
alternation of generations metagenesis. with zero (e.g., *flea[chi]an > flean 'flay'). (2) This velar ve·lar
1. Of or relating to a velum.
2. Concerning or using the soft palate. alternation is present in all verba [Latin, Words.] A term used in many legal maxims, including verba sunt indices animi, which means "words are the indicators of the mind or thought"; and verba accipienda ut sortiantur effectum, contracta where the infinitive infinitive: see mood; tense. no longer preserves the voiceless fricative, e.g., slean < */sla[chi]an/, [thorn]eon < */[theta]i[chi]an/, [thorn]wean wean (wen) to discontinue breast feeding and substitute other feeding habits.
1. To deprive permanently of breast milk and begin to nourish with other food.
2. < */[theta]wa[chi]an/.
c) h/[phi] ~ ng
The nasal (phonetically pho·net·ic
1. Of or relating to phonetics.
2. Representing the sounds of speech with a set of distinct symbols, each designating a single sound: phonetic spelling.
3. [[eta]]) preceding the voiceless spirant spi·rant
[Latin spr in the original alternation which surfaced as Proto-Germanic *n[chi] ~ *n[gamma] was lost probably still in Proto-Germanic stage and is no longer evident in Old English. The voiced velar fricative The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɣ /[gamma]/, when following a nasal, was occluded already in Proto-Germanic, hence OE ng in place of PGmc. *n[gamma]. Traces of the original alternation are preserved in a few Old English contracted verbs, e.g., [thorn]eon (<*/[theta]i[chi]an/ < */[theta]i[eta][chi]an/) : [thorn]ungon : [thorn]ungen, befon : befengon : befangen/befengen.
d) h/[phi] ~ g/w
The voiceless labiovelar la·bi·o·ve·lar
Simultaneously labial and velar, as (kw) in quick.
A labiovelar sound. fricative *[chi]w lost its rounding in root final position at some point, probably as early as the Northwest Germanic stage, and appeared in Old English as h or was eventually dropped. The voiced labial labial /la·bi·al/ (la´be-al)
1. pertaining to a lip or labium.
2. in dental anatomy, pertaining to the tooth surface that faces the lip.
adj. alternant Al`ter´nant
a. 1. (Geol.) Composed of alternate layers, as some rocks. was reflected as labial approximant ap·prox·i·mant
A speech sound, such as a glide or liquid, produced by narrowing but not blocking the vocal tract, as by placing an articulator, such as the tongue, near another part of the vocal tract. w or as unrounded velar fricative velar fricative can refer to:
Speech sound in which air from the lungs passes through the mouth with minimal obstruction and without audible friction, like the i in fit. The word also refers to a letter representing such a sound (a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y). : [gamma] before PGmc. u and w before i, which yielded two new alternating sequences: h ~ [gamma] and h ~ w respectively. The only (strong) verb in Old English which preserved traces of the labiovelar alternation is seon (< *se[[chi].sup.w]an) and its related prefixed verbs with the forms siwen, sigen (< se[[gamma].sup.w]-ana-). (3)
e) s, z ~ r
The Proto-Germanic alternation *s ~ *z was very early (NWGmc.) subject to rhotacism whereby *z became r medially me·di·al
1. Relating to, situated in, or extending toward the middle; median.
2. Linguistics Being a sound, syllable, or letter occurring between the initial and final positions in a word or morpheme.
3. (but was dropped in word-final position) and was preserved in Old English as the alternation of s ~ r. (4) Affected by voicing in medial position, OE s surfaced as [z] in voiced environment, which yielded, in a sense, a triple alternation between s/z and r.
f) *f ~ *b
The labial series *f ~ *b became very early obliterated and was no longer distinct in the Old English strong verb paradigm. Given the evidence provided by the other Germanic dialects (cf. OS (af)heffian : hof: ho[beta]un : giha[beta]an, OHG OHG Offene Handelsgesellschaft
OHG Otto Hahn Gymnasium (Germany)
OHG Old High German
OHG Operators Harmonization Group (ITU)
OHG Official Hotel Guide
OHG One Hit Gamer (gaming) heffen, hevan : huob : huobum : (ir- ir- 1
Variant of in-1.
Variant of in-2. )haban), the alternation is to be expected at least in hebban 'heave' (PGmc. *[chi]a[beta]io > OE hebbu, hebbe). Old English hebban, however, is preserved with the reversed distribution of alternants: the voiceless consonant Noun 1. voiceless consonant - a consonant produced without sound from the vocal cords
consonant - a speech sound that is not a vowel generalised Adj. 1. generalised - not biologically differentiated or adapted to a specific function or environment; "the hedgehog is a primitive and generalized mammal"
biological science, biology - the science that studies living organisms in the preterite pret·er·it or pret·er·ite
Of, relating to, or being the verb tense that describes a past action or state.
1. The verb form expressing or describing a past action or condition.
2. and the voiced one in the present system, consequently without a trace of the original alternation: hebban : hof : hofon : hafen, hoefen. Further development of the sequence involved voicing of PGmc. *f (< PIE *'-p-) in voiced environment, yielding a voiced labial fricative [beta] which did not develop into a stop but remained a fricative and as such was soon to merge with PGmc. *[beta] in this position. At the same time PGmc. *[beta] (< PIE *bh or -p-') was subject to devoicing in word-final position and appeared as f. When the voiced labiovelar fricative [v], produced by medial voicing, merged with *[[beta]] (as [v]), a new phonemic pho·ne·mic
1. Of or relating to phonemes.
2. Of or relating to phonemics.
3. Serving to distinguish phonemes or distinctive features. contrast arose, namely /f/ vs. /v/.
To some extent, the opposition was preserved in the early Mercian Mer·ci·an
Of or relating to Mercia or its people, dialect, or culture.
1. A native or inhabitant of Mercia.
2. The Old English dialect of Mercia. material, in Epinal and Erfurt Erfurt (ĕr`frt), city (1994 pop. 200,800), capital of Thuringia, central Germany, on the Gera River. It is an industrial and horticultural center and a rail junction. Glossaries Contents Overviews Academia Topics Basic topics Glossaries Categories
List of glossaries
Art and culture
Geography and places (dated no later than 700) and Corpus [Latin, Body, aggregate, or mass.]
Corpus might be used to mean a human body, or a body or group of laws. The term is used often in Civil Law to denote a substantial or positive fact, as opposed to one that is ambiguous. Glossary A term used by Microsoft Word and adopted by other word processors for the list of shorthand, keyboard macros created by a particular user. See glossaries in this publication and The Computer Glossary. (late 8th century) (5) where the voiceless and voiced variants were made distinct in spelling: <f> was used to represent [v] (in voiced environment) and <b> represented [[beta]], the former--a labiodental la·bi·o·den·tal
1. Relating to the lips and teeth.
2. Articulated with the lower lip and upper teeth, as the sounds (f) and (v). allophone al·lo·phone
1. Linguistics A predictable phonetic variant of a phoneme. For example, the aspirated t of top, the unaspirated t of stop, and the tt (pronounced as a flap) of batter of /f/, the latter--an allophone of /b/ which only later developed into a labiodental fricative The labiodental fricative can refer to one of two things:
1. Occurring at irregular intervals; having no pattern or order in time. See Synonyms at periodic.
2. Appearing singly or at widely scattered localities, as a plant or disease. , e.g., glo(o)b 'glove', raebsid 'reproved' (Hogg hogg
castrated male sheep usually 10 to 14 months old. Also used to describe an uncastrated male pig. 1992: 283).
The differentiation between PGmc. *f (< *'-p-) and *[beta] (< *-p-', *bh) is evident in consonantal clusters in Old English where *[beta] developed into a stop b already in PGmc. or West Germanic period, bringing about alternations of PGmc. *-mf- : *-mb- > WGmc. *-mf- : *-mb- > OE -Vf- : -mb- (fif vs. climban); and similarly, PGmc. *-f(i)j- > *-[beta](i)j- > WGmc. *-ffj- : *-bbj- > OE -ff- : -bb- where geminated ff derives from PGmc. *f (<*'-p-) and geminated bb from PGmc. *[beta] (< *bh) (Go. hafjan vs. OE hebban 'heave') (6) (Brunner Brunner, Brünner, Bruenner may refer to: People
Brunner came from Tyrolean and Bavarian place names, or Brno.
2. Verner's Law and the Old English strong verb paradigm
The distribution of the vestiges of the original Vernerian voiceless and voiced alternants in Old English strong verb paradigm entailed the presence of the old voiceless fricative in the infinitive and 1, 3sg. preterite ind. and the reflex of the voiced fricative in the rest of the preterite system, i.e. 2sg. preterite ind., preterite ind. plural PLURAL. A term used in grammar, which signifies more than one.
2. Sometimes, however, it may be so expressed that it means only one, as, if a man were to devise to another all he was worth, if he, the testator, died without children, and he died leaving one , preterite subjunctive subjunctive: see mood. singular SINGULAR, construction. In grammar the singular is used to express only one, not plural. Johnson.
2. In law, the singular frequently includes the plural. and plural, and past participle past participle
A verb form indicating past or completed action or time that is used as a verbal adjective in phrases such as baked beans and finished work . Such pattern of distribution of Vernerian alternants emerged as a result of the accentual ac·cen·tu·al
1. Of or relating to accent.
2. Based on stress accents: accentual rhythm; accentual verse. conditions characteristic of Proto-Germanic, whereby forms of the infinitive and preterite singular displayed root accentuation, whereas forms of the preterite plural, past participle and subjunctive preterite received suffixal accent. Noteworthy is the presence of the vestiges of Verner's Law in forms of the 2sg. preterite ind. which, apparently, alongside the root vowel of the preterite pl., adopted its consonantism. A similar situation obtains for subjunctive preterite which was formed by employing the stem of preterite plural. Hence, the voiced alternants induced by Verner's Law may be expected in both subjunctive pret. singular and plural. (7)
The infinitive of all strong verbs containing an originally (Proto-Germanic) voiceless fricative reflects the early Old English process of voicing of intervocalic fricative following a stressed vowel, whereby medial /f, [theta], s/ developed into [v, [eth], z] in voiced environment. The change did not affect the velar fricative /[chi]/ which by that time was no longer preserved in this position. The relevant examples are: li[thorn]an, sni[thorn]an, seo[thorn]an [[eth]], dreosan, hreosan [z], etc.
In terms of class division, grammatical gram·mat·i·cal
1. Of or relating to grammar.
2. Conforming to the rules of grammar: a grammatical sentence. change is present in all classes of Old English strong verbs, with the exception of class IV where none of the verbs contained stem-final fricative which could potentially undergo voicing by Verner's Law. It is worth noticing that the first three classes are characterised by remarkable regularity and discipline with respect to grammatical change. This marked consistency detected in these classes is attributed to accentual pattern which must have been stable at the time of the operation of Verner's Law (D'Alquen 1988: 90). In the remaining classes (i.e. V, VI and VII) grammatical change is not accent-dependent but tan be viewed as a result of "analogical an·a·log·i·cal
Of, expressing, composed of, or based on an analogy: the analogical use of a metaphor.
an transfer" from the other classes, hence is less regular and sporadic sporadic /spo·rad·ic/ (spo-rad´ic) occurring singly; widely scattered; not epidemic or endemic.
spo·rad·ic or spo·rad·i·cal
1. Occurring at irregular intervals.
2. (Prokosch 1939: 64). Accordingly, forms such as waeron, cwaedon, slogon, fengon, etc. can be viewed as analogical rather than originally induced by the accentuation pattern. (8)
3. Elimination of the effects of Verner's Law
3.1. The nature of the process
The original consonantal alternations tended to be obliterated through the influence of analogical levelling--a process of morphological mor·phol·o·gy
n. pl. mor·phol·o·gies
a. The branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of organisms without consideration of function.
b. simplification, which worked towards introduction of one single root consonant consonant
Any speech sound characterized by an articulation in which a closure or narrowing of the vocal tract completely or partially blocks the flow of air; also, any letter or symbol representing such a sound. in all forms within the strong verb paradigm. As a result of such generalisation Noun 1. generalisation - an idea or conclusion having general application; "he spoke in broad generalities"
idea, thought - the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about; "it was not a good idea"; "the thought , the allomorphy rendered by the operation of Verner's Law was being gradually removed. (9)
The interpretation of the data does, in fact, depend to a large extent on how the term is understood. In the present analysis it is used in line with the above definition to mean restoration of the original Proto-Germanic voiceless variant variant /var·i·ant/ (var´e-ant)
1. something that differs in some characteristic from the class to which it belongs.
2. exhibiting such variation.
adj. and consequent con·se·quent
a. Following as a natural effect, result, or conclusion: tried to prevent an oil spill and the consequent damage to wildlife.
b. generalisation of this variant to all forms which displayed the effects of the operation of Verner's Law. The definition of elimination can be extended however to include some less regular cases to the effect that forms such as Anglian An·gli·an
Of or relating to East Anglia or to the Angles.
1. An Angle.
2. The Old English dialects of Mercia and Northumbria.
Noun 1. past participles in classes VI and VII (such as befoen, geseen) can be interpreted as instances where Vernerian alternations were lost. Such interpretation is justified on the assumption that the mere absence of the voiced alternant in these forms is enough to view it as a case of elimination. In the present analysis these cases will be treated separately and will not be counted as instances of elimination.
3.2. The database and data analysis
The data for the analysis of the material come from The dictionary of Old English The Dictionary of Old English (DOE) is a dictionary published by the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto under the direction of Angus Cameron, Ashley Crandell Amos, and Antonette diPaolo Healey. It "defines the vocabulary of the first centuries (600-1150 A.D. electronic corpus (known as Toronto Toronto (tərŏn`tō), city (1998 est pop. 2,400,000), provincial capital, S Ont., Canada, on Lake Ontario. Toronto is the largest city in Canada and since the 1970s has been one of the fastest-changing cities in North America, experiencing Corpus), a collection spanning the period between 600 and 1150, considered to be a complete record of surviving Old English, with the exception of a few manuscripts of individual texts. An Anglo-Saxon An·glo-Sax·on
1. A member of one of the Germanic peoples, the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes, who settled in Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries.
