Going after grants.
Foundations and government agencies award millions for special projects. The key to winning funds is finding the right fit.
Snap open The Foundation Directory, and you'll discover an apparent wealth of apparent wealth: hundreds of private foundations giving away millions of dollars. Can your association fund special projects this way? Yes - provided there is a legitimate match between your interests and a foundation's. Finding a good match - and recognizing that your proposal isn't alone on the table - is the association fund-raiser's challenge.
Whether your association has a related foundation, a dedicated grants and contracts office, or simply a department with an unfunded project, you can raise money from sources outside the membership. The American private sector (individuals, bequests, foundations, and corporations) gave away $129.88 billion in 1994, slightly more than in 1993, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the American Association American Association refers to one of the following professional baseball leagues:
New York City
City (pop., 2000: 8,008,278), southeastern New York, at the mouth of the Hudson River. The largest city in the U.S. , which publishes Giving USA annually. In its accounting of grants and contracts, the federal government does not categorize awards to nonprofit organizations per se, which underscores a fact some associations may have missed: In the competition for funding, what's important is your topic, not your title.
Before leaping into the fund-raising fray, consider the advice of these association executives.
Research comes first
Federal funds Federal Funds
Funds deposited to regional Federal Reserve Banks by commercial banks, including funds in excess of reserve requirements.
These non-interest bearing deposits are lent out at the Fed funds rate to other banks unable to meet overnight reserve . Associations can look to both public and private sources. Karen Beaty, grant and contract officer at the American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. (APA (All Points Addressable) Refers to an array (bitmapped screen, matrix, etc.) in which all bits or cells can be individually manipulated.
APA - Application Portability Architecture ), Washington, D.C., uses two publications extensively: the Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance and the Commerce Business Daily. In the CFDA CFDA Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
CFDA Council of Fashion Designers of America (New York, New York, USA)
CFDA California Funeral Directors Association
CFDA Community Futures Development Association , the federal government solicits projects to fulfill mandated research and service needs. "You propose how to do it," Beaty explains (see sidebar, "Teaming Up," for APA's story). The Commerce Business Daily, by contrast, announces contracts available through the request for proposal (RFP (Request For Proposal) A document that invites a vendor to submit a bid for hardware, software and/or services. It may provide a general or very detailed specification of the system.
1. (business) RFP - Request for Proposal.
2. ) process. Both grant and contract projects may match association interests.
Private sector. For corporate and foundation funds, Steve Rubloff, director of marketing and development at the American Occupational Therapy Foundation, Rockville, Maryland Rockville is the county seat of Montgomery County, Maryland, United States. According to the 2006 census update, the city had a total population of 59,114, making it the second largest city in Maryland. , recommends you start your search at the Foundation Center (see sidebar, "Research Resources," for locations), a free library and publisher of numerous print and online fund-raising resources.
"Fund-raising looks easier than it is," Rubloff remarks. "It's very time-consuming and requires extensive research to match your need to a funder's interests. Be patient," he advises. "The process takes at least a year."
Rubloff believes more foundation money is available than associations are tapping. However, groups representing grant makers, such as the Council on Foundations The Council on Foundations is a membership organization of more than 2,000 grant-making foundations and giving programs worldwide. They provide leadership expertise, legal services and networking opportunities and other services to participating members and the general public. , Washington, D.C., are leery of publicizing specific foundations, because grantors already are flooded with proposals. In a recent article in the council's Foundation News & Commentary, three large-foundation officers debated the trend to use RFPs; some foundations are pressing their special agendas actively and giving unsolicited proposals less attention. Certainly, a foundation will quickly dismiss projects outside of its mission, and poor research will not endear en·dear
tr.v. en·deared, en·dear·ing, en·dears
To make beloved or very sympathetic: a couple whose kindness endeared them to friends. your association to grant makers.
At the American Occupational Therapy Foundation, Rubloff keeps a list of association projects, a "needs file." His strategy is to consider "how something in the interests of our members' careers or the field in general also benefits society or the public." Recently, for instance, a research group at the University of Southern California The U.S. News & World Report ranked USC 27th among all universities in the United States in its 2008 ranking of "America's Best Colleges", also designating it as one of the "most selective universities" for admitting 8,634 of the almost 34,000 who applied for freshman admission , Los Angeles Los Angeles (lôs ăn`jələs, lŏs, ăn`jəlēz'), city (1990 pop. 3,485,398), seat of Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1850. , contacted the foundation; the group needed $100,000 to complete funding to study the role of occupational therapy in helping the elderly remain independent. Rubloff went to a small Austin, Texas, foundation and won $30,000, and solicited another $70,000 from two national corporations. The association contributed in-kind staff expertise and administered funds raised.
