Get your degree from an educational ATM: an empirical study in online education.
This article studies the modern trend of online education in the United States Education in the United States is provided mainly by government, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. School attendance is mandatory and nearly universal at the elementary and high school levels (often known outside the United States as the . Based on a wide range of statistics, the number of cyberspace Coined by William Gibson in his 1984 novel "Neuromancer," it is a futuristic computer network that people use by plugging their minds into it! The term now refers to the Internet or to the online or digital world in general. See Internet and virtual reality. Contrast with meatspace. courses offered by four-year institutions and universities nationwide has rapidly increased over the past one and a half decades. Under a case study, colleges of business from ranked universities and colleges showed that: (a) colleges of business were inclined to provide more online graduate than undergraduate courses; (b) One-fourth of first- and second-tier institutions offered online business programs with 58% of them granting degrees and/or and/or
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.
Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing. certificates; (c) 40% of the third- and fourth-tier institutions provided e-learning (Electronic-LEARNING) An umbrella term for providing computer instruction (courseware) online over the public Internet, private distance learning networks or inhouse via an intranet. See CBT. opportunities with about half of them awarding business degrees or certificates. Given ongoing technological advancements and increasing use of the Internet Internet
Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the , academic participation in internet education should sustain its fast growth into the foreseeable fore·see
tr.v. fore·saw , fore·seen , fore·see·ing, fore·sees
To see or know beforehand: foresaw the rapid increase in unemployment. future.
Through the swift development in information technology and the increasing popularity of internet usage, online learning has become one of the most important products in the cyber-market. Just like the ATMs which provide 24-hour banking service, online education serves as an "AEM AEM Applied and Environmental Microbiology (journal)
AEM Association of Equipment Manufacturers
AEM Academic Emergency Medicine (journal)
AEM Agnico-Eagle Mines Limited
AEM Advanced Engine Management "--"Automatic Educational Machine" delivering its services without time constraints In law, time constraints are placed on certain actions and filings in the interest of speedy justice, and additionally to prevent the evasion of the ends of justice by waiting until a matter is moot. or boundaries.
A common definition for online education is a program, which delivers off-campus, computer-based courses. Cyber education was born in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. in the 1970s. It gained in popularity in late 1980s and boomed in 1990s. The rapid growth of school participation in web-based services from 33% in 1995 (National Center for Education Statistics The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), as part of the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES), collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on education and public school district finance information in the United States; conducts studies , 2003) to approximately 90% in 2003 (U.S. News and World Report, 2003) inspired this article, which analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. the evolution of the modern educational system. It is divided into four sections. The first section provides an overview of the e-learning trend. The second section summarizes the intellectual dialogue on the topic of e-learning. The third section reports the empirical findings. Concluding remarks are provided in the last section.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The intellectual dialogue on online learning was robust in mid- mid-
Middle: midbrain. 1990s. In October October: see month. 1994, Burke The name Burke (from Irish Gaelic de Burca, of Norman origin). In English the meaning of the name Burke is "fortified hill." See also Berkley. Places
Dumont Dumont (d`mŏnt), borough (1990 pop. 17,187), Bergen co., NE N.J.; settled 1677 by the Dutch, inc. 1894. It is a primarily residential suburb of Hackensack. (1996), Gubernick and Ebeling (1997), and Terry (2000), individually investigated the evolution of cyber education, and reached a consensus that internet-based education was in fact mutual-beneficial to both students and educators. Advantages such as effective learning and time savings were complemented by lower indirect-costs such as commuting and housing expenses. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. their findings, the majority of online participants felt satisfied with their educational attainment Educational attainment is a term commonly used by statisticans to refer to the highest degree of education an individual has completed.
The US Census Bureau Glossary defines educational attainment as "the highest level of education completed in terms of the and gave strong support to the cyber academic system.
Dumont (1996), and Navarro Navarro may refer to: Places
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. , nontraditional online students were able to spend more of their time in e-learning and still maintain a healthy balance between their family and work responsibilities.
Finally, research conducted by Sikora (2003, for the National Center for Education Statistics) revealed that, in general, online learning was more likely to be undertaken by graduate students than by undergraduates and by more female than male students. Additionally, cyber students tended to be more independent and earned higher salaries (US$50,000 or more). E-students' employers often sponsored their employees' online education efforts (Dumont, 1996).
