Gifted and highly gifted students: how do they score on the SB5?The year 2003 ushered in revisions of the two intelligence scales most commonly used in determinations of giftedness--the Stanford-Binet (Roid, 2003) and the Wechsler Scales (Wechsler, 2003). Both scales reflect changes that go beyond simple item updates and new norms; there are refinements in the conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: of intelligence and corresponding changes in item subject matter. Because of these changes, use of these new tests may influence the number and type of students that are determined to be eligible for gifted programs.
In general, both tests have shifted toward use of the CHC CHC Chicago Cubs
CHC Community Health Center
CHC Chestnut Hill College (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
CHC Congressional Hispanic Caucus
CHC Community Health Council (UK National Health Service) model of intelligence (Carroll, 1993). Consistent with this emphasis, content on both tests includes items to measure both crystallized crys·tal·lize also crys·tal·ize
v. crys·tal·lized also crys·tal·ized, crys·tal·liz·ing also crys·tal·iz·ing, crys·tal·liz·es also crys·tal·iz·es
1. and fluid abilities. Because children identified as gifted show greater variability and lower overall performance on processing speed See MHz. items such as those included on the WISC-IV (Wechsler, 1991) and on working memory items which are included in both tests (Roid, 2003), use of full-scale scores that place an increasing emphasis on these factors will likely exclude some children who would have been identified as gifted on earlier tests. The inclusion of items that are more dependent upon visual-spatial and nonverbal non·ver·bal
1. Being other than verbal; not involving words: nonverbal communication.
2. Involving little use of language: a nonverbal intelligence test. skills will increase scores upwards for children with these strengths while lowering scores of children who have strengths in the verbal-abstract-reasoning area more traditionally emphasized by those who provide programs for the gifted. Publishers of both scales have provided experimental index scores purported pur·port·ed
Assumed to be such; supposed: the purported author of the story.
pur·ported·ly adv. to be useful in emphasizing the reasoning aspects of intelligence. At this point, however, these scores have not been normed and validated on independent samples of gifted children.
The norming process itself may have an effect on intelligence scores for children in the gifted range. While renorming to counteract the Flynn effect The Flynn effect is the rise of average Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test scores, an effect seen in most parts of the world, although at greatly varying rates. It is named after James R. Flynn, who did much to document it and promote awareness of its implications. (Flynn, 1984) may seem like an innocuous in·noc·u·ous
Having no adverse effect; harmless.
innocuous (i·näˈ·kyōō· process, Kanaya, Scullin, and Ceci (2003), in their discussion of mental retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living. diagnoses, maintain that the introduction of a newly normed IQ test can create havoc for a few years due to differences in IQ scores, which, in turn, influence determinations of program entry. Flynn (2000) documented the shifting percentage of people diagnosed as mentally retarded Noun 1. mentally retarded - people collectively who are mentally retarded; "he started a school for the retarded"
developmentally challenged, retarded over the last 50 years from a high of 1 in 23 to a low of 1 in 213. These results appear to be due primarily to both an increase in IQ over time and variation in samples used to provide norms. A similar process may operate in determinations of giftedness. While it is unclear to what extent the Flynn effect applies to gifted populations (Flynn described scores in the gifted range as "eccentric" and excluded them from analysis in his 1984 article), it is certainly possible that a child designated as gifted on the basis of IQ the year before introduction of a new edition of an IQ test would no longer meet the criteria for placement if given the new edition. This can lead to the odd situation in which children who are assessed on a newer version of a test are excluded from program entry, while those assessed just before introduction of the new version gain admittance Admittance
The ratio of the current to the voltage in an alternating-current circuit. In terms of complex current I and voltage V, the admittance of a circuit is given by Eq. (1), and is related to the impedance of the circuit Z by Eq. (2). .