2. Dictionary by Bosworth Bosworth, England: see Hinckley and Bosworth. and Toller (1898) served as the main source for identifying the principal parts principal parts
1. In traditional grammars of inflected languages, the forms of the verb that are considered basic and from which all other forms of the verb are derived.
2. of strong verbs liable to voicing by Verner's Law. Forms of the prefixed verbs were drawn from the Dictionary as well and, if not specified there, were systematically built on the pattern of the simplex verbs. In this way a list of 211 verbs which could potentially display Vernerian alternations was compiled. In the effect of search procedure, the list was narrowed down to 149 verbs since some of the prefixed verbs were not attested in the corpus in forms which could testify To provide evidence as a witness, subject to an oath or affirmation, in order to establish a particular fact or set of facts.
Court rules require witnesses to testify about the facts they know that are relevant to the determination of the outcome of the case. to the earlier operation of Verner's Law. (10) The etymological dictionary Noun 1. etymological dictionary - a dictionary giving the historical origins of each word
dictionary, lexicon - a reference book containing an alphabetical list of words with information about them of Germanic strong verbs In the Germanic languages, strong verbs are those which mark their past tenses by means of ablaut. In English, these are verbs like sing, sang, sung. The term "strong verb" is a translation of German "starkes Verb", which was coined by the linguist Jakob Grimm and by Seebold (1970) (Vergleichendes und etymologisches Worterbuch der germanischen starken Verben) was consulted to verify (1) To prove the correctness of data.
(2) In data entry operations, to compare the keystrokes of a second operator with the data entered by the first operator to ensure that the data were typed in accurately. See validate. the Proto-Germanic root forms which were susceptible to the operation of Verner's Law and could be reflected in Old English.
3.2.1. Strong verbs Class I
In verbs belonging to Class I the alternations induced by Verner's Law are well preserved and very regular. All alternating pairs are represented, including the sequence h/[phi] ~ ng, preserved in forms of wreon and [thorn]eon (wrungen, [thorn]ungen), modelled after S[V.sub.2]. In a number of Old English strong verbs elimination of the effects of Verner's Law took place very early, before the date of their earliest attestation The act of attending the execution of a document and bearing witness to its authenticity, by signing one's name to it to affirm that it is genuine. The certification by a custodian of records that a copy of an original document is a true copy that is demonstrated by his or her . They form a separate group of verbs in the sense that they never showed the morphophonemic mor·pho·pho·ne·mics
1. (used with a pl. verb) The changes in pronunciation undergone by allomorphs of morphemes as they are modified by neighboring sounds, as the plural allomorphs in cat-s, dog-s, box-es, alternations induced by Verner's Law. All of these generalised the old voiceless fricative, extending it to all forms which would have otherwise displayed effects of voicing. They are scattered Scattered
Used for listed equity securities. Unconcentrated buy or sell interest. across various classes but are most numerous in Class I, including: mi[thorn]an, bemi[thorn]an 'conceal, avoid', risan Risan (Cyrillic: Рисан, Latin: Risinium, Greek: Rhizon, Venetian: Risano) is a town in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro. It is the oldest settlement in the Bay of Kotor. 'rise', arisan 'arise', wri[thorn]an, gewri[thorn]an 'twist' and aetcli[thorn]an 'adhere'. The principal parts of these verbs in Old English as well as examples of contexts in which they were used are presented below:
(aet-)cli[thorn]an : -- : -- : -- mi[thorn]an : ma[thorn] : mi[thorn]on : mi[thorn]en bemi[thorn]an : bema[thorn] : bemi[thorn]on : bemi[thorn]en risan : ras : rison : risen arisan : aras : arison : arisen gerisan : geras : gerison : gerisen wri[thorn]an : wra[thorn] : wri[thorn]on : wri[thorn]en gewri[thorn]an : gewra[thorn] : gewri[thorn]on : gewri[thorn]en
The following sentences illustrate the use of these levelled forms in Old English:
Ic his word oncneow, [thorn]eh he his maegwlite bemi[eth]en haefde. (And: 855)
Da hie [thorn]a us gesawon hie selfe sona in heora husum deagollice hie mipan [eth]a wilnade ic [thorn]ara monna onsyne to geseonne, [thorn]aet hie us fersc waeter & swete getaehton. (Alex: 15.5)
et quando exortus est sol exaestuauit eo quod non haberet radicem exaruit & [eth]a arisen waes 7 [eth]a uppeode waes sunna gedrugade 7 forbernde for[eth]on naefde wyrtruma gedrugade. (MkGl (Li): 4.6) and paer laegen swylce we deade waeren, and we geherdan [thorn]one aengel cwe[eth]en to [thorn]an wifen [thorn]aet Godes sune waere of dea[eth]e arisen. (Nic (C): 46) [thorn]u gedydest me under[thorn]eodde [thorn]a [thorn]e wi[eth] me upp arison, and minra feonda baec [thorn]u onwendest to me, and me hine gesealdest, and [thorn]u tostenctest [thorn]a [thorn]e me hatedon. (PPs (prose): 17.38)
[THORN]a waes he semninga from deofle gerisen, & ongon cleopian & hlydan & mid his to[eth]um gristbitian, & [thorn]a faam of his mu[eth]e ut eode, & he missenlecum styrenessum ongon his leomu [thorn]raestan. (Bede 3: 9.184.24)
On [thorn]is kinges time wes al unfri[eth] & yfel & raeflac. for agenes him risen sona [thorn]a rice men [thorn]e waeron swikes. (ChronE (Plummer): 1135.18)
[THORN]a deoflu [eth]a gecyrdon ongean to [eth]am drye. and gewri[eth]on his handa to his hricge, and swa laeddon to [eth]am apostole [thorn]us cwe[eth]ende; (AECHom II, 31-32: 243.55)
Waeter hine ond eor[thorn]e feddan faegre, o[thorn][thorn]aet he frod dagum on o[thorn]rum wear[eth] aglachade deope gedolgod, dumb in bendum, wri[thorn]en ofer wunda, wonnum hyrstum foran gefraetwed. (Rid 53: 3)
Perceptible, as by the faculty of vision or the intellect. See Synonyms at perceptible.
dis·cerni·bly adv. traces of elimination of Vernerian alternations appear in five verbs: forli For·lì
A city of northern Italy southeast of Bologna. A Roman trade center, it became a free commune in the 11th century. Population: 108,000. [thorn]an, li[thorn]an, scri[thorn]an, sni[thorn]an and ofsni[thorn]an, where levelling affected primarily preterite plural and past participle forms, extending the voiced fricative /[eth]/, reminiscent of the original voiceless fricative, to these forms. In all mentioned verbs the process affected the dental alternation [eth] ~ d which is definitely the most frequent alternating set in this class. Other present alternations remained intact, staying resistant to the encroaching working of levelling processes.
Interestingly, a few verbs belonging to this class in some forms eliminated the effects of Verner's Law completely. These are: forli[thorn]an, li[thorn]an and scri[thorn]an. The only attested preterite forms of li[thorn]an are li[thorn]ion (possibly li[thorn]eon), appearing in place of the expected lidon. A similar situation obtains for forli[thorn]an which is attested without traces of Verner's Law not only in preterite plural but also in subjunctive plural (in both cases the attested form is forli[thorn]an, instead of the expected forliden). Another case is the past participle form of scri[thorn]an, attested only as scri[thorn]en in place of the expected scriden. All of these forms indicate straightforwardly that the levelling process must have been in progress. The expected past participle form of li[thorn]an, *liwen, with traces of the labiovelar alternation, is not attested in the investigated material; neither are any of the related prefixed forms such as beliwen, forliwen, the expected past participle forms of beli Beli can refer to:
Table 2 (facing page) demonstrates distribution of the effects of Verner's Law in verbs belonging to Class I. The symbols P and L stand for preserved and levelled and refer to the number of occurrences and percentage of forms in which Verner's Law was preserved and eliminated respectively.
Instances of forms which eliminated the effects of Verner's Law in Class I were round in the following contexts in the investigated material.
[ETH]a aet nehstan se foresprecena cyning self, & se halga biscop Trumwine mid him & monige o[thorn]re aefeste weras & rite li[eth]on on [eth]aet ealond. (Bede 4: 29.368.9) [eth]a we [eth]a waeron on midre [eth]aere sae, [eth]a waes somninga hiofones smyltnes tosliten, [eth]aere [eth]e we aer lio[eth]on uut; ond swae micel winter us onhreas. (11) (Bede 5: 1.384.18)
[THORN]a eodon hi ealle gesunde of [thorn]am scipe, [thorn]a [thorn]e li[thorn]on & foron mid [thorn]am forecwedenan Maximiane [thorn]am arwyr[eth]an were. (GDPref and 3 (C): 36.249.13)
Ac [thorn]ylaes ic lenge [thorn]one [thorn]anc hefige [thorn]ara leornendra mid gesegenum [thorn]ara fremdra taelnysse, swa swa <ic> strange sae and mycele oferli[eth]e, and nu becume to [thorn]aere smyltestan hy[eth]e Gudlaces lifes. (LS 10.1 (Guth): 0.31)
And se ilce Nathan waes forli[eth]en, [thorn]aet he waes gefaren fram aelcen lande to odren and fram sae to sae, swa [thorn]aet he haefde ealle eor[eth]e gemaeren [thorn]urhfaren. (VSal 2 (Ass 17): 9) naufragauerunt forli[thorn]an 7 forferdan. (AldV 1 (Goossens): 4368) naufragarent forli[thorn]an 7 forferdan. (AldV 1 (Goossens): 4501) naufragauerant forli[thorn]an, forferdon. (AldV 13.1 (Nap): 4490) naufragarent forli[thorn]an, forferdan. (AldV 13.1 (Nap): 4621)
[THORN]a namon hig an tiecen & ofsni[eth]on hit & bedipton his tunecan on [thorn]am blode. (Gen (Ker): 37.31) & willa[eth] mid [eth]y gedon [eth]aet hie mon hlige wisdomes, mid [eth]y [eth]e hie ofsni[eth]en mid [eth]y seaxe hefiglices gedwolan [eth]a unborenan bearn, [eth]e [eth]onne fur[eth]um beo[eth] mid wordum geeacnode on geleaffullra mode; (CP: 48.367.14)
[THORN]onne dogor beo[eth] on moldwege min for[eth] scri[thorn]en, sorg <geswe[eth]rad>, ond ic si[thorn][thorn]an mot fore meotudes cneowum meorda hleotan, gingra geafena, ond godes lomber in sindreamum si[thorn][thorn]an awo for[eth] folgian; (Guthlac: 1038)
And hundeahtatig [thorn]usenda hine sni[eth]on, & feidon. (Notes 12.1 (Nap): 14)
Figures in Table 3 show overall distribution of forms which preserved and eliminated grammatical change in Class I with respect to particular inflectional in·flec·tion
1. The act of inflecting or the state of being inflected.
2. Alteration in pitch or tone of the voice.
a. categories. The figures indicate that the tendency towards levelling of the Vernerian alternations is most pronounced in forms of subjunctive pret. pl. and preterite ind. pl. Slight hesitancy hes·i·tan·cy
An involuntary delay or inability in starting the urinary stream. can be detected in past participle forms attested in two verbs without the voiced alternant. Most conservative, accordingly, are the forms of preterite sg. and subjunctive pret. sg., where none of the verbs shows signs of levelling.
The forms identified as displaying traces of elimination are scattered across various texts belonging to West Saxon West Saxon
1. The dialect of Old English used in southern England that was the chief literary dialect of England before the Norman Conquest.
2. dialect dialect, variety of a language used by a group of speakers within a particular speech community. Every individual speaks a variety of his language, termed an idiolect. . Most of them come from texts dated to the 10th c. and 11th c., especially Glosses on works by Aldhelm Saint Aldhelm (c. 639-25 May 709), Abbot of Malmesbury, Bishop of Sherborne, Latin poet and Anglo-Saxon literature scholar, was born before the middle of the 7th century. He is said to have been the son of Kenten, who was of the royal house of Wessex. , Vindicta Salvatoris (11th C.), and earlier traces in Guthlac, Pastoral pastoral, literary work in which the shepherd's life is presented in a conventionalized manner. In this convention the purity and simplicity of shepherd life is contrasted with the corruption and artificiality of the court or the city. Care and Bede's History of the English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is Church and nation.
3.2.2. Strong verbs Class II
In Class II, as could be expected, grammatical change was characterised by a considerable degree of regularity. The effects of Verner's Law are no longer seen in breo[thorn]an 'ruin, destroy' and abreo[thorn]an 'ruin, perish' which generalised the voiceless fricative in all forms:
breo[eth]an : bread : bru[eth]on : bro[eth]en abreo[thorn]an : abru[thorn]on : abro[thorn]en
The sentences below illustrate the use of forms in which the effects of Verner's Law had been eliminated before the attestation date.