Table 1 summarizes the growing trend of e-learning in the United States. Several facts are immediately evident. First, over the eight-year time span, the percentage of colleges/universities offering online courses nearly tripled. The strongest increase came between 1997 and 1998 when the participation rate jumped by 18 points, from 44% to 62%. Second, student participation in cyber education was also expanding rapidly. The total enrollment climbed steadily between 1995 and 1998 and then quadrupled to reach a student population of 2 million in 2003. In short, student enrollment in 2003 was eightfold eightfold
1. having eight times as many or as much
2. composed of eight parts
by eight times as many or as much
Adj. 1. of that in 1995.
Table 2 compares and contrasts traditional classroom and online education. The interactive method of traditional classroom learning was developed in the Socratic period (Boser, 2003a, 2003b). Traditionally, the interaction occurred in a face-to-face, give-and-take, write-on-the-board environment. More recently, basic instructional equipment has grown to include overhead projectors and more sophisticated electronic devices, but the basic teaching method has changed little. With the development of online learning in the 1970s, methods of student-teacher interaction have changed substantially and have became ever more reliant on evolving electronic technologies.
Table 2 also revealed that traditional and online programs had somewhat different audiences. Students enrolling in traditional classrooms were mostly considered to be "traditional" students. Most of them were young, between 18 and 23, and entered college immediately after graduating from high school. In contrast, online learners were "nontraditional" in nature, implying that their lives were less focused on "the football teams, the dorms, and the leafy leaf·y
adj. leaf·i·er, leaf·i·est
1. Covered with or having leaves.
2. Consisting of leaves: Spinach is a leafy green vegetable.
3. Similar to or resembling a leaf. quads" (Shea, 2002: web page; also see Kilmurray, 2003) and more focused on their families and workplaces. By and large, they were older, ranging from 35 to 50 years of age.
In terms of enrollment growth, traditional classroom enrollment has been experiencing a steady annual growth rate of approximately 3%. However, online learning enrollment has been growing at a 40% annual rate.
Finally, as indicated in the fifth row, the student dropout (1) On magnetic media, a bit that has lost its strength due to a surface defect or recording malfunction. If the bit is in an audio or video file, it might be detected by the error correction circuitry and either corrected or not, but if not, it is often not noticed by the human rate in the traditional classroom learning was significantly lower as compared with that of cyber education. Several factors contributed to the high (60%) dropout rate among e-learners. Cyber learners were often distracted dis·tract·ed
1. Having the attention diverted.
2. Suffering conflicting emotions; distraught.
dis·tract by their families and work. A large number of them were raising families and/or working full-time or part-time while studying in an academic program. When overburdened o·ver·bur·den
tr.v. o·ver·bur·dened, o·ver·bur·den·ing, o·ver·bur·dens
1. To burden with too much weight; overload.
2. To subject to an excessive burden or strain; overtax.
1. by the competing demands of family, work, and school, they often chose to drop their courses. In addition, feelings of isolation may lead many online students to drop out. U.S. News and World Report (2003) reported that e-learners often felt isolated while studying online. With no face-to-face interaction with their classmates Classmates can refer to either:
1. alone; separated from others.
2. living alone or in pairs only.
being the only one or ones. activities such as self-study and textbook textbook Informatics A treatise on a particular subject. See Bible. reading. Other students ended up dropping their courses because of the difficulties in following them online without word-of-mouth explanations from their instructors.
Last but not least, some online learners dropped courses when they felt the program did not fit in their needs. Many of them took courses related to their jobs and/or professions and then withdrew when they noticed that the course materials did not take them in the directions required to further their professional development.
Despite the high student dropout rate in online learning, the majority of e-participants still support this new educational system. Table 3a and 3b report various verbatim ver·ba·tim
Using exactly the same words; corresponding word for word: a verbatim report of the conversation.
adv. comments from online students and educators. As recorded in Table 3a, the key advantages for internet learners included multiple role-playing role-play·ing
A psychotherapeutic technique, designed to reduce the conflict inherent in various social situations, in which participants act out particular behavioral roles in order to expand their awareness of differing points of view. , time-saving and management, flexibility and convenience, and equality. Many e-learners felt that they were able to balance multiple responsibilities--being a parent, an employee of a company, and a student simultaneously. By saving time by not traveling to school, they could learn at home and/or in their office and still spend more time with their families and/or at work. Moreover, cyber students enjoyed the world-wide-web environment where they felt they had equal opportunities to learn and exchange their ideas and experiences regardless of their "gender, ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , academic background, computer skills and academic aptitude" (Navarro & Shoemaker, 2000, p. 15).