It is difficult to accurately norm scores on the end of the continuum. Because so few people have extremely high scores, there is a dependence upon statistical modeling for distributions of intelligence scores in the high ranges. A variety of researchers have questioned the accuracy of such models since the use of the first intelligence test in this country (Silverman, 1989; Terman, 1925; Wechsler, 1944) and have suggested that theoretical distributions do not match the actual distribution of giftedness in the population. Silverman suggested that with each new set of published norms, the problem intensifies as the scores of gifted children are compressed and lowered to fit the normal distribution, even taking into account the Flynn effect.
Although measurement of intelligence in gifted populations appears fraught fraught
1. Filled with a specified element or elements; charged: an incident fraught with danger; an evening fraught with high drama.
2. with difficulty, the Stanford-Binet, Fifth Edition (SB5) was designed, in part, to specifically meet the needs of the gifted population. The authors (Roid, 2003) convened special meetings with experts in gifted education Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. Programs providing such education are sometimes called Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) or to discuss test design issues. In response to their feedback, the SB5 includes features intended to be useful for this population. There are items of high difficulty on the test so that extreme levels of giftedness can be documented. There is a decreased emphasis on timed tasks that can unfairly penalize pe·nal·ize
tr.v. pe·nal·ized, pe·nal·iz·ing, pe·nal·iz·es
1. To subject to a penalty, especially for infringement of a law or official regulation. See Synonyms at punish.
2. gifted children who possess a reflective thinking style (Kaufman, 1994). The inclusion of a large age range makes it possible to test kindergarten-aged gifted children on the same test as older students and allows age-equivalent scores that extend well into adulthood.
Despite these attempts to develop a test useful for determining giftedness, there were several early indications that the test was not operating in the expected manner. The gifted sample included in the validity studies of the test (Roid, 2003) received a mean Full Scale score of 123.7--over 6 points below the general standard of 130 for gifted-program participants. In an additional study (Kearney, 2004) Riverside Publishing Riverside Publishing is a division of Houghton Mifflin Company and provides testing packets for educators. It is based in Itasca, Illinois and is a charter member of the Association of Test Publishers. External links
1. Impressively great in size, force, or extent; enormous: a prodigious storm.
2. Extraordinary; marvelous: a prodigious talent.
3. level received a mean score of 130 on the SB5, a score much lower than expected. In addition to the lower means, it seems odd that a sample made up primarily of moderately gifted students would only score 6 to 7 points below a sample in the profoundly gifted range.
In order to better understand the impact of the SB5, our local group of school administrators, parents, and school psychologists worked together to define several questions to be answered through this study. First, we wanted to know whether this test discriminated well between gifted and highly gifted populations using the current guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. of 130 for gifted programs and 145 for highly gifted programs, assumed to be two standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. and three standard deviations from the mean and at the 98th and 99.9th percentile percentile,
n the number in a frequency distribution below which a certain percentage of fees will fall. E.g., the ninetieth percentile is the number that divides the distribution of fees into the lower 90% and the upper 10%, or that fee level , respectively. We also wished to know whether the age equivalent scores and the experimental gifted composite score would be useful indicators of functioning at these two levels of giftedness.
Study participants were elementary-school students in grades two through six from Boise, Idaho “Boise” redirects here. For other uses, see Boise (disambiguation).
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the county seat of Ada County and the principal city of the Boise metropolitan area. . Students met the requirements and had been admitted to one of three gifted program options within the Boise School District Boise School District is a comprehensive public school district in Boise City, Idaho, United States. The district is officially known as the Independent School District of Boise City, Idaho. External links
