Gifted adolescents' overexcitabilities and self-concepts: an analysis of gender and grade level.
Overexcitabilities, or enhanced levels of experience, have emerged as an area of study in relation to the gifted. Specifically, gender and age differences have been explored. Overexcitabilities could affect many facets of life, one of which could be self-concept self-concept
An individual's assessment of his or her status on a single trait or on many human dimensions using societal or personal norms as criteria. . Self-concept is also a commonly researched construct in relation to the development of the gifted. Because the overexcitabilities are believed to contribute to the potential for further growth (Bouchard Bouchard is the name of several people.
Overexcitabilities are ways that an individual experiences the world (Piechowski, 1979) and allow her/him "to take in and process larger than usual amounts of stimuli from the environment" (Gallagher Gallagher may refer to: People
1. , sensual sen·su·al
1. Relating to or affecting any of the senses or a sense organ; sensory.
2. Of, relating to, given to, or providing gratification of the physical and especially the sexual appetites. , intellectual, imaginational, and emotional. Rather than viewing overexcitabilities as emotional extremes, though, some researchers view them as contributing to the potential for further growth (Bouchard, 2004; Dabrowski, 1964; Piechowski & Miller, 1995). "The richer and more complex their expression, the stronger the potential for development" (Piechowski & Cunningham, 1985, p. 156).
The notion of overexcitabilities stems from Dabrowski's (1964) Theory of Positive Disintegration The Theory of Positive Disintegration (TPD) by Kazimierz Dabrowski describes a theory of personality and personality development. Unlike mainstream psychology, Dabrowski's theoretical framework views psychological tension, anxiety, and depression as necessary for growth. , which is a theory of personality development. Dabrowski's theory defines five levels of personality development, as well as individual characteristics that contribute to developmental potential. Dabrowski believed developmental potential is contingent upon Adj. 1. contingent upon - determined by conditions or circumstances that follow; "arms sales contingent on the approval of congress"
contingent on, dependant on, dependant upon, dependent on, dependent upon, depending on, contingent one's level of intelligence, one's talents, one's will to develop, and one's levels of overexcitabilities. For a thorough description of Dabrowski's ideas and the Theory of Positive Disintegration, the reader is referred to Dabrowski (1937, 1964, 1972) and Dabrowski, Kawczak, and Piechowski (1970).
The five forms of overexcitabilities may be described as follows: A psychomotor overexcitability refers to a surplus of energy and nervousness. Manifestations include extreme enthusiasm, rapid speech, love of intense activity, and impulsive im·pul·sive
1. Inclined or tending to act on impulse rather than thought.
2. Motivated by or resulting from impulse.
im·pul actions. If experiencing stress, a person with a psychomotor overexcitability may act competitively, exhibit anxious behaviors, or act compulsively com·pul·sive
1. Having the capacity to compel: a frightening, compulsive novel.
2. Psychology Caused or conditioned by compulsion or obsession.
n. . A sensual overexcitability is an enhanced level of sensory sensory /sen·so·ry/ (sen´sor-e) pertaining to sensation.
1. Of or relating to the senses or sensation.
2. experience and is marked by the pursuit of pleasure through senses such as tastes and smell. Manifestations may include enhancing stimuli, such as through seeking to become the focus of attention or overindulging oneself in food, or removing oneself from stimuli, such as by taking the tags out of ones' clothes or wearing ear plugs. An intellectual overexcitability is associated with striving for knowledge and truth through questioning, discovering, and analyzing, but differs from the construct of intelligence. An imaginational overexcitability is characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. by daydreaming, fantasizing, dramatization dram·a·ti·za·tion
1. The act or art of dramatizing: the dramatization of a novel.
2. A work adapted for dramatic presentation: , and the use of imagery and metaphors. In order to escape boredom Boredom
See also Futility.
Aldegonde, Lord St.
bored nobleman, empty of pursuits. [Br. Lit.: Lothair]
(1821–1867) French poet whose dissipated lifestyle led to inner despair. [Fr. Lit. , those with an imaginational overexcitability may create an elaborate imaginary world An imaginary world is a setting, place or event or scenario at variance with objective reality, ranging from the voluntary suspension of disbelief of fictional universes and the socially constructed consensus reality of the "Social Imaginary", to alternate realities resulting from . An emotional overexcitability is marked by the intensified in·ten·si·fy
v. in·ten·si·fied, in·ten·si·fy·ing, in·ten·si·fies
1. To make intense or more intense: level of interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. relations to people, things, and places, and compassionate com·pas·sion·ate
1. Feeling or showing compassion; sympathetic. See Synonyms at humane.
2. Granted to an individual because of an emergency or other unusual circumstances: feelings for others. Its many manifestations include somatic somatic /so·mat·ic/ (so-mat´ik)
1. pertaining to or characteristic of the soma or body.
2. pertaining to the body wall in contrast to the viscera.
adj. expressions, extreme and often complex feelings, inhibition inhibition
In enzymology, a phenomenon in which a compound (an inhibitor), usually similar in structure to the substance on which an enzyme acts (substrate), interacts with the enzyme so that the resulting complex cannot undergo the usual reaction or cannot form the usual , and empathy empathy
Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing. (Ackerman, 1997; Bouchet & Falk n. 1. (Zool.) The razorbill. , 2001; Dabrowski & Piechowski, 1977; Piechowski, 1979; Piechowski & Colangelo, 1984).
Findings on Gifted Versus Average Ability Students
Various researchers have examined the relationship between giftedness gift·ed
1. Endowed with great natural ability, intelligence, or talent: a gifted child; a gifted pianist.
2. and overexcitabilities. Although results vary, some researchers have found gifted students to score higher than average-ability students on intellectual, emotional, and imaginational overexcitabilities. For example, Piechowski and Colangelo (1984) examined the overexcitabilities of gifted adolescents, intellectually gifted adults, artists, and average-ability graduate students. Results indicate that both gifted adolescents and gifted adults were characterized by intellectual, emotional, and imaginational overexcitabilities. In addition, the gifted adolescents were found to have higher intellectual overexcitability scores than the graduate students. In line with these results, Gallagher (1986) found gifted, sixth-grade students to report higher intellectual, emotional, and imaginational overexcitability scores than a random sample of average-ability sixth-grade students. Differing results, however, have been reported. For example, a study of tenth and eleventh grade This article or section deals primarily with the United States and Canada and does not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page. students found gifted students to be characterized by higher intellectual, emotional, and psychomotor overexcitabilities than average-ability students (Ackerman, 1997), and Bouchet and Falk (2001) found gifted college students to score higher than average-ability college students on measures of intellectual and emotional overexcitabilities.
The differing research findings between gifted and average-ability individuals may be due to a methodological issue. Some researchers have used an open-ended o·pen-end·ed
1. Not restrained by definite limits, restrictions, or structure.
2. Allowing for or adaptable to change.
3. , interview framework to gather information related to overexcitabilities (e.g., Gallagher, 1986) and some researchers have used a Likert-style inventory to measure overexcitabilities (e.g., Bouchet & Falk, 2001). Although both groups of researchers are measuring overexcitabilities, the expression of each overexcitability may differ depending on the method used to assess it. Thus, research findings and interpretations may also differ.