Nevertheless, online students reported some drawbacks such as being distracted from their families, feeling isolated and separate, and feeling rushed in the learning processes. Frequently, these students expressed their frustrations by dropping courses, which in turn resulted in a high dropout rate. A couple of other disadvantages worth noting, though not reported by internet learners, were the higher learning higher learning
Education or academic accomplishment at the college or university level. cost and lengthier degree-completion time. Overall, e-students paid higher tuition For tuition fees in the United Kingdom, see .
Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning or by a private tutor usually in the form of one-to-one tuition. (20% to 30% higher than traditional class-learning) for web-based courses and, due to their need to balance multiple roles, they ordinarily or·di·nar·i·ly
1. As a general rule; usually: ordinarily home by six.
2. In the commonplace or usual manner: ordinarily dressed pedestrians on the street. took longer to complete their degree.
Along with the e-learners' point of view, Table 3b reflects the opinions of online instructors. Among them, reported benefits included better academic performance from online students, instructional effectiveness, and deeper student-faculty interaction. Interestingly and surprisingly, e-educators often found that their students who consistently "attended" the online classes were more involved in the program than in-class students. In return, they learned more and obtained better grades. In addition, online teachers believed that e-learners placed more importance on obtaining a degree for self-improvement and job enhancement. Instructors also realized that their online instructions and course materials were comparably effective and helpful to students. Overall, respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. reported greater interactions between e-students and their teachers. The lack of face-to-face contact was replaced by 24/7 online instructor availability.
Disadvantages reported involved the quality of student learning and instructor workloads. The foremost concern of online educators was their e-students' performance as compared with that of young traditional students. Interestingly, instructors' worries about nontraditional student backgrounds proved unfounded since, overall, cyber learners showed a higher level of accountability, and in fact learned better as reflected in their higher grades. On the other hand, instructors frequently spent more time preparing their online courses than they did their traditional courses. Still, though written explanations were more time-consuming than face-to-face explanations, they felt that rewarded for their extra efforts as their e-students became more self-motivated in learning.
Table 4 summarizes the evolving pattern of online business education provision. It analyzes a larger data set; the original data set is available from the authors. The sample included colleges of business in 250 universities and/or four-year colleges ranked by U.S. News and World Report over the sample periods 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. Analysis of the sample led to several significant findings.
First, as shown in Table 4, the earliest example of online education came in the 1970s (the University of Washington in 1977). During the 1980s, a few additional schools such as New Jersey Institutes of Technology (1982), the University of Missouri-Rolla (1985), and the University of Memphis The University of Memphis is a public research university located in Memphis, Tennessee, United States, and is a flagship public research university of the Tennessee Board of Regents system. (1989) started to provide e-learning opportunities. Beginning in the early 1990s, more and more higher education institutions participated in cyber education and, by the end of the 20th century, 125 universities were in the internet academic market. Since the advent of the new millennium, more than 30 new e-education entrants have joined the e-learning club. By 2004, the first- and second-tier schools had a market share of approximately 45%.
Second, among the first- and second-tier (i.e., ranked from 1 to 120) universities, roughly 60% of them, between 2003 and 2004, offered extended-learning programs in all fields, and around one-fourth of these delivered online business courses. Over the same period, among the third- (i.e., ranked up to 186) and fourth-tier (i.e. ranked up to 250) schools, close to 80% and 70% of them respectively provided extended courses in all disciplines, and nearly 40% of these supplied e-classes in business.
Third, colleges of business were inclined to provide slightly more online graduate than undergraduate courses. This was especially the case for schools in the first-, second- and third-tiers. For instance, around 20% of the first-tier schools (i.e., ranked from 1 to 64, such as the University of Virginia Virginia, state, United States
Virginia, state of the south-central United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), North Carolina and Tennessee (S), Kentucky and West Virginia (W), and Maryland and the District of Columbia (N and NE). , New York University New York University, mainly in New York City; coeducational; chartered 1831, opened 1832 as the Univ. of the City of New York, renamed 1896. It comprises 13 schools and colleges, maintaining 4 main centers (including the Medical Center) in the city, as well as the , Lehigh University Lehigh University, at Bethlehem, Pa.; coeducational; chartered and opened 1866 by Asa Packer. It has undergraduate colleges of arts and science, business and economics, and engineering and applied science, as well as several graduate programs. , Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, at Troy, N.Y.; coeducational; founded and opened 1824 as Rensselaer School; chartered 1826. It was called Rensselaer Institute from 1837 to 1861. , Pennsylvania Pennsylvania (pĕnsəlvā`nyə), one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. It is bordered by New Jersey, across the Delaware River (E), Delaware (SE), Maryland (S), West Virginia (SW), Ohio (W), and Lake Erie and New York State University-University Park, the University of Florida University of Florida is the third-largest university in the United States, with 50,912 students (as of Fall 2006) and has the eighth-largest budget (nearly $1.9 billion per year). UF is home to 16 colleges and more than 150 research centers and institutes. , the University of Washington, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Polytechnic Institute - (WPI) A well-regarded, small engineering college.