1. Intelligence test score at or above the 98th percentile.
2. Achievement test scores at or above the 98th percentile in the majority of areas tested.
3. Two nominations indicating potential ability.
4. Results of creativity/critical thinking test at or above the 98th percentile.
5. Documentation of talent from a facilitator-recognized expert in the field.
In addition, there must be documentation that the student's needs cannot be provided for with regular classroom instruction on a full-time basis. Students with multiple exceptionalities are evaluated on an individual basis with consideration given as to how their exceptionality might impact test scores. To be designated as highly gifted, a child must meet similar criteria, but with an intelligence test score at or above 145. Students who did not receive a score of 145 on the WISC-III WISC-III Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 3rd Edition but who received several subscale scores that hit the "ceiling" on the WISC-III (defined as an 18 or 19 standard score on a subtest) were also given the option of testing on the Stanford-Binet Form L-M to meet the IQ requirement. It should be noted that virtually all students in the gifted programs met the IQ cut-off cut-off Anesthesiology The point at which elongation of the carbon chain of the 1-alkanol family of anesthetics results in a precipitous drop in the anesthetic potential of these agents–eg, at > 12 carbons in length, there is little anesthetic activity, requirements specified by the district.
All highly gifted children were invited to be in the study. Out of 48 possible participants, 37 consented to be in the study. A total of 36 gifted children were recruited. These students were from seven schools to which participating school psychologists were assigned. The majority of the gifted children had admitting IQ scores between 130 and 134.
After receiving informed consent, each child was administered the SB5 by one of six experienced school psychologists between January and February, 2004. School psychologists had been trained in test administration through publisher workshop attendance, local in-service training, publisher consultation, and peer consultation. Hand-tabulated scores were verified using the SB5 Scoring Pro software. Analyses were completed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (statistics, tool) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences - (SPSS) The flagship program of SPSS, Inc., written in the late 1960s.
["SPSS X User's Guide", SPSS, Inc. 1986]. (SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. ) and Microsoft Excel (tool) Microsoft Excel - A spreadsheet program from Microsoft, part of their Microsoft Office suite of productivity tools for Microsoft Windows and Macintosh. Excel is probably the most widely used spreadsheet in the world.
Latest version: Excel 97, as of 1997-01-14. .
Table 1 shows the means and standard deviations for the SB5 Full Scale IQ and the experimental Gifted Composite score for both gifted and highly gifted groups. The Full Scale SB5 scores did differ significantly between gifted and highly gifted children (Mann-Whitney U In statistics, the Mann-Whitney U test (also called the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon (MWW), Wilcoxon rank-sum test, or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test) is a non-parametric test for assessing whether two samples of observations come from the same = 412.5,p < .01). Fifty-six of these participants had been previously tested on the WISC-III. The means and standard deviations of these scores are also presented in Table 1. The remainder of the participants had been tested on a variety of other instruments, primarily the Stanford-Binet-IV, The Stanford-Binet Form L-M, or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) is an intelligence test designed for children ages 2 years 6 months to 7 years 3 months developed by David Wechsler in 1967. . Full Scale and Gifted Composite scores were significantly lower on the SB5 than on the Full Scale scores on the WISC-III (Wilcoxon Z = -6.513, p < .01 and Z = -6.485, p < .01, respectively).
Table 2 shows the means, standard deviations, minimum and maximum scores of gifted and highly gifted students on the Abbreviated IQ score, scores in the Verbal and Nonverbal Domains, and the five factors scores of Fluid Reasoning (FR), Knowledge (KN), Quantitative Reasoning (QR), Visual Spatial (VS), and Working Memory (WM).
The discrepancy between the SB5 Nonverbal and Verbal means in our sample is small--3 points for gifted and 3 points for highly gifted students. Ten students had a 12-point discrepancy or greater. This outcome is dissimilar to the discrepancy rates for WISC-III data, which show 23 students to have at least a 12-point discrepancy. Only 6 of those students also showed at least a 12-point discrepancy on the SB5--all in the same direction of cognitive preference with verbal scores being higher than nonverbal.