Age and Overexeitabilities
A portion of prior research regarding the relationship between overexcitabilities and age has shown similar overexcitability scores across age groups. For instance, no age differences were found in gifted children ages 9-14 for sensual and psychomotor overexcitabilities (Piechowski & Miller, 1995). Piechowski and Colangelo (1984) found gilled gill 1
1. Zoology The respiratory organ of most aquatic animals that breathe water to obtain oxygen, consisting of a filamentous structure of vascular membranes across which dissolved gases are exchanged.
2. adolescents aged 12-17 and gifted adults to report similar scores on the emotional and imaginational overexcitabilities. In addition, no age differences in overexcitability scores have been found among gifted college students (Bouchet & Falk, 2001).
Other studies have reported age differences in overexcitability scores. For example, Kitano (1990) found preschoolers, ages 32 to 55 months, exhibited fewer characteristics of overexcitabilities as they got older. Yet, a study by Piechowski and Miller (1995) reported children ages 12-14 scored higher than children ages 9-11 on emotional, intellectual, and imaginational overexcitabilities. However, Piechowski and Miller suggest this difference is likely due to an increased ability to respond in written form rather than a difference in the strength of the overexcitabilities. Piechowski and Colangelo (1984) found that gifted adolescents score lower than gifted adults in intellectual overexcitability. Piechowski and Colangelo also found gifted adolescents that score lower than gifted adults, and gifted adolescents score lower than average-ability graduate students on a measure of sensual overexcitability, concluding that sensual overexcitability may be a characteristic of age and maturity rather than giftedness.
Gender and Overexcitabilities
The relationship between gender and overexcitabilities has been examined for preschool children (Kitano, 1990), children ages 9-14 (Piechowski & Miller, 1995), college students (Bouchet & Falk, 2001), and adult samples (Miller, Silverman Silverman is the surname of:
While these researchers indicate no gender differences in samples of children under age 14, others report gender differences in adult samples. For instance, Bouchet and Falk (2001) examined the relationship between gender and overexcitabilities among university students. Gifted males scored higher than gifted females on intellectual, imaginational, and psychomotor overexcitabilities, while gifted females scored higher than gifted males on emotional and sensual overexcitabilities. Miller et al. (1994) examined intellectually gifted adults and average-ability graduate students and found females scored higher in emotional overexcitability, while men scored higher in intellectual overexcitability. No gender differences were found for imaginational, sensual, or psychomotor overexcitabilities.
Previous studies, therefore, have reported gender differences only in college students and adults. The limited amount of research performed in this realm warrants additional studies that would examine possible explanations for these differing results. One possible explanation, as proposed by Miller et al. (1994), suggests gender differences in overexcitabilities "seem to be related to areas in which males and females have been differentiated by traditional socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. " (p. 33).
Acceptability of Overexeitabilities
Gifted and average-ability students differ both socially and intellectually. These differences are often viewed as conflicting with their environment (Kitano, 1990). Overexcitabilities are typically not valued socially, but are rather interpreted as "nervousness, hyperactivity hyperactivity, excessive physical activity of emotional or physiological origin, usually seen in young children; one of the components of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. , neurotic neurotic /neu·rot·ic/ (ndbobr-rot´ik)
1. pertaining to or characterized by a neurosis.
2. a person affected with a neurosis.
adj. temperament temperament, in music, the altering of certain intervals from their acoustically correct values to provide a system of tuning whereby music can move from key to key without unacceptably impure sonorities. , excessive emotionality, and emotional intensity that most people find uncomfortable at close range" (Piechowski & Colangelo, 1984, p. 81). Consequently, stronger overexcitabilities typically mean less acceptability for gifted students by their peers and teachers. As a result, these children "are often made to feel different, apart from others, embarrassed, and guilty for being different" (Piechowski, 1992, p. 287). Even further, gifted children's overexcitabilities may be interpreted as psychological problems (e.g., ADHD Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Definition
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsive behaviors, and the inability to remain focused on tasks or ; Hartnett, Nelson, & Rinn rINN Recommended International Non-proprietary Name , 2004). Considering these negative consequences of overexcitabilities, it is reasonable to question whether or not gifted students' self-concepts may be affected by their overexcitabilities.
Self-concept is commonly researched in the social sciences and has received a fair amount of attention in the realm of gifted adolescents. Self-concept can be understood as "the image we hold of ourselves" (Hoge & Renzulli, 1993, p. 449). Self-concept is both multifaceted mul·ti·fac·et·ed
Having many facets or aspects. See Synonyms at versatile.
Adj. 1. multifaceted - having many aspects; "a many-sided subject"; "a multifaceted undertaking"; "multifarious interests"; "the multifarious and hierarchical A structure made up of different levels like a company organization chart. The higher levels have control or precedence over the lower levels. Hierarchical structures are a one-to-many relationship; each item having one or more items below it. (Shavelson, Hubner Hub´ner
n. 1. (Min.) A mineral of brownish black color, occurring in columnar or foliated masses. It is native manganese tungstate ltname>. , & Stanton Stanton, city (1990 pop. 30,491), Orange co., SW Calif., SW of Anaheim; inc. 1956. The city's population grew rapidly in the late 20th century. Manufactures include electrical and electronic goods, signs, computer equipment, building materials, and plastics. , 1976). Self-concept is multifaceted in that individuals view themselves in various dimensions that are related but can be measured independently of each other (Byrne Byrne (variations: Byrnes, O'Byrne, O'Byrnes, Burns, Beirne) meaning 'raven', is derived from the Irish name Ó Broin, and is the seventh most common last name in Ireland today. History
'Ó Broin', the Gaelic form of 'Byrne', means descendant of Bran. & Shavelson, 1996). Self-concept is also "hierarchically hi·er·ar·chi·cal or hi·er·ar·chic or hi·er·ar·chal
Of or relating to a hierarchy.
hi organized, with perceptions of behavior at the base moving to inferences about self in sub areas (e.g., academic--English, science, history, mathematics), then to inferences about self in general" (Marsh & Shavelson, 1985, p. 107). One's self-concept is derived from various facets, rather than being a unidimensional u·ni·di·men·sion·al
Adj. 1. unidimensional - relating to a single dimension or aspect; having no depth or scope; "a prose statement of fact is unidimensional, its value being measured wholly in terms construct (Shavelson et al.).
Global self-concept can be divided into academic and nonacademic aspects (Byrne & Shavelson, 1996). Academic self-concept, or one's perception of her/his academic ability, can be further broken into specific components, namely mathematics and verbal facets. Nonacademic self-concept can be divided into emotional, social, and physical facets (Bryne Bryne is a town, located in, and the administrative centre of, the municipality of Time, Norway. Bryne is located about 25 minutes south of Stavanger by train. The area of Bryne is 4,79 km². & Shavelson). Marsh (1990) describes emotional self-concept as "emotional well-being and freedom from psychopathology psychopathology /psy·cho·pa·thol·o·gy/ (-pah-thol´ah-je)
1. the branch of medicine dealing with the causes and processes of mental disorders.