"If it turns out occupational therapy does help the elderly, our results may create more jobs for members and improve the image of the profession, even as it serves the public," Rubloff sums up.
In applying for a grant, the point is to develop a project that both matches what a funding source is looking for Looking for
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. and furthers the interests of your association's membership.
Stan Dublinske, CAE (1) (Computer-Aided Engineering) Software that analyzes designs which have been created in the computer or that have been created elsewhere and entered into the computer. , director of professional practice at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) is a professional association for speech-language pathologists, audiologists, and speech, language, and hearing scientists in the United States and internationally. , Rockville, Maryland, concurs. Grants allow ASHA "to do things related to our mission that we couldn't do otherwise," he says.
Dublinske believes the amount of money available is growing smaller, and speculates that competition will grow stiffer as more people apply for it. "It used to be 100 proposals; now it's 300 competing, and 15 get funded," he says.
Grant seekers once could develop an edge over competitors by getting to know foundation program officers and learning firsthand what grantors wanted to fund. Now, "because they are being inundated in·un·date
tr.v. in·un·dat·ed, in·un·dat·ing, in·un·dates
1. To cover with water, especially floodwaters.
2. with proposals, program officers are overwhelmed. They are not taking appointments," comments Patricia F. Lewis, president and chief executive officer of the National Society of Fund Raising Executives (NSFRE NSFRE National Society of Fund Raising Executives (now the Association of Fundraising Professionals, AFP) ), Alexandria, Virginia Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 128,284. Located along the Western bank of the Potomac River, Alexandria is approximately 6 miles (9.6 kilometers) south of downtown Washington, DC. . That leaves fund-raisers doing detective work with the grant directories, periodicals such as The Chronicle of Philanthropy, and foundation annual reports.
"Foundations really like innovative, creative, new programs," NSFRE's Lewis stresses. Even if you have a tried-and-true program, "the perception is that it may not be needed anymore," she explains. "You need to address today's market and prove there is still a need. More innovative ideas, of course, get more attention from the foundation.
Giving USA: Where It Comes From, Where It Goes
Source of Estimated contributions, contributions 1994 (in billions)
Individuals $105.09 Bequests 8.77 Foundations 9.91 Corporations 6.11
Use of Estimated contributions, contributions 1994 (in billions)
Religion $ 58.87 Education 16.71 Health 11.53 Human services 11.71 Arts, culture, humanities 9.68 Public/society benefit 6.05 Environment/wildlife 3.53 International affairs 2.21 Unclassified 9.59
Note: Estimates are based on the responses of approximately 300 mostly larger foundations.
Source: American Association of Fund-Raising Counsel Trust for Philanthropy, New York City
"Foundations increasingly want to be sure projects are not duplicative," Lewis continues. Find out who else is doing work similar to yours and collaborate, she suggests.
Foundations also may prefer to offer you a challenge grant. "They don't want to be your sole provider, but with seed money you can generate interest from others," Lewis says. APA's Beaty and ASHA's Dublinske agree that spelling out the association's in-kind or matching contribution Matching Contribution
A type of contribution an employer chooses to make to his or her employee's employer-sponsored retirement plan. The contribution is based on elective deferral contributions made by the employee. appeals to grantors.
Besides proving that there is a need for your project, "validate the impact," Lewis recommends. Dublinske says projects must be cost-effective and proposals should state how you will evaluate results. "Say what happens to any materials afterward and how you'll disseminate the results."
Rubloff's parting words of wisdom are these: "Be sure your research is detailed, extensive, and complete." In the resulting proposal, however, Dublinske warns, "Make it tight."
RELATED ARTICLE: HIGHLIGHTS
* IT TAKES EXTENSIVE research to match your need to a funder's interests. The Foundation Center is a good place to start your search.
* COMPETITION FOR FUNDS is increasing, and foundations are looking for innovative new programs that address today's needs.
* FUND-RAISERS ADVICE that spelling out your association's in-kind or matching contributions in your proposal appeals to grantors.
RELATED ARTICLE: Teaming Up
At the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., Karen Beaty is the grant and contract officer. With another dedicated staffer, she submits 50-75 proposals a year. In 1994, APA expended more than $1.7 million in grant and contract funds.