Address: Worcester, MA, USA. , and Purdue University-West Lafayette) have made online graduate business courses available with half of them awarding the degrees/certificates. Fourth-tier universities made more undergraduate than graduate courses available to their extended learning students.
What is more? Approximately 58% of the first- and second-tier universities offering online business courses also granted business degrees and/or certificates online. For the lower ranked schools, roughly 50% of the business colleges offering extended courses also awarded online degrees/certificates. One thing worth-noting is that, regardless of the school rank, business degree granters tended to award more graduate than undergraduate degrees/certificates (i.e., total 146 graduate versus 36 undergraduate degrees/certificates).
Finally, in terms of course availability, most of the sample colleges offered business subjects/majors from the most popular areas such as general business, management, marketing, accounting, and finance, although less heavily enrolled courses such as taxation were also offered. Statistics on the online study of economics were reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2002-2003 but not in 2003-2004. In spite of in opposition to all efforts of; in defiance or contempt of; notwithstanding.
See also: Spite the lack of reporting, the websites of many universities/colleges (such as University of Florida, University of Connecticut The University of Connecticut is the State of Connecticut's land-grant university. It was founded in 1881 and serves more than 27,000 students on its six campuses, including more than 9,000 graduate students in multiple programs.
UConn's main campus is in Storrs, Connecticut. , University of Missouri--Columbia, Indiana University Indiana University, main campus at Bloomington; state supported; coeducational; chartered 1820 as a seminary, opened 1824. It became a college in 1828 and a university in 1838. The medical center (run jointly with Purdue Univ. Bloomington, Ohio University Ohio University, main campus at Athens; state supported; coeducational; chartered 1804, opened 1809 as the first college in the Old Northwest. There are additional campuses at Chiillicothe, Lancaster, and Zanesville, as well as facilities throughout the state. , and Kent State University) showed that economics courses were still commonly offered online.
Online education has been recognized as a new, rapidly-growing, and evidently popular learning scheme nowadays. Serving as the "Automatic Educational Machine (AEM)," it brought flexibility and convenience, and greater learning opportunities to online students. Based on a broad range of statistics from 250 ranked universities/colleges and their business institutes, this study revealed several notable facts and trends. First, colleges of business were inclined to provide more online graduate than undergraduate courses. Second, one-fourth of first- and second-tier schools offered online business programs with 58% of them granting degrees and/or certificates. Forty percent (40%) of third- and fourth-tier institutes provided extended-learning opportunities in business with close to half of them awarding business degrees/certificates. Owing to owing to
Because of; on account of: I couldn't attend, owing to illness.
owing to prep → debido a, por causa de technological advancement and increasing use of the Internet, one can expect that participation in internet-based education will sustain its fast growth, and its importance as a substitute for traditional classroom learning will gradually increase in the foreseeable future.