2. abnormal, maladaptive behavior or mental activity. " (p. 2). Bryne and Shavelson define social self-concept as "one's perception of his or her social competence with respect to social interaction with others and derives from the assessment of one's behavior within a given social context" (p. 601). Physical self-concept is related to one's perceptions of her/his physical abilities and physical appearance (Marsh).
Grade Level and Self-Concept
While research has shown self-concept to become more differentiated with age (Bryne & Shavelson, 1996), researchers have reported mixed results regarding gifted adolescents. Research has provided support for the argument that general self-concept tends to increase over time as children move into adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. (Marsh, 1989; Wilson Wilson, city (1990 pop. 36,930), seat of Wilson co., E N.C., in a rich agricultural region; inc. 1849. It is a commercial and industrial center with a large tobacco market. Manufactures include textile goods (especially clothing), metal products, and processed foods. , 1998). However, when the self-concepts of gifted students were exclusively considered, various researchers have found no age differences in the self-concept scores of gifted middle-school and high-school students at a summer program for the gifted (Gabelko, Roth, & Worrell Some of the information in this article or section may not be verified by . It should be checked for inaccuracies and modified to cite reliable sources.
Worrell is a design consultancy based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. , 1997; Stocking, Porter, & Goldstein Gold·stein , Joseph Leonard Born 1940.
American biochemist. He shared a 1985 Nobel Prize for discoveries related to cholesterol metabolism. , 1993; Worrell, Roth, Gabelko, 1998). Furthermore, Colangelo and Pfleger (1978) and Hoge and Renzulli (1993) reported grade level as having no significant effect on self-concept. However, other studies have found significant grade-level differences in gifted students' self-concepts. For example, Klein Klein , Melanie 1882-1960.
Austrian-born British psychoanalyst who first introduced play therapy and was the first to use psychoanalysis to treat young children. and Zehms (1996) found gifted girls' total sell-concept scores significantly decline from grades 3 to 5 to 8.
Gender and Self-Concept
Again, researchers have indicated mixed results regarding gender and the self-concepts of gifted students. Gifted males typically have higher global self-concepts than gifted females (Gabelko et al., 1997; Worrell et al., 1998). Previous research on gifted students in grades 5-12 have reported no gender differences in academic self-concept scores (Ablard, 1997; Colangelo & Pfleger, 1978; Gabelko et al.; Ross Ross , Sir Ronald 1857-1932.
British physician. He won a 1902 Nobel Prize for proving that malaria is transmitted to humans by the bite of the mosquito. & Parker, 1980; Worrell et al.). However, Kelly Kel·ly , Ellsworth Born 1923.
American abstract painter and sculptor whose works are characterized by flat color areas with sharply defined edges.
Kelly, Emmett 1898-1979. and Jordan's (1990) study of gifted eighth-grade students revealed boys rated themselves more capable than gifted girls, even though there was no gender difference in actual academic achievement. Contrary to most findings on gifted American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of students, Dai (2001) found that gifted Chinese Chinese, subfamily of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages (see Sino-Tibetan languages), which is also sometimes grouped with the Tai, or Thai, languages in a Sinitic subfamily of the Sino-Tibetan language stock. adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. females reported higher academic self-concept than males. Regarding the specific facets of academic self-concept, Norman Norman, city (1990 pop. 80,071), seat of Cleveland co., central Okla.; inc. 1891. It is the center of a livestock region. Oil wells, food processing, and printing and publishing contribute to the economy, and there is diverse manufacturing (machinery, communication , Ramsay Ram·say , Allan 1686-1758.
Scottish poet noted for his patriotic and pastoral works, including the drama The Gentle Shepherd (1725).
Ramsay, James Andrew Brown. , Martray, and Roberts (1999) found gifted adolescent girls to score higher than gifted adolescent boys on a measure of verbal self-concept, while boys scored higher than girls on a measure of math self-concept. For Chinese adolescents at a school for the gifted, males and females reported similar scores on math self-concept (Dai).
Concerning gifted students' social self-concept, previous studies indicate mixed results as well. Some studies have reported no gender differences in social self-concept (Kelly & Jordan Jordan, country, Asia
Jordan, officially Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 5,760,000), 35,637 sq mi (92,300 sq km), SW Asia. It borders on Israel and the West Bank in the west, on Syria in the north, on Iraq in the northeast, and on Saudi , 1990; Pyryt & Mendaglio, 1994; Ross & Parker, 1980). For example, Rinn's (2006) study of adolescents at a summer program for the gifted found no gender differences in perceived same-sex same-sex
1. Involving or restricted to members of the same sex: same-sex schools.
2. Of or involving gay men or lesbians: same-sex couples; same-sex marriage. or opposite-sex peer relations at the beginning of the summer program. Yet, studies of gifted students in grades 7-11 revealed that females reported higher levels of social self-concept than males (Ablard, 1997; Gabelko et al., 1997; Worrell et al., 1998). In addition, Norman et al. (1999) found that gifted adolescent girls score higher than gifted adolescent boys on measures of perceived honesty/trustworthiness, opposite-sex relations, and same-sex relations. Regarding physical self-concept, gifted males typically report higher physical self-concept scores than gifted females (Gabelko et al.; Worrell et al.). However, Rinn and Wininger (2006) found no gender differences among gifted adolescents on measures of perceived physical abilities or physical appearance.
The purpose of the current study is to explore the relationship between gifted adolescents' self-concepts and overexcitabilities. This study will also examine the effects of gender and grade level on the overexcitabilities of gifted students. There are both theoretical and practical implications for this study.
The existing body of research on overexcitabilities is limited, particularly when using samples of gifted adolescents. As self-concept becomes more differentiated with age (Bryne & Shavelson, 1996), early adolescence may be the time period when perceptions of self are emerging. Consequently, this study will offer insight into the initial stage of gifted adolescent self-concept formation, as well as how overexcitabilities may be affecting that self-concept formation. There is a lack of research that examines the possible relationship between overexcitabilities and self-concept, yet the relationship between these two constmcts is important because of the potential negative relationship between the two. Educators and practitioners should be aware of the potential relationship between overexcitabilities and self-concept, so that specific compensations can be made if gifted adolescents' self-concepts decrease as a function of their overexcitabilities. It is also important to be aware of any gender or grade-level effects so that adjustments can be made accordingly.
The current study is an exploratory study that examines the relationship between overexcitabilities and selfconcept. Given the negative consequences associated with overexcitabilities (Kitano, 1990; Piechowski, 1992; Piechowski & Colangelo, 1984), a relationship is hypothesized to exist. The relationship between gender and overexcitabilities is also explored; however, because of the lack of previous research, the direction of the relationship is not hypothesized. In accordance Accordance is Bible Study Software for Macintosh developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
As well as a standalone program, it is the base software packaged by Zondervan in their Bible Study suites for Macintosh. with prior research (e.g., Piechowski & Colangelo; Piechowski & Miller, 1995), no grade-level differences for gifted adolescents' overexcitabilities are hypothesized. Self-concept and gender have been examined recently (e.g., Gabelko et al., 1997; Norman et al., 1999; Rinn, 2006), as well as self-concept and grade level (Gabelko et al.; Klein & Zehms, 1996; Worrell et al., 1998). As a result, these relationships are not explored, as they are beyond the scope of this paper.