To address the question of whether the ranks are preserved between the two tests, measures of correlation were used. Since the assumption of normality normality, in chemistry: see concentration. can be questioned with scores this extreme, Kendall's tau Noun 1. Kendall's tau - a nonparametric measure of the agreement between two rankings
Kendall rank correlation, tau coefficient of correlation
statistics - a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data b and Spearman's rho Spearman's rho,
n.pr a statistical test for correlation between two rank-ordered scales. It yields a statement of the degree of interdependence of the scores of the two scales. were calculated. The correlation between the SB5 and the WISC-III using Kendall's tan b was .341. Using Spearman's rho the correlation was .457. The correlation between the two tests for all IQ levels was .82 (Roid, 2003). To illustrate the type of variation found in the raw data, Table 3 shows the highest five ranks of the SB5 and the ranks of the scores each of these students achieved on the WISC-III. Table 4 shows the five lowest ranks on the SB5 and the ranks of the corresponding WISC-III scores. Table 5 shows the percentage of students who would be designated as non-gifted, gifted and highly gifted for two different levels of cut-off scores using the Full Scale IQ score and the experimental gifted composite score. Data relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc age-equivalent scores is shown in Table 6. These scores indicate a substantial portion of our students in both groups were operating at an age level much higher than their chronological age chron·o·log·i·cal age
n. Abbr. CA
The number of years a person has lived, used especially in psychometrics as a standard against which certain variables, such as behavior and intelligence, are measured. .
The SB5 Experimental Composite Score for Intellectual Giftedness “Gifted” redirects here. For other uses, see Gift (disambiguation).
Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average. correlated highly with the SB5 Full Scale IQ with a Pearson r of .95 (p < .01). The average gain of IQ in the gifted sample was .9 with scores ranging from a loss of 3 points from the Full Scale IQ to a gain of 5 points. The average gain in the highly gifted group was 1.6. Some highly gifted students lost as many as 6 points from their Full Scale IQs while others gained as many as 8 points.
The means of our gifted and highly gifted groups on the SB5 are significantly lower than their scores on the WISC-III even after allowing a 5-point adjustment for the Flynn effect. The mean Full Scale score for our gifted group was 12 points lower than the corresponding WISC-III score, and the mean Full Scale score for our highly gifted group was 18 points lower than their previously earned WISC-III score. Using a strict cutoff of 145 for entrance to our highly gifted program means that not a single student would have qualified using the SB5 Full Scale IQ. Within our sample, 16 of 73 students would have qualified for gifted programs using a strict cutoff of 130 which is the criterion adopted by many districts as an indicator of giftedness. This is approximately 22% of our total sample, of which half had previously qualified as highly gifted. While one might expect some attrition Attrition
The reduction in staff and employees in a company through normal means, such as retirement and resignation. This is natural in any business and industry.
Notes: in programs for the gifted when tests due to renorming and regression artifacts artifacts
see specimen artifacts. , the proportion of students affected using the SB5 seems excessive. The fact that children have also met other criteria for giftedness, including achievement standards, suggests that using the criterion of two or three standard deviations from the mean as an indicator of giftedness on this test is likely too high, even though this was the standard originally suggested by the publisher (Ruf, 2003). As this article was being written, Riverside Publishing was in the process of posting a suggested gifted cutoff that allows use of the Abbreviated Battery, either the Nonverbal or Verbal IQ alone, the Gifted Composite score, or a combination of ability domain scores to be valid in assessing giftedness. They suggest that even when a child's Full Scale score is around 120, the additional combination of other scores at the 95th percentile and above should be considered indicative of a need for services when viewed in combination with other indicators such as achievement, recommendations, and portfolios (D. L. Ruf, personal communication, April 5, 2005). This recommendation is consistent with our finding that using a guideline guideline Medtalk A series of recommendations by a body of experts in a particular discipline. See Cancer screening guidelines, Cardiac profile guidelines, Gatekeeper guidelines, Harvard guidelines, Transfusion guidelines. of 130 on this test to determine moderate giftedness is too high.
