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Glossary.

Access to improved sanitation is the percentage of population with adequate access to excreta disposal facilities (private or shared, but not public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. (World Health Organization; data are for 2004)

Access to improved water source is the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a piped water into a dwelling, plot, or yard; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected dug well or spring; or rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include an unprotected dug well or spring, cart with small tank or drum, bottled water, and tanker trucks. Reasonable access to an adequate amount means the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within 1 kilometer of the dwelling. (World Health Organization; data are for 2004)

Acute respiratory infection prevalence is the percentage of children under age five with acute respiratory infection in the two weeks prior to the survey. (United Nations Children's Fund; data are for the most recent year available during 1998-2005)

Adjusted net savings equal gross savings minus consumption of fixed capital, plus education expenditures, minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and particulate emission and carbon dioxide damage. (World Bank; data are for 2006)

Agricultural land is arable land, land under permanent crops, and permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. (Food and Agriculture Organization; data are for 2005)

Animal species, threatened, include the number of birds and mammal species classified by the World Conservation Union as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. (World Conservation Monitoring Centre and World Conservation Union; data are for 2004)

Animal species, total, refer to mammals (excluding whales and porpoises) and birds included within a country's breeding or wintering ranges. (World Conservation Monitoring Centre and World Conservation Union; data are for 2004)

Carbon dioxide (C[O.sub.2]) damage is estimated at $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted. (World Bank estimates; data are for 2006)

Carbon dioxide (C[O.sub.2]) emissions growth is the cumulative percentage change in emissions stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. Emissions include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; data are for 1990-2004)

Carbon dioxide (C[O.sub.2]) emissions per capita are carbon dioxide emissions divided by midyear population. (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Bank, and United Nations; data are for 2004)

Carbon dioxide (C[O.sub.2]) emissions per unit of GDP are carbon dioxide emissions in kilograms per unit of GDP in 2005 purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP that a U.S. dollar has in the United States. (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Bank; data are for 2004)

Consumption of fixed capital is the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production. (United Nations; data are extrapolated to 2006 from the most recent year available)

Deforestation is the permanent conversion of natural forest area to other uses, including shifting cultivation, permanent agriculture, ranching, settlements, and infrastructure development. Deforested areas do not include areas logged but intended for regeneration or areas degraded by fuelwood gathering, acid precipitation, or forest fires. Negative numbers indicate an increase in forest areas. (Food and Agriculture Organization; data are for 1990-2005)

Diarrhea prevalence is the percentage of children under age five who had diarrhea in the two weeks prior to the survey. (United Nations Children's Fund; data are for the most recent year available during 1998-2005)

Education expenditure is public current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment. (United Nations; data are extrapolated to 2006 from the most recent year available)

Electricity generated using fossil fuel is use of coal, oil, and gas as a percentage of total inputs to the generation of electricity. (International Energy Agency; data are for 2005)

Electricity generated by hydropower is use of hydropower as a percentage of total inputs to the generation of electricity. (International Energy Agency; data are for 2005)

Electric power consumption per capita is the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants, minus transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants plus imports minus exports divided by midyear population. (International Energy Agency; data are for 2005)

Energy depletion is the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal. (The wide range of data sources and methods used to estimate resource depletion are described in World Bank 2006; data are for 2006)

Energy from biomass products and waste is energy from solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas, industrial waste, and municipal waste as a percentage of total energy use. (International Energy Agency; data are for 2005)

Energy use per capita refers to apparent consumption, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. (International Energy Agency; data are for 2005)

Fertilizer consumption is the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). The time reference for fertilizer consumption is the crop year, July through June. (Food and Agriculture Organization; data are for 2005)

Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. (Food and Agriculture Organization; data are for 2005)

Freshwater withdrawal, agriculture, is withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production as a percentage of total freshwater withdrawal. (World Resources Institute; data are for various years; for details see World Development Indicators 2008, Primary data documentation)

Freshwater withdrawal, total, is total water withdrawal, excluding evaporation losses from storage basins and including water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of internal renewable resources because river flows from other countries are not included, because extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable, or because there is significant water reuse. (Food and Agriculture Organization and World Resources Institute; data are for various years; for details see World Development Indicators 2008, Primary data documentation.)

GDP is gross domestic product and measures the total output of goods and services for final use occurring within the domestic territory of a given country, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims. GDP at purchaser values (market prices) is the sum of gross value added by all resident and nonresident producers in the economy plus any taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. (World Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and United Nations; data are for 2006)

GDP per unit of energy use is 2005 gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is GDP converted to international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP that a U.S. dollar has in the United States. (International Energy Agency and World Bank; data are for 2005)

GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country developed by the Global Environment Facility, based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index shown in the tables has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential) (World Bank; estimates are for 2005)

GNI per capita is gross national income (GNI) divided by midyear population. GNI is gross domestic product plus net receipts of primary income (employee compensation and property income) from abroad. GNI per capita is in current U.S. dollars, converted using the World Bank Atlas method (see World Development Indicators 2008, Statistical methods). (World Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and United Nations; data are for 2006)

Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption plus net current transfers. (World Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and United Nations; data are for 2006)

Higher plant species, threatened, are the number of species classified by the World Conservation Union as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. (World Conservation Monitoring Centre and World Conservation Union; data are for 2004)

Higher plant species, total known, are native vascular plant species. (World Conservation Monitoring Centre and World Conservation Union; data are for 2004)

Internal freshwater resources per capita are internal renewable resources, which include flows of rivers and groundwater from rainfall in the country but excludes river flows from other countries, divided by midyear population. (Food and Agriculture Organization, World Resources Institute, and World Bank; estimates are for 2005)

Irrigated land is area purposely provided with water, including land irrigated by controlled flooding. Cropland refers to arable land and land used for permanent crops. (Food and Agriculture Organization; data are for 2005)

Land area is a country's total land area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes. (Food and Agriculture Organization; data are for 2006)

Mineral depletion is the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It covers bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, gold, silver, and zinc. (The wide range of data sources and methods used to estimate resource depletion are described in World Bank 2006; data are for 2006)

Nationally protected area is totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that are designated as national parks, natural monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries; protected landscapes and seascapes; and scientific reserves. It includes World Conservation Union-protected area categories I-VI. (World Conservation Monitoring Centre; data are for the most recent year available)

Net forest depletion is the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth. If growth exceeds harvest, this figure is zero. (Food and Agriculture Organization and World Bank estimates of natural growth; data are for 2006)

Particulate emission damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of illness and death attributable to particulate emissions. (World Bank estimates; data are for 2005)

Particulate matter is fine suspended particulates of less than 10 microns in diameter that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing damage. The indicator is the population-weighted average of all cities in the country with a population greater than 100,000. (World Bank estimates; data are for 2005)

Passenger cars are road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people including the driver. (International Road Federation; data are for 2005)

Population includes all residents who are present regardless of legal status or citizenship except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. (United Nations; data are midyear estimates for 2006)

Population density, rural, is rural population divided by arable land area. Rural population is estimated as the difference between the total population and urban population. (See urban population; data are for 2006)

Population growth is the exponential change in population for the period indicated. (United Nations; data are for 1990-2006)

Under-five mortality rate is the probability that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. (United Nations and United Nations Children's Fund; data are for 2005)

Urban population is the share of the midyear population living in areas defined as urban in each country (United Nations; data are for 2006) Urban population growth is the exponential change in urban population for the period indicated. (United Nations; data are for 1990-2006)
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Title Annotation:THE LITTLE GREEN DATA BOOK 2008
Publication:Little Green Data Book 2008
Article Type:Glossary
Date:Jan 1, 2008
Words:2183
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