Participants were recruited from two summer programs for gifted students held at a comprehensive university in the south. These particular summer programs have been in operation for over 20 years. The first summer program is a 2-week, largely residential program (1) for gifted students entering the seventh, eighth, or ninth grades the following school year. To qualify for participation in this summer program, students must show (a) high interest and/or and/or
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.
Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing. achievement in one or more content areas; (b) be eligible for services as a gifted child gifted child
Child naturally endowed with a high degree of general mental ability or extraordinary ability in a specific domain. Although the designation of giftedness is largely a matter of administrative convenience, the best indications of giftedness are often those or have an IQ score of 125 or above; (c) score at or above the 90th percentile percentile,
n the number in a frequency distribution below which a certain percentage of fees will fall. E.g., the ninetieth percentile is the number that divides the distribution of fees into the lower 90% and the upper 10%, or that fee level on the total battery; or at or above the 95th percentile on the total mathematics or language/reading section of the most recent achievement test; or have scored at the proficient pro·fi·cient
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.
An expert; an adept. or distinguished level on performance assessment measures; and (d) be nominated nom·i·nate
tr.v. nom·i·nat·ed, nom·i·nat·ing, nom·i·nates
1. To propose by name as a candidate, especially for election.
2. To designate or appoint to an office, responsibility, or honor. by a teacher, counselor, or principal. This summer program involves 6 hours of class per day, 5 days a week, for 2 weeks. The students have a variety of courses from which to choose (e.g., acting, ecology ecology, study of the relationships of organisms to their physical environment and to one another. The study of an individual organism or a single species is termed autecology; the study of groups of organisms is called synecology. , geography, science, etc.), and they enroll in four courses. The students also engage in various social activities (e.g., board games This is a list of board games. This page classifies board games according to the concerns which might be uppermost for someone organizing a gaming event or party. See the article on game classification for other alternatives, or see for a list of board game articles. , athletic activities, a talent show, etc.) after class each day and on weekends.
The second summer camp is a 3-week residential program for gifted students entering the eighth, ninth, tenth, or eleventh grades the following school year. To qualify for participation in this summer program, students must have been eligible to attend talent search summer programs (e.g., through the Duke Talent Identification Program) within the past 4 years. This summer program involves 6 hours of class and 1 hour of study hall per day, 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. The students have a variety of courses from which to choose (e.g., humanities, genetics genetics, scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of , theatre, mathematics, etc.), and they enroll in only one course. Similar to the other summer program, the students also engage in various social activities after class each day and on weekends.
A total of 248 gifted adolescents participated in this study. Although parental consent Parental consent laws (also known as parental involvement or parental notification laws) in some countries require that one or more parents consent to or be notified before their minor child can legally engage in certain activities. was obtained for 250 adolescents, 2 individuals declined participation. Of the 248 participants, 119 attended the first summer program while 129 attended the second summer program. There were 131 male participants and 116 female participants. The mean age of the participants was 13.6, with a range from 11 to 16. Approximately 85% of the participants were White. Complete demographic information can be found in Table 1.
Demographic information. Participants were given a demographic questionnaire to assess gender and age, among other information. Other data was gathered from participants' applications for summer camp participation, including ethnic background and grade level.
Overexcitabilities. The Overexcitabilities Questionnaire-Two (OEQII) was designed to measure the five forms of overexcitability: psychomotor, sensual, imaginational, intellectual, and emotional (Falk, Lind, Miller, Piechowski, & Silverman, 1999). Overexcitabilities derive from Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration. The OEQII is a fairly new instrument that has been used to study giftedness (e.g., Bouchet & Falk, 2001).
The OEQII includes 50 self-report items using a 5-point Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc with responses ranging from 1 (not at all like me) to 5 (very much like me). High scores indicate higher levels of overexcitability. From the normative nor·ma·tive
Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.
nor sample, internal reliability, using Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments. , was high for each form of overexcitability: psychomotor (.86), sensual (.89), imaginational (.85), intellectual (.89), and emotional (.84). Each overexcitability subscale is made up of 10 items. An example from the psychomotor overexcitability subscale is, "When I have a lot of energy, I want to do something really physical." A sample item for the sensual overexcitability subscale is, "Viewing art is a totally absorbing experience." The intellectual overexcitability scale includes items such as, "Theories get my mind going," while an example from the imaginational overexcitability subscale is, "Things that I picture in my mind are so vivid that they seem real to me." A sample item for the emotional overexcitability subscale is, "I can be so happy that I want to laugh and cry at the same time."
Self-concept. The Self Description Questionnaire II (SDQII) was designed to measure the self-concepts of young adolescents, and is theoretically based on the notion that self-concept is multidimensional mul·ti·di·men·sion·al
Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
multi·di·men and hierarchically structured (Marsh, 1990; Shavelson et al., 1976). The SDQ-II measures self-concept in the following areas: mathematics, verbal, physical abilities, physical appearance, same-sex peer relations, opposite-sex peer relations, parent relations, emotional stability, honesty/trustworthiness, general academic, and general self. Extensive support for the reliability and validity of the SDQ-II has been reported in other research (see Gilman Gil·man , Charlotte Anna Perkins 1860-1935.
American feminist, writer, and editor best known for Women and Economics (1898), an influential manifesto calling for the economic independence of women.
Noun 1. , Laughlin Laughlin has several uses:
v. plucked, pluck·ing, plucks
1. To remove or detach by grasping and pulling abruptly with the fingers; pick: pluck a flower; pluck feathers from a chicken. , Taylor Taylor, city (1990 pop. 70,811), Wayne co., SE Mich., a suburb of Detroit adjacent to Dearborn; founded 1847 as a township, inc. as a city 1968. A small rural village until World War II, it developed significantly in the second half of the 20th cent. , Callahan Callahan, an Irish surname, can refer to: People
The SDQ-II consists of 11 subscales. The same-sex peer-relations subscale measures interactions with peers of the same sex. A sample item from this subscale is, "Not many people of my own sex like me" (Marsh, 1990, p. 4). From the normative sample, internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. was reported as .86 and factor loadings range from .57 to .68 (five items) (2). The opposite-sex peer-relations subscale measures interactions with peers of the opposite sex (e.g., "I have lots of friends of the opposite sex"; p. 3). Internal consistency was reported as .90 and factor loadings range from .69 to .78 (four items).