Although a complete discussion of regression artifacts is not practical here, it should be mentioned that whenever extreme scores are used on an instrument for classification purposes, there should be large amounts of regression toward the mean Regression toward the mean
The tendency that a random variable will ultimately have a value closer to its mean value. when a second test is given (Campbell & Kenny, 1999). Studies such as Milich, Roberts, Loney, and Caputo (1980) and Furlong furlong: see English units of measurement. and Feldman (1992) demonstrate how the regression artifact A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound dramatically influences classification of hyperactivity hyperactivity, excessive physical activity of emotional or physiological origin, usually seen in young children; one of the components of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. and learning disabilities. Campbell and Kenny report that, given the assumption of normality and retest re·test
tr.v. re·test·ed, re·test·ing, re·tests
To test again.
A second or repeated test. correlations of .80, the probability that a person who scores two standard deviations above the mean actually has a true score this high is .58. (This probability increases to .86 if the person has three test scores that are all two standard deviations above the mean.) Regression artifacts are undoubtedly influencing our data; however, estimating their effect is problematic given other confounding confounding
when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.
confounding factor factors such as the use of two scales based on somewhat different theoretical models of intelligence.
The fact that the mean Full Scale IQ score was significantly different between our gifted and highly gifted students suggests that the SB5 does an adequate job of broadly distinguishing between these groups. Interestingly, the difference between the means of these groups on the SB5 is only 5 points; this is not even close to the 15 point standard deviation of the measure, and is less than half of the 11 point difference in groups found on the qualifying WISC-III. In addition, the lack of verbal-nonverbal discrepancy transfer from the WISC-III (41% of WISC-III takers) to the SB-V (8% of SB5 takers) suggests differences in the nature of capturing intellectual giftedness with the latter measure, although regression effects could also be operating here.
It is instructive in·struc·tive
Conveying knowledge or information; enlightening.
in·structive·ly adv. to look at the range of the SB5 data for our gifted and highly gifted groups. The findings in Table 2 show that on every subscale score some students in both groups scored within the average range. Related to this finding is that the range of scores on each factor varied between 26 and 57, indicating large differences in how our students scored across various content areas. In our highly gifted group the range of scores on quantitative reasoning confirmed anecdotal anecdotal /an·ec·do·tal/ (an?ek-do´t'l) based on case histories rather than on controlled clinical trials.
anecdotal adjective Unsubstantiated; occurring as single or isolated event. information from teachers that this is the area in which their students show the most variation with some working at grade level, while others are capable of working well into high school and college material.
Another interesting finding is that some individual's scores varied dramatically between the two intelligence tests (as much as 35 points). Two students in the highly gifted program scored so low on the SB5 that they would not meet intelligence test criteria for giftedness even if the cut-off were lowered to 115. Alternatively, several students who scored at the low end of the IQ cut-off for our gifted program did very well on the SB5 and scored within the range of the study completed by Riverside on child prodigies This is a list of people who in childhood (at or before 9) showed abilities in a specific field comparable to those of a highly skilled adult; hence the term child prodigy. Names added should fit this criterion and be properly sourced. . To check on whether these children were misclassified as gifted or highly gifted, anecdotal information was requested from their teachers. These data suggest that these children's original classifications were probably correct. For example, one of the highly gifted children had successfully completed a high-school level course as an elementary student; it is unlikely that a non-gifted child would perform in such a manner. It should be noted that in many cases, the SB5 did correctly distinguish between gifted and highly gifted children. However, the relatively low correlation between it and the WISC-III in our sample, suggests that these two measures may be capturing somewhat different abilities--at least in the gifted population.
In contrast to the means on the SBS See Small Business Server. , which seem to be lower than expected, many of the age-equivalent scores appear to be higher than one might expect. The proportion of children that received age-equivalent scores beyond the highest average score for mature adults (19% of gifted students and 40% of highly gifted students) seems implausible im·plau·si·ble
Difficult to believe; not plausible.
im·plausi·bil even after taking into account documented cautions in interpreting such scores (Sattler, 2001). If these age-equivalent scores are indicative of actual functioning, it seems curious that they are not accompanied by correspondingly high IQ scores. In sum, these scores appeared to be of minimal use in accurately describing levels of giftedness in our sample.
