Gender Equity Training and Teacher Behavior.The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of a gender resource module would modify teacher behaviors toward more gender equity in the classroom. Instruction by four teachers was videotaped and analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. for gender-related behaviors, after which results were shared in an attempt to sensitize sen·si·tize
To make hypersensitive or reactive to an antigen, such as pollen, especially by repeated exposure. them to potential problems faced by female students in interacting with teachers. Printed materials and strategies for reducing gender bias were provided. Subsequent to eight weeks of application of strategies in the classroom, instruction was taped again. Chi-square chi-square (ki´skwar) see under distribution and test.
n. analysis revealed that the approach taken to modify gender bias was effective supporting the need for increased teacher training in gender equity strategies.
As education approaches the turn of the century, females still continue to combat substantial gender inequities in school. These experiences that females encounter in school have lifetime effects on their social and emotional productivity (Brennan, 1995). In addition, educational experiences provide the impetus Impetus is a stimulus or impulse, a moving force that sparks momentum.
Impetus may also refer to:
tr.v. dev·as·tat·ed, dev·as·tat·ing, dev·as·tates
1. To lay waste; destroy.
2. To overwhelm; confound; stun: was devastated by the rude remark. for women (Grossman & Grossman, 1994; Sadker & Sadker, 1994).
The American Association of University Women ''This article or section is being rewritten at The American Association of University Women (AAUW) advances equity for women and girls through advocacy, education, and research. (1992) published an important report dealing with gender inequity in the classroom. This report noted that females receive less attention from teachers, and this attention is more often negative or contradictory. For example, females may receive criticism for the content of work completed, yet praise for the neatness and timeliness of the work. Males, on the other hand, are more frequently rewarded for intelligent answers and innate ability. Content is praised and appearance of work is criticized. Female students often begin to doubt themselves and their abilities, which leads to less participation in class and results in lowered self-confidence and underachievement.
Many times, because of low self-esteem and lack of confidence, females do not enroll in many of the higher level math and science classes, thus creating obstacles for success in the future (Riles, 1993). It is also likely that females are not offered the necessary encouragement to excel in these areas (Campbell & Evans, 1994). Female students who do enroll in these classes are often confronted with teachers who more frequently favor male students with positive feedback and attention for achievement (Grossman & Grossman, 1994). This differential treatment given to males and females sends subtle messages to all students that high academic achievement is considered a male domain.
It is encouraging to note that motivation for gender equity in schools stems from within- from teachers (Brennan, 1995). The research on gender equity has shown that teachers must be aware of gender bias, be aware of their own biased behaviors, and show a willingness to change (Masland, 1994). Many of the interventions with teachers have been knowledge-based and have included tests, workshops, and in-services (Orenstein, 1993; Schwister, Rich, & Hossman, 1984). However, the focus of such interventions should be on gender-biased behaviors that teachers demonstrate, such as unequal praise and criticism towards their students that promote independence in males and dependence and underachievement in females (Carpenter & Lubinski, 1990).
The purpose of this study was to determine whether strategies designed to modify teacher behaviors toward more gender equity in the classroom would actually do so. It was hypothesized that application of the strategies would result in: (1) female students moving from a position of relative deficiency toward more equity in total interactions with teachers, (2) female students moving from a position of relative deficiency toward more equity in positive interactions with teachers, and (3) female students being subjected to fewer negative interactions with teachers.
Subjects were four teachers from public schools located in a mid-sized urban city. Two were elementary teachers and two were high school teachers, all with a minimum of five years teaching experience.
Instrumentation instrumentation, in music: see orchestra and orchestration.
In technology, the development and use of precise measuring, analysis, and control equipment.
Two instruments were implemented in the study. The Louisiana Gender Equity Quiz A quiz is a form of game or mind sport in which the players (as individuals or in teams) attempt to answer questions correctly. Quizzes are also brief assessments used in education and similar fields to measure growth in knowledge, abilities, and/or skills. (LGEQ, 1991) was used to measure teachers' knowledge on gender equity. It is a true/false assessment consisting of 10 items, including questions about parent stereotypes, teacher actions, teacher-student interactions, and general stereotypes about males and females in American society.