The mathematics subscale measures ability, enjoyment, and interest in mathematics and reasoning (e.g., "I do badly in tests of mathematics"; p. 5). From the normative sample, internal consistency was reported as .90 and factor loadings range from .72 to .80 (five items). The verbal subscale measures ability, enjoyment, and interest in English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is and reading (e.g., "I learn things quickly in English classes"; p. 5). Internal consistency was reported as .86 and factor loadings range from .53 to .75 (five items). The general school subscale measures one's interests and abilities in schoolwork (e.g., "I learn things quickly in most school subjects"; p. 6). From the normative sample, internal consistency was reported as .87 and factor loadings range from .48 to .64 (five items). The general self subscale measures one's feeling of self-worth self-worth
Noun 1. self-worth - the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect; "it was beneath his dignity to cheat"; "showed his true dignity when under pressure" , self-confidence, and self-satisfaction self-sat·is·fac·tion
Satisfaction, especially complacent satisfaction, with oneself or with one's accomplishments.
self (e.g., "If I really try I can do almost anything I want to"; p. 6). From the normative sample, internal consistency was reported as .88 and factor loadings range from .49 to .64 (five items). The emotional stability subscale measures one's emotional well-being and freedom from emotional dysfunction dysfunction /dys·func·tion/ (dis-funk´shun) disturbance, impairment, or abnormality of functioning of an organ.dysfunc´tional
erectile dysfunction impotence (2). (e.g., "Other people get more upset about things than I do"; p. 5). From the normative sample, internal consistency was reported as .83 and factor loadings range from .57 to .66 (five items). The physical abilities subscale measures skills and interest in physical activities and sports (e.g., "I'm I'm
Contraction of I am.
Our Living Language Speakers of some scattered varieties of American English sometimes use I'm instead of I've or I have in present perfect constructions, as in good at things like sports, gym and dance"; p. 3). From the normative sample, internal consistency was reported as .85 and factor loadings range from .67 to .78 (four items). The physical appearance subscale measures perceived physical attractiveness Physical attractiveness is the perception of the physical traits of an individual human person as pleasing or beautiful. It can include various implications, such as sexual attractiveness, cuteness, and physique. (e.g., "Nobody thinks that I'm good looking"; p. 3). From the normative sample, internal consistency was reported as .91 and factor loadings range from .68 to .76 (four items). The parent relations subscale measures perceived interactions with parents (e.g., "I get along well with my parents"; p. 4). From the normative sample, internal consistency was reported as .87 and factor loadings range from .68 to .77 (four items). The honesty/trustworthiness subscale measures truthfulness and dependability dependability - software reliability (e.g., "When I make a promise I keep it"; p. 4). From the normative sample, internal consistency was reported as .84 and factor loadings range from .61 to .71 (five items).
Parental consent was obtained prior to the start of the summer program. Adolescents whose parents gave consent were invited to take part in the study, but they were given the option to decline participation. Data was gathered at a single session during the first week of each summer program.
Overexcitability and Self-Concept
To examine the relationship between overexcitability, self-concept, and grade level, correlation analyses were used. A correlation matrix Noun 1. correlation matrix - a matrix giving the correlations between all pairs of data sets
statistics - a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population of all the variables of interest can be found in Table 2. Significant correlations were found between grade level and opposite-sex peer relations self-concept (r =. 18, p < .01), physical appearance self-concept (r =. 14, p < .05), emotional stability self-concept (r =. 19, p < .01), the intellectual overexcitability scores (r = .22, p < .01), and the imaginational overexcitability scores (r = -.14, p < .05). Significant correlations were also found for the psychomotor overexcitability scores and same-sex peer relations self-concept (r = .32, p < .001), opposite-sex peer relations self-concept (r = .29, p < .001), physical appearance self-concept (r = .24, p < .001), general school self-concept (r = .22, p < .01), general self-concept (r = .28, p < .001), and physical abilities self-concept (r = .68, p < .001). Significant correlations were found for the sensual overexcitability scores and verbal self-concept (r = .29, p < .001). In addition, the intellectual overexcitability scores were significantly correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. with emotional stability self-concept (r = -.14, p < .05), general school self-concept (r = .29, p < .001), and verbal self-concept (r = .33, p < .001). The imaginational overexcitability scores were significantly correlated with same-sex peer relations self-concept (r = -.23, p < .001), opposite-sex peer relations self-concept (r = -.22, p < .01), physical appearance self-concept (r = -.28, p < .001), parent relations self-concept (r = -.26, p < .001), emotional stability self-concept (r = -.45, p < .001), math self-concept (r = -.25, p < .001), general self-concept (r = -.26, p < .001), honesty/trustworthiness self-concept (r = -. 18 p < .01), verbal self-concept (r =. 14, p < .05), and physical abilities self-concept (r = -.30, p < .001). Lastly, the emotional overexcitability scores were significantly correlated with emotional stability self-concept (r = -.41, p < .001), math self-concept (r=-.13, p < .05), honesty/trustworthiness self-concept (r =. 15, p < .05), and verbal self-concept (r = .21, p < .01).
Overexcitabilities, Grade Level, and Gender
To examine differences between gifted adolescents' grade level and gender with regards to each of the five overexcitabilities, a series of two-way factorial factorial
For any whole number, the product of all the counting numbers up to and including itself. It is indicated with an exclamation point: 4! (read “four factorial”) is 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24. analyses of variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality (ANOVAs) were utilized. Specifically, we examined whether each dependent variable (e.g., overexcitability subscale score) was affected by the adolescent's gender (male, female) and/or grade level (sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth). The means, standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. , and coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. alphas of each dependent variable can be seen in Table 3. Although several of the dependent variables for this study were found to be somewhat intercorrelated, a MANOVA MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of the Variance approach was not used because the dependent variables were not correlated beyond a moderate level. Results of the series of factorial ANOVAs suggested no significant main effects for adolescents' psychomotor overexcitability subscale scores. Significant findings were found for each of the following subscale scores: sensual, intellectual, imaginational, and emotional subscale scores.
Sensual overexcitability subscale scores. Regarding the sensual overexcitability, there was a main effect for gender, F(1,212) = 18.08, p < .001, partial [[eta].sup.2] = .08. Gifted adolescent females had higher sensual overexcitability scores (M = 3.44, SD = 0.79) than gifted adolescent males (M = 2.86, SD = 0.91). No other significant main effects or interactions were found. See Table 4 for more information.
Intellectual overexcitability subscale scores. Regarding the intellectual overexcitability, there was a main effect for grade level, F(4, 217) = 4.64, p < .01, partial [[eta].sup.2] = .08. A Tukey HSD HSD Human Services Department
HSD High Speed Data
HSD Hillsboro School District (Hillsboro, OR)
HSD Hybrid Synergy Drive (Toyota/Lexus)
HSD High School Diploma
HSD Historical Society of Delaware post-hoc test revealed significant differences between the intellectual overexcitability subscale scores of sixth graders and eighth graders and between sixth graders and ninth graders. Gifted eighth-grade students had higher intellectual overexcitability scores (M = 3.85, SD = 0.76) than gifted sixth-grade students (M = 3.31, SD = 0.77). In addition, gifted ninth-grade students had higher intellectual overexcitability scores (M = 4.00, SD = 0.64) than gifted sixth-grade students (M = 3.31, SD = 0.77). No other significant main effects or interactions were found. See Table 5.
