When J.P. Morgan announced in 1901 that he was buying out Andrew Carnegie's steel interests for the then-mind-boggling sum of $1.4 billion, he set the stage for America's 20th century dominance in global steel markets.
And when the resulting U.S. Steel The United States Steel Corporation (NYSE: X) is an integrated steel producer with major production operations in the United States and Central Europe. The company is the world's seventh-largest steel producer ranked by sales (see list of steel producers). Corp. began buying up land along the south shore of Lake Michigan in 1905, Indiana was on its way to becoming the dominant player in the American steel industry.
Judge Elbert H. Gary, U.S. Steel's CEO (1) (Chief Executive Officer) The highest individual in command of an organization. Typically the president of the company, the CEO reports to the Chairman of the Board. , had decided on the site in the sand dunes of northwest Indiana Northwest Indiana, also known as The Calumet Region, or just The Region, is comprised of Lake, Porter, LaPorte, Newton, and Jasper counties in Indiana. This region neighbors Chicago, Illinois and Lake Michigan, and is also the Indiana component of the Chicago for perfectly good reasons. The area was easily accessible by water and rail to the rich iron ore of the Minnesota ranges, limestone from the Lake Huron side of Michigan and coking coal from West Virginia West Virginia, E central state of the United States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania and Maryland (N), Virginia (E and S), and Kentucky and, across the Ohio R., Ohio (W). Facts and Figures
Area, 24,181 sq mi (62,629 sq km). Pop. , Ohio and Kentucky. Taxes were cheaper than in nearby Illinois, and the site was close to the Chicago rail hub and the growing Midwestern and mid-Atlantic markets for steel.
Gary's name now graces the mill as well as Indiana's fourth-largest city. The Gary Works has remained one of the nation's premier integrated steelmaking complexes for most of this century. Although Inland Steel was there first, building a small mill at East Chicago East Chicago, city (1990 pop. 33,892), Lake co., extreme NW Ind., on Lake Michigan, in the industrialized Calumet region, adjoining Gary, Hammond, and Whiting; inc. 1889. in 1901, the sheer size of the U.S. Steel mill was almost beyond the imagination of turn-of-the-century Hoosiers. U.S. Steel paid $7.2 million for some 9,000 acres of land and began moving construction crews onto the site in March 1906. By summer, crews had begun building what was to be the biggest steelmaking complex in the world. The work was Herculean. Engineers had to relocate the Grand Calumet Calumet, region, United States
Calumet (kăl`ymĕt'), industrialized region of NW Ind. and NE Ill., along the south shore of Lake Michigan. River and remove more than 12 million cubic yards of sand. They poured two million yards of concrete for the blast furnaces and mill buildings and constructed railroad yards that had a capacity of 15,000 rail cars. They built a mile-long harbor 25 feet deep and 250 feet wide to hold the ore boats that would soon be arriving from the upper Great Lakes Great Lakes, group of five freshwater lakes, central North America, creating a natural border between the United States and Canada and forming the largest body of freshwater in the world, with a combined surface area of c.95,000 sq mi (246,050 sq km). .
Working conditions were primitive. Workers walked across the dunes to the construction site from the nearby planned community Noun 1. planned community - a residential district that is planned for a certain class of residents
residential area, residential district, community - a district where people live; occupied primarily by private residences of Gary.
By the time the aptly named cargo vessel Elbert H. Gary arrived at Gary Works with a load of Mesabi Range iron ore in July 1908, the massive industrial complex was fast taking shape. In December of that year, the first of 12 planned blast furnaces began producing molten iron. By the end of 1909, more than 6,800 employees - most of whom would eventually build houses in the new town of Gary - had produced nearly 600,000 tons of steel.
U.S. Steel continued building facilities at Gary Works through the 1910s and the World War I years. In 1920, Gary Works had already become U.S. Steel's flagship plant and had laid the groundwork for Indiana's eventual commanding lead in steelmaking.
Today, Gary Works is still the flagship mill of the U.S. Steel division of USX USX US Steel (Corporation)
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USX US Cents (Currency) Corp. And it's still one of the most productive mills in the world. In 1997, nearly 90 years later, Gary Works set a new world record/for annual hot strip mill production 6.275 million tons.