An her ys OMNIS GENERIS, [thorn]aet is aelces cynnes: hic et haec et hoc nugas, [thorn]aet is abro[eth]en on englisc and ungebigendlic on declinunge. (AE Gram: 51.4) Eac hwilon by[eth] geset NOMINATIVVS for VOCATIVVM, swaswa LVCANVS cwae[eth]: <degener> o populus eala [eth]u abro[eth]ene folc. (AE Gram: 32.8) [THORN]a Ulfkytel [thorn]aet undergeat, [thorn]a sende he [thorn]aet mon sceolde [thorn]a scipo toheawan, ac hi abru[eth]on [thorn]e de he to [thorn]ohte, and he [eth]a gaderede his fyrde digolice swa he swy[eth]ost mihte. (ChronD (Classen-Harm): 1004.8)
[THORN]a efston lat[thorn]eowas & fromrincas gegrap hy fyrhto bru[eth]un ealle eardigende Tunc festinauerunt duces edom et principes mohabitarum adprehendit eos tremor, Tabuerunt omnes inhabitantes chanaan. (PsCaD: 5(4).15)
No occurrences of forms which could testify to the earlier operation of Verner's Law in the non-prefixed freosan 'freeze' were round in the analysed material. The same situation obtains for the forms of begreosan, attested only in the present. The single past participle form of this verb, found in Table 4, was provided by Bosworth and Toller's Dictionary (1898) in the following context:
Atole gastas sfisle begro-rene [MS. begrorenne] the horrid spirits fearfully overwhelmed with torment. (Cd. 214; Th.268: 9)
The single occurrence of onahruron (12) was counted together with onhreosan 'assail, attack' and the doubly attested inhruron together with hreosan 'fall'. The past participle forms with the prefix The beginning or to add to the beginning. To prefix a header onto a packet means to place the header characters in front of the packet. "To prefix" at the beginning is the opposite of "to append" characters at the end. See prepend.
1. i-: icoren, icorene and icorenae were analysed and treated together with the past participle forms of ceosan. The two past participle forms ofroren and ofrorene, attested in AIdV, were eventually recognised as belonging to ofhreosan 'overwhelm'. (13)
Instances of elimination of Vernerian alternations are limited to three verbs only: ceosan, geceosan, beseo[thorn]an and appear in all forms in which they could be expected except for subjunctive pret. sg. The verb beseo[thorn]an is attested once without traces of Verner's Law in past participle, next to the regular besoden. In ceosan elimination affected forms of preterite plural and past participle, where, along with the expected curon and coren, cuson and cosan are attested. Apparent traces of levelling are present also in geceosan in Northumbrian North·um·bri·an
1. Of or relating to Northumbria or its Old English dialect.
2. Of or relating to the former or present-day county of Northumberland in northeast England.
1. texts (Lindisfarne Gospels Lindisfarne Gospels
Illuminated manuscript version of the four Gospels, produced in the late 7th century for the Northumbrian island monastery of Lindisfarne. The book was designed and executed by Eadfrith, who became bishop of Lindisfarne in 698. ) where the preterite plural form Noun 1. plural form - the form of a word that is used to denote more than one
relation - (usually plural) mutual dealings or connections among persons or groups; "international relations" geceason and pret. subjunctive singular gecease (occurring along with gecuron, gecure) are attested. Characteristic of these forms is also extension of the vowel proper to 1, 3 sg. pret. in eoand u- presents which in this particular case may have been partly responsible for the extension of consonantism as well. It may have been the case that the loss of Vernerian alternantions in these forms was to some extent triggered by the developments in the vocalic vo·cal·ic
1. Containing, marked by, or consisting of vowels.
2. Of, relating to, or having the nature of a vowel.
vo·cal system of this verb, i.e., once the vowel from the 1, 3 sg. preterite indicative was extended, the voiceless consonant followed suit. Table 4 (next two pages) presents distribution of the effects of Verner's Law in verbs belonging to Class II.
The following sentences illustrate the use of forms which levelled the effects of Verner's Law in Old English:
[ETH]a cusen [thorn]a munecas to abbot Brand prouost. for[eth]an [thorn]aet he woes swi[eth]e god man & swi[eth]e wis. & senden him [thorn]a to AEdgar ae[eth]eling. (ChronE: 1066.35) & [eth]es o[eth]er daeies aefter Sancti Iohannes messedaei. cusen [thorn]a muneces abbot of hem self and brohten him into cyrce mid processionem. sungen Te Deum Laudamus. ringden [thorn]a belle. (ChronE: 1131.20) [ETH]a cusen hi an clerc Willelm of Curboil woes gehaten, he was canonie of an mynstre Cicc hatte. (ChronE: 1123.32) & te munekes innen daeis cusen o[thorn]er of heom saelf. (ChronE: 1154.12) & swa swa hi haefden cosen aercebiscop aeror in here capitele aefter. (ChronE: 1123.41)
non uos me elegistis sed ego elegi uos et posui uos ut eatis et fructum adferatis ne gie mec geceaso ah ic geceas iuh & ic gesette iuih [thorn]aette gie geongae & waestem gie gebrenga. (JnGl (Li): 15.16) Dicebat autem et ad inuitatos parabolam intendens quomodo primos accubitos eligerent dicens ad illos cuoe[eth] [eth]a & to [eth]aem la[eth]endum l [thorn]aet bisen beheald huu [eth]a formo hraesto hia geceason cuoe[eth] to him. (LkGl (Li): 14.7)
and hi him [thorn]a to comon aerest mid medemum fultume, ac si[eth][eth]an hy wiston hu hit baer besu[eth]an woes. (ChronD: 1052.1.25)
Figures in Table 5 show overall distribution of forms which preserved and eliminated grammatical change in Class II with respect to particular inflectional categories.
The figures indicate that the process of analogical levelling affected a handful of forms. In terms of individual tokens, the tendency is most pronounced in preterite plural where six occurrences have been recognised as forms which dispensed dis·pense
v. dis·pensed, dis·pens·ing, dis·pens·es
1. To deal out in parts or portions; distribute. See Synonyms at distribute.
2. To prepare and give out (medicines).
3. with the voiced alternant. In terms of percentage value however, preterite, sg. seems to be most susceptible to the influence of analogy analogy, in biology, the similarities in function, but differences in evolutionary origin, of body structures in different organisms. For example, the wing of a bird is analogous to the wing of an insect, since both are used for flight. , though only two occurrences were attested without Verner's Law. Unaffected by the working of levelling remains subjunctive preterite plural where no levelled forms have been found.
All the forms which testify to the operation of analogical levelling in Class II derive from Late West-Saxon texts (most of them appear in late manuscripts of Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, collective name given several English monastic chronicles in Anglo-Saxon, all stemming from a compilation made from old annals and other sources c.891. (Chron E), dated to the first half of the 12th century, but also late Northumbrian (Lindisfarne Gospels), from the latter half of the 10th century.
3.2.3 Strong verbs Class III
Although the effects of Verner's Law were displayed with remarkable rigour rig·our
n. Chiefly British
Variant of rigor.
rigour or US rigor
1. and systemacity in Class III, they can be identified in very few verbs: the scarcely attested feolan and its prefixed forms, and the very well attested weor[thorn]an with its derivatives derivatives
In finance, contracts whose value is derived from another asset, which can include stocks, bonds, currencies, interest rates, commodities, and related indexes. Purchasers of derivatives are essentially wagering on the future performance of that asset. where grammatical change was abundantly a·bun·dant
1. Occurring in or marked by abundance; plentiful. See Synonyms at plentiful.
2. Abounding with; rich: a region abundant in wildlife. preserved.
The effects of Verner's Law were levelled very early in findan (*fin[theta]-a-n), i.e. before the time of its attestation. The expected regular forms would have been fi[thorn]an :fo[thorn] :fundon :funden, yet the present and preterite sing. (fand) were created by analogy with verbs like bindan and the cluster nd of the preterite pl. and past participle was extended to the present and preterite singular.
The earliest traces of the demise Death. A conveyance of property, usually of an interest in land. Originally meant a posthumous grant but has come to be applied commonly to a conveyance that is made for a definitive term, such as an estate for a term of years. of grammatical change in Class III appear in weor[thorn]an, geweor[thorn]an and forweor[thorn]an, primarily in past participle but also preterite plural. Weor[thorn]an is one of the few verbs where elimination of the effects of Verner's Law is relatively advanced and can be clearly identified.
The distribution of the effects of Verner's Law in verbs belonging to Class III is presented in Table 6 (next page). The presentation of contexts illustrating early traces of elimination in this class follows.
Hit seg[eth] [thorn]aet hi wur[eth]on raedlice afyrhte [thorn]a ure drihten com on [thorn]as niht to [thorn]aere hellegatum & [thorn]a locu toburston. (Nic (E): II) [THORN]a twegen kyngas Willelm & Swaegn wur[eth]on saehtlod. (ChronE: 1070.45) [THORN]a wundreden heo ealle and wur[eth]en afyrhte. (Nic (C): 43) [THORN]a wur[eth]en heo ealle swy[eth]e sarige and afyrhte. (Nic ((2): 93) And on [thorn]ine dea[eth]e ealle tunglen and gesceafle wur[eth]en gestyrede. (Nic (C): 318) [ETH]a wur[eth]en [thorn]a twegen cnapan sona on slaepe, & se [thorn]ridda wacode <swi[eth]or> for ege [thorn]onne for his gebedum. (Leof: 45) Ond <[thorn]us> hit is iwriten on holie wisdome, Fiat, et facta sunt omnia, he seide, <Iwur[thorn]e>, <ond> alle bing iwor[thorn]en. (HomU 5.6 (Buch F): 43) [THORN]us mid one worde al hit was iwur[thorn]en. HomU 5.6 (Buch F): 46) [THORN]a hi ne leng ne muhten [thorn]olen [thorn]a stali hi ut & flugen. & hi wurthen war widuten & folecheden heom. (ChronE: 1140.31) & se eorl com mid him. & wur[eth]on [thorn]a alswa gode freond swa hi waeron aeror feond. (ChronE (Plummer): 1129.5)
We wiscea[eth] [eth]aet we on Egypta lande waeron aer deade & na on [eth]isum westene, & we wiscea[eth] swy[eth]or [thorn]aet we forwur[eth]on her & us Drihten ne laede in to [eth]am lande, [thorn]aet we [eth]aer licgon ofslagene & ure wif & cyld wur[eth]on gehergode; (Num: 14.1) Sethes sunes yherden adames wytegunge be twam domon & [thorn]aet [thorn]a yfudonne creftes ne forwur[thorn]on writen hi on twam columban; (HeptNotes: 15) Hu gewordene beo[eth] on forletnesse ferlice hie terogoden & forwur[eth]on fore unrihtwisnesse here Quomodo facti sunt in desolationem subito defecerunt et perierunt propter iniquitates suas. (PsGIE: 72.19)
Ne ondred [eth]u [eth]onne weolig gewor[eth]en bi[eth] mon & [eth]one gemonigfaldad bi[eth] wuldur buses his Ne timueris cum diues factus fuerit homo et cum multiplicata fuerit gloria domus eius. (PsGIA: 48.16) & na ic ondraede forpon streng[eth] min & lof min drihten & gewor[eth]en is me on haelo et non timebo quia fortitudo mea et laus mea dominus et factus est mihi in salutem. (PsCaF: 2(1).2) Ealla onhyldon somed unnytte gewor[eth]ene syndon ne his se [thorn]e de[thorn] god ne his o[eth][thorn]e on aenne Omnes declinaverunt simul inutiles facti sunt non est qui faciat bonum non est usque ad unum. (PsGIE: 52.4)
188.8.131.52 The case of feolan (< * fel[chi]an)
The preterite plural form fulgon was in fact rare, instead in West Saxon the form faelon tended to spread, and so did fulon and -felun (attested only twice as aetfelun (VP)). (14) Both -felun and the past participle folen (also folgen) were formed on the pattern of S[V.sub.4]. The past participle forms -fulen, folen, faelon, scattered across various texts, are the only forms of this verb, which exhibit no traces of Vernerian alternations. In fact, the status of these forms is quite ambiguous: although they show no alternations, they certainly cannot be attributed to analogy, working towards generalisation of one variant and restoration of the voiceless fricative. They can be viewed instead as effects of some individual development, entailing liability to adopting a different ablaut ablaut (äp`lout) [Ger.,=off-sound], in inflection, vowel variation (as in English sing, sang, sung, song) caused by former differences in syllabic accent. pattern, in this particular case, the pattern of S[V.sub.4] The following forms are attested without Vemerian alternants:
23) aetfelun (2 occurrences)
Unsce[eth][eth]ende & rehtwise oetfelun me for [eth]on ic arefnde [eth]e dryhten Innocentes et recti adheserunt mihi, quoniam sustinui, te domine. (PsGIA: 24.20) ... & adrugao heorte min for oon offergeotul le eam eotan hlaf mine from stefne geamrunge mime oetfelun 7 aetclofodon ban rein flaesce minum ... et aruit cor meum quia oblitus sum manducare panem meum a uoce gemitus mei adheserunt ossa mea carni meae. (PsGIA: 101.4)
24) bi/befolen (5 occurrences)
Waes him niwe gefea befolen in fyrh[eth]e, woes him frofra maest end <hyhta> nihst heofonrices weard. (El: 195) Him [eth]a gleawhydig ludas onewae[eth], haele[eth] hildedeor, him woes halig gast befolen faeste, fyrhat lufu ... (El: 934) Se maeg eal fela singan ond secgan [thorn]am bi[eth] snyttru craeft bifolen on fer[eth]e. (Christ A, B, C: 666) Ic [thorn]aere sawle ma geornor gyme ymb [thorn]aes gaestes forwyrd [thorn]onne [thorn]aes lichoman, se [thorn]e on legre sceal weor[eth]an in worulde wyrme to hro[thorn]or, bifolen in foldan. (Jul: 413)
Table 7 presents overall distribution of Vernerian alternations in Class III.
Figures in Table 7 illustrate the pattern of distribution of forms which eliminated and preserved Vernerian alternations in this class. The pattern indicates that the forms of subjunctive pret. p1. and preterite ind. plural were most susceptible to the operation of analogical levelling. Affected were also forms of past participle, whereas no, even slight traces of levelling were round in subjunctive plural and 2sg. preterite ind.