Imaginational overexcitability subscale scores. Regarding the imaginational overexcitability, there was a main effect for gender, F(1,213) = 9.36, p < .01, partial [[eta].sup.2] = .04. Gifted adolescent females had higher imaginational overexcitability scores (M = 2.96, SD = 1.01) than gifted adolescent males (M = 2.48, SD = 0.79). No other significant main effects or interactions were found. See Table 6.
Emotional overexcitability subscale scores. Regarding the emotional overexcitability, there was a main effect for gender, F(1,220) = 19.59, p < .001, partial [[eta].sup.2] = .15. Gifted adolescent females had higher emotional overexcitability scores (M = 3.63, SD = 0.67) than gifted adolescent males (M = 2.99, SD = 0.73). No other significant main effects or interactions were found. See Table 7.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between gifted adolescents' overexcitabilities and self-concepts, while also examining the effects of gender and grade level on gifted adolescents' overexcitabilities. Results from this study indicate significant gender differences for the sensual, imaginational, and emotional overexcitability subscale scores. In addition, there were significant grade-level differences for the intellectual overexcitability subscale scores. No gender or grade-level difference was found for the psychomotor overexcitability subscale scores. Further, multiple relationships were found between overexcitabilities, self-concept, and grade level.
Gender Differences in the Overexcitabilities
Psychomotor overexcitability. Regarding the psychomotor overexcitability, the current study of gifted adolescents found no gender differences, which is in accordance with some previous research (Kitano, 1990; Miller et al., 1994; Piechowski & Miller, 1995). Consequently, it appears as though gender differences in the psychomotor overexcitability are only evident in college students.
Sensual overexcitability. In the current study, gifted adolescent females report higher sensual overexcitabilities than males, which is consistent with previous research of gifted college students (Bouchet & Falk, 2001), yet inconsistent with research on gifted people of other ages (Kitano, 1990; Miller et al., 1994; Piechowski & Miller, 1995). This gender difference is consistent with typical stereotypes and may be a result of the particular developmental frame of time characterizing adolescence and the college years. Further, because the effect size for this finding is so small, gender differences may continue to emerge and grow stronger as students continue into college.
Intellectual overexcitability. Regarding the intellectual overexcitability, previous research has found no gender differences in younger samples (Kitano, 1990; Piechowski & Miller, 1995), yet males in older samples have reported higher scores on measures of intellectual overexcitabilities (Bouchet & Falk, 2001; Miller et al., 1994). The current study of gifted adolescents found no gender difference, which suggests gender differences may emerge in college.
Imaginational overexcitability. The current study of gifted adolescents found females scored higher than males on imaginational overexcitability, a finding which is inconsistent with previous research (Bouchet & Falk, 2001; Kitano, 1990; Miller et al., 1994; Piechowski & Miller, 1995). Gender differences are seemingly seem·ing
Outward appearance; semblance.
seeming·ly adv. only evident in samples of adolescents and college students, with adolescent females and college males scoring higher than their respective counterparts. However, the effect size for this finding is very small. Before we can draw conclusions about these discrepancies in findings, more research needs to be conducted.
Emotional overexcitability. Gifted adolescent females in he current study reported higher emotional overexcitability scores than males. This finding is consistent with previous research on older samples (Bouchet & Falk, 2001; Miller et al., 1994), yet inconsistent with previous research on younger samples (Kitano, 1990; Piechowski & Miller, 1995). Thus, it appears as though the emotional overexcitability gender differences may emerge in adolescence. Again, though, the effect size for this finding is small, so the practical significance may be limited.
Grade Level Findings for the Overexcitabilities
Results of the current study suggest grade-level differences in only one of the five overexcitabilities. Specifically, gifted eighth- and ninth-grade students had higher intellectual overexcitability scores than gifted sixth-grade students. The current findings are consistent with the findings of Piechowski and Miller (1995), who found that 12- to 14-year-olds score higher than 9 to 11-year-olds on a measure of intellectual overexcitability. A possible explanation for the current findings may be the eighth- and ninth-grade students' increased anticipation of high-school and academic achievement, as compared to the sixth graders who are just entering middle school and have not yet been subject to the increasing intellectual demands and expectations of middle school and high school. Because the effect size related to these findings is very small, grade-level differences should be further examined.
Overexcitabilities and Self-Concept
As hypothesized, numerous correlations were found between the five overexcitabilities and the self-concept subscales. The results of the current study lend support to the proposed theory that the social value and consequences associated with overexcitabilities may affect gifted adolescents self-concepts (Kitano, 1990; Piecbowski, 1992; Piechowski & Colangelo, 1984). Each of the significant correlations is relatively weak, though, so the practical relationship between the two constructs may be limited.
Emotional stability self-concept. The emotional stability subscale scores are negatively correlated with three of the five overexcitabilities, including the intellectual, imaginational, and emotional overexcitabilities. These negative relationships may be explained in terms of the negative connotations often associated with overexcitabilities. As Piechowski and Colangelo (1984) suggest, overexcitabilities are not typically valued socially and are perceived negatively by others. As a result, peers and teachers of gifted students are less accepting of the manifestations of overexcitabilities. Piechowski (1992) suggests that gifted students may feel set apart from others because of their differences and even embarrassed. Consequently, it is possible that the acceptability of the overexcitabilities may be negatively affecting gifted adolescents' emotional stability self-concept. However, "Dabrowski (1972) believed that many individuals who exhibit neurotic characteristics (i.e., intense inner conflict, feelings of inferiority regarding one's self, dissatisfaction with one's self, feelings of inadequacy, disquietude, anxiety) also possess the greatest potential for development" (as cited in O'Conner O'Conner may refer to
Verbal self-concept. Of the 11 self-concept subscales cores, the verbal self-concept scores are the most correlated with the overexcitabilities. Specifically, it is positively correlated with each overexcitability except psychomotor. Prior research suggests gifted adolescent females perceive their verbal abilities as higher than males (Norman et al., 1999). Further, the current study found gifted adolescent females to score higher than males in the emotional, sensual, and imaginational overexcitabilities. Consequently, the correlations round between verbal self-concept and the emotional, sensual, and imaginational overexcitabilities may be explained by gender as a confounding variable A confounding variable (also confounding factor, lurking variable, a confound, or confounder) is an extraneous variable in a statistical or research model that should have been experimentally controlled, but was not. . Future research should aim to examine gender as a moderator moderator - A person, or small group of people, who manages a moderated mailing list or Usenet newsgroup. Moderators are responsible for determining which email submissions are passed on to the list or newsgroup. in the relationship between overexcitabilities and verbal self-concept. Regarding the positive correlation Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation between verbal self-concept and the intellectual overexcitability, the academic nature of each is a likely explanation.
Psychomotor overexcitability. Of the five overexcitabilities, the psychomotor overexcitability scores are the most positively correlated with the self-concept subscale scores, namely the same-sex peer relations, opposite-sex peer relations, physical appearance, general school, general self, and physical abilities subscale scores. Except general school self-concept, all of the positive correlations are with nonacademic self-concept subscale scores. Although not the case for all students, one may expect a psychomotor overexcitability to inhibit inhibit /in·hib·it/ (in-hib´it) to retard, arrest, or restrain.
