Gifted & Talented: Exploring the Positive and Negative Aspects of Labeling.
The non-academic needs of gifted adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. are too often ignored in the name of identification and programming concerns. Cross, Coleman and Stewart (1993) conducted a study suggesting that labeling which emerges informally among students, teachers, and administration within schools has pervasive and powerful effects in the lives of gifted students. This study reported that gifted students' self-concepts and personal adjustment were affected, or potentially affected, as a consequence of being labeled.
Kerr, Colangelo, and Gaeth (1988) examined the attitudes of gifted adolescents toward being gifted and how they perceived that others viewed their giftedness gift·ed
1. Endowed with great natural ability, intelligence, or talent: a gifted child; a gifted pianist.
2. . A series of open ended questions were administered to the students and answers were classified as either social, personal, or academic. They found that the majority of the students felt that the most positive aspect of being gifted was either personal or academic. The personal aspect included such things as opportunity for personal growth, or a higher level of self-confidence. The academic aspect consisted of such things as opportunities for advanced classes and scholarships and getting higher grades. The social aspect related to interactions with peers was found to be ranked most negative by gifted students.
Manaster, Chan, Watt, and Wiehe (1994) conducted a partial replication In database management, the ability to keep distributed databases synchronized by routinely copying the entire database or subsets of the database to other servers in the network.
There are various replication methods. of Kerr et. al.'s study and found that the majority of gifted and talented students felt that the best thing about being gifted was the social aspect. For example, they enjoyed receiving high regard, being listened to, and being respected. The majority of the students felt that the worst aspect of being labeled gifted was also social in nature. This included stereotypes and labels such as nerd or snob. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of adolescents regarding the effects of being labeled gifted.
A survey was administered to 14 adolescents enrolled in an Introduction to Psychology course offered by the ADVANCE Program for gifted and talented students. The ADVANCE Summer Residential Program, located at the Louisiana School for Math, Science, and the Arts The Louisiana School for Math, Science, and the Arts (LSMSA) is a two-year, public residential high school located in Natchitoches, Louisiana on the campus of Northwestern State University (NSU). on the Northwestern State University Campus, was a multi-level educational sequence designed for academically gifted youth. The eligibility criteria for all courses were based primarily on the American College American College is the name of:
An occupation-oriented test for evaluating intelligence, achievement, and interest. (SAT) scores achieved during the year the student was in grade seven or in one of the region talent searches at Duke University, The John Hopkins University, Northwestern University Northwestern University, mainly at Evanston, Ill.; coeducational; chartered 1851, opened 1855 by Methodists. In 1873 it absorbed Evanston College for Ladies. (Illinois), or the University of Denver Background and rankings
The University was founded in 1864 as Colorado Seminary by John Evans, the former Territorial Governor of Colorado, who had been appointed by US President Abraham Lincoln. . The ages of participants ranged from 13 to 15 years. Of the 14 students, 11 were female and three were male. The students represented various areas of Louisiana CODE, OF LOUISIANA. In 1822, Peter Derbigny, Edward Livingston, and Moreau Lislet, were selected by the legislature to revise and amend the civil code, and to add to it such laws still in force as were not included therein. , Arkansas, Tennessee, and Texas.
The survey was developed by the researchers based on a student response pool. This response pool was generated by having participants individually generate a list of 10 positive and 10 negative attributes to having the label of gifted and talented, specific to their academic experience. All items were accounted for and like items were combined. The final list contained 13 positive and 13 negative attributes.
From both the positive and negative listings, the students were asked to rank order the thirteen items in each list (1 = least positive/negative, 13= most positive/negative). Group totals were tabulated for each item. Averages were then assessed for each item and the five highest averages for both lists were identified.
Top Five Attributes Five (most) to one (least) (a) Positive perceptions: (9.90) - internal gratification (9.10) - identity/unique (8.79) - advanced learning in school (8.10) - interaction with other gifted students (7.78) - special experiences in gifted and talented classes. (a) Negative perceptions: (10.50) - pressure / expectations of parents (8.93) - stereotypes (8.14) - pressure / expectations of teachers (7.71) - peers using work/cheating (7.29) - not enough guidance (isolated learning).
In accordance Accordance is Bible Study Software for Macintosh developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
As well as a standalone program, it is the base software packaged by Zondervan in their Bible Study suites for Macintosh. with past research (Kerr, Colangelo, Gaeth, 1988; Manaster, Chan, Watt, Wiche, 1994), the students in this study felt that attributes such as the positive sense of accomplishment, the feelings of being unique, and the ability to cover material in more detail were worthy of receiving high positive ratings.
In regard to the more negative aspects of being labeled gifted, there were also many commonalities within this study and recent literature (Kerr, Colangelo, Gaeth, 1988; Manaster, Chan, Watt, Wiche, 1994). The students in this study reported that having a label such as nerd, know-it-all, or teacher's pet teach·er's pet
n. pl. teacher's pets or teachers' pets
1. A student in special favor with a teacher.
2. One who has gained favor with an authority.
Noun 1. (stereotypes), being taken advantage of by other students (peers using work/cheating), and the lack of guidance from the teacher in the classroom resulted in the most negative feelings toward their label of gifted.
This study, however, found some subtle differences in how students perceive their label of gifted. Although not reported elsewhere in the literature, pressure and expectations from parents and teachers were ranked within the top five negative aspects.
This finding suggests that parents and teachers must pay particular attention to the possible effects of the label gifted. This includes not only how the child interacts with peers but also how adults' feelings and expectations change because of this label. Teachers must be careful to monitor not only the change in peer relations but also how they may interact with students who are labeled gifted. Howard-Hamilton and Franks (1995) found that many counselors, teachers, and administrators virtually ignore the developmental needs of the gifted and only focus on their cognitive abilities.
It is the natural tendency to raise our expectations and to adapt our interactions with an adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. labeled as gifted. However, "gifted" is not a homogeneous The same. Contrast with heterogeneous.
homogeneous - (Or "homogenous") Of uniform nature, similar in kind.
1. In the context of distributed systems, middleware makes heterogeneous systems appear as a homogeneous entity. For example see: interoperable network. label and there is a broad range of potential and individual needs for gifted students. This study reminds us that while the label of gifted has may positive aspects, there are psychological, emotional, and social prices to pay for the label of gifted and talents. It is necessary to note that these children, while capable of functioning independently, seek attention, focus, and guidance, both socially and academically from the adults in their lives. Gifted adolescents, even those prepared to meet and/or exceed raised expectations need to feel as though support and affection are not contingent upon Adj. 1. contingent upon - determined by conditions or circumstances that follow; "arms sales contingent on the approval of congress"
contingent on, dependant on, dependant upon, dependent on, dependent upon, depending on, contingent always meeting the mark.
While the findings of this survey are intriguing in·trigue
a. A secret or underhand scheme; a plot.
b. The practice of or involvement in such schemes.
2. A clandestine love affair.
v. , a more comprehensive study is needed. Future research may wish to utilize a larger subject pool, provide an equally able nonlabeled comparison group, and balance the numbers of male and female subjects in order to draw comparisons.
Brody, L. E., & Benbow, C. P. (1987). Accelerative strategies: How effective are they for the gifted? Gifted Child gifted child
Child naturally endowed with a high degree of general mental ability or extraordinary ability in a specific domain. Although the designation of giftedness is largely a matter of administrative convenience, the best indications of giftedness are often those Quarterly, 3 (3), 105-110.
Copenhaver, R. W., & McIntyre, D. J. (1992). Teacher's perception of gifted students. Roeper Review, 14 (3), 151-153.
Cross, T., Colemean, L., & Stewart, R. (1993). The Social cognition Social cognition is the study of how people process social information, especially its encoding, storage, retrieval, and application to social situations. Social cognition’s focus on information processing has many affinities with its sister discipline, cognitive psychology. of gifted adolescence: An exploration of the stigma stigma: see pistil.
mark of Cain
God’s mark on Cain, a sign of his shame for fratricide. [O. T.: Genesis 4:15]
scarlet letter of giftedness paradigm. Roeper Review, 16(1), 37-40.
Feldhusen, J. F., & Kennedy, D. M. (1989). Effects of honors classes on secondary students. Roeper Review, 11 (3), 153-156.
Feldhusen, J. F., & Moon, S. M. (1992). Grouping gifted students: Issues and concerns. Gifted Child Quarterly, 36 (2), 63-67.
Howard-Hamilton, M., & Franks, B. A. (1995). Gifted adolescents: Psychological behaviors, values, and developmental implications. Roeper Review, 17 (3), 186-191.
Kerr, B., Colangelo, N., & Gaeth, J. (1988). Gifted adolescents' attitudes toward their giftedness. Gifted Child Quarterly, 32 (2), 245-247.
Manaster, G. J., Chan, J. C., Watt, C., & Wiehe, J. (1994). Gifted adolescents' attitudes toward their giftedness: A partial replication. Gifted Child Quarterly, 38 (4), 176-178.
Marsh, H. W., Chessor, D., Craven CRAVEN. A word of obloquy, which in trials by battle, was pronounced by the vanquished; upon which judgment was rendered against him. , R., & Roche, L. (1995). The effects of gifted and talented programs on academic self-concept: The big fish strikes again. American Educational Research Journal, 32 (2), 285-319.
Patrice Moulton and Michael Moulton are Associate Graduate Faculty Members at the Department of Health and Human Performance, Northwestern State University, Natchitoches, Louisiana The city of Natchitoches (pronounced [ˈnækətəʃ], or NAK-uh-tush) is the parish seat of Natchitoches Parish, in the U.S. state of Louisiana. . Mark Housewright and Keith Bailey Keith Bailey (born 21 February 1964 in Dublin) is a former Irish cricketer. He was a right-handed batsman and a wicket-keeper. He made his debut for Ireland in June 1985 against Sussex, and went on to play for Ireland on eleven occasions. are graduate students at the University.
Manuscript submitted January, 1997. Revision accepted November, 1997.
Manuscript submitted October, 1997. Revision accepted February, 1998.