The Interactions for Sex Equity in Classroom Teaching (INTERSECT In a relational database, to match two files and produce a third file with records that are common in both. For example, intersecting an American file and a programmer file would yield American programmers. ) Observation Scale (Sadker, Sadker, & Hergert, 1981) was developed to identify certain patterns of potential gender bias by teachers during interaction with students. The development of the INTERSECT Observation Scale was funded by the National Institute of Education, U.S. Department of Education. The INTERSECT was developed through the use of the following procedures:
1. a comprehensive review of the interaction instruments and research in general;
2. a comprehensive review of interaction instruments and research that pertain per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. specifically to sex equity in classrooms; and
3. field testing of INTERSECT in 36 fourth, sixth and eighth grade classrooms, including classes that were primarily minority, primarily majority and integrated ... (p. 1).
The INTERSECT Scale examines four categories of teacher-student interaction in relation to gender and type of interaction: praise, acceptance, remediation, and criticism. These four areas are combined into three comprehensive sections. Section A deals with the climate of the classroom (i.e., desk arrangement, student composition, classroom context). Section B codes teacher and student interaction in the classroom and Section C is concerned with tone-setting incidents that enhance or impede im·pede
tr.v. im·ped·ed, im·ped·ing, im·pedes
To retard or obstruct the progress of. See Synonyms at hinder1.
[Latin imped gender equity in the classroom.
The study involved: (1) videotaping classes on two occasions, (2) meetings with one of the researchers, and (3) implementation of gender-related teaching strategies in the classroom.
On the days scheduled for videotaping, the camera was placed in the least conspicuous con·spic·u·ous
1. Easy to notice; obvious.
2. Attracting attention, as by being unusual or remarkable; noticeable. See Synonyms at noticeable. corner of the classroom before students arrived. Teachers arranged lessons so that, during the 50-minute taping, no testing, seatwork seat·work
Lessons assigned to be done by students at their desks in the classroom. , or other interruptions occurred for more than 15 minutes. Taping of a lesson by each teacher was accomplished twice, once before and once after meeting with one of the researchers.
Following completion of the first round of videotaping, individual meetings were held with each teacher, during which the LGEQ was administered to determine baseline knowledge of research on gender equity. Teachers were not given their scores. After completing the LGEQ each teacher met with a researcher to discuss the analysis of the first video tape. Teachers were then given a self-directed gender resource module aimed at reducing gender bias in the classroom. The activities in the module were designed specifically for each teacher based upon his/her particular gender-biased interactions as determined by analysis of the video tape. In addition, this module included a synthesis of research on gender equity in the classroom over the past 20 years, specific activities for reducing stereotypical thinking in students, and self-evaluation worksheets for teachers. The researcher explained how the materials were to be used and answered questions. Teachers were directed to use this information in the classroom and were provided a checklist to indicate completion of all activities.
After the individual meetings, teachers taught for approximately eight weeks, using the information from the gender equity informational module and implementing the suggested activities. Following this, teachers were again videotaped during a 50-minute class period, using procedures identical to those in the initial taping sessions. The second videotape videotape
Magnetic tape used to record visual images and sound, or the recording itself. There are two types of videotape recorders, the transverse (or quad) and the helical. was coded and analyzed, following the same guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. used for analysis of the first tapes.
Chi-Square tests chi-square test: see statistics. of goodness of fit Goodness of fit means how well a statistical model fits a set of observations. Measures of goodness of fit typically summarize the discrepancy between observed values and the values expected under the model in question. Such measures can be used in statistical hypothesis testing, e. were calculated for three sets of teacher- student interactions: (1) total, (2)positive, and (3) negative. This was done to determine whether the actually observed distributions of interactions by gender and videotaping session were different from those that would have occurred if gender equity happened to be ideal (alpha = .05). Standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. residuals were calculated to identify the cells that were major contributors to the chi-square.