1. To hold back; restrain.
2. academic success, as the manifestations are often distracting dis·tract
tr.v. dis·tract·ed, dis·tract·ing, dis·tracts
1. To cause to turn away from the original focus of attention or interest; divert.
2. To pull in conflicting emotional directions; unsettle. for a student. However, it seems as though a psychomotor overexcitability boosts self-concept, even general school self-concept. Educators and practitioners may benefit from the results of this study as they encounter students with a psychomotor overexcitability. As the psychomotor overexcitability may be positively related to various facets of self-concept, allowing the psychomotor overexcitability to flourish, rather than working to suppress To stop something or someone; to prevent, prohibit, or subdue.
To suppress evidence is to keep it from being admitted at trial by showing either that it was illegally obtained or that it is irrelevant. it, may actually improve gifted adolescents' self-concept, which may in turn enhance other aspects of their lives, including academic performance.
Imaginational overexcitability. Of the five overexcitabiliies, the imaginational overexcitability is clearly the most negatively correlated with self-concept. More specifically, the imaginational overexcitability is negatively correlated with all but 1 of the 11 self-concept subscale scores. The overexcitabilities are supposed to contribute to the potential for further growth (Bouchard, 2004; Dabrowski, 1964; Piechowski & Miller, 1995), but given the negative association between the imaginational overexcitability and self-concept, gifted adolescents with this overexcitability may be at risk for not reaching their developmental potential. Consequently, specific compensations must be made while working with students who appear to have an imaginational overexcitability. For example, educators and practitioners should be intentional in·ten·tion·al
1. Done deliberately; intended: an intentional slight. See Synonyms at voluntary.
2. Having to do with intention. about recognizing the overexcitability and channeling their intensified experience of the world appropriately. Specific attention should be given to the self-concepts of gifted adolescents with an imaginational overexcitability, as the image they hold of themselves may be prone to be negatively affected. Also, given the negative correlation Noun 1. negative correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and -1
indirect correlation between grade level and the imaginational overexcitability, it may be vital for educators and practitioners to be aware of the manifestations associated with this overexcitability as students get older.
Limitations and Directions for Future Research
Results of the current study open a new window to the investigation of the relationship between gifted adolescents' overexcitabilities and self-concepts. Continued exploration of the effects of the overexcitabilities on self-concept is necessary to further solidify so·lid·i·fy
v. so·lid·i·fied, so·lid·i·fy·ing, so·lid·i·fies
1. To make solid, compact, or hard.
2. To make strong or united.
v.intr. the current findings. However, future research is needed to determine if the relationships between overexcitabilities and self-concept are causal causal /cau·sal/ (kaw´z'l) pertaining to, involving, or indicating a cause.
relating to or emanating from cause. relationships rather than just correlational relationships. Future research should examine specific findings of the current study in greater detail using an experimental design in order to examine whether or not overexcitabilities predict and/or explain self-concept, or whether or not the relationship is reciprocal Bilateral; two-sided; mutual; interchanged.
Reciprocal obligations are duties owed by one individual to another and vice versa. A reciprocal contract is one in which the parties enter into mutual agreements. . In addition, a longitudinal study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. is suggested, especially when further exploring grade-level differences in overexcitabilities.
As the current sample consisted only of gifted students from a summer program, replication In database management, the ability to keep distributed databases synchronized by routinely copying the entire database or subsets of the database to other servers in the network.
There are various replication methods. of the current study in settings other than a summer program, such as in the regular classroom, as well as using a more diverse sample is suggested. Future research is also needed to explore the relationships between overexcitabilities and self-concepts of younger and older gifted students, as well as compared to average-ability students. Examining different levels of giftedness with regard to overexcitabilities and self-concept might also provide interesting results.
Finally, when examining overexcitabilities and self-concept in any future research study, researchers should consider using varying methods to measures overexcitabilities. As mentioned earlier, researchers typically use one of two methods to examine overexcitabilites: an interview method or a Likert-style inventory. These two methods could result in differing responses. In addition to the OEQII, which was used in the current study, another commonly used measure to evaluate Dabrowski's five overexcitabilities is called the Overexcitability Questionnaire. It consists of 21 open-ended interview questions and the participant is encouraged to answer freely (Piechowski & Miller, 1995). Piechowski and Miller suggest interviewing a participant will result in a richer response than a standard questionnaire. Future research might include both a Likert-style inventory and an interview method to gain a more complete understanding of overexcitabilities.
The present study contributes to the developing literature on gifted adolescents' overexcitabilities, particularly with regard to the relationship between overexcitabilities and self-concepts. Results suggest gifted adolescent females score higher than males in the sensual, imaginational, and emotional overexcitabilities. In addition, results indicate significant grade-level differences for the intellectual overexcitability subscale scores, but no gender or grade-level difference for the psychomotor overexcitability subscale scores. Further, this study revealed multiple relationships among overexcitabilities, self-concept, and grade level. It is suggested that the acceptability of overexcitabilities may be affecting gifted adolescents' self-concepts. More research is needed, however, to clarify if the relationship is causal.
Manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. submitted August 7, 2006.
Revision accepted December December: see month. 7, 2006.
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Boston, town (1991 pop. 26,495), E central England, on the Witham River. Boston's fame as a port dates from the 13th cent., when it was a Hanseatic port trading wool and wine. Having recovered from a decline in the 18th and 19th cent. : Little, Brown.
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n. pl. psy·cho·neu·ro·ses
Neurosis. is not an illness. London London, city, Canada
London, city (1991 pop. 303,165), SE Ont., Canada, on the Thames River. The site was chosen in 1792 by Governor Simcoe to be the capital of Upper Canada, but York was made capital instead. London was settled in 1826. : Gryf.
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An incorrect diagnosis.
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SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires
SDQ Sexual Disaster Quartet (band)
SDQ Service Delivery & Quality ) II: Manual. New South Wales New South Wales, state (1991 pop. 5,164,549), 309,443 sq mi (801,457 sq km), SE Australia. It is bounded on the E by the Pacific Ocean. Sydney is the capital. The other principal urban centers are Newcastle, Wagga Wagga, Lismore, Wollongong, and Broken Hill. . Australia: University of Western Sydney History
In 1987 the New South Wales Labor government decided to name the planned new university in Sydney's western suburbs Chifley University. When, in 1989, a new Liberal government renamed it the University of Western Sydney, controversy broke out. .
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This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
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(1) A non-residential option is chosen by about 20% of participants.
(2) Marsh (1990) uses" item pairs in factor analysis such that the eight or ten items from each subscale of the SDQ-II are divided into four or five item pairs. For more information, see Marsh and O'Neill (1984).