3.2.4. Strong verbs Class V
Regular grammatical change in Class V can be identified in four simplex verbs: seon, feon, wesan and cwe[thorn]an. Out of these, in turn, the tendency towards levelling of Vernerian alternations is most pronounced in cwe[thorn]an. Pre-Old English levelling affected four verbs in this class: fnesan 'sneeze' (no attestations found in the corpus), lesan 'collect, lease', alesan 'choose', (ge)nesan 'survive', in all of which the voiceless fricative was generalised:
genesan : genaes : genaeson : gensen lesan : laes : laeson : lesen alesan : alaes : alaeson : alesen
Following are contexts in which they were round in the investigated material:
Swa he ni[eth]a gehwane genesen haefde, sli[eth]ra <geslyhta>, sunu Ecg[eth]iowes, ellenweorca, o[eth] [eth]one anne daeg [thorn]e he wi[eth] [thorn]am wyrme gewegan sceolde. (Beo: 2397) Of [thorn]am him aweaxeo wynsum gefea, [thorn]onne hi [thorn]aet yfel geseo[eth] o[eth]re dreogan, [thorn]aet hy [thorn]urh miltse meotudes genaeson. (Christ A, B, C: 1252) AEfter [thorn]aem for Hannibal ofer Bardan [thorn]one beorg, [thorn]eh [thorn]e ymb [thorn]one tieman waeren swa micel snawgebland swa [thorn]aette aeg[thorn]er ge [thorn]ara horsa fela forwurdon ge [thorn]a elpendas ealle buton anum, ge [thorn]a men selfe unea[eth]e [thorn]one ciele genoeson. (Or: 4 8.100.9)
and hig foron towerd Sandwic, and loeson aefre for[eth] mid heom ealle [thorn]a butsecarlas [thorn]e heo gemetton, and comon [thorn]a to Sandwic mid geotendan here. (ChronC (Rositzke): 1052.16)
Haefde him alesen leoda duge[eth]e tireadigra twa [thorn]usendo, [thorn]aet waeron cyningas and cneowmagas, on [thorn]aet <ealde> riht, ae[eth]elum deore. (Ex: 183) ... vsig on dea[eth] rod' lvstvme gisaldest gilef allvm vs rehtlice gilefendvm [thorn]aette [eth]erh [thorn]aet ilca dea[eth] from deaoe ecvm ve sic alesen. (DurRitG1 1: (94.10)
Class V is most numerous with respect to forms which levelled effects of Verner's Law and at the same time not much diversified diversified (di·verˑ·s in the sense that in fact all of the forms affected by levelling belong to one simplex cwe[eth]an and its prefixed derivatives. The data allow for identification of 39 forms of preterite plural which no longer preserve the voiced alternant induced by the operation of Verner's Law. Single past participle and preterite subjunetive sg. forms without Verner's Law can also be identified. Liable to the working of levelling was also Gecwe[eth]an which showed discernible traces of the process in past participle and sporadically in preterite plural and subjunctive pret. singular. Very sparse sparse - A sparse matrix (or vector, or array) is one in which most of the elements are zero. If storage space is more important than access speed, it may be preferable to store a sparse matrix as a list of (index, value) pairs or use some kind of hash scheme or associative memory. traces of levelling are present in acwe[eth]an, becwe[eth]an and tocwe[eth]an which levelled Verner's Law in single forms of past participle and preterite pl. (acwe[eth]on, Becwe[eth]on, tocwe[thorn]on). Finally, slight tendency towards elimination can also be detected in wi[thorn]cwe[thorn]an where the voiceless fricative is extended to forms of past participle (wi[thorn]cwe[thorn]en).
Given that seon is the only verb in Old English, which testifies to the labiovelar alternation of *[chi]w ~ *[gamma]w, as well as given the diversity of forms in which the verb was attested, it deserves a brief comment. The West Saxon regular preterite plural form of seon was sawon and in Anglian segun, -on, the latter often "West-Saxonized" as saegon ([Ru.sup.1] -segon, -saegon, -sagun). The past participle form sawen adopted a from preterite plural; sewen Sew´en
n. 1. (Zool.) A British trout usually regarded as a variety (var. Cambricus) of the salmon trout. , an alternative past participle, remains in accordance Accordance is Bible Study Software for Macintosh developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
As well as a standalone program, it is the base software packaged by Zondervan in their Bible Study suites for Macintosh. with the regular vocalism vo·cal·ism
1. Use of the voice in speaking or singing.
2. Music The act, technique, or art of singing.
a. A vowel sound.
b. of S[V.sub.5]. The Anglian past participle form was gesegen with the consonantism adopted from the preterite and consistently the form of Anglian subjunctive pret. sg. was sege Sedge, Sege a collection of rush-like marsh plants, hence, a group of sea or marsh birds that use it as a nesting place. Also, siege.
Examples: sedge of bitterns; of cranes; of herons—Bk. of St. Albans, 1486. . (15) The loss of medial g is evident in some Northumbrian texts, namely in forms such as gesene ([Ru.sup.1], [Ru.sup.2], Li.) (in fact an adjective adjective, English part of speech, one of the two that refer typically to attributes and together are called modifiers. The other kind of modifier is the adverb. employed often as past participle), geseanae, gesaenae (Rut rut
the period of increased sexual activity occurring in the autumn (fall) in some male mammals, especially deer and elephants. It is accompanied by increased testicular activity, especially spermatogenesis, and in deer by shedding of the antlers and a marked increase in vocalizing ), geseen (Li.). Again these forms preserve no voiced alternant reminiscent of the earlier operation of Verner's Law; still they cannot be viewed as the effect of analogical levelling but rather as products of dialect-specific phonological development (cf. section 3.3).
The distribution of the effects of Verner's Law in verbs belonging to Class V is demonstrated in Table 8 (facing page), followed by the presentation of contexts in which forms without Vernerian alternants were found.
Following are contexts illustrating forms which eliminated the allomorphy brought about by the operation of Verner's Law:
Waerun wuldurlice wi[eth] [thorn]e wel acwe[eth]ene, [thorn]aet pu si cymast ceastra drihtnes; eac le gemyndige [thorn]a maeran Raab and Babilonis begea gehwae[eth]eres. (PPs A5: 86.2) intermediate saxon
[ETH]a cwae[eth]on his apostolas, drihten, geic urne geleafan. (Lk (WSCp): 17.5) [THORN]a halgan sawla [thorn]a mid unasecggendlicum gefean cleopodan to Drihtne, & [thorn]us cwoe[thorn]on. (HomS 26 (BIHom 7): 83) And syd[eth]on [thorn]aet fers & geseald [thorn]are abbodesse bletsunge, beon geared o[thorn]ere feower raedunge of [thorn]are niwe cy[eth]nesse [thorn]are aenbyrdnesse, [thorn]e we before cwe[rth]on. (BenRW: 11.47.8) Se ste[eth]e is ycwae[eth]en si denae of taeran besyde hebron [thorn]e adam & eue wypen. (HeptNoles: 8) [THORN]a wuldorfestan cwe[thorn]ene sien be [eth]e ceaster godes Gloriosa dicta sunt de te civitas dei. (PsGIE: 86.3) et respondentes dicunt iesu nescimus respondens iesus ait illis & ondueardon cuoe[eth]on [eth]aem haelende neutu woe geonduearde se haelend cuoe[eth] to him (MkGI (Li): 11.33) And [thorn]aeraeter hine God geuferade [thorn]aet he wear[eth] prior & faeder [thorn]aes bufan cwe[eth]enan mynstres. (StWulf: 18)
of ealles cynnes [eth]ingae swa full 7 swa for[eth] 7 swa freo swa Tosti eorll 7 Leofrun his wif min fostermoder hit firmest ahten/7 [eth]ider inn becwae[eth]en on ece yrf[eth]e. (Ch 1137 (Harm 93): 4) Ealle [eth]a. mynstra and in cyrican waeron givene and becwe[eth]ene Gode. (Chr. 694; Th. 66.6, note 2: Th. Diplm. A. D.830; 465,1) Aend ic cype eow paet ic hebbe bicwe[eth]en Portland 7 eall [thorn]aet [eth]erto bily[eth] in to Gealden Mynstre on Wyncheastre Gode to lofe 7 Sancte Petre 7 Sancte Suunthune [thorn]am monekan to scrudan ... (Ch 1154: 2)
et ait illi iesus uide nemini dixeris sed uade ostende te sacerdoti & cue[eth] him haelend loca geseh [thorn]aet [eth]u aenigum menn [eth]u gecuoe[eth]a gesaecga ah gaa aedeau [eth]ec [eth]aem meassepreost. (MtGI (Li): 8.4) Her is geswutelod an [eth]is gewrite hu AElfheah ealdorman his cwidae Gecwae[eth]en haef[eth], be his cynchlafordaes ge[thorn]afuncge. (Ch 1485 Whitelock 9): 1) & aelc [thorn]aera [thorn]inga forgifan beon sceolde [thorn]e <him> gedon o[eth][eth]e gecwe[eth]en waere. (ChronE: 1014.8) Seo feor[eth]e mihte is Pacientia, [thorn]oet is ge[eth]yld gecwe[eth]en. (AEAbusWarn: 256) Rex we cwe[eth]e[eth] cyng, [thorn]aet is gecwe[eth]en Wissigend, for[thorn]an [thorn]e he sceal wissigen mid wisedome his folc, & unriht alecgen. (EAbusWarn: 129) Ic blitsige on [thorn]ysum [thorn]ae gecwe[eth]ene syndon to me on huse drihtnes we ga[eth] Letatus sure in his quae dicta sunt michi in domum domini ibimus. (PsGIE: 121.1) Swa hit gecwe[eth]en is. [eth]onne se heretoga waca[eth] [thorn]onne bi[eth] eall se here swi[eth]e gehindred. (ChronE: 1003.10)
& ordal & a[eth]as syndan tocwe[eth]en freolsdagum & rihtymbrendagum & fram Adventum Domini o[eth] octabas Epiphani // & fram Septuagessiman o[eth] XV niht ofer eastran. (LawVAtr: 18) et si quis uobis aliquid dixerit dicite quia dominus his opus habet et confestim demittet uobis & gif hwa eow // inc awiht tocwae[thorn]e saecga[thorn] [thorn]aet dryhten heora [eth]earf & sonae forlete[eth] heo. (MtGI (Ru): 21.3)
Him wi[eth]cwae[eth]en muneces & eorles & [thorn]eignes ealle mest [thorn]e [thorn]oer waeron. (ChronE: 1123.30) late saxon & ealle [thorn]a o[eth]re [thorn]e [eth]aer waeron munechades men hit wi[eth]cwae[eth]en fulle twa dagas. (ChronE: 1123.28) Ne [eth]a opre ongean [eth]aet nan [eth]incg wi[eth]cwe[eth]on. (BenRWells: 64.118.1)
Table 9 presents overall number of occurences and percentage of forms which lost Vernerian alternations in this class, taking into account the distribution of these in particular inflectional categories (without wesan (16)).
The figures indicate that the form of subjunctive sg. was evidently most innovative, showing traces of elimination in close to 4% of all attested forms. Analogical levelling operated also on forms of preterite pl. and past participle, affecting 1.66% of attested forms in the former and 1.59% in the latter. The alternations are best preserved in 2sg. preterite indicative and subjunctive preterite plural which show either no or very scarce traces of elimination.
The single occurrences of levelled forms attested in this class are scattered throughout various texts. Most of the forms are round in texts of West-Saxon provenience pro·ve·nience
A source or origin.
[Alteration of provenance.]
Noun 1. , especially Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Benedictine benedictine (bĕnədĭk`tēn), sweet liqueur originated in 1510 by Benedictine monks at Fécamp, France, and now manufactured by a secular concern on the grounds of the old abbey. Rule (11th c.), Cura CURA Community-University Research Alliance
CURA Centre Universitaire de Recherche en Astrologie
CURA Cambridge University Rifle Association Pastoralis, various Charters, Homilies, West-Saxon Gospels. Quite frequent occurrences of the levelled forms tan also be traced to Northumbrian texts, here especially Lindisfarne Gospels but also Rushworth Gospels and Durham Durham, town and district, England
Durham, town (1991 pop. 38,105) and district, county seat of Durham, NE England, on the sides of a hill nearly encircled by the Wear River. The town's small factories produce organs and carpets. Ritual, all dating back to the 10th century as well as Coedmon's Hymn hymn, song of praise, devotion, or thanksgiving, especially of a religious character (see also cantata).
Early Christian hymnody consisted mainly of the Psalms and the great canticles Nunc dimittis, Magnificat, and Benedictus , dated to early 8th century (c. 730), or Mercian Vespasian Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus) (vĕspā`zhən), A.D. 9–A.D. 79, Roman emperor (A.D. 69–A.D. 79), founder of the Flavian dynasty. The son of a poor family, he made his way in the army by sheer ability. Hymns.
3.2.5. Strong verbs Class V1
Verbs belonging to Class VI manifest manifest 1) adj., adv. completely obvious or evident. 2) n. a written list of goods in a shipment.
MANIFEST, com. law. A written instrument containing a true account of the cargo of a ship or commercial vessel.
2. a different pattern as far as preservation of the effects of Verner's Law is concerned, displaying the alternations with relative regularity at the same time. The voiced fricative was apparently extended to the form of 3sg. preterite ind. in verbs whose stems ended in a velar fricative (log, flog, hlog, slog, [thorn]wog). Later forms of preterite singular, however, contain already the voiceless fricative, hence loh, floh, hloh, sloh, [thorn]woh and their corresponding prefixed forms. Frequent spellings with -h in the 3sg. preterite ind. tan be explained by the process of unvoicing of final voiced fricatives, which took place shortly after the voicing of medial spirants (Campbell Campbell, city, United States
Campbell, city (1990 pop. 36,048), Santa Clara co., W Calif., in the fertile Santa Clara valley; founded 1885, inc. 1952. 1959:180).
On the superficial superficial /su·per·fi·cial/ (-fish´al) pertaining to or situated near the surface.