The high correlation between the experimental composite score for intellectual giftedness and the full scale IQ score indicates that the constructs measured are quite similar. With this in mind, administration of the gifted composite would represent a time savings for busy school psychologists, since they would only have to administer a portion of the test. It should be understood, however, that this practice would have implications for individual children. For example, those who perform well on Working Memory and Nonverbal Visual-Spatial Processing may achieve lower IQ scores than they would have if the Full Scale IQ was administered. Fifteen students in our gifted sample and 9 students in our highly gifted sample "lost" IQ points in this manner, though in many cases, the difference would not have influenced program eligibility. Whether this issue is considered a problem has much to do with conceptual definitions A conceptual definition is an element of the scientific research process, in which a specific concept is defined as a measurable occurrence. It is mostly used in fields of philosophy, psychology, communication studies. This is especially important when conducting a content analysis. of giftedness and with decisions to emphasize certain intellectual aspects over others (e.g., reasoning vs. memory). When in doubt, the most prudent course may be to administer the entire test and examine the experimental composite within the interpretive in·ter·pre·tive also in·ter·pre·ta·tive
Relating to or marked by interpretation; explanatory.
in·terpre·tive·ly adv. process.
More data need to be collected with other groups of gifted and highly gifted children to see whether our findings can be generalized or whether they relate only to our sample of children. In a descriptive study such as this, it is impossible to determine how much of the mean score changes are accounted for by regression artifacts, the Flynn effect, actual conceptual differences in the definition of intelligence, and other factors. In general, we found that SB5 full scale and factor scores are significantly lower than would be expected based on previous IQ testing and even taking into account the Flynn effect. In addition, group mean discrepancies, as well as verbal-nonverbal discrepancy patterns, did not hold up well between the WISC-III and SB5. Whether these findings are due to statistical issues, variation in test content, or some oddity odd·i·ty
n. pl. odd·i·ties
1. One that is odd.
2. The state or quality of being odd; strangeness.
1. of our sample is beyond the scope of the current study. Using these data as guidelines and bearing in mind that the use of tests should show "the relative absence of adverse consequences" (Messick cited in Roid, 2003) for children that are truly gifted, we believe professionals should be wary of using rigid cutoff scores for admission to gifted programs with the SB5. Instead, they should use multiple criteria, with such scores being considered a single, but fallible fal·li·ble
1. Capable of making an error: Humans are only fallible.
2. Tending or likely to be erroneous: fallible hypotheses. , source of information. Because some gifted and highly gifted children are receiving relatively low scores on this test, students should not be excluded from gifted programs on the basis of such scores alone. Until we have more information about the use of this measure, we suggest that others carefully assess and adapt their gifted qualifying guidelines in conjunction with a comprehensive evaluation addressing such sources as academic scores, portfolios, parent reports, and additional talent measures. While we feel the SB5 may fit into such an overall assessment, its use, as with any IQ measure, should be tempered by appropriate queries about what is measured, how it is measured, and how its scores are distributed in the gifted population.
The authors would like to thank the gifted children who were willing to be retested for this study and their parents who allowed them to participate. We would also like to acknowledge the support of Jo Henderson, Supervisor of Gifted Services for the Boise School District and the six school psychologists who administered the tests.
Manuscript submitted December 8, 2004.
Revision accepted April 16, 2005.
Campbell, D. T., & Kenny, D. A. (1999). A primer prim·er
A segment of DNA or RNA that is complementary to a given DNA sequence and that is needed to initiate replication by DNA polymerase. on regression artifacts. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : The Guilford Press.
Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytical studies. New York: Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). .
Flynn, J. R. (1984). The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 171-191.
Flynn, J. R. (2000). The hidden history of IQ and special education: Can the problems be solved? Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 6, 191-198.
Furlong, M. J., & Feldman, M. G. (1992). Can ability-achievement regression toward the mean account for MDT MDT
Mountain Daylight Time
MDT (in the US and Canada) Mountain Daylight Time
MDT n abbr (US) (= mountain daylight time) → discretionary decisions? Psychology in the Schools, 29, 205-212.