Candace M. Gross is a senior psychology major at Northwestern College Northwestern College can refer to:
WKU had a total enrollment in the Fall Semester of 2002 (the latest published figures) of 17,818 students. Out of this total, 73% were full-time and 85% were undergraduates. Ethnic and racial minority enrollment was just under 13% at 2,097. . During the fall of 2007, she plans on attending graduate school in School Psychology. She is interested in focusing on parent-educator-community collaboration Working together on a project. See collaborative software. in students' education. E-mail: email@example.com
Anne N. Rinn is an assistant professor of psychology at Western Kentucky University. She holds a PhD in educational psychology from Indiana University Indiana University, main campus at Bloomington; state supported; coeducational; chartered 1820 as a seminary, opened 1824. It became a college in 1828 and a university in 1838. The medical center (run jointly with Purdue Univ. . Her research focuses on the academic, social, and emotional development of gifted adolescents and college students, as well as the effects of gifted programming on student development as a whole. E-mail: Anne.Rinn@wku.edu
Kelly M. Jamieson is a senior psychology major at Xavier University For other educational institutions using the name Xavier, see .
Xavier University may refer to:
In the United States:
The authors greatly appreciate the assistance and support of Dr. Julia Link Roberts, Center for Gifted Studies, Western Kentucky University.
This research was supported in part by the Research Experience for Undergraduates Grant 0453454 from the National Science Foundation.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Anne N. Rinn, PhD, Department of Psychology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd. #21030, Bowling Green Bowling Green.
1 City (1990 pop. 40,641), seat of Warren co., S Ky., on the Barren River; inc. 1812. It is a shipping and marketing center for an area producing tobacco, corn, livestock, and dairy items. , KY 42101-1030. E-mail: Anne.Rinn@wku.edu
Table 1 Demographic Information (N = 248) n (Percentage) Gender Male 131 (52.8) Female 116 (46.8) Not indicated 1 (0.4) Age 11 8 (3.2) 12 46 (18.5) 13 74 (39.8) 14 60 (24.2) 15 31 (12.5) 16 29 (11.7) Grade Completed Sixth 34 (13.7) Seventh 78 (31.5) Eighth 64 (25.8) Ninth 34 (13.7) Tenth 29 (11.7) Not indicated 9 (3.6) Race/Ethnicity American Indian/Alaska Native 1 (0.4) Asian or Pacific Islander 16 (6.5) Biracial 2 (0.8) Black/African American 3 (1.2) Hispanic or Latino 2 (0.8) White 210 (84.7) Not indicated 7 (2.8) Program Two-Week Program 119 (48.0) Three-Week Program 129 (52.0) Table 2 Correlations of Variables of Interest Psychomotor Sensual Intellectual OE OE OE Grade level -.03 .10 .22 ** Same-sex SC .32 *** -.03 -.04 Opposite-sex SC .29 *** .04 -.03 Physical appearance SC .24 *** -.09 -.10 Parent relations SC .11 -.09 -.02 Emotional stability SC .10 -.11 -.14 * Math SC .07 -.12 -.03 General school SC .22 .02 .29 *** General SC .28 *** -.06 .11 Honesty/Trust SC .03 .01 .07 Verbal SC -.02 .29 *** .33 *** Physical abilities SC .68 *** -.10 -.06 Psychomotor OE 1 -- -- Sensual OE .08 1 -- Intellectual OE .24 *** .43 *** 1 Imaginational OE .07 .50 *** .34 *** Emotional OE .21 ** .58 *** .43 *** Imaginational Emotional OE OE Grade level -.14 * .03 Same-sex SC -.23 *** -.01 Opposite-sex SC -.22 ** .09 Physical appearance SC -.28 *** -.10 Parent relations SC -.26 *** -.02 Emotional stability SC -.45 *** -.41 *** Math SC -.25 *** -.13 * General school SC -.10 .02 General SC -.26 *** .01 Honesty/Trust SC -.18 ** .15 * Verbal SC .14 * .21 ** Physical abilities SC -.30 *** -.05 Psychomotor OE -- -- Sensual OE -- -- Intellectual OE -- -- Imaginational OE 1 -- Emotional OE .54 *** 1 Note. SC = Self-concept. OE = Overexcitability. * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001. Table 3 Means, Standard Deviations, and Coefficient Alphas of Variables of Interest Subscale scores Total Coefficient mean (SD) alpha (a) Mathematics 4.91 (1.04) .91 Verbal 4.99 (0.91) .87 Physical abilities 4.44 (l.30) .93 Physical appearance 4.44 (l.08) .93 Same-sex peer relations 5.16 (0.85) .931, .89 (b) Opposite-sex peer relations 3.75 (0.86) .911, .92 (b) Parent relations 5.04 (0.96) .90 Emotional stability 4.30 (l.06) .88 Honesty/Trustworthiness 4.99 (0.86) .87 General academic 5.55 (0.49) .80 General self 5.32 (0.73) .90 Psychomotor overexcitability 3.29 (0.86) .87 Sensual overexcitability 3.15 (0.90) .88 Intellectual overexcitability 3.70 (0.75) .87 Imaginational overexcitability 2.73 (0.94) .89 Emotional overexcitability 3.30 (0.76) .82 (a) For males. (b) For females. Table 4 Factorial ANOVA Results for Gender, Grade Level, and the Sensual Overexcitability Scores Sum of Mean Source squares df square Grade level 2.32 4 0.58 Gender 13.24 1 13.24 Grade level x gender 1.40 4 0.35 Error 155.24 212 0.73 Partial Source F ratio [[eta].sup.2] Grade level 0.79 .02 Gender 18.08 *** .08 Grade level x gender 0.48 .01 Error Note. [R.sup.2] = .13 (Adjusted [R.sup.2] = .09) *** p < .001. Table 5 Factorial ANOVA Results for Gender, Grade Level, and the Intellectual Overexcitability Scores Sum of Mean Source squares df square Grade level 9.58 4 2.40 Gender 0.01 1 0.01 Grade level x gender 2.62 4 0.66 Error 111.91 217 0.52 Partial Source F ratio [[eta].sup.2] Grade level 4.64 .08 Gender 0.02 .00 Grade level x gender 1.27 .02 Error Note. [R.sup.2] = .10 (Adjusted [R.sup.2] = .06) ** P < .01. Table 6 Factorial ANOVA Results for Gender, Grade Level, and the Imaginational Overexcitability Scores Sum of Source square Mean df square Grade level 3.74 4 0.94 Gender 7.57 1 7.57 Grade level x gender 2.64 4 0.66 Error 172.36 213 0.81 Partial Source F ratio [[eta].sup.2] Grade level 1.16 .02 Gender 9.36 * .04 Grade level x gender 0.82 .02 Error Note. [R.sup.2] = .10 (Adjusted [R.sup.2] = .06) * p < .05. Table 7 Factorial ANOVA Results for Gender, Grade Level, and the Emotional Overexcitability Scores Sum of Mean Source squares df square Grade level 3.41 4 0.85 Gender 19.59 1 19.59 Grade level x gender 0.48 4 0.12 Error 108.50 220 0.49 Partial Source F ratio [[eta].sup.2] Grade level 1.73 .03 Gender 39.73 .15 Grade level x gender 0.25 .00 Error Note. [R.sup.2] = .20 (Adjusted [R.sup.2] = .17) *** p < .001.