Galaxy cluster extremely fertile: stars turned out fast thanks to a lazy central black hole.Nearly 6 billion light-years away, one of the most massive galaxy clusters ever seen is birthing stars at an incredible rate, with its central galaxy producing more than 700 suns per year in its cold, cold heart.
"It should be producing less than one, and it's producing 740," says Michael McDonald of MIT MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology , coauthor of a study describing the cluster in the Aug. 16 Nature.
Called "Phoenix" by the team for its location in the constellation Phoenix-its official name is SPT-CLJ2344-4243--the cluster comprises roughly 1,000 galaxies, is more than 4 million light-years across, and contains more mass than 2,000 Milky Ways.
In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , it's big.
It's bright, too: The galactic conglomerate is the most luminous cluster ever observed in the X-ray spectrum. The star-birthing galaxy center is 50 times larger than the Milky Way. "It's kind of the boss galaxy," McDonald says.
The cluster's cold core and excessive fertility suggest the presence of a slacker black hole at the galaxy's center. Normally, radiation from a supermassive black hole--in this case, something around 10 billion times the mass of the sun--warms the surrounding environment, making it hard for gas to coalesce into stars. Whether this black hole is simply overworked, permanently off duty or just taking a break is unclear, but scientists think they've captured the cluster at an exceptionally frisky frisk·y
adj. frisk·i·er, frisk·i·est
Energetic, lively, and playful: a frisky kitten.
"Stars are forming at a much higher rate than we've seen before in any of these galaxies," says astrophysicist Martin Rees of the University of Cambridge in England. "It's a fascinating step toward putting this picture together of the tussle between the black holes and the star formation."
But the rate of star formation in the cluster may be somewhat overestimated, says astronomer Andrew Fabian, also at Cambridge. "There's no doubt that they've found a really exciting and fascinating object," he says. "Just how extreme it is, we don't know yet."
Astronomers discovered the riot of starbirth using the South Pole Telescope The South Pole Telescope or (SPT) is a 10 meter diameter telescope located at the South Pole Antarctica. It is a microwave telescope that observes in a frequency range between 70 and 300 GHz. , a radio antenna that searches for the shadows cast by galaxy clusters on the cosmic microwave background Noun 1. cosmic microwave background - (cosmology) the cooled remnant of the hot big bang that fills the entire universe and can be observed today with an average temperature of about 2. , the thermal radiation left over from the Big Bang.
In the central galaxy, scientists are observing stars forming much faster than expected for a galaxy of this type. Calculating the stellar birthrate birth·rate or birth rate
The ratio of total live births to total population in a specified community or area over a specified period of time, often expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year. involves measuring the amount of X-rays emitted by gas as it cools off and falls toward the central galaxy. Though the swirling gas starts off at temperatures exceeding 10 million degrees Celsius, stars can't begin coalescing until it cools to temperatures nearer the ambient temperature of space--a few hundred degrees below zero.
Fabian and his colleagues suggested decades ago that star formation can proceed through such "cooling flows," but that process hadn't been observed in this type of central galaxy until now.
McDonald and his colleagues calculated that approximately 740 stars are bursting out of this central galaxy each year. But the sprinter's pace is unlikely to be a permanent feature of the cluster, because over a marathon distance it would produce a monster galaxy 1,000 times larger than anything ever observed.
It's more likely that scientists have captured the cluster in a fit of fertility, though it's unknown just how long that fit will last. "I think something around 100 million years is reasonable," McDonald says. Determining exactly how much gas--fuel for the fertile fire--is present will help resolve the timescale question. Scientists hope to make that measurement using the ALMA Alma (älmä`, ăl`mə), city (1991 pop. 25,910), S central Que., Canada, on the Saguenay River. In 1954 its name was shortened from St. Joseph d'Alma. There are granite quarries in the region, and the town has pulp and paper and aluminum plants. telescopes in northern Chile.