1. Of, affecting, or being on or near the surface.
2. level, it seems, the forms of preterite singular must have been affected by Vernerian voicing since the voiced fricative present here corresponds to those induced by Verner's Law in preterite plural, subjunctive and past participle. In fact, the status of these preterite singular forms Noun 1. singular form - the form of a word that is used to denote a singleton
descriptor, form, signifier, word form - the phonological or orthographic sound or appearance of a word that can be used to describe or identify something; "the inflected is ambiguous. To view the alternation as original, i.e. generated by the operation of Verner's Law, one would have to assume a different pattern of accentuation for the form of preterite singular, with root accentuation in the present and suffixal accent in all the other forms, including preterite singular. Such assumption is not uncontroversial however. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. standard grammars no such special accentuation pattern need be postulated pos·tu·late
tr.v. pos·tu·lat·ed, pos·tu·lat·ing, pos·tu·lates
1. To make claim for; demand.
2. To assume or assert the truth, reality, or necessity of, especially as a basis of an argument.
3. . Campbell (1959) claims that the preterite singular form, in contrast to the present system, received root rather than suffixal accentuation, and the voiced fricative was simply transferred from the past participle form (Campbell 1959: 305). Luick (1921), Wright (1925), Brunner (1902), much in the same line, maintain that the extended voiced fricative appeared under the influence of the preterite plural. Finally, as suggested by Wright (1925), the alternation should be viewed as orthographie rather than phonological. The exact conditions of the variation can be defined as follows:
When Germanie 3 came to stand finally in OE., it is probable that it became a voiceless spirant (x) just as in Goth. OS., and prehistoric O.Icel., but that the g (= 3) was mostly restored again owing to the influence of the inflected forms. After liquids and guttural vowels the restoration of the g was merely orthographical, but the further history of the sound in OE. shows that after palatal vowels it was mostly restored in pronunciation as well ... (Wright 1925: 169)
Elimination of the effects of Verner's Law in this class is evident in the verb sce[thorn][thorn]an only, which in the past participle form preserved the levelled form scea[eth]en. The verb evidently favoured the fricative and extended it very early to past participle; hence frequent citations of scea[eth]en as the basic form of past participle in major Old English grammars (Brunner 1942, 1902; Campbell 1959; Wrigth 1925; Bosworth and Toller's 1898). sce[thorn][thorn]an corresponds to the Gothic verb ska[thorn]jan : sko[thorn]; the strong present scea[thorn]an is attested only in poetry. The verb already in Old English tended to shift to weak declension (Anglo-Saxon Gram.) the declension of weak nouns; also, one of the declensions of adjectives.
See also: Weak and the weak preterite forms sce[thorn], sce[thorn]edon, sce[thorn]eden (corresponding to Olcel. Ske[eth]ja/ skaddi) are attested in West Saxon. (17) The following sentences illustrate the use of the levelled forms of sce[eth][eth]an:
Scyldfull mine scea[eth]en is me sare, frecne on ferhoe; ne dear nu for[eth] gan for [eth]e andweardne. (Gen A, B: 869) Nu earttu <scea[eth]ana> <sum>, in fyrlocan feste gebunden. (Sat: 57)
Table 10 (next page) presents the distribution of the vestiges of Verner's Law in Class VI.
In other verbs belonging to this class grammatical change is preserved intact. The forms slohge (attested once; subj. pret. sg.) and sloghen (attested once; past participle) indicate no more than spelling variation rather than levelling. They were identified in the following contexts:
& hine heton burh bismornysse witegian hwa [thorn]aet waere pe hine [eth]onne slohge. (HomS 24.2: 197) & flemden be king aet te Standard. & sloghen suithe micel of his genge. (ChronE: 1138.2)
Needless to say, any conclusions based on the type of data availed by Class VI (with one verb displaying traces of elimination in single attested forms) inspire little confidence and must be treated with a considerable degree of criticism.
3.2.6. Strong verbs Class VII
Class VII, combining several accent types, is very irregular HEIR, IRREGULAR. In Louisiana, irregular heirs are those who are neither testamentary nor legal, and who have been established by law to take the succession. See Civ. Code of Lo. art. 874. with respect to Verner's Law. In fact, most verbs belonging to this class display no grammatical change at all, and in those which do, preterite singular and preterite plural have the same foot consonant. The reason for the irregularity A defect, failure, or mistake in a legal proceeding or lawsuit; a departure from a prescribed rule or regulation.
An irregularity is not an unlawful act, however, in certain instances, it is sufficiently serious to render a lawsuit invalid. may be sought in the tact that the past participle form had full grade vocalism rather than zero or reduced grade, which was the case in verbs showing relatively regular grammatical change. The presence of the same vocalism in the prescrit and past participle may be seen as a factor encouraging levelling of the effects of Verner's Law in this class. Irregular traces of Verner's Law tan be identified in two verbs only hon and fon and their prefixed forms, where the preterite plural and singular have the same consonantism. (18)
Alongside the regular forms containing the ng alternation, a set of forms without traces of Vernerian alterations was attested. All of them are of Anglian provenience and the attested past participle forms of-fon and -hon are -foen and -hoen. (19) This evident lack of Vernerian alternations in all of these forms however cannot be attributed to the operation of analogical levelling which, in line with the adopted definition of elimination, involved generalisation of one consonantal variant. The forms could be subsumed under a common heading of Anglian past participles (cf. section 3.3). Table 11 (next page) presents the distribution of the vestiges of Verner's Law in Class VII, taking into account the less regular cases of elimination to be discussed and illustrated in the following section.
Table 12 illustrates overall distribution of forms which eliminated and preserved effects of Verner's Law in verbs belonging to Class VII:
Table 12. The percentage of forms which preserved and eliminated effects of Verner's Law CATEGORY PRESERVED ELIMINATED # % # % PRETERITE SG. 93 100% 0 0% PRETERITE PLURAL 628 100% 0 0% PAST PARTICIPLE 570 95.64% 26 4.36% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. SG. 146 100% 0 0% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. PL. 17 80.90% 4 19.05%
3.3. Anglian forms
A group of verbs and their past participle forms due to their individual pattern of development deserve special attention as their status with respect to Verner's Law is quite ambiguous. When subject to closer scrutiny, it can be noticed that all of them are of Anglian provenance prov·e·nance
1. Place of origin; derivation.
2. Proof of authenticity or of past ownership. Used of art works and antiques. and come from three classes: ahon, gehon, befon, onfon, gefon, (gifon), belonging to Class VII; [thorn]wean, ge[thorn]wean, belonging to Class VI and geseon, assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. to Class V. Their past participle forms attested in Anglian show no traces of Verner's Law on the surface level. Accordingly, in Northumbrian the past participle forms of [thorn]wean are [eth]uaen (20) ([eth]waen), -[eth]uenum (dat.pl.), -[eth]ueanum (for [eth]uaenum), [eth]weanum, attested alongside more regular [eth]uegenum, [eth]uegnum. The attested past participle forms in Li. are ge[eth]uaen, un[eth]uen, un[eth]uenum (for *ge[eth]waegn, [eth]wegn). (21) Similarly, the mentioned Northumbrian past participle forms of-fon and -hon are -foen and -hoen. (22)
This evident lack of Vernerian alternations in all of these forms however cannot be attributed to the operation of analogical levelling which, in line with the adopted definition of elimination, would involve generalisation of one consonantal variant. Instead, it should be viewed as the effect of an individual, Anglian development which involved the loss of medial g and contraction contraction, in physics
contraction, in physics: see expansion.
contraction, in grammar
contraction, in writing: see abbreviation.
contraction - reduction of the vowels.
Following are some instances of these "ambiguous" past participles and subjunctive plural forms found in the corpus:
34) ge[thorn]wean (the only form round in the corpus)
dicit ei iesus qui locutus est non indiget ut lauet sed est mundus totus et uos mundi estis sed non omnes cuoe[eth] him to se haelend se[eth]e ge[eth]uoen is l sprec uaes ne [eth]orfae[eth] ? [thorn]aette a[eth]oa hine ah is claene all & gie claeno aron ah ne alle. (JnGl (Li): 13.10)
35) [thorn]wean (only forms with the prefix un- un-
Not: unmyelinated. are attested)
Quaerentibus de non lotis discipulorum manibus ea dicit hominem quae de corde exeunt inquinare soecendum of un[eth]weanum [eth]ara [eth]eigna hondum [eth]a ilca cwoe[eth] done monno [eth]a of heorta gaes unclaensia. (MtHeadGl (Li): 53) haec sunt quae coincinant hominem non lotis autem manibus manducare non coincinant hominem [eth]as aron [eth]a widlas done monno un[eth]uenum uutedlice hondum eatta ne widlas [eth]one monno. (MtGl (Li): 15.20)
36) ahon (altogether 17 past participle forms found in the corpus)
At illi instabant uocibus magnis postulantes ut crucifigeretur et inuallescebant uoces eorum so[eth] hia onstodon stefnum miclum gebedon [thorn]aette ahoen woere & ontrymmedon l stefno hiora. (LkGl (Li): 23.23) Fratres hoc scientes quia uetus homo noster simul crucifixus est ... bro' [eth]is witendo f'[eth]on se alda //monn// vser gilic ahoen is ... (DurRitGl 1 (Thomp-Lind): 26.10)
37) gehon (2 past participle forms attested in the corpus)
... et tradidit iesum flagellis caesum ut crucifigeretur & salde [eth]one haelend mi[eth] suuippum to ge[eth]earscanne [thorn]aette were gehoen. (MkGl (Li): 15.15) scitis quia post biduum paselm fiet et filius hominis tradetur ut crucifigatur wutas gie for[eth]on aefter tuaem dogrum l dagum eastro bia[eth] & sunu monnes gesald bi[eth] [thorn]aette he se gehoen l ahongen. (MtGl (Li): 26.2)
38) befon (one form only attested in the corpus)
adducunt autem scribae et pharisaei mulierem in adulterio deprehensam et statuerunt eam in medio laeddon l brohton uutedlice [eth]a wu[eth]uotto & aelaruas uif in [eth]ernelegerscip ofnumen l befoen & aseton [eth]ailca l hia on middum. (JnGl (Li): 8.3)
39) onfon (2 past participle forms and 3 subj. pret. pl. forms found in the corpus)
In [eth]on [eth]onne bio[eth] gesomnade aile somud wi[eth] me [eth]aet hie onfoen sawle mine ge[eth]aehtende werun In eo dura congregarentur otaries simul aduersum me ut acciperent animam meam consiliati sunt. (PsGlA (Kuhn): 30.16) Tunc duo erunt in agro unus adsumetur et unus relinquetur [eth]a tuoege bi[eth]on on lond an ondfoende bi[eth] l him bi[eth] onfoen genumen bi[eth] & an bi[eth] forleten. (MtGl (Li): 24.40)
40) gefon (4 past participle forms altogether)
et farissei mulierem in aduherio depraehensam et statuerunt eam in medio & aes larwas wif in dernegilegerscipe ginumen gifoen & asettum [eth]a ilco on middum. (JnGl (Ru): 8.3) at illi accepta pecunia fecerunt sicut erant docti so[eth] hia gefoen haefdon feh dedon suae weron gelaered. (MtGl (Li): 28.15)
The exceptional contracted past participle form biseon, belonging to S[V.sub.1] and attested once in Christ A, B, C can also be included here. It appears in the following eontext:
Ne bi[eth] him to are [thorn]aet [thorn]aer fore ellpeodum usses dryhtnes rod ondweard stonde[eth], beacna beorhtast, blode bistemed, heofoncyninges hlutran dreore, biseon mid swate [thorn]aet ofer side gesceaft scire scine[eth]. (Christ A, B, C: 1083)
4. Concluding remarks
Elimination of the effects of Verner's Law started very early in some verbs, even before the time of their earliest attestation. Such was the case with mipan, bemipan 'conceal, avoid', risan 'rise', arisan 'arise', wripan, gewripan 'twist', aetclipan 'adhere" (Class I), abreopan, breoban (Class II), lesan 'collect, lease', alesan 'choose' (ge)nesan 'survive' (Class V), all of which were attested in Old English texts Old English Text consists of a font, by Monotype, that simulates the calligraphy of medieval writings in England. It is frequently employed as the font for several brands´ logo as well as printed in packages of numerous products. with the voiced fricative, reminiscent of the PGmc.original voiceless variant, with the exception of findan (Class III) which generalised the voiced stop (Phon.) a stopped consonant made with tone from the larynx while the mouth organs are closed at some point; a sonant mute, as b, d, g hard.
See also: Voiced in a cluster with a nasal. Levelling of the effects of Verner's Law in verbs which evince e·vince
tr.v. e·vinced, e·vinc·ing, e·vinc·es
To show or demonstrate clearly; manifest: evince distaste by grimacing. Vernerian alternations more or less regularly in historic Old English begins towards the end of the Old English period and is a gradual process. It must be noticed that none of the verbs eliminated the voiced alternant completely, instead they tend to vacillate between the two forms: the archaic Vernerian one and the innovative one without Verner's Law.
All instances which display the levelling tendencies derive from late West Saxon Late West Saxon was a form of West Saxon, primarily spoken in Wessex, which was one of four distinct dialects of Old English. The three others were Kentish, Mercian and Northumbrian (the latter two known as the Anglian dialects). and late Anglian texts, and they are best represented in Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels. In fact, most of them come from the later manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. of the Chronicle--MS. Laud. 636 (noted in the corpus as Chron. E) referred to as the Peterborough Chronicle The Peterborough Chronicle (also called the Laud Manuscript), one of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, contains unique information about the history of England after the Norman Conquest. According to philologist J.A.W. . The manuscript, dated to the first half of the 12th century, has been frequently classified as belonging to the Early Middle English period or the intermediate stage between Old and Middle English known as the transition period. It comes as no surprise then that forms with both alternants, the voiceless and the voiced one are round alongside each other, indicating the imminent process of elimination. Traces of earlier elimination appear sporadically in earlier West Saxon texts: Pastoral Care and Bede's History of the English Church and nation, dating back to the 10th and 11th century.
The present analysis of the Old English material took into consideration the behaviour of Vernerian alternations, viewed form the perspective of their loss, with respect to a number of factors (variables). These included the relevant inflectional categories, alternation sets and class membership.
Tables 13 and 14 present the overall percentage of forms which eliminated the alternations by Verner's Law with respect to two variables, namely class membership and inflectional category.