Results and Discussion
Teacher-student total interactions during the first and second videotaped classroom observations are reported in Table. The hypothesis that female students would move from a position of relative deficiency toward more equity in total interactions was supported by chi-square analysis. Standardized residuals indicated that the frequency of teachers' interactions with females during the first videotaping was significantly different from what was expected. The 44 total interactions for females during the first taping was clearly lower than that for the males, in agreement with previous research (AAUW AAUW
American Association of University Women , 1992), and the gender difference during the final video session was minimal. Apparently, the treatment was effective, sensitizing sen·si·tize
v. sen·si·tized, sen·si·tiz·ing, sen·si·tiz·es
1. To make sensitive: "The polarity principle . . . these teachers to the need for interacting more with females and providing them with strategies for doing so.
Table 1 Frequencies of total interactions by gender and taping session.(*)
1st Video Taping 2nd Video Taping Males 55 61 Females 44(**) 57
(*) Chi-Square = 11.34 (significant with 1 df at alpha = .05).
(**) Significant by standardized residuals (expected cell frequencies, 54.25).
The hypothesis that female students would move from a position of relative deficiency toward more equity in positive interactions with teachers was not supported by the chi-square analysis (see Table 2). Though the chi-square calculated was significant, there was not movement from a position of deficiency. Rather, there was relatively little difference in positive interactions between teachers and students of either gender at the outset, but there was a difference at the end, in favor of upon the side of; favorable to; for the advantage of.
See also: favor the female students. This is an example of a statistical anomaly Abnormality or deviation. Pronounced "uh-nom-uh-lee," it is a favorite word among computer people when complex systems produce output that is inexplicable. See software conflict and anomaly detection. , where the chi-square indicated significance at .05, but the follow-up standardized residuals revealed the one major contributing cell significant only at alpha = .10. Still, it would appear that the strategies used to counter the commonly occurring gender bias did work; sensitizing teachers to the need for equity and giving them the tools to do so resulted in an increase in the frequency of positive interactions between teachers and females.
Table 2 Frequencies of positive interactions by gender and taping session.(*)
1st Video Taping 2nd Video Taping Males 36 38 Females 32 51(**)
(*) Chi-Square = 2.93 (significant with 1 df at alpha = .05).
(**) Significant at .10 by standardized residuals (expected cell frequencies, 39.25).
The hypothesis that female students would be subjected to fewer negative interactions with teachers than would their male counterparts after the experimental treatment was supported by the chi-square analysis (see Table 3). Though the chi-square calculated was significant, a gender difference occurred only during the second video sessions. There were insignificant gender differences with respect to frequency of negative interactions with teachers at the outset, but male students were subject to almost four times as many negative interactions with teachers during the second videotaping as were the female students. This supports the findings of Lee & Groper grope
v. groped, grop·ing, gropes
1. To reach about uncertainly; feel one's way: groped for the telephone.
2. (1974) who reported that males do not fit the stereotype stereotype (stĕr`ĕətīp'), plate from which printing is done, made by casting metal in a mold, usually of paper pulp. The process was patented in 1725 by the Scottish inventor William Ged. of the ideal student -- quiet, orderly orderly /or·der·ly/ (or´der-le) an attendant in a hospital who works under the direction of a nurse.
An attendant in a hospital. , and conforming -- but rather call out answers, act out, interrupt A signal that gets the attention of the CPU and is usually generated when I/O is required. For example, hardware interrupts are generated when a key is pressed or when the mouse is moved. Software interrupts are generated by a program requiring disk input or output. , and misbehave mis·be·have
v. mis·be·haved, mis·be·hav·ing, mis·be·haves
To behave badly.
v.tr. , in general, much more frequently than do females. These behaviors constitute successful attempts at attracting attention (and interactions with teachers) and are an important element in gender-related activity in the classroom that must be understood by teachers and accounted for in striving for gender equity in total interactions.