APA provides an example of association interests matching the government's interests. Through the Department of Health and Human Services' minority fellowship program, federal funds are available to minorities for graduate study in various professional fields. Because APA can more easily recruit, select, and monitor candidates in psychology, it administers part of the fellowship program. APA has also won public grants to train practitioners working with AIDS patients, to research mental health in the elderly, and to run a women's health Women's Health Definition
Women's health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues. conference.
Although Beaty finds much less private money available, offering in-kind work or matching funds Noun 1. matching funds - funds that will be supplied in an amount matching the funds available from other sources
cash in hand, finances, funds, monetary resource, pecuniary resource - assets in the form of money has helped. APA's Commission on Violence and Youth developed a report on what influences violent behavior in young people and distributed it to national press. With a co-sponsor, the American Academy of Pediatrics The American Academy of Pediatrics ("AAP") is an organization of pediatricians, physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. Its motto is: "Dedicated to the Health of All Children. , Elk Grove Village, Illinois Elk Grove Village is a municipality located in northeastern Illinois adjacent to O'Hare International Airport and the City of Chicago. Elk Grove Village encompasses 10.9 square miles in land area with 10.5 square miles located in Cook County and 0. , APA created a layperson's violence-prevention pamphlet. Funds for the project - from research to printing - came from the Sol Goldman Charitable Trust The arrangement by which real or Personal Property given by one person is held by another to be used for the benefit of a class of persons or the general public. , New York City.
RELATED ARTICLE: Research Resources
As every endeavor has its bywords, in fund-raising the party line is "Do your research, please." The following organizations and publications will help.
* The Foundation Center is headquartered at 79 Fifth Ave., Eighth Floor, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , NY, 10003; (212) 620-4230. Other sites with comprehensive reference collections are in Washington, D.C., (202) 331-1400; San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden , (415) 397-0902; Cleveland, (216) 861-1933; and Atlanta, (404) 880-0094. In most states, some libraries and community foundations maintain a core collection of Foundation Center references. For the nearest site, call (800) 424-9836.
* Public library reference sections usually have a directory of state-registered grant-making institutions. These may include smaller local family and corporate foundations not listed in The Foundation Directory.
* Regional associations of grant makers, or RAGs, may provide member lists or publish guides. They often agree to use a common grant application, which can simplify your proposal-writing work. The Washington Regional Association of Grantmakers, Washington, D.C., for example, publishes the Guide to Greater Washington Grantmakers, available from the Foundation Center (see "Sources"). If there is a RAG near you, your local librarian should know about it.
* The National Society of Fund Raising Executives, (NSFRE) Alexandria, Virginia, is a place to gather information and network with other grant seekers. For national and chapter contacts, call (703) 684-0410.
* The National Grants Management Association, Rockville, Maryland, offers publications, conferences, and seminars - some open to nonmembers - on reporting requirements, accounting, and other practicalities that kick in once you have a grant. Call (301) 871-0730.
To order from the Foundation Center, (800) 424-9836:
* The Foundation Directory, $175, is an annual compendium of larger foundations ($2 million in assets or annual giving Annual giving is one of the most important areas in an organization’s fundraising efforts. Annual giving consists of many separate solicitation vehicles. When these vehicles are assembled together with skill, they can form the foundation of the institution’s at least $200,000). The 1995 edition includes 7,300 grantors; it has information on a foundation's giving interests, type of funding available, how to apply, whom to contact, selected previous grant recipients, and more.
* The Foundation Directory, Part 2, $175, similarly covers 4,200 smaller programs granting $50,000 to $200,000 annually.
* The Foundation Grants Index Annual, $150, and Quarterly, $95 for four issues, makes it easy to find private and corporate foundations by geographic region and by subject of interest, and tells you who received how much in the last year.
* A variety of subject directories, $75 to $145, target your funding search for projects in aging, arts, education, health, and so on.
* Other guides teach fund-raising and proposal writing skills.
To order from the Government Printing Office "From the Government Printing Office" is a short story by Kris Neville from Harlan Ellison's science fiction anthology Dangerous Visions. , (202) 512-1800:
* Commerce Business Daily, $324 for one year, $162 for six months, is a comprehensive daily list of competitive contracts and some grants from federal government offices and agencies. For a list of services offering the daily online or via fax, call (202) 482-0632.
* Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance, $53, published annually, lists grants available to fulfill various initiatives. Public libraries also carry this and the Commerce Business Daily.