The data unerringly indicate that levelling tendencies are most pronounced in the form of subjunctive pret. pl. and preterite ind. plural. The forms of 2sg, preterite ind. seem to be most conservative, showing relatively little inclination inclination, in astronomy, the angle of intersection between two planes, one of which is an orbital plane. The inclination of the plane of the moon's orbit is 5°9' with respect to the plane of the ecliptic (the plane of the earth's orbit around the sun). towards levelling.
The noted frequency pattern indicates that there is a relatively high proportion of forms which lost Vernerian alternations in strong verbs of Classes I and III and VII. Classes VI and II are apparently most archaic in that very few verbs display tendency towards levelling of the effect of Verner's Law. In fact, in Class II the number of occurrences is relatively high (12 occurrences altogether), but given the ample attestation of verbs belonging to this class, this does hot constitute more than 0.63% of all occurrences. In Class VI traces of levelling are present in one verb only (sce[thorn][thorn]an).
The picture emerging form the analysed material with respect to particular alternations shows that the dental alternation was most innovative and most readily subject to the working of analogy. A similar tendency is present in the alternation of sibilant/r where traces of elimination are attested in ceosan and its prefixed forms. Intact remain all other alternations which do not show even slight tendency towards levelling.
Viewed against the complete corpus, without considering class membership and inflectional categories the overall percentage of forms which eliminated the effects of Verner's Law in Old English strong verbs relative to those which still preserved it looks as in Table 15:
Table 15. Overall percentage of strong verb forms which eliminated the effects of the operation of Verner's Law (irrespective of class, inflectional category, alternation or any other variable) PRESERVED ELIMINATED 98.45% 1.55%
In fact, if it were not for the data provided by subsequent period in the history of English, one would be justified in treating such percentage distribution, with 1.55% of forms where levelling operated, as a case of some sporadic, ad hoc For this purpose. Meaning "to this" in Latin, it refers to dealing with special situations as they occur rather than functions that are repeated on a regular basis. See ad hoc query and ad hoc mode. development; an irregularity rather than a trace of a consistent process working towards regularisation Noun 1. regularisation - the condition of having been made regular (or more regular)
condition, status - a state at a particular time; "a condition (or state) of disrepair"; "the current status of the arms negotiations"
2. . Given the knowledge availed by the Middle English data however as well as the nature of the process of Vernerian voicing, one must view these figures as testifying to the presence of some development encouraging elimination of the Vernerian alternants. Accordingly, the figures indicate that the effects of Verner's Law were still firmly preserved in Old English strong verbs. The process of elimination, very irregular and sporadic affected only a handful of Old English verbs and must be viewed as no more than a marginal process.
In a number of verbs the tendency to extend the voiced alternant to forms of the present or preterite singular could be observed. Such was the case, for instance, with wreon where the voiced fricative was extended to 1, 3 pret. sg. (wrag) and the present system (3sg. pres. ind. wriga[thorn]), or [thorn]eon ([thorn]ag, ge[thorn]ong). Such an unexpected extension can be viewed as a development in the opposite direction in the sense that the voiced rather than the voiceless alternant is generalised.
The behaviour of three verbs li[thorn]an, forli[thorn]an and sce[thorn][thorn]an deserves some attention. These three verbs show traces of elimination, in forms of preterite plural (li[thorn]an, forli[thorn]an) and in past participle (sce[thorn][thorn]an). Noteworthy is the fact that they eliminate the working of Verner's Law completely in the attested occurrences in the respective forms, i.e. li[thorn]on and forli[thorn]an are the only attested preterite plural forms of li[thorn]an and forli[thorn]an, respectively, whereas scea[thorn]en is the only attested past participle form of sce[thorn][thorn]an.
Finally, the pattern of distribution of the levelled forms in the Old English material indicates an evident correlation between the process of levelling and the frequency of occurrence of particular verbs. It could be observed that verbs which were attested more frequently in the corpus (e.g., cwe[thorn]an, weor[thorn]an) tended to be more liable to the operation of the levelling process.
Concluding, the forms which show traces of elimination of Vernerian alternations are rather sporadic and scantily scant·y
adj. scant·i·er, scant·i·est
1. Barely sufficient or adequate.
2. Insufficient, as in extent or degree.
scant evidenced, their number being very low throughout the Old English period. None of the classes and none of the inflectional forms testify to a radical or rapid removal of Vernerian alternations from the paradigm of Old English strong verb. The slight increase in the number of forms without Vernerian alternants can be dated to the end of the 10th century, and later. This slight frequency increase towards the end of the Old English period indicate that some linguistic development must have been in progress. Certainly, the relatively small number of these forms does hot allow no view them and the process as actual spread of the tendency at this early stage. The development will continue into the Early Middle English period and will be characterised by the increasing popularity of the forms without traces of Verner's Law at the expense of those still preserving in.
Table 1. Vernerian alternations in PGmc. and their OE reflexes PROTO-GERMANIC OLD ENGLISH *f ~ *[beta] -- *[thorn] ~ *[eth] [thorn], [eth] ~ d *[chi]) ~ *[gamma] h/o ~ g *[eta][chi] ~ *[eta][gamma] o (+ vowel length) ~ ng *[chi]w ~ *[gamma]w h/o ~ g/w *s ~ *z s ~ r Table 2. Distribution of the effects of Verner's Law in Class I CATEGORY PRET. SG. PRET. PL. PAST PTCP. P L P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % # # % onleon 0 0 0 0 1 0 0% lipan 0 0 0 3 100% 3 0 0% belipan 0 0 0 0 3 0 0% forlipan 0 0 0 2 100% 14 1 6.67% gelipan 0 0 1 0 0% 5 0 0% scripan 0 0 2 0 0% 0 1 100% seon 5 0 0% 13 0 0% 8 0 0% aseon 0 0 1 0 0% 18 0 0% geseon 1 0 0% 0 0 23 0 0% snipan 0 0 5 1 16-67% 1 0 0% asnipan 0 0 0 0 2 0 0% gesnipan 0 0 0 0 4 0 0% ofsnipan 0 0 1 1 50% 1 0 0% tosnipan 0 0 0 0 2 0 0% ymbsnipan 0 0 0 0 8 0 0% peon 0 0 3 0 0% 45 0 0% gepeon 1 0 0% 8 0 0% 93 0 0% oferpeon 0 0 0 0 5 0 0% teon 0 0 5 0 0% 0 0 beteon 0 0 0% 0 0 12 0 0% wreon 3 0 0% 6 0 0% 1 0 0% awreon 1 0 0% 3 0 0% 11 0 0% bewreon 6 0 4 0 0% 53 0 0% gewreon 0 0 0 0 6 0 0% oferwreon 10 0 0% 5 0 0% 59 0 0% unwreon 0 0 2 0 0% 11 0 0% onwreon 2 0 0% 2 0 0% 27 0 0% TOTAL 29 0 0% 61 7 10.29% 415 2 0.48% CATEGORY SUBJ. PRET SG SUBJ. PRET. PL. P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % onleon 0 0 0 0 liban 0 0 0 0 beliban 0 0 0 0 forliban 0 0 0 2 100% geliban 0 0 0 0 scriban 0 0 0 0 seon 1 0 0% 1 0 0% aseon 0 0 0 0 geseon 3 0 0% 0 0 sniban 1 0 0% 0 0 asniban 0 0 0 0 gesniban 0 0 0 0 ofsniban 0 0 0 0 tosniban 0 0 0 0 ymbsniban 0 0 0 0 beon 2 0 0% 0 0 gebeon 2 0 0% 0 0 oferbeon 3 0 0% 0 0 teon 2 0 0% 0 0 beteon 0 0 0 0 wreon 0 0 0 0 awreon 0 0 0 0 bewreon 2 0 0% 0 0 gewreon 0 0 0 0 oferwreon 0 0 1 0 0% unwreon 0 0 0 0 onwreon 4 0 0% 0 0 TOTAL 20 0 0% 2 2 50% Table 3. The percentage of forms which eliminated the alternations by Verner's Law in Class I with respect to particular categories CATEGORY PRESERVED ELIMINATED # % # % PRETERITE SG. 29 100% 0 0% PRETERITE PLURAL 61 89.71% 7 10.29% PAST PARTICIPLE 415 99.5% 2 0.50% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. SG. 20 100% 0 0% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. PL. 2 50% 2 50% Table 4. Distribution of the effects of Verner's Law in strong verbs Class II CATEGORY PRET. SG. PRET. PL. PAST PTCP. P L P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % # # % ceosan 2 2 50% 10 4 28.6% 12 2 14.29% aceosan 0 0 1 0 0% 10 0 0% geceosan 14 0 0% 54 2 3.6% 722 0 0% wipceosan 0 0 9 0 0% 5 0 0% wiperceosan 0 0 0 0 18 0 0% dreosan 0 0 2 0 0% 0 0 adreosan 0 0 0 0 1 0 0% bedreosan 0 0 0 0 9 0 0% gedreosan 0 0 1 0 0% 4 0 0% todreosan 0 0 0 0 1 0 0% fleon 14 0 0% 120 0 0% 0 0 afleon 0 0 1 0 0% 4 0 0% aefleon 0 0 13 0 0% 0 0 befleon 0 0 1 0 0% 3 0 0% forfleon 0 0 1 0 0% 1 0 0% gefleon 0 0 7 0 0% 2 0 0% opfleon 0 0 14 0 0% 2 0 0% tofleon 0 0 0 0 1 0 0% utfleon 0 0 1 0 0% 0 0 leosan 0 0 0 0 2 0 0% beleosan 0 0 0 0 5 0 0% forleosan 20 0 0% 9 0 0% 96 0 0% gefreosan 0 0 4 0 0% 2 0 0% oferfreosan 0 0 0 0 2 0 0% begreosan 0 0 0 0 1 0 0% hreosan 1 0 0% 20 0 0% 2 0 0% ahreosan 0 0 3 0 0% 0 0 behreosan 0 0 0 0 2 0 0% gehreosan 0 0 5 0 0% 6 0 0% ofhreosan 0 0 0 0 12 0 0% onhreosan 0 0 8 0 0% 0 0 tohreosan 0 0 9 0 0% 0 0 seopan 1 0 0% 2 0 0% 14 0 0% aseopan 1 0 0% 0 0 14 0 0% beseopan 0 0 0 0 3 1 25% geseopan 0 0 0 0 115 0 0% toseopan 0 0 0 0 1 0 0% teon 1 0 0% 50 0 0% 58 0 0% ateon 12 0 0% 16 0 0% 47 0 0% beteon 0 0 0 0 4 0 0% forpateon 1 0 0% 0 0 2 0 0% forteon 0 0 0 0 4 0 0% geteon 3 0 0% 29 0 0% 64 0 0% toteon 0 0 1 0 0% 4 0 0% onteon 0 0 0 0 0 0 ofteon 2 0 0% 3 0 0% 11 0 0% oferteon 0 0 0 0 3 0 0% opteon 0 0 0 0 1 0 0% purhteon 1 0 0% 10 0 0% 50 0 0% wibteon 0 0 2 0 0% 5 0 0% upateon 0 0 0 0 1 0 0% forweosan 4 0 0% TOTAL 73 2 2.67% 406 6 1.46% 1330 3 0.23% CATEGORY SUBJ. PRET. SG. SUBJ. PRET. PL. P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % ceosan 3 0 0% 5 0 0% aceosan 0 0 0 0 geceosan 9 1 10% 2 0 0% wipceosan 0 0 0 0 wiperceosan 0 0 0 0 dreosan 0 0 0 0 adreosan 0 0 0 0 bedreosan 0 0 0 0 gedreosan 0 0 0 0 todreosan 0 0 0 0 fleon 7 0 0% 8 0 0% afleon 0 0 0 0 aefleon 0 0 2 0 0% befleon 1 0 0% 1 0 0% forfleon 1 0 0% 0 0 gefleon 1 0 0% 0 0 opfleon 0 0 0 0 tofleon 0 0 0 0 utfleon 0 0 0 0 leosan 0 0 0 0 beleosan 0 0 0 0 forleosan 20 0 0% 2 0 0% gefreosan 0 0 0 0 oferfreosan 0 0 0 0 begreosan 0 0 0 0 hreosan 5 0 0% 0 0 ahreosan 0 0 0 0 behreosan 0 0 0 0 gehreosan 1 0 0% 0 0 ofhreosan 0 0 0 0 onhreosan 0 0 0 0 tohreosan 0 0 0 0 seopan 0 0 0 0 aseopan 1 0 0% 0 0 beseopan 0 0 0 0 geseopan 0 0 0 0 toseopan 0 0 0 0 teon 3 0 0% 2 0 0% ateon 8 0 0% 0 0 beteon 0 0 0 0 forpateon 0 0 0 0 forteon 2 0 0% 0 0 geteon 2 0 0% 0 0 toteon 0 0 0 0 onteon 1 0 0% 0 0 ofteon 1 0 0% 0 0 oferteon 0 0 0 0 opteon 0 0 0 0 purhteon 6 0 0% 0 0 wibteon 0 0 0 0 upateon 1 0 0% 0 0 forweosan TOTAL 73 1 1.35% 22 0 0% Table 5. The percentage of forms which eliminated the alternations by Verner's Law in Class II with respect to particular inflectional categories CATEGORY PRESERVED ELIMINATED # % # % PRETERITE SG. 73 97.33% 2 2.67% PRETERITE PLURAL 406 98.54% 6 1.46% PAST PARTICIPLE 1330 99.77% 3 0.23% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. SG. 73 98.65% 1 1.35% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. PL. 22 100% 0 0% Table 6. Distribution of the effects of Verner's Law in Class III CATEGORY PRET. SG. PRET. PL. PAST PTCP. P L P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % # # % feolan 0 0 4 0 0% 0 0 aetfeolan 0 0 2 2 50% 0 0 befeolan 0 0 3 0 0% 0 5 100% weorban 22 0 0% 729 25 3.32% 53 4 8.62% aweorpan 0 0 1 0 0% 188 0 0% forweorpan 1 0 