Table 3 Frequencies of negative interactions by gender and taping session.(*)
1st Video Taping 2nd Video Taping Males 19 23(**) Females 12 6(**)
(*) Chi-Square = 5.16 (significant with 1 df at alpha = .05).
(**) Significant by standardized residuals (expected cell frequencies, 15).
Results of this study support the use of strategies to help teachers understand their behaviors and create a more equitable equitable adj. 1) just, based on fairness and not legal technicalities. 2) refers to positive remedies (orders to do something, not money damages) employed by the courts to solve disputes or give relief. (See: equity)
EQUITABLE. atmosphere in the classroom. This suggests that the teachers, after completing the activities in the self-directed gender resource module, were more cognizant cog·ni·zant
Fully informed; conscious. See Synonyms at aware.
Adj. 1. of their behaviors, their students' actions, and the effects of these behaviors on their female students' self-esteem and achievement.
This research and future research on gender equity in the classroom will contribute to the knowledge base, helping to establish equity in education for females in the future. Ultimately, achievement of gender equity in the classroom will allow females to participate more fully in their education, improving the probability that females will have an equal place in both the workforce and society in general.
American Association of University Women. (1992). How schools shortchange short·change
tr.v. short·changed, short·chang·ing, short·chang·es
1. To give (someone) less change than is due in a transaction.
2. girls: The AAUW report. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women Educational Foundation.
Brennan, J.K. (1995). Gender equity in the schools. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, Sum, 15-20.
Campbell, K., & Evans, C. (1994). Gender issues and the math/science curricula: Effects on females. People and Education, 2, 284-295.
Carpenter, T.P., & Lubinski, C.A. (1990). Teachers' attributions and beliefs about girls, boys, and mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 21, 55-69.
Grossman, H., & Grossman, S. (1994). Gender issues in education. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Houser, B., & Garvey, C. (1985). Factors that affect nontraditional vocational enrollment among women. Psychology of Women, 9, 105-117.
Lee, P.C., & Groper, N.B. (1974). Sex-role culture and educational practice. Harvard Educational Review The Harvard Educational Review is an interdisciplinary scholarly journal of opinion and research dealing with education, published by the Harvard Education Publishing Group. The journal was founded in 1930 with circulation to policymakers, researchers, administrators, and teachers. , 44, 370-371.
Louisiana Gender Equity Quiz. (1991). Louisiana equity: The University of Southwestern Louisiana.
Masland, S. (1994). Gender equity in classrooms: The teacher factor. Equity and Excellence in Education, 27, 19-27.
Orenstein, F. (1993). Utilization of teacher workshops to enhance early exposure to gender equity and mathematics education for young girls in preschool setting (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 367 490)
Riles, M. (1993). Achieving gender equity in education. Thrust for Educational Leadership, April, 39-41.
Sadker, M., & Sadker, D. (1994). Failing at fairness: How America's schools cheat girls. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , NY: Charles Scribners Charles Scribner is the name of several members of a New York publishing family associated with the company bearing their name. Charles Scribner
Charles Scribner Sons.
Sadker, M., Sadker, D., & Hergert, L. (1981). Observer's Manual for INTERSECT: Interactions for sex equity in classroom teaching. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Schwister, M., Rich, N., & Hossman, C. (1984). Opening career options for males and females, A workshop for K-12 teachers. Education, 105(2), 125-131.
Kelly Jones, Cay Evans, Ronald Byrd and Kathleen Campbell, College of Education, Louisiana State University Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. , Shreveport.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Cay Evans, College of Education, One University Place, Louisiana State University in Shreveport LSUS grants undergraduate and graduate degrees at the masters and specialist degree levels. It is the only public four year university in the Shreveport metro area. The school includes the Colleges of Business, Liberal Arts, Sciences, and Education and Human Development. , Shreveport, Louisiana 71115 Telephone: (318) 797-5037: e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org