Your public library, closest Foundation Center library, closest Foundation Center library, or NSFRE chapter can recommend other print and online resources. Another reputable publisher, for instance, is Research Grant Guides, Inc., Loxahatchee, Florida Loxahatchee is a roughly-defined community located in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States. It is located in the areas west and northwest of Royal Palm Beach, Florida and approximately 17 miles west of West Palm Beach. ; call (407) 795-6129 for a publications list. The biweekly Chronicle of Philanthropy lists recent grants, among other features. For a $67.50 annual mail subscription, call (800) 842-7817; for a trial online subscription, send an e-mail message to chronicle-request[at]nonprofit.com, and say, "subscribe chronicle [your name and organization]."
To order from ASAE's Association Management Press, call (202) 626-2748, or fax to (202) 408-9634:
* Fund Raising for Associations and Association Foundations (ASAE ASAE American Society of Association Executives
ASAE American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Society for Engineering in Agricultural, Food, and Biological Systems)
ASAE Alkali-Sulfite-Anthraquinone-Ethanol , 1994) is a background kit telling how associations can raise funds; catalog item AMR (1) (Adaptive Multi-Rate) A variable rate speech codec selected by the 3GPP for the 3G evolution of the GSM cellphone system (WCDMA). Using the Algebraic CELP (ACELP) compression technology, AMR provides toll quality sound at transmission rates from 4.75 to 12. 121070; $31 for ASAE members, $46 for nonmembers.
* Getting Funded: A Complete Guide to Proposal Writing, Third Edition (1988), by Mary Hall Mary Hall (August 16, 1843-November 15, 1927) was the first female lawyer in Connecticut, and also a poet, a suffragist, and a philanthropist. In 1882, the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors’ decision to allow Hall to be admitted to the Connecticut Bar was the first judicial , gives idea-to-finished-proposal tips and strategies based on winning proposals, and information on foundation corporate funding sources; catalog item AMR210190; $23.95.
* How to Write Successful Fund-raising Letters (1994), by Mal Warwick, tells how to write winning fund-raising letters and reasons why people respond to fund-raising appeals; catalog item AMR210916; $39.95.
RELATED ARTICLE: ASAE Foundation Grants
The ASAE Foundation gives grants that increase knowledge and information in the field of association management while assisting the grantee An individual to whom a transfer or conveyance of property is made.
In a case involving the sale of land, the buyer is commonly known as the grantee.
grantee n. .
Grants are given in four areas: leadership development, strategic research, innovation, and public outreach. Associations, association foundations, academic institutions, individuals, and research entities are eligible to apply for grants.
The ASAE Foundation uses a two-step application process. The first step is to submit a letter of inquiry outlining your project. The deadline for letters of inquiry for the 1996 round of grants is June 24. 1996. Letters of inquiry are then reviewed, and if the project falls within the funding guidelines, a complete proposal will be invited. Completed proposals are due August 19, 1996.
Consider the following tips for writing a winning letter of inquiry or proposal:
1. Read, understand, and follow the grant guidelines carefully. If you have questions, call the foundation office for clarification before submitting your letter of infinity or proposal.
2. Be sure your letter of inquiry or proposal indicates which funding area you are applying for.
3. Write clearly and concisely there are no extra points for longer papers. Have a colleague review your proposal before you send it in. He or she may find areas that could be explained more clearly. 4. If invited to submit a proposal, send in the requested five copies, unbound unbound
said of electrolytes, e.g. iron and calcium, and other substances which are circulating in the bloodstream and are not bound to plasma proteins so that they are available immediately for metabolic processes. See also calcium, iron. .
To request a copy of the grant guidelines, call Ann Kenworthy, CAE, vice president and chief operating officer Chief Operating Officer (COO)
The officer of a firm responsible for day-to-day management, usually the president or an executive vice-president. , ASAE Foundation, at (202) 626-2854.
RELATED ARTICLE: Government Grants: Take Note
At press time, a legislative amendment addressing federal grant money was stalled in a House-Senate Conference Committee. The amendment would significantly restrict lobbying expenditures by any organization that receives or administers federal grant money. For more information, contact ASAE Government Affairs, (202) 626-2703.
Kristin Staroba is a freelance writer based in Takoma Park, Maryland Takoma Park is a city in Montgomery County, Maryland. The name reportedly comes from an American Indian word meaning "high up near heaven". The population was 17,299 at the 2000 census. , and a former senior editor of ASSOCIATION MANAGEMENT.