0% 71 3 4.05% 17 0 0% geweorpan 3 0 0% 56 0 0% 1402 14 0.99% TOTAL 26 0 0% 866 30 3.35% 1660 24 1.43% CATEGORY SUBJ. PRET. SG. SUBJ. PRET. PL. P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % feolan 0 0 0 0 0 0% aetfeolan 0 0 0 0 befeolan 0 0 0 0 weorban 197 2 1.01% 28 0 0% aweorpan 0 0 0 0 forweorpan 26 1 3.70% 0 0 geweorpan 66 8 10.81% 17 0 0% TOTAL 290 11 3.65% 46 0 0% Table 7. The percentage of forms which eliminated the alternations by Verner's Law in Class III with respect to particular inflectional categories CATEGORY PRESERVED ELIMINATED # % # % PRETERITE SG. 26 100% 0 0,00% PRETERITE PLURAL 866 96.65% 30 3.35% PAST PARTICIPLE 1660 98.57% 24 1.43% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. SG. 290 96.35% 11 3.65% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. PL. 46 100% 0 0.00% Table 8. Distribution of the effects of Verner's Law in Class V CATEGORY PRET. SG. PRET. PL. P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % acwepan 0 0 1 0 0% becwepan 0 0 1 1 50% cwepan 97 0 0% 1745 39 2.19% forcwepan 0 0 2 0 0% forecwepan 0 0 3 0 0% gecwepan 3 0 0% 35 2 5.41% oncwepan 0 0 3 0 0% tocwepan 0 0 4 0 0% wipcwepan 0 0 18 4 18.18% wipercwepan 0 0 0 0 feon 0 0 1 0 0% gefeon 0 0 24 0 0% seon 2 0 0% 27 0 0% beseon 1 0 0% 5 0 0% forseon 6 0 0% 54 0 foreseon 3 0 0% 0 0 geseon 108 0 0% 795 0 0% geondseon 0 0 0 0 oferseon 1 0 0% 6 0 0% onseon 3 0 0% 3 0 0% ymbseon 0 0 0 0 wesan 315 0 0% 5514 0 0% gewesan 0 0 1 0 0% aewesan 0 0 2 0 0% TOTAL 539 0 0% 8244 46 0.55% CATEGORY PAST PTCP. SUBJ. PRET. SG. P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % acwepan 30 1 3.23% 0 0 becwepan 12 2 14.29% 0 0 cwepan 123 6 4.65% 98 11 10.09% forcwepan 4 0 0% 0 0 forecwepan 52 0 0.00% 2 0 0% gecwepan 834 15 1.77% 23 1 4.17% oncwepan 0 0 1 0 0% tocwepan 4 1 20.00% 0 1 100% wipcwepan 5 0 0% 3 0 0% wipercwepan 1 0 0% 0 0 feon 12 0 0% 0 0 gefeon 15 0 0% 1 0 0% seon 29 0 0% 3 0 0% beseon 2 0 0% 5 0 0% forseon 48 0 0% 11 0 0% foreseon 6 0 0% 1 0 0% geseon 364 0 0% 211 0 0% geondseon 0 0 0 0 oferseon 2 0 0% 0 0 onseon 5 0 0% 1 0 0% ymbseon 2 0 0% 1 0 0% wesan 0 0 2996 0 0% gewesan 0 0 0 0 aewesan 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 1550 25 1.59% 3357 13 0.39% CATEGORY SUBJ. PRET. PL. P L INFINITIVE # # % acwepan 0 0 becwepan 0 0 cwepan 9 1 10.0% forcwepan 1 0 0% forecwepan 0 0 gecwepan 5 0 0% oncwepan 0 0 tocwepan 0 0 wipcwepan 0 0 wipercwepan 0 0 feon 0 0 0% gefeon 3 0 0% seon 3 0 beseon 0 0 0% forseon 3 0 foreseon 0 0 0% geseon 32 0 0% geondseon 1 0 oferseon 0 0 onseon 0 0 ymbseon 0 0 wesan 129 0 0% gewesan 0 0 aewesan 0 0 TOTAL 186 1 0.53% Table 9. The percentage of forms without Verner's Law in Class V with respect to particular categories CATEGORY PRESERVED ELIMINATED # % # % PRETERITE SG. 224 100% 0 0% PRETERITE PLURAL 2727 98.34% 46 1.66% PAST PARTICIPLE 1550 98.41% 25 1.59% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. SG 361 96.52% 13 3.48% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. PL. 57 99.47% 1 0.53% Table 10. Distribution of the effects of Verner's Law in Class VI CATEGORY PRET. SG. PRET. PL. PAST PTCP. P L P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # % # # % flean 0 0 1 0 0% 0 0 aflean 0 0 0 0 3 0 0% beflean 0 0 0 0 1 0 0% hliehhan 3 0 0% 13 0 0% 0 0 lean 0 0 4 0 0% 1 0 0% belean 0 0 1 0 0% 3 0 0% forlean 0 0 0 0 9 0 0% sceppan 0 0 3 0 0% 0 2 100% gesceppan 0 0 1 0 0% 1 0 0% slean 19 0 0% 107 0 0% 28 0 0% aslean 0 0 2 0 0% 12 0 0% beslean 0 0 0 0 6 0 0% forslean 0 0 0 0 26 0 0% geslean 0 0 23 0 0% 84 0 0% ofaslean 0 0 1 0 0% 15 0 0% ofslean 20 0 0% 255 0 0% 438 0 0% oferslean 0 0 4 0 0% 2 0 0% toslean 0 0 1 0 0% 7 0 0% purhslean 0 0 1 0 0% 1 0 0% pwean 0 0 7 0 0% 6 0 0% apwean 0 0 4 0 0% 50 0 0% gepwean 1 0 0% 2 0 0% 14 0 0% TOTAL 43 0 0% 430 0 0% 707 2 0.28% CATEGORY SUBJ. PRET. SG SUBJ. PRET. PL. P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % flean 0 0 0 0 aflean 0 0 0 0 beflean 0 0 0 0 hliehhan 1 0 0% 0 0 lean 4 0 0% 0 0 belean 1 0 0% 0 0 forlean 0 0 0 0 sceppan 1 0 0% 0 0 gesceppan 0 0 0 0 slean 18 0 0% 0 0 aslean 0 0 0 0 beslean 0 0 0 0 forslean 0 0 0 0 geslean 0 0 0 0 ofaslean 0 0 0 0 ofslean 26 0 0% 2 0 0% oferslean 0 0 0 0 toslean 0 0 0 0 purhslean 0 0 0 0 pwean 1 0 0% 0 0 apwean 5 0 0% 0 0 gepwean 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 57 0 0% 2 0 0% Table 11. Distribution of the effects of Verner's Law in Class VII CATEGORY PRET SG. PRET PL. PAST PTCP. P L P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % # # % fon 2 0 0% 65 0 0% 6 0 0% afon 16 0 0% 9 0 0% 8 0 0% aetfon 0 0 0 0 1 0 0% anfon 7 0 0% 11 0 0% 7 0 0% befon 1 0 0% 13 0 0% 85 1 1.16% forfon 1 0 0% 0 0 5 0 0% forefon 0 0 4 0 0% 0 0 oferfon 0 0 1 0 0% 8 0 0% gefon 1 0 0% 58 0 0% 75 4 5.06% onfon 40 0 0% 224 0 0% 106 2 1.85% tofon 1 0 0% 0 0 0 0 underfon 20 0 0% 133 0 0% 102 0 0% ymbfon 0 0 0 0 4 0 0% hon 0 0 17 0 0% 13 0 0% ahon 4 0 0% 91 0 0% 141 17 10.76% behon 0 0 0 0 7 2 0% gehon 0 0 2 0 0% 2 2 50% TOTAL 93 0 0% 628 0 0% 570 26 4.36% CATEGORY SUBJ. PRET. SG. SUBJ. PRET. PL. P L P L INFINITIVE # # % # # % fon 27 0 0% 5 0 0% afon 0 0 0 0 aetfon 2 0 0% 0 0 anfon 2 0 0% 3 0 0% befon 0 0 0 0 forfon 1 0 0% 0 0 forefon 1 0 0% 0 0 oferfon 0 0 0 0 gefon 5 0 0% 5 0 0% onfon 67 0 0% 4 4 50% tofon 0 0 0 0 underfon 33 0 0% 0 0 ymbfon 1 0 0% 0 0 hon 1 0 0% 0 0 ahon 6 0 0% 0 0 behon 0 0 0 0 gehon 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 146 0 0% 17 4 19.05% Table 13. The percentage of forms which eliminated the alternations by Verner's Law in particular inflectional categories CATEGORY ELIMINATED PRESERVED PRETERITE SG. 0.41% 99.59% PRETERITE PLURAL 1.71% 98.29% PAST PARTICIPLE 1.30% 98.70% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. SG. 2.57% 97.43% SUBJUNCTIVE PRET. PL. 4.58% 95.42% Table 14. The percentage of forms which eliminated the effects of Verner's Law with respect to class membership CLASS ELIMINATED ELIMINATED CLASS I 2.04% 97.96% CLASS II 0.63% 99.37% CLASS III 2.17% 97.83% CLASS V 1.70% 98.30% CLASS VI 0.16% 99.84% CLASS VII 2.02% 97.98%
(1) The original formulation formulation /for·mu·la·tion/ (for?mu-la´shun) the act or product of formulating.
American Law Institute Formulation of the law, as posited by its author, is as follows: "Indogermanische k, t, p gingen erst uberal in h, [thorn], fuber; die so entstanden tonlosen fricativa nebst der vom indogermanischen ererbten tonlosen fricativa s wurden weiter inlautend bei tonender nachbarschaft selbst tonend, erhielten sich aber als tonlose im nachlaute betonter silben" (Veiner 1876: 114).
(2) The voiceless fricative could also disappear in some other contexts: when doubled, when between a liquid and a following vowel (OE feolan 'hide' vs. Go. filhan), when between a vowel and a following liquid or nasal (/l, m, n, r/) as well as before s followed by another consonant. It was preserved in some consonantal clusters (before voiceless consonants) resulting from vowel syncope syncope
Effect of temporary impairment of blood circulation to a part of the body. It is often used as a synonym for fainting, which is loss of consciousness due to inadequate blood flow to the brain. , and also in final position (Wright 1925: 171-2).
(3) In Old English medial and final *[gamma] remained spirants and initial [gamma] is viewed as aspirant in the early West Saxon Early West Saxon was an Old English language that was spoken in the kingdom of Wessex in southwest England. The language is believed to have originated some time before the time of King Alfred, circa 900 A.D. texts. In the later period initial velar fricative became a stop before consonants This is a list of all consonants, ordered by place and manner of articulation. Ordered by place of articulation
In phonetics, the shaping of the vocal tract (larynx, pharynx, and oral and nasal cavities) by positioning mobile organs (such as the tongue) relative to other parts that may be rigid (such as the hard palate) and thus modifying the airstream to produce speech was velar), and was pronounced as a palatal spirant [j] before front vowels A front vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a front vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. (only original front vowels: ae, e, i and j). The fricative is assumed to have gone through an intermediate stage of being a voiced palatal fricative The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʝ , prior to losing friction.
(4) The development has traditionally been assumed to have consisted in two almost independent processes: voicing (*s > *z) and rhotacism proper (z > r). Rhotacism entailed a series of separate developments: /z/ > /z/, /z/ > /r/, /r/ > /r/, which can be reduced to /z/ > /r/ > /r/. The initial stage, i.e., the change from /z/ > /r/ presupposes the diminution Taking away; reduction; lessening; incompleteness.
The term diminution is used in law to signify that a record submitted by an inferior court to a superior court for review is not complete or not fully certified. of friction and increase in the degree of sonority so·nor·i·ty
n. pl. so·nor·i·ties
1. The quality or state of being sonorous; resonance.
2. A sound.
3. Linguistics The degree to which a speech sound is like a vowel. . The second stage is the shift from /r/ > /r/, resulting eventually in the merger of old /z/ with /r/ (Smimitskij 1990: 197).
(5) The spellings with <b> can also be found in early Kentish documents coming from the first part of the 9th century (831-832), as in giban 'give' (WS giefan), gib (WS gif) 'if', geroebum (WS gerefa) 'earl' (dat. pl). Individual instances have been identified in CP naebre 'never' (for naefre), weobud 'altar' (later weofod); in poetry: Genesis and Exodus Exodus (ĕk`sədəs), book of the Bible, 2d of the 5 books of the Law (the Pentateuch or Torah) ascribed by tradition to Moses. The book continues the story of the ancestors of Israel in Egypt, now grown in number to a large landless : tiber (dat. sg. tibre, later tifor, tifre, -um) 'victim' (Brunner 1962: 153).
(6) The fact that this alternation is underrepresented un·der·rep·re·sent·ed
Insufficiently or inadequately represented: the underrepresented minority groups, ignored by the government. in Old English as well as in some other Germanic dialects is difficult to account for. The absence of this labial set as an alternating sequence in Old English may be attributed to the individual phonological development of this alternation, involving merger of the voiceless and voiced variants and consequent total obliteration A destruction; an eradication of written words.
Obliteration is a method of revoking a Will or a clause therein. Lines drawn through the signatures of witnesses to a will constitute an obliteration of the will even if the names are still decipherable. of the original alternants, unparalleled in any other alternating set. Of some importance may be the chronological chron·o·log·i·cal also chron·o·log·ic
1. Arranged in order of time of occurrence.
2. Relating to or in accordance with chronology. gap present in the development of the five sequences: the occlusion of bilabial bi·la·bi·al
1. Pronounced or articulated with both lips, as the consonants b, p, m, and w.
2. Relating to both lips.
A bilabial sound or consonant. stop must have been a later process since the bilabial stop was relatively rare when compared to other stops resulting from parallel occlusions (the medial and final [beta] remained aspirant for a relatively long time in other Germanic dialects as well (cf. van der Rhee 1995: 46)).