American Federation of Teachers American Federation of Teachers (AFT), an affiliate of the AFL-CIO. It was formed (1916) out of the belief that the organizing of teachers should follow the model of a labor union, rather than that of a professional association. . (2001). Retrieved October 3, 2006, from http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/higher_ed/VirtualRevolution.pdf
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In Roman Catholicism, a region between heaven and hell, the dwelling place of souls not condemned to punishment but deprived of the joy of existence with God in heaven. The concept probably developed in the Middle Ages. . U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/articles/031020/20good.b.htm
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Master of Business Administration
Noun 1. MBA - a master's degree in business
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YU-FENG LEE AND HIEN NGUYEN
New Mexico State University New Mexico State University, at Las Cruces; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered and opened 1889 as a college. It became New Mexico State Univ. of Engineering, Agriculture, and Science in 1958 and adopted its present name in 1960. , USA
Table 1 E-Learning Growth, the United States, 1995-2003 Schools Offering Student Enrollment Year E-Learning Courses ('000) 1995 33% 250 1997 44% 350 1998 62% 500 2002 85% 1,600 2003 90% 2,000 Source: compiled by authors based on National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2003; The Sloan Consortium, 2004, at http://www.sloan-c.org; American Federation of Teachers, 2001, at http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/higher_ed/VirtualRevolution.pdf Table 2 Comparison between Traditional Classroom and Online Learning Traditional Classroom Online Learning Learning Intro to interactive 1970s Socrates period (399 B.C) education Student nature Nontraditional Traditional Average student age 35+ 18-23 % Change in student Increase drastically Slowly enrollment (40% annually) (3% annually) Student dropout rate 60% 11% Source: compiled by authors based on U.S. News and World Report, 2002, 2003 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/rankguide/rghome.htm; Kilmurray, 2003; Dumont, 1996; National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2004 at http://nces.ed.gov/ Table 3a True Voices from Online Students Advantages Disadvantages "Distance learning has allowed me to "... getting a degree at the be successful in accomplishing an online law school is convenient, education, a career, and most but I didn't realize it would be important, motherhood ..."--Dawn so enthralling ..."--Laura Lamendola, married, mother of two, Collins, married, mother of one employed part-time [commenting on the family distractions while studying online.] "Through distance learning, I will "It's very fast paced. You don't have saved over 240 hours of driving want to not log-in for more than time. This has allowed for increased a day or so because you'll fall time with my family ..." behind ..."--Edward Shanshala, "In distance learning there is an married, father, employed full- an unwritten, unsaid agreement time among fellow classmates to ensure that no one is left behind ..."-- Edward Shanshala, father, employed full-time "Needless to say, going out of the "I need to develop personal house in the evenings for college relationships, especially if I'm classes didn't look like something I encountering any problems ..."-- could do very easily, whereas in the Lia Wright, M.B.A. student at distance learning format I can do it Baker College [commenting on the whenever I can fit it in, or take it unavailability of personal face- with me when I have to leave the area to-face interaction when she for business ..."--Lawrence needs one.] McKeough, married, father of four, employed full-time "Since students in the program come from a wide range of backgrounds, the team environment has encouraged me to help others ... and has additionally allowed others to help me ..."-- Brian Hansen, married, father of two, employed full-time Source: U.S. New and World Report at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/elearning/articles/ Note: By referring to "distance" education, these extended-learners meant "online" learning. Table 3b True Voices from Online Educators Advantages Disadvantages "I can't begin to tell you what it feels "We were worried, frankly, like to know that I am helping make change about whether the online and enhance careers."--Kenneth Sherman, people would have got [the Instructor of the U. of Phoenix Online lessons] as well as the on-ground people"--Jay Klagge, associate vice president of institutional research and effectiveness, the U of Phoenix Online "Our student-faculty interaction is much "Likewise, in a classroom, I deeper than at most traditional law can use the opaque or schools."--Andrew Rosen, Provost of overhead projector to Concord Law School illustrate examples. With CE "The surprising thing was that in some [computed-aided education] cases they [online students] actually had courses, I'm consistently it better"--Jay Klagge, associate vice writing out examples and president of institutional research and illustrating key points. A effectiveness, the U of Phoenix Online point that would take five minutes to explain in class takes thirty-five minutes to write out."--Raymond A. Dumont, teacher at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth "Each time I re-teach a course, I include more material on line. I also add more models, linked to other Web sites or to work students have produced in previous semesters" "... regardless of the course, on-line students appeared more motivated and produced work equal to, and often better than, that produced by the better students on campus."--Raymond A. Dumont, teacher at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Source: Dumont, 1996; U.S. New and World Report at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/elearning/articles/ Table 4 Colleges of Business and Their Provision of Online Education: Ranked Universities/Four-Year Colleges, the United States First- and School Second-tier Third-tier School rank 1-128 129-186 Online Year 1970-1979 1 0 1980-1989 1 1 1990-2000 52 36 2001+ 18 8 Online Courses in Business Number of schools 33 24 Undergraduate 83 75 Graduate 107 79 Degrees/Certificates Number of schools 19 12 Offered Undergraduate 15 10 Graduate 69 38 School Fourth-tier Total School rank 187-250 250 Online Year 1970-1979 0 1 1980-1989 1 3 1990-2000 37 125 2001+ 6 32 Online Courses in Business Number of schools 25 82 Undergraduate 103 261 Graduate 80 266 Degrees/Certificates Number of schools 12 43 Offered Undergraduate 11 36 Graduate 39 146 Source: compiled by the authors based on the U.S. News and World Report, 2003-2004 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/rankguide/rghome.htm