Kanaya, T., Scullin, M. H., & Ceci, S. J. (2003). The Flynn effect and U.S. policies: The impact of rising IQ scores on American society via mental retardation diagnoses. American Psychologist The American Psychologist is the official journal of the American Psychological Association. It contains archival documents and articles covering current issues in psychology, the science and practice of psychology, and psychology's contribution to public policy. , 58, 778-790.
Kaufman, A. S. (1994). Intelligent testing with the WISC-III. New York: Wiley.
Kearney, K. (2004, November). Using the Stanford Binet Five with the gifted: Options for special schools and programs. Paper presented at the National Association for Gifted Children The National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) is an association in the United Kingdom for gifted and talented children, and their parents. They offer training and courses, and publish academic research in relevant areas of education. , Salt Lake City, UT.
Milich, R., Roberts, M. A., Loney, J., & Caputo, J. (1980). Differentiating practice effects and statistical regression Noun 1. statistical regression - the relation between selected values of x and observed values of y (from which the most probable value of y can be predicted for any value of x)
regression toward the mean, simple regression, regression on the Conners Hyperactivity Index. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 549-552.
Roid, G. H. (2003). Stanford-Binet intelligence scales Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales Definition
The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a standardized test that assesses intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults aged two to 23. , fifth edition, technical manual, Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.
Ruf, D. L. (2003). Use of the SB5 in the Assessment of High Abilities (Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition Assessment Service Bulletin No. 3). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.
Sattler, J. M. (2001). Assessment of children: Cognitive applications (4th ed.). San Diego San Diego (săn dēā`gō), city (1990 pop. 1,110,549), seat of San Diego co., S Calif., on San Diego Bay; inc. 1850. San Diego includes the unincorporated communities of La Jolla and Spring Valley. Coronado is across the bay. , CA: Jerome M. Sattler.
Silverman, L. K. (1989, November). Lost: One IQ point per year for the gifted. Paper presented at the convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Cincinnati, OH.
Terman, L. M. (1925). Genetic studies of genius: Vol. 1. Mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Stanford University, at Stanford, Calif.; coeducational; chartered 1885, opened 1891 as Leland Stanford Junior Univ. (still the legal name). The original campus was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. David Starr Jordan was its first president. Press.
Wechsler, D. (1944). The measurement of adult intelligence. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.
Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children--Third edition manual. San Antonio San Antonio (săn ăntō`nēō, əntōn`), city (1990 pop. 935,933), seat of Bexar co., S central Tex., at the source of the San Antonio River; inc. 1837. , TX: Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children Wechsler intelligence scale for children
A standardized intelligence test that is used for assessing children from 5 to 15 years old. Fourth edition: Administration and scoring manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Barbara Minton has a joint Ph.D. in developmental and child clinical psychology. In addition to homeschooling home·school or home-school
v. home·schooled, home·school·ing, home·schools
To instruct (a pupil, for example) in an educational program outside of established schools, especially in the home. a profoundly gifted child gifted child
Child naturally endowed with a high degree of general mental ability or extraordinary ability in a specific domain. Although the designation of giftedness is largely a matter of administrative convenience, the best indications of giftedness are often those , she assesses gifted children and advocates for the development of services to meet their needs. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Shannon Pratt, Ph.D., NSCP NSCP National Schistosomiasis Control Program
NSCP National Space Communications Program
NSCP Native (Mode) Service Control Point (Tandem) , is a school psychologist. He has three young children (one of whom is a gifted reader). His interests are in gifted assessment, behavioral interventions behavioral intervention Behavior modification, behavior 'mod', behavioral therapy, behaviorism Psychiatry The use of operant conditioning models, ie positive and negative reinforcement, to modify undesired behaviors–eg, anxiety. , and the evaluation of behavior disorders behavior disorder
1. Any of various forms of behavior that are considered inappropriate by members of the social group to which an individual belongs.
2. A functional disorder or abnormality. . E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations of Gifted and Highly Gifted Students on the SB5, the SB5 Experimental Composite Score for Intellectual Giftedness, and the WISC-III Highly Gifted gifted (n = 36) (n = 37) SB5 full scale IQ Mean 121 Mean 126 SD 6.4 SD 7.8 SB5 gifted composite Mean 122 Mean 128 SD 6.8 SD 9.1 Highly Gifted gifted (n = 25) (n = 31) WISC-III full scale IQ Mean 133 Mean 144 SD 3.6 SD 6.3 Table 2 Means, Standard Deviations, Minimum and Maximum Scores of Gifted and Highly Gifted Students on Factor Scores, Verbal and Nonverbal Domain Scores, and Abbreviated IQ Mean (SD) Minimum Maximum Abbreviated IQ Gifted 116 (8.8) 94 133 Highly gifted 121 (7.5) 97 150 Nonverbal IQ Gifted 119 (7.0) 104 136 Highly gifted 124 (9.4) 100 141 Verbal IQ Gifted 122 (6.9) 98 134 Highly gifted 127 (7.5) 110 138 Fluid reasoning Gifted 118 (9.3) 88 132 Highly gifted 125 (9.8) 109 141 Knowledge Gifted 118 (7.6) 100 131 Highly gifted 123 (8.7) 100 140 Quantitative reasoning Gifted 121 (9.8) 103 136 Highly gifted 124 (13.3) 92 149 Visual spatial Gifted 121 (9.8) 103 146 Highly gifted 123 (10.2) 103 149 Working memory Gifted 115 (7.5) 103 129 Highly gifted 119 (7.5) 106 138 Table 3 Stanford-Binet, Fifth-Edition Scores of Top Ranking Gifted Students on the WISC-III Rank on WISC-III WISC-III IQ Rank on SB5 SB5 IQ 1 154 10 128 1 154 18 120 2 153 2 138 3 152 10 128 4 150 3 136 5 149 24 114 Table 4 Stanford-Binet, Fifth-Edition Scores of Lowest Ranking Gifted Students on the WISC-III Rank on WISC-III WISC-III IQ Rank on SB5 SB5 IQ 23 127 26 110 22 130 23 115 130 21 117 130 20 118 130 18 120 130 17 121 130 13 125 130 12 126 21 131 27 102 131 25 112 131 11 127 131 9 129 20 132 20 118 19 133 24 114 133 23 115 133 21 117 133 19 119 133 17 121 133 15 123 133 15 123 133 11 127 Table 5 Classification of Students As Gifted or Highly Gifted Using Two Cut-off Scenarios On the SB5 Original Gifted Full designation composite scale IQ Using cut-offs of 115 (gifted) and 125 (highly gifted) Gifted students Identified as non-gifted 4 (11%) 5 (14%) Identified as gifted 20 (56%) 20 (56%) Identified as highly gifted 12 (33%) 11 (31%) Highly gifted students Identified as non-gifted 4 (11%) 3 (8%) Identified as gifted 9 (24%) 12 (32%) Identified as highly gifted 24 (65%) 22 (59%) Using cut-offs of 120 (gifted) and 130 (highly gifted) Gifted students Identified as non-gifted 12 (33%) 13 (36%) Identified as gifted 12 (33%) 20 (56%) Identified as highly gifted 12 (33%) 3 (10%) Highly gifted students Identified as non-gifted 7 (19%) 7 (19%) Identified as gifted 12 (32%) 16 (43%) Identified as highly gifted 18 (49%) 14 (38%) Table 6 Number of Years Mental Age is Ahead of Chronological Age Using Age Equivalent Scores for Gifted and Highly Gifted Students on the SB5 Number of students Years ahead Gifted Highly gifted 1 1 0 2 2 2 3 5 3 4 5 4 5 5 1 6 3 1 7 2 3 8 0 2 9 2 1 10 2 2 11 2 3 Beyond the highest average 7 15 score for mature adults