(7) An alternative view assumes that the 2sg. preterite ind. was formed directly from preterite subjunctive rather than preterite ind. plural (Wright 1925: 263). As far as the origin of this form is concerned, it has been viewed as an augmentless aorist aorist: see tense. (rather than an original perfect) with the -es ending (s voiced to z and lost in Proto-Germanic) and ablaut alternations according to the pattern of preterite ind. plural.
(8) The inherited inherited
received by inheritance.
inherited achondroplastic dwarfism
see achondroplastic dwarfism.
inherited combined immunodeficiency
see combined immune deficiency syndrome (disease). mobility of accent was preserved in the early stage of Proto-Germanic and was still present at the time of the operation of Verner's Law. The period of mobile accent in Germanic is estimated to have lasted between several centuries and a millennium. The assumption is that the Germanic accent was still mobile at the rime when Verner's Law was operating; otherwise the process would not have operated at all. In the later stage of Proto-Germanic the accentual pattern changed and accent became confined con·fine
v. con·fined, con·fin·ing, con·fines
1. To keep within bounds; restrict: Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand. See Synonyms at limit. to the foot or stem syllable syllable
Segment of speech usually consisting of a vowel with or without accompanying consonant sounds (e.g., a, I, out, too, cap, snap, check). A syllabic consonant, like the final n sound in button and widen, also constitutes a syllable. (Bennett 1968: 220, 1972: 100).
(9) One of alternative theories, intended to account for the absence of Vernerian alternants in some forms, takes recourse The right of an individual who is holding a Commercial Paper, such as a check or promissory note, to receive payment on it from anyone who has signed it if the individual who originally made it is unable, or refuses, to tender payment. to the existence of intervocalic laryngeal laryngeal /lar·yn·ge·al/ (lah-rin´je-al) pertaining to the larynx.
la·ryn·geal or la·ryn·gal
Of, relating to, affecting, or near the larynx. sounds in Proto-Germanic: "It is, of course, possible but unsatisfactory to invoke To activate a program, routine, function or process. levelling to explain these forms, for it is difficult to see why these verbs should have been subjected to such early and widespread levelling, while other verbs occur principally or exclusively with regular GW [grammatischer Wechsel In historical linguistics, the German term Grammatischer Wechsel ("grammatical alternation") refers to the effects of Verner's law when viewed synchronically within the paradigm of a Germanic verb. ] until well past the time of the first attestations" (Conolly 1980: 97). Conolly's hypothesis involves the assumption that disyllabic di·syl·la·ble also dis·syl·la·ble
A word with two syllables.
disyl·lab roots of the structure CVXRC (with a medial non-syllabic laryngeal) would never exhibit grammatical change since the accent could never fall on the syllable preceding the medial voiceless fricative, irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.
preposition despite the type of accent (root or suffix suf·fix
An affix added to the end of a word or stem, serving to form a new word or functioning as an inflectional ending, such as -ness in gentleness, -ing in walking, or -s in sits.
tr.v. ) a given form carried (CVXRC and C(V)XRC-'). The author bas it that at the time when Verner's Law operated the original disyllabic roots must have been distinct from the diphthongal diph·thong
A complex speech sound or glide that begins with one vowel and gradually changes to another vowel within the same syllable, as (oi) in boil or () in fine. roots of the structure CVRC CVRC Crime Victims Resource Center , where R represents a non-syllabic resonant resonant
giving an intense, rich sound on percussion; exhibiting resonance. . The conclusion is that the original diphthongal roots tend to have regular GW, whereas the disyllabic roots have either irregular GW or no change at all (the pattern refers to all classes with the exception of Class VII). Conolly attributes the irregularity in Class VII to the fact that the past participle form in this class had full grade vocalism, rather than the zero grade or reduced grade found in most other strong verb participles. The full grade was rot rot (rot)
2. a disease of sheep, and sometimes of humans, due to Fasciola hepatica.
decay. original but "of considerable antiquity". Levelling then in such circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or could be triggered by the fact that the present and past participle displayed the same vocalism. The preterite forms, which were rot of IE origin but had instead analogical e-grade vocalism, adopted the consonantism from the past participle (Conolly 1980: 115, cf. Lehmann 1971).
(10) The tool used for the systematic search of the collection was Toronto Old English Database Search Form, designed specifically for data retrieval from the Toronto Corpus, available online at http://ets.lib.uchicago.edu/Databases/OldEnglish/. The software (Search Form) permitted a wide range of queries, including searches within particular Old English dialects, particular texts, phrase and co-occurrence searches, etc. For the present purpose the word search was used for retrieving frequencies of occurrences for particular forms and for identifying texts in which these forms appeared. Pattern matching 1. pattern matching - A function is defined to take arguments of a particular type, form or value. When applying the function to its actual arguments it is necessary to match the type, form or value of the actual arguments against the formal arguments in some definition. options allowed for retrieving various inflectional endings Noun 1. inflectional ending - an inflection that is added at the end of a root word
ending, termination - the end of a word (a suffix or inflectional ending or final morpheme); "I don't like words that have -ism as an ending" or spelling variants.
(11) In the Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898) the form of leo[thorn]on with the diphthong diph·thong
A complex speech sound or glide that begins with one vowel and gradually changes to another vowel within the same syllable, as (oi) in boil or () in fine. eo is cited: "[THORN]a waes heofones smylmes tosliten, [thorn]aer [thorn]e we aer uton leo[thorn]on (li[thorn]on, v. 1.) interrupta est serenitas, qua uehebamur" (Bd. 5, 1).
(12) "For[thorn]an [thorn]e efne hig ongunnon hig begripon mine sawle onahruron on me [thorn]a strangan Quia QUIA, pleadings. Because. This word is considered a term of affirmation. It is sufficiently direct and positive for introducing a material averment. 1 Saund. 117, n. 4; Com. Dig, Pleader, c. 77. ecce coeperunt animam meam irruerunt in me fortes Fortes is a fairly rare family name in Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries (Spanish pronunciation: FOR-tes, (Brazilian) Portuguese pronunciation: FOR-cheesse). Famous Fortes include:
(13) The past participle forms of ofhreosan, which resulted form loss of/h/in hr- cluster, are attested in the following sentences with regular reflexes of Verner's Law:
"obruti contriti tobrytte ofrorene". (AldV 1:4137) "obrutos ofsette ofroren". AldV 1 (2992)
(14) The regular ablaut pattern in S[V.sub.4], attested in Vespasian Psalter, was e--e--e--o (Brunner 1902: 298).
(15) According to Prokosch (1939), the y present in past participle is an expected development when the original IE ending was -ono-, but w when the original ending was -eno-. The Y round in preterite plural is a regularly expected form since it was followed originally by u (Prokosch 1939: 74).
(16) The verb wesan was hot included in the final eount since its frequency of occurrence is much higher than the frequency of other verbs in this class as well as verbs in other classes. The inclusion of the figures obtained from the analysis of wesan would be likely to level the final results and obliterate o·blit·er·ate
1. To remove an organ or another body part completely, as by surgery, disease, or radiation.
2. To blot out, especially through filling of a natural space by fibrosis or inflammation. thus the tendencies observable ob·serv·a·ble
1. Possible to observe: observable phenomena; an observable change in demeanor. See Synonyms at noticeable.
2. in the above figures.
(17) Another related weak verb attested in Old English to which these forms can belong is scea[thorn]ian 'injure' (which corresponds to OIcel, ska[eth]a/ska[eth]a[eth]i, OHG scadon/scadota and sce[thorn][thorn]an/sce[thorn]ede (Bosworth and Toller 1898: 437).
(18) *fan[chi]an > * fan[chi]an (-an- > -a-) > *fan[chi]an (-a- > -o-) > *foan (loss of intervocalic [chi]) > OE fon and similarly: *han[chi]an > *ha[chi]an (-an- > -a-) > *ho[chi]an (-a- > -o-) > *hoan (loss of intervocalic [chi]) > OE hon. The Vernerian voiced alternant is extended to the form of preterite singular: feng and heng are new formations based on the corresponding plural fengon and hengon (Welna 1996: 73).
(19) They may go back to monosyllabic *foin foin Archaic
intr.v. foined, foin·ing, foins
To thrust with a pointed weapon.
A thrust with a pointed weapon. and *hoin. According to Campbell (1959) these Northumbrian forms should be viewed as disyllabic, containing a sequence of o followed by e rather than monosyllabic oe (Campbell 1959: 234).
(20) [eth]uaen may be viewed as a misspelling mis·spell·ing
1. The act or an instance of spelling incorrectly.
2. A word spelled incorrectly.
Noun 1. of ae for ae (Brunner 1962: 290).
(21) The two regular forms with the prefix un-: un[eth]uegenum and un[eth]uegnum (occurring twice in the analysed collection) were treated together with [thorn]wean.
(22) They may go back to monosyllabic *foin and *hoin or can be treated as disyllabic forms with analogical ending. According to Campbell these Northumbrian forms should be viewed as disyllabic, containing a sequence of o followed by e rather than monosyllabic oe (Campbell 1959: 243).
Bennett, William Holmes William Holmes may refer to:
1968 "The operation and relative chronology chronology,
n the arrangement of events in a time sequence, usually from the beginning to the end of an event. of Verner's law", Language 44: 219-223.
1972 "Prosodic pros·o·dy
n. pl. pros·o·dies
1. The study of the metrical structure of verse.
2. A particular system of versification. features in Proto-Germanic", in: Frans van Coetsem--Herbert Kufner (eds.), 99-116.
1960-62 Die englische Sprache. Ihre geschichtliche Entwicklung. 2 vols. (2nd edition) Tuingen: Max Niemeyer.
1942 Altenglische Grammatik, nach der Angelsachsischen Grammatik von Eduard Sievers Eduard Sievers (25 November 1850, Lippoldsberg - 30 March 1932, Leipzig) was a philologist of the classical and Germanic languages.
Eduard Sievers was one of the Junggrammatiker of the so-called Leipzig School. . Halle--Saal: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
Bosworth, Joseph--T. Northcote Toller
1898 An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Supplement (1921) by T. N. Toller. Oxford: Clarendon CLARENDON. The constitutions of Clarendon were certain statutes made in the reign of Henry H., of England, in a parliament holden at Clarendon, by which the king checked the power of the pope and his clergy. 4 Bl. Com. 415. Press.
1959 Old English grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Coelsem, Frans van--Herbert L. Kufner (eds.)
1972 Toward a grammar of Proto-Germanic. Tubingen: Niemeyer.
1980 "Grammatischer Wechsel and the Laryngeal Theory The laryngeal theory is a generally accepted theory of historical linguistics which proposes the existence of a set of three (or more) consonant sounds that appear in most current reconstructions of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). ", Indogermanische Forschungen Indogermanische Forschungen (IF) is a journal of Indo-European studies, established in 1892 by Karl Brugmann and Wilhelm Streitberg.
It is presently edited by W. P. Schmid and E. Eggers and printed by Walter de Gruyter, Berlin. 85: 96-123.
1973 "The Germanic sound shift and Verner's law: A synthesis", General Linguistics linguistics, scientific study of language, covering the structure (morphology and syntax; see grammar), sounds (phonology), and meaning (semantics), as well as the history of the relations of languages to each other and the cultural place of language in human 13: 79-89.
1988 Germanic accent, grammatical change and the laws of unaccented un·ac·cent·ed
1. Having no diacritical mark. Used of a word, syllable, or letter.
2. Having weak stress or no stress, as in pronunciation or metrical rhythm.
Adj. 1. syllables. New York--Bern--Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang Lang language
LANG Louisiana Army National Guard
Lang Langobardian (linguistics)
LANG Los Angeles Newspaper Guild .
Healey, Antoinette di Paolo (ed.)
2000 The dictionary of Old English corpus in electronic form. Toronto: Toronto University Press.
Hogg, Richard M. 1992 A grammar of Old English: Vol I: Phonology phonology, study of the sound systems of languages. It is distinguished from phonetics, which is the study of the production, perception, and physical properties of speech sounds; phonology attempts to account for how they are combined, organized, and convey meaning . Oxford: Blackwell Black·well , Elizabeth 1821-1910.
British-born American physician who was the first woman to be awarded a medical doctorate in modern times (1849). .
Lehmann, Winfred P. 1971 "Grammatischer Wechsel and current phonological discussion", in: Maria Tsiapera (ed.), 9-43.
Luick, Karl 1921 Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache. Bd. II. Stuttgart: Tauschnitz.
1939 A comparative Germanic grammar. Philadelphia--Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America The Linguistic Society of America (LSA) is an organization devoted to the scientific study of human language, and is the major professional society for linguistic researchers in North America and beyond.
The LSA was formed in 1924. .
Rhee, Florus van der
1995 "Entstehung und Verfall des grammatischen Wechsels", NOWELE 26: 43-55. Seebold, Elmar
1970 Vergleichendes und etymologisches Worterbuch der germanischen starken Verben. The Hague--Paris: Mouton mouton
lamb pelt made to resemble seal or beaver. .
Smirnitskij, A. I.
1990 "Rhotacism in Old English and West Germanic loss of *z", General Linguistics 30: 195-206.
Tsiapera Maria (ed.)
1971 Generative gen·er·a·tive
1. Having the ability to originate, produce, or procreate.
2. Of or relating to the production of offspring.
pertaining to reproduction. studies in historical linguistics historical linguistics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The study of linguistic change over time in language or in a particular language or language family, sometimes including the reconstruction of unattested forms of earlier stages of a language. . Edmonton: Linguistic Research.
Verner, Karl 1876 "Eine ausnahme der ersten lautverschiebung", Kuhn's Zeitschrift 23: 97-130.
1996 English historical morphology morphology
In biology, the study of the size, shape, and structure of organisms in relation to some principle or generalization. Whereas anatomy describes the structure of organisms, morphology explains the shapes and arrangement of parts of organisms in terms of such . Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
1925 Old English grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan