Gabriel de Oliveira's 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' and the fado Novo's criticism of the Estado Novo's demolition of the Baixa Mouraria.The Estado Novo's plans for urban rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. in Lisbon, (1) carried out by Duarte Pacheco's 'Plano de Urbanizacao e Expansao da Cidade' and Faria da Costa's 'Salvacao Barreto' programme, justified the demolition of historic neighborhoods 'condemned to progress', including the capital's oldest districts: Mouraria and Alfama. (2) However, just before Salazar's death, in 1969, and the consequent shift in political regime as Portugal advanced to its 25 April Revolution This article is about the 1960 uprising in South Korea. For the April 2006 protests in Nepal, see 2006 democracy movement in Nepal.
The April Revolution, sometimes called the April 19 Revolution or April 19 Movement , the Salvacao Barreto project had lost its momentum. Although as early as 1940, national attention focused on the restoration of the Se and the Torre de Belem, the Camara Municipal de Lisboa did not propose a plan to protect Lisbon's architectural heritage until 1967. (3) By then, the lower Mouraria had suffered the blows of the Estado Novo's progress. Plans to widen Rua da Palma Palma or Palma de Mallorca (päl`mä thā mälyôr`kä), city (1990 pop. 325,120), capital of Majorca island and of Baleares prov., Spain, on the Bay of Palma. and Avenida Almirante Reis--first presented in 1852--were realized in the 1930s. (4) Between the 1930s and 60s, the lower Mouraria was demolished de·mol·ish
tr.v. de·mol·ished, de·mol·ish·ing, de·mol·ish·es
1. To tear down completely; raze.
2. To do away with completely; put an end to.
3. : the palace of the Marques Marques may refer to:
During and after the Harlem Renaissance, a centre of African-American popular music on 125th Street in New York City's Harlem district. Built in 1914, it hosted musical performers such as Bill Robinson, Billie Holiday, Bessie Smith, Ethel Waters, Duke in 1949; the church of Socorro and the buildings to the west of Rua da Mouraria in 1956. In 1961, Lisboners reacted to Salvacao Barreto's neglect of the capital's architectural heritage when the Mouraria's only extant gates on the fourteenth-century Fernandine Wall--Portas de Sao Vicente São Vi·cen·te
A city of southeast Brazil on an offshore island in the Atlantic Ocean west of Santos. Founded in 1532, it was sacked by English pirates in 1591. Population: 327,000. da Mouraria/Arco do Marques de Alegrete--were demolished. In the midst Adv. 1. in the midst - the middle or central part or point; "in the midst of the forest"; "could he walk out in the midst of his piece?"
midmost of the destruction of the lower Mouraria, the sixteenth-century hermitage Hermitage, museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
Hermitage (ĕr'mētäzh`), museum in St. Petersburg, Russia, one of the world's foremost houses of art. It was reconstructed in the neoclassical style in the 19th cent. of Nossa Senhora There are parishes and settlements that have the name Nossa Senhora (Portuguese for Our Lady): In Europe
In the Azores
The hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Saude and its four-century-old procession serve as leit-motifs in the fado novo of the 1940s-60s, as symbols of resistance to the Estado Novo's modernization of Lisbon, while the Salvacao Barreto urban rehabilitation project threatens to erase the Mouraria. The lyrics of the fado novo manifest a protest to the demolition; they denounce de·nounce
tr.v. de·nounced, de·nounc·ing, de·nounc·es
1. To condemn openly as being evil or reprehensible. See Synonyms at criticize.
2. To accuse formally.
3. the Estado Novo's concept of progress by evoking nostalgia for a pre-Republican Mouraria, embodied in the hermitage. Gabriel de Oliveira wrote 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' in the 1930s, during the first stages of the Mouraria's rehabilitation. (6) His fado recalls the extinct procession of Nossa Senhora da Saude, interrupted by the First Republic. However, when fadistas performed and recorded the song after the procession had reappeared in the Mouraria, in 1940, it was recontextualized in the memories of a Mouraria that had already vanished: a decadent dec·a·dent
1. Being in a state of decline or decay.
2. Marked by or providing unrestrained gratification; self-indulgent.
3. often Decadent Of or relating to literary Decadence.
n. Mouraria characterized by prostitution and violent crime. I propose that Gabriel de Oliveira's motifs of the hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Saude and its annual procession in 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' have been appropriated by later fado lyricists to denounce the Salvacao Barreto urban rehabilitation project. I shall examine the evolution of the leit-motifs of the hermitage, the procession and the historical and poetic avatars of the song's protagonist, Rosa Maria, in the later fados novos, to conclude that Gabriel de Oliveira's 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' has inspired a subversive trend in the fado novo: the idealization idealization /ide·al·iza·tion/ (i-de?il-i-za´shun) a conscious or unconscious mental mechanism in which the individual overestimates an admired aspect or attribute of another person. of a pre-Republican Mouraria--emblematized by the hermitage and its procession--as an alternative to the Estado Novo's notion of progress.
By 1961, Lisboners were reacting to the Estado Novo's eradication of their architectural patrimony PATRIMONY. Patrimony is sometimes understood to mean all kinds of property but its more limited signification, includes only such estate, as has descended in the same family and in a still more confined sense, it is only that which has descended or been devised in a direct line from the in the Mouraria. Political cartoons of the late 1940s to early 60s indicate popular opposition to the Salvacao Barreto project. Most cartoons appeal to an intrinsic irony in the Estado Novo's plans for progress: the demolition of the cradle of the fado. The regime's plans for urban renewal jeopardized Salazar's patriotic trinity of the Fs (fado, Fatima and football) by bulldozing Lisbon's most fadista quarter. By appropriating the musical form consecrated con·se·crate
tr.v. con·se·crat·ed, con·se·crat·ing, con·se·crates
1. To declare or set apart as sacred: consecrate a church.
a. by the Estado Novo There have been two regimes known as Estado Novo (meaning "New State"):
According to the legend, Martim Moniz was a knight participating in the Christian invasion force, lead by king Afonso I of Portugal, in the reconquest of the metro, exclaiming: 'Ai [Mouraria, que nunca mais te tapam os buracos!].' (10) And a crying nineteenth-century fadista wanders through the rubble of the twentieth-century Baixa Mouraria, as he sings to the tune of the old 'Fado da Severa':
Chorai, fadistas, chorai Que a Mouraria l[sz] vai E est[sz] quase no 'squeleto Apesar da tradicao [ETH] bairro sem Salvacao Com o Salvacao Barreto. (11)
The cartoonists' manifest criticism of the Estado Novo's renovation of the historic district is tempered by the humorous context of the comic, thus its subversive intentions escaped censorship. The fado, however, benefited from a privileged position during Salazar's regime, when it was subservient sub·ser·vi·ent
1. Subordinate in capacity or function.
2. Obsequious; servile.
3. Useful as a means or an instrument; serving to promote an end. to the Estado Novo's concept of nationalism. The censoring censoring
in epidemiology, a loss of information from a study, whether by subjects dropping out of the study or because of infrequent measurement. of Amalia Rodrigues's recording of 'Fado de Peniche (Abandono)' for subversive content, is testimony of the critical limits imposed on the fado novo. (12) But the fado novo never fully divorced itself from its anti-social character of the nineteenth century and continued to lampoon society's absurdities in the twentieth. The lyricists, however, had to resort to allegory allegory, in literature, symbolic story that serves as a disguised representation for meanings other than those indicated on the surface. The characters in an allegory often have no individual personality, but are embodiments of moral qualities and other abstractions. and metaphor to criticize the Estado Novo.
Nostalgia for the pre-Republican Mouraria reappears in the fados novos of the 1940s-60s as subversive criticism of the Estado Novo's dream of progress. Because the theme of saudade Saudade (singular) or Saudades (plural) (pron. IPA [sɐu'dad(ɨ)] in European Portuguese, [saw'ðaðe is central to the fado novo, its manifestation within the context of a disappearing Mouraria seems inoffensive. Twentieth-century lyricists recognized the leit-motif of saudade in the recent fados and benefited from the emotion's capacity to denounce the present in light of a glorious past. (13) The fado novo, therefore, appeared to adhere to adhere to
verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful
2. a Portuguese aesthetic: the morrinha of the cantigas d'amigo or Camoes's spleen spleen, soft, purplish-red organ that lies under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The spleen acts as a filter against foreign organisms that infect the bloodstream, and also filters out old red blood cells from the bloodstream and decomposes in exile. Nevertheless, the recontextualized saudade questioned the judgment of the state, by accusing the Salvacao Barreto programme of ignoring the past. The fado thus points its finger at the regime's paradoxes, signaling the cannibalization can·ni·bal·ize
v. can·ni·bal·ized, can·ni·bal·iz·ing, can·ni·bal·iz·es
1. To remove serviceable parts from (damaged airplanes, for example) for use in the repair of other equipment of the same of its ideals: progress implies the sacrifice of an heroic national history.
Examples of critical discourse masked by innocuous in·noc·u·ous
Having no adverse effect; harmless.
innocuous (i·näˈ·kyōō· lyrical tropes abound in the fado novo. 'Ai, Mouraria' appears to be a love song imbued with nostalgia for Severa's Mouraria:
Ai Mouraria Das procisses a passar Da Severa em voz saudosa Na guitarra a solucar.
However, the song may be interpreted as a lament of the 1930s widening of Rua da Palma:
Ai, Mouraria Da velha Rua da Palma Onde eu um dia Deixei presa a minh'alma.
'Ja Nao Vou a Mouraria' is disguised as the narration of a spurned spurn
v. spurned, spurn·ing, spurns
1. To reject disdainfully or contemptuously; scorn. See Synonyms at refuse1.
2. To kick at or tread on disdainfully.
v. woman's evasion of her lover:
J[sz] nao vou C Mouraria P'ra nao ver certa janela Onde eu nao estou dentro dela Que triste verdade. (14)
We may, however, read between the lines Between the lines can refer to:
The theme of Maria Severa's death, as allegory for the death of the Mouraria in the Salvacao Barreto project, appears repeatedly in the fado novo. 'Anda o Fado n'Outras Bocas' borrows the lyrics of the 'Fado da Severa' ('Chorae, fadistas, chorae') to comment on the fado's absence from a new Mouraria without traditions:
Andei p'la Mouraria Nas tascas d'antigamente Mas o fado estava ausente Mudou de l[sz] quem diria. (15)
The fado 'Maria Severa' remarks on the absence of tradition in the demolished Mouraria by pondering a new generation's ignorance of the nineteenth-century fadista:
Num beco da Mouraria Onde a alegria Do sol nao vem Morreu Maria Severa Sabem quem era? Talvez ninguem. (16)
And 'Fadista Louco' narrates the story of a mad singer whose apparent moaning moan
a. A low, sustained, mournful cry, usually indicative of sorrow or pain.
b. A similar sound: the eerie moan of the night wind.
v. for Severa's death is discovered to be his mourning the death of the Mouraria:
Louco gritou p'la Severa E quando a manha surgiu Quando alguem quis ver quem era Nunca mais ninguem o ouviu Entao fiquei meditando Que o louco que ninguem via Era a saudade chorando A morte da Mouraria. (17)
I can cite two fados that engage critical discourse of the Salvacao Barreto programme in unmasked language: 'Adeus, Mouraria' and 'Mataram a Mouraria'. (18) The former is a carefully constructed farewell to the lower Mouraria that takes inventory of the demolition:
Adeus, casas velhinhas Das vielas estreitinhas Onde o fado j[sz] morou Adeus, taberna bizarra Onde nas noites de farra S a saudade ficou. (19)
The refrain of 'Adeus, Mouraria' does not mince words as it evokes nostalgia for the leveled district while bemoaning progress:
Adeus, Mouraria Adeus, tradicao J[sz] vejo a cidade Cantar com saudade A tua cancao E as casas velhinhas Feitas pedraria Vao pelo caminho dizendo Adeus, Mouraria.
'Mataram a Mouraria' personifies the fado's mourning of the murder of the Mouraria, thus valiantly assigning homicidal hom·i·cid·al
1. Of or relating to homicide.
2. Capable of or conducive to homicide: a homicidal rage. blame to the Salvacao Barreto rehabilitation projects:
J[sz] era tarde quando passava Ouvi alguem a gemer Naquela rua sombria Era o fado que chorava Porque lhe foram dizer Mataram a Mouraria.
This fado's final verse, however, tempers the lyrics' aggression towards the Estado Novo by questioning the fado novo's tendency to equate progress with the loss of tradition:
Enquanto houver portugueses Ninguem diga em Portugal Que vai morrendo o passado.
By viewing tradition in abstract terms those which express abstract ideas, as beauty, whiteness, roundness, without regarding any object in which they exist; or abstract terms are the names of orders, genera or species of things, in which there is a combination of similar qualities.
See also: Abstract , 'Mataram a Mouraria' puts the onus on the Portuguse to maintain their historical conscience, despite the demolitions: thus the song's libel of the Estado Novo is ambiguous.
Now that we have established the fado novo's implicit critical tendency towards the Salvacao Barreto projects, we can examine Oliveira's fado. In the early 1930s, Rua do Capelao's Gabriel de Oliveira wrote 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' to the music of Alfredo (Marceneiro) Duarte's 'Fado Viela'. (20) Oliveira's fado tells the story of Rosa Maria, a prostitute on Rua do Capelao, who experiences a religious epiphany Epiphany (ĭpĭf`ənē) [Gr.,=showing], a prime Christian feast, celebrated Jan. 6, called also Twelfth Day or Little Christmas. Its eve is Twelfth Night. during the already defunct 20 April procession of Nossa Senhora da Saude:
H[sz] festa na Mouraria [ETH] dia da procissao Da Senhora da Saode Ate a Rosa Maria Da Rua do Capelao Parece que tem virtude. (21)
The allusion al·lu·sion
1. The act of alluding; indirect reference: Without naming names, the candidate criticized the national leaders by allusion.
2. to Oliveira's Rua do Capelao signals more than autobiographical nostalgia. It recalls the Rua Suja of the nineteenth century, 'frequentadissima pela marujada inglesa e portuguesa'. (22) Nevertheless, the Lisbon audience instinctively associates Oliveira's Capelao with Leitao de Barros's 1931 cinematic adaptation of Julio Dantas's Capelao, thus suppressing the street's nineteenth reality as: '[covil] de ladroes, onde entravam os moleiros com os seus burros, desaparecendo uns e outros sem haver haver
1. Scot & N English dialect to talk nonsense
2. to be unsure and hesitant; dither [origin unknown] mais nova nem mandado deles'; (23) or the street that 'briga e canta; risca, atira o punhal e empunha a banza truanesca,' where 'brigoes e cantadeiros estao ali na sua casa'. (24)
The idealization of the decadent pre-Republican Mouraria takes shape at the turn of the twentieth century in eyewitness An individual who was present during an event and is called by a party in a lawsuit to testify as to what he or she observed.
The state and Federal Rules of Evidence, which govern the admissibility of evidence in civil actions and criminal proceedings, impose requirements (or nearly eyewitness) histories that expose the underbelly of Rua do Capelao's prostitution while observing the prostitutes with compassion. Jose Augusto Palmeirim's Os Excentricos do Meu Tempo (1891), Pinto pinto
Spotted horse, also called paint, piebald, skewbald, and other terms to describe variations in colour and markings. The American Indian ponies of the western U.S. were often pintos. Most pure-breed associations refuse to register horses with pinto colouring. de Carvalho's Historia do Fado (1903) and Alberto Pimentel's A Triste triste
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin tristis.]
Old-fashioned sad [French] Cancao do Sul (1904) boast of Severa and her contemporaries as provocateuses of outdated duels. By the late 1930s, Lisboners associated the nineteenth-century Mouraria with the splendor of its legends of bull-fighting noblemen who courted singing prostitutes. In 1938, Norberto de Araujo de Araujo may refer to:
1. The representation of someone as existing or something as happening in other than chronological, proper, or historical order.
2. vision of the Mouraria: 'desapareceu ha anos o aspecto sordido de "ma vida", que por ai abaixo se prolongava ate a grande arteria da Rua da Mouraria, onde se desafogava de "fado" reles a ignominiosa "Rua Suja" do seculo passado'. He adds: 'a Mouraria de hoje, afinal, a das guitarras, das facadas, das rameiras, dos pianos de botequim-ja nao existe.' (25)
The transformation of the criminal Mouraria into the romantic/folkloric Mouraria is indebeted to Julio Dantas's novel (1900), drama (1901), operetta operetta (ŏpərĕt`ə), type of light opera with a frivolous, sentimental story, often employing parody and satire and containing both spoken dialogue and much light, pleasant music. (1909) and film (1931), A Severa. (26) His heroine dies neither of syphilis syphilis (sĭf`əlĭs), contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (described by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann in 1905). , stroke nor of choking on a meal of pigeon, but rather in the arms of her apocryphal a·poc·ry·phal
1. Of questionable authorship or authenticity.
2. Erroneous; fictitious: "Wildly apocryphal rumors about starvation in Petrograd . . . lover, as she sings:
Tenho o destino marcado Desde a hora em que te vi O meu cigano adorado Viver abracada ao fado Morrer abracada a ti. (27)
By the time of the first projects to widen Rua da Palma and Avenida Almirante Reis, Lisboners recognized the lyrics of Dina Teresa's 'Novo Fado da Severa (Rua do Capelao)'. (28) Thus Rua do Capelao's true setting of knife-fights and dangerous brothels BROTHELS, crim. law. Bawdy-houses, the common habitations of prostitutes; such places have always been deemed common nuisances in the United States, and the keepers of them may be fined and imprisoned.
2. mingled with the image of the street 'juncada de rosmaninho', so much so that in 1943, Norberto de Araujo describes Rua do Capelao 'fechado entre muros de rosmaninho'. (29) And even today, two pots of lavender decorate the entrance to Rua do Capelao on Rua da Mouraria.
But who was Rosa Maria? Eduardo Sucena identifies her as 'outra triste inquilina da Rua do Capelao', Oliveira's neighbour (1903-45). (30) In the nineteenth century, however, there existed two Rosa Marias in and near the Mouraria, who may have inspired Oliveira's character. Pimentel and Sucena write of a Rosa Maria whose fado house was one of the most celebrated in the Alfama, at the turn of the twentieth century. (31) And Pinto de Carvalho informs us of a Rosa Maria who lived on Rua do Capelao in the 1830s, who frequented the brothel A Tasca da Rita, on Rua da Amendoeira: 'tinha um amasio, soldado artilheiro, que se escondia numa alcova do prostibulo sordido [...] para atacar e roubar os pataus, que ousavam aventurar-se ali.' (32) However, even within Oliveira's lifetime, Rosa Maria reappears in the fado novo as the incarnation of the nineteenth-century Mouraria prostitute: a composite of Severa, Scarnic-chia, Joana de Bettencourt and Maria Petiza. (33) Oliveira's theme of the reverent rev·er·ent
Marked by, feeling, or expressing reverence.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin rever Mouraria prostitute reverberates in Antonio Amargo's lyrics:
A chorar de arrependida A cantar com devocao Uma voz fadista e rude Aquela Rosa perdida Da Rua do Capelao Parece que tem virtude. (34)
The appropriation of the character by Anibal Nazare and Nelson de Barros in 'Fado Falado', from the 1947 cabaret show 'Ta Bem ou Nao Ta', is evidence of Oliveira's influence on the fado novo and demonstrates the Lisbon audience's recognition of Oliveira's quasi-historical character, even before 1950:
Uma hist ria bem singela Bairro antigo, uma viela Um marinheiro gingao E a Emilia Cigarreira Que ainda tinha mais virtude Que a pr pria Rosa Maria No dia da Procissao Da Senhora da Saode. (35)
As a result of the reappearance Re`ap`pear´ance
n. 1. A second or new appearance; the act or state of appearing again.
Noun 1. reappearance - the event of something appearing again; "the reappearance of Halley's comet" of the character in popular music, the biographical coincidence with Oliveira's neighbour fades as Rosa Maria is caricatured as a woman of questionable virtue and exploited as a relic of the pre-Republican Mouraria. Ze Manel marries Rosa Maria in the church of Nossa Senhora da Saude in the ballad, 'Ze Manel e Rosa Maria'. (36) In 'O Leilao da Casa da Mariquinhas', the singer meets an older Rosa Maria, 'ainda fresca e com gaje', in the Mouraria. (37) In 'Chico Faia', o Chiquinho Faia,
Tem sempre ao seu lado Uma garota p'r[sz] farra Chama-se Rosa Maria Que e para cantar o fado Enquanto toca a guitarra. (38)
And 'Fui ao Baile' tells the story of a fadista's jealousy when her lover deceives her with Rosa Maria: 'Bem vi que falaste com a Rosa Maria | A tal que tu namoraste | Da Rua da Mouraria.' (39)
Oliveira's Rosa Maria's association with the mythic/poetic Capelao identifies her as a prostitute. Between the mid-nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the Mouraria, Bairro Alto Bairro Alto (literally upper quarter in Portuguese) is an area of central Lisbon, Portugal. It functions as a residential, shopping and entertainment district. Bairro Alto is one of the oldest districts of Lisbon, and it used to have a poor reputation until not so long ago. and Madragoa were red-light districts A list of world red-light districts.
. (40) Suzanne Chantal writes of the prostitution of the Bairro Alto and the Mouraria, just after the 1755 earthquake: 'Pois as damas que vendiam os seus encantos mantinham-se a janela e os seus ademanes eram bem explicitas.' (41) Pinto de Carvalho reflects: 'A Mouraria ja era um ponto marcado nas cartas da geografia amorosa Am`o`ro´sa
n. 1. A wanton woman; a courtesan. em 1755, e ja gozava de uma reputacao horripilante em epocas muito anteriores a da Severa.' (42) And Francisco Ignacio dos Santos Santos (sän`ts), city (1996 pop. 412,288), São Paulo state, SE Brazil, on the island of São Vicente in the Atlantic just off the mainland. Cruz informs us that the nineteenth-century Mouraria, particularly the streets near Rua da Mouraria, was overrun 1. overrun - A frequent consequence of data arriving faster than it can be consumed, especially in serial line communications. For example, at 9600 baud there is almost exactly one character per millisecond, so if a silo can hold only two characters and the machine takes with prostitution. (43)
Despite her association with the knife-wielding ruffian, the Mouraria prostitute benefits from popular compassion due to her predisposition predisposition /pre·dis·po·si·tion/ (-dis-po-zish´un) a latent susceptibility to disease that may be activated under certain conditions.
1. to redemption. Sucena indicates the archetype archetype (är`kĭtīp') [Gr. arch=first, typos=mold], term whose earlier meaning, "original model," or "prototype," has been enlarged by C. G. Jung and by several contemporary literary critics. of the reverent prostitute in the Mouraria: 'O prolongamento da Velha Rua Suja quis, assim, manter ate aos nossos dias a sua tradicao de refugio de mulheres de duplo fado.' (44) Chantal sketches the Mouraria prostitute's daily routine: 'Antes de sair persignava-se diante do pequeno oratorio oratorio (ôrətôr`ēō), musical composition employing chorus, orchestra, and soloists and usually, but not necessarily, a setting of a sacred libretto without stage action or scenery. , depois alteava por tres vezes a chama do candeeiro.' (45) Cruz believes that the Lisbon prostitute differs from the Londoner or the Parisian in her religious fervor:
Sabem perfeitamente, que h[sz] dias sanctificados, em que se deve ouvir missa, sabem muito bem, em que tempo devem confessar, e receber comunhao; que devem rezar; que devem tratar com respeito e veneracao os actos publicos da Religiao. (46)
Pinto de Carvalho remarks: 'Estas lorettes de bas-etage [...] na quaresma, porem, todas indistintamente usavam capote. As que o nao tinham, alugavam-no por um caiado ou um pinto.' (47) And even in Adelaide da Facada's bedroom, in Jose Malhoa's painting 'O Fado' (1910), we spy images of the crucifixion crucifixion, hanging on a cross, in ancient times a method of capital punishment. It was practiced widely in the Middle East but not by the Greeks. The Romans, who may have borrowed it from Carthage, reserved it for slaves and despised malefactors. and Christ at Golgotha Golgotha (gŏl`gəthə), the same as Calvary.
place of martyrdom or of torment; after site of Christ’s crucifixion. .
The narrow Rua da Mouraria separates the hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Saude from the site of the famed brothels and fado houses of the mid-nineteenth century. The proximity of Rua do Capelao to the hermitage serves Oliveira as a point of contrast between the profane PROFANE. That which has not been consecrated. By a profane place is understood one which is neither sacred, nor sanctified, nor religious. Dig. 11, 7, 2, 4. Vide Things. and the sacred to underscore The underscore character (_) is often used to make file, field and variable names more readable when blank spaces are not allowed. For example, NOVEL_1A.DOC, FIRST_NAME and Start_Routine.
(character) underscore - _, ASCII 95. Rosa Maria's moment of redemption during the procession:
Ap s um curto rumor Profundo silencio pesa Sobre o Largo da Guia Passa a Virgem no andor Tudo se ajoelha e reza Ate a Rosa Maria.
The movement of the procession overwhelms the fadista Mouraria, infecting even its most sordid sor·did
1. Filthy or dirty; foul.
2. Depressingly squalid; wretched: sordid shantytowns.
3. corners with piety. We observe Oliveira's memory of a somber procession:
Naquele bairro fadista Calaram-se as guitarradas Nao se canta nesse dia Velha tradicao bairrista Vibram no ar badaladas H[sz] festa na Mouraria.
Norberto de Araujo, however, remembers a brassier spectacle:
Mosica religiosa, bandas militares, filarm nicas locais; foguetes, sinos, alarido tipico do sitio; 'anjinhos', soldados vestindo capa vermelha sobre a farda, e nos seus oltimos trinta anos, o infante D. Afonso, como figura de destaque, simp[sz]tico ao povo. O Capelao, a Amendoeira, o Outeiro, O Coleginho, os Alamos, despejavam-se sobre a Mouraria. (48)
Araujo's description corresponds to the processions of 1800-1910. Oliveira's portrait is loosely based in the sixteenth-century procession, first petitioned as an invocation invocation,
n a prayer requesting and inviting the presence of God. of Saint Sebastian to end the plague. (49)
Oliveira's naive depiction of a village procession betokens the Mouraria before the First Republic. It is a reminder of the royal origins of the hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Saude, commissioned by D. Sebastiao (1569), its procession (1570) and the cessation of the procession, corre-sponding to the First Republic of 1910. (50) As the Salvacao Barreto project despoils the lower Mouraria of its royal patrimony, the hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Saude stands alone as the only relic of a pre-Republican architectural past in the apocalyptic landscape.
The incongruity in·con·gru·i·ty
n. pl. in·con·gru·i·ties
1. Lack of congruence.
2. The state or quality of being incongruous.
3. Something incongruous.
Noun 1. of the whitewashed village chapel with a Baroque portal, hanging on the edge between the endangered fadista Mouraria and the ash and dust of the Estado Novo's progress renders the hermitage an emblem of the pre-Republican Mouraria, resistant to progress. (51) Its mere presence in the transformed Mouraria defies modernization. The survival of the humble chapel in the context of the Estado Novo's vision of a late-twentieth-century Lisbon manifests the people's will to conserve their architectural past by not yielding to the fascistic aesthetic of the neo-Manueline/late Gothic church of Santo Santo, New Hebrides: see Espíritu Santo. Condestavel (1946-51), in Campo de Ourique or the Modernist church of Sao Joao de Brito (1955) in Alvalade. (52)
When Oliveira wrote 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' in the 1930s, his nostalgia for the pre-Republican procession and his glorification glo·ri·fy
tr.v. glo·ri·fied, glo·ri·fy·ing, glo·ri·fies
1. To give glory, honor, or high praise to; exalt.
2. of the nineteenth century fadista quarter did not constitute a criticism of the Republic, it simply complied with the fado's will to idealize i·de·al·ize
v. i·de·al·ized, i·de·al·iz·ing, i·de·al·iz·es
1. To regard as ideal.
2. To make or envision as ideal.
1. the past. But 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' transcended its period and became a familiar fado to later generations because Amalia Rodrigues recorded it in 1953, 1967 and 1973. (53) As a result, Oliveira's motif of the hermitage remains in Portuguese popular culture and the mention of the church of Nossa Senhora da Saude conjures up memories of 'Ha Festa na Mouraria'. But the symbolic relevance of the motif of the hermitage assumes a new form as the Estado Novo's wrecking ball quickly transforms the lower Mouraria. The hermitage that, in Oliveira's time, blended harmoniously with its sixteenth-through nineteenth-century surroundings, of a sudden, marked the frontier between a failed rehabilitation project and a threatened patrimony.
The familiar motif of the hermitage is appropriated by fado lyricists to raise consciousness about the lower Mouraria's architectural sacrifice, in the name of the Estado Novo's progress. Most fados appeal to the twentieth-century popularity of the fado and exploit the consequent historical curiosity about Severa's Mouraria. The hermitage is thus seen as a pilgrimage site for the fadista and the Virgin of Saude serves as a spiritual medium allowing communication between the nineteenth- and twentieth-century singers. The denunciation DENUNCIATION, crim. law. This term is used by the civilians to signify the act by which au individual informs a public officer, whose duty it is to prosecute offenders, that a crime has been committed. It differs from a complaint. (q.v.) Vide 1 Bro. C. L. 447; 2 Id. 389; Ayl. Parer. of the demolition of the Mouraria is implicit in Adj. 1. implicit in - in the nature of something though not readily apparent; "shortcomings inherent in our approach"; "an underlying meaning"
underlying, inherent this spiritual encounter.
In 'Evocando o Passado', two lovers make a nostalgic pilgrimage to the shell of Severa's Mouraria: Largo Largo, town (1990 pop. 65,674), Pinellas co., W Fla., on the Pinellas peninsula and the Gulf Coast, across the bay from Tampa; settled 1853, inc. 1905. It is a packing, canning, and shipping center in a citrus fruit and fishing area. da Guia, Rua da Amendoeira and Rua do Capelao, 'where pain now sings its song':
Depois juntos os dois A luz da branca lua Um ros[sz]rio de penas Iremos desfiar Cantando um fado triste Ali em cualquer rua Daquelas onde agora A dor anda a cantar. (54)
They arrive at the Chapel of N. S. da Saude, where they mourn mourn
v. mourned, mourn·ing, mourns
1. To feel or express grief or sorrow. See Synonyms at grieve.
2. the destruction of the Mouraria:
E antes que nasca o sol Em romagem singela De viela em viela Em doce melodia Iremos p'ra soar Ate junto C capela Cantares cheios de saudade O fim da Mouraria.
In 'Senhora da Saude' a fadista visits Alfama, Alcantara, Belem, Graca and Mouraria to discover the source of her musical inspiration. (55) At four o'clock Noun 1. four o'clock - any of several plants of the genus Mirabilis having flowers that open in late afternoon
flower - a plant cultivated for its blooms or blossoms
genus Mirabilis, Mirabilis - four o'clocks in the morning, she finds herself at the hermitage where the Virgin of Saude listens to her fado:
As quatro da manha Eu reparei que estava Junta duma capela Ali na Mouraria Senhora da Saode A santinha bem-quista Parece que escutou As trovas que eu cantei Senti-me mais mulher Senti-me mais fadista Na velha Mouraria Onde o fado e lei.
By insisting on the relationship between the Mouraria and the fado, the lyrics of 'Evocando o Passado' and 'Senhora da Saude' remind the Estado Novo of the inherent contradictions of its enterprise. The motif of the hermitage thus serves to admonish the regime against further destroying the fado's patrimony.
In 'Ronda da Saudade', a fadista visits four bairros where 'nostalgia has always lived' ('Onde a saudade ja mora desde crianca'): Madragoa, Bairro Alto, Alfama and Mouraria. (56) In the latter, the personified Rua do Capelao prays to the Virgin of Saude for Maria Severa's soul: the soul of the fado and tradition in the Mouraria:
Mouraria faz-me lembrar Fado, ciome e virtude Que um poeta enalteceu E o Capelao a chorar Roga C Virgem da Saode Pela Severa que morreu.
We have indicated the fado's tendency to allude to allude to
verb refer to, suggest, mention, speak of, imply, intimate, hint at, remark on, insinuate, touch upon see see, elude Severa's death as allegory for the death of the fado in the destruction of the Mouraria. Such an interpretation takes the Mouraria's 'salvation' out the Estado Novo's hands and places it in the Virgin's. In 'Ronda da Saudade' the Virgin is being asked to intervene against a destructive regime. As a result this fado, like 'Evocando o Passado' and 'Senhora da Saude', not only pits the regime's notion of progress against an historical conscience, but also, in shrouded shroud
1. A cloth used to wrap a body for burial; a winding sheet.
2. Something that conceals, protects, or screens: under a shroud of fog.
a. terms, against a moral conscience.
Two fados of 1968 denounce the Estado Novo's well-intentioned progress by idealizing the pre-Republican Mouraria and signaling the hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Saude as an emblem of the golden age of the fado. I frame the songs 'Antigamente' and 'O que Sobrou da Mouraria' within their references to Oliveira's 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' because of their exploitation of the leit-motif of the hermitage to signal, once again, what went wrong with the Salvacao Barreto project. (57) I have already mentioned the relevance of Oliveira's fado in the late 1960s because of Amalia Rodrigues's re-recording of it in 1967. The appearance of the leit-motif of the hermitage and its procession in fados of this period reminds us of Oliveira's fado, which was present in the Portuguese collective conscience. By 1968, however, the leit-motif is recontextualized in tones of regret rather than of the criticism that marked the earlier fados.
By 1967, the CML 1. CML - A query language.
["Towards a Knowledge Description Language", A. Borgida et al, in On Knowledge Base Management Systems, J. Mylopoulos et al eds, Springer 1986].
2. CML - Concurrent ML. had realized its error in demolishing the Baixa Mouraria. That year, the CML president, Franca Borges, proposed the 'Plano Director de Lisboa' to define areas for historic preservation Historic preservation is the act of maintaining and repairing existing historic materials and the retention of a property's form as it has evolved over time. When considering the United States Department of Interior's interpretation: "Preservation calls for the existing form, in Lisbon. (58) Salazar's fall from his chair in 1968 facilitated more explicit criticism of the Estado Novo's ideals. In the chief's absence, the nation seized the opportunity to forge a regime change in its revolutionary process. The fado's apparent association with the aesthetic values of the Estado Novo would prove to be its undoing. At a time when the fado was freer to voice its criticism of the Estado Novo, it seemed to perpetuate the regime's will. (59) However, within the context of the fado's criticism of the Estado Novo's notion of progress, we may view 'Antigamente' and 'O que Sobrou da Mouraria' as the fado's critical epitaphs; they represent the fado's last jab at the Salvacao Barreto project. They propose irrelevant nostalgic values at a moment when Portugal finally conceives of its future. And they signal the closing of a period when anything pre-Republican seemed a viable option for the nation and the opening of a period coinciding with the dissolution of Portugal's empire.
'Antigamente', like the other fados that denounce the Salvacao Barreto project, romanticizes the Mouraria's infamous past of brothels and fado:
Antigamente Era coito a Mouraria Daquela gente Condenada C revelia E o fado ameno Cancao das mais portuguesas Era o veneno P'ra lhes matar as tristezas.
'Antigamente' recognizes the lower Mouraria's identity as 'o buraco' by defining the district by its void; the Mouraria is identified by what it has lost in the Salvacao Barreto project:
Nada mais resta Da moirama que deu brado Do que a funesta Lembranca do seu passado.
And the song signals yet another irony of the Salvacao Barreto project. In the regime's obsession to clean up the Mouraria and extirpate its sordid past, it has made the district even more fadista:
Perdeu agora Todo aspecto de galderia Est[sz] mais limpa Est[sz] mais seria Mais fadista cem por cento.
Antigamente's refrain alludes to the context of Rosa Maria's epiphany during the procession of Nossa Senhora da Saude in Oliveira's fado:
A Mouraria Que perdeu em tempos idos A nobreza dos sentidos E o poder duma virtude.
And we are reminded of 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' in the fado's final lines that express a desperate hope for a Mouraria marked by its losses:
Conserva ainda Toda a graca que ela tinha Agarrada C Capelinha Da Senhora da Saode.
The Mouraria to the east of the hermitage is depicted as clinging on to Nossa Senhora da Saude as everything to its west has been turned to rubble.
The fado cancao 'O que Sobrou da Mouraria', from the 1968 musical review, Arroz de Miudas, also frames its criticism of the demolition of the Baixa Mouraria within its references to Oliveira's 'Ha Festa na Mouraria'. Unlike 'Antigamente', 'O que Sobrou da Mouraria' sketches a Mouraria identified with its resistance to the Salvacao Barreto project. The opening verse appropriates the Estado Novo's euphemism eu·phe·mism
The act or an example of substituting a mild, indirect, or vague term for one considered harsh, blunt, or offensive: "Euphemisms such as 'slumber room' . . . of progress to underline the term's irony in such a destructive venture: 'Eu nasci na Mouraria | Num predio que resistia | Ao progresso que venceu.' Decaying tradition--incarnate in the pre-Republican houses of the Mouraria--is glorified glo·ri·fy
tr.v. glo·ri·fied, glo·ri·fy·ing, glo·ri·fies
1. To give glory, honor, or high praise to; exalt.
2. in its resistance to the modern invader. Failed progress is shrugged off as the singer narrates memories of the fadista Mouraria, vivid to his contemporaries thanks to the fado novo. He makes passing references to the 'Novo Fado da Severa': 'E toda a gente dizia | Que as ruas da Mouraria | Cheiravam a rosmaninho'; and to 'A Casa da Mariquinhas': 'Eram ruas estreitinhas | Janelas com tabuinhas.' (60) He creates a pastiche pastiche (păstēsh`, pä–), work of art that combines themes and styles from various sources in such a way as to appear obviously derivative. of the mid-seventeenth and mid-nineteenth-century Mourarias:
Naquela casinha Morou a Severa No tempo passado E o Alegrete Fidalgo que era Vizinho do fado.
And he reconstructs a Mouraria that by 1956 had disappeared, to remind the audience, one last time, of the district that was levelled by the Estado Novo's progress: 'E a tal Rua dos Canos | Era a Rua dos enganos | Morava ali o pecado.' (61) The song, however, demonstrates that the Estado Novo's progress does not penetrate one corner of the Mouraria: 'Pequeno predio gingao | Donde eu via a procissao espalhar fe pelo caminho'; and that one of the Mouraria's oldest residents will not yield to the regime's modernization:
Mas em cada esquina Um resto de outrora A vida deixou Ai! E na capelinha Mora uma senhora Que nao se mudou.
'O que Sobrou da Mouraria's' pride in the defiant figure of the hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Saude epitomizes the fado novo's appropriation of Gabriel de Oliveira's motif in 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' as the embodiment of the Mouraria that the Estado Novo demolished between the 1930s and 1960s. It records for posterity POSTERITY, descents. All the descendants of a person in a direct line. the fado novo's rejection of the Estado Novo's will, and thus serves as an apology to those who will accuse the national song of fostering the regime's values.
The 'Plano de Renovacao Urbana do Martim Moniz' of 1974 determined to solve the problem of the void left by the Salvacao Barreto demolition projects. (62) In the 1980s, the ultra-modern Centro Comercial Martim Moniz appeared to the west of the Baixa Mouraria and was mirrored by the hideous Central Comercial Mouraria, just behind the hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Saude. By the arrival of the 1998 Lisbon Expo, the CML had installed Moorish-inspired fountains in the old Baixa Mouraria. Perhaps the return to an Islamic motif seems appropriate in a neighbourhood where toponyms signal mere ghosts of a past. Norberto de Araujo says of the Mouraria: 'para vinganca dos mouros--ficou-lhe o nome Nome (nōm), city (1990 pop. 3,500), W Alaska, on the southern side of Seward Peninsula, on Norton Sound; founded c.1898, when gold was discovered on the beach there. It is the commercial, government, and supply center for NW Alaska, with an airport. .' (63) In a similar tradition, the Mouraria's parish is still known as Socorro, despite the demolition of the homonymous homonymous /ho·mon·y·mous/ (-i-mus)
1. having the same or corresponding sound or name.
2. pertaining to the corresponding vertical halves of the visual fields of both eyes. church in 1956. We still enter the Mouraria, from Praca da Figueira at the Rua do Arco do Marques de Alegrete, although the arch was dismantled in 1961. And Lisboners still refer to the lower Mouraria surrounding the Martim Moniz metro station For the band, see .
A metro station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, often known by names such as "metro", "underground" and "subway". It is often underground or elevated. At crossings of metro lines they are multi-level. as 'o buraco', even though the void has been filled. These nostalgic names, along with the fado novo's references to the extinct Baixa Mouraria, serve to draw our attention to the errors of the Estado Novo's progress. Nevertheless, every April the procession of Nossa Senhora da Saude reminds Lisboners of the Mouraria that the Estado Novo did not demolish. And perhaps for years to come, when the Virgin passes through Largo da Guia in her litter, Lisboners will remember Gabriel de Oliveira's Rosa Maria's reverence of Mouraria tradition:
Tudo se ajoelha e reza Ate a Rosa Maria Como que petrificada Em ferverosa oracao [ETH] tal a sua atitude Que a Rosa j[sz] desfolhada Da Rua do Capelao Parece que tem virtude.
(1) Gabriel de Oliveira, 'Ha Festa na Mouraria'.
(2) Marina Tavares Dias, Lisboa Desaparecida, 8 vols (Lisbon: Quimera, 1998), 1, 19, signals the Estado Novo's euphemism of progress: '"Recuperacao" e termo que o Estado Novo nao utilizava porque a "filologia" vigente considerava a cidade antiga como um suceder de bairros "condenados ao progresso".' Duarte Pacheco (1900-43) served as President of the CML and Minister of Public Works public works
Construction projects, such as highways or dams, financed by public funds and constructed by a government for the benefit or use of the general public.
Noun 1. between 1938 and his accidental death in 1943. Urban developer, E. de Groer, served as his consultant (1938-40). See Jose Augusto Franca, Lisboa. Urbanismo e Arquitectura (Lisbon: Instituto de Cultura e Lingua lingua /lin·gua/ (ling´gwah) pl. lin´guae [L.] tongue.lin´gual
lingua geogra´phica benign migratory glossitis.
lingua ni´gra black tongue. Portuguesa, 1980), pp. 105, 131; Dicionario da Historia de Lisboa, ed. by Francisco Santana and Eduardo Sucena (Lisbon: Carlos Quintas, 1994), p. 676. Joao Guilherme Faria da Costa The surname da Costa derives from the Portuguese word for coast. It may refer to:
(3) The 1940 restorations coincided with the Exposicao do Mundo Portugues. The 1967 'Plano Director de Lisboa,' proposed to protect Lisbon's historic districts, was approved in 1970. See Franca, p. 117; A. Vieira da Silva, Plano Director de 1967 (Lisbon: Camara Municipal, 1967), p. 23. The EPUL EPUL Empresa Pública de Urbanização de Lisboa (Portugal)
EPUL Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Lille (French) was founded in 1971 and the SAAL in 1974. See Franca, pp. 120, 131.
(4) Keil Amaral explains the motivations for the project to widen Rua da Palma and Avenida Almirante Reis:
Na cidade j[sz] o trensito ficava 'engarrafado', de quando em quando, em 'gargantas' que nos anos seguintes iriam transformar-se em verdadeiros pesadelos para os automovilistas e para a edilidade, sobre a qual choviam as recriminaces. Entre as mais odiadas contavam-se a da Rua do Arsenal, a da Rua da Palma e a de Sao Pedro de Alcentara. (p. 103)
(5) The 'Plano Director' of 1967 sought to solve the problem of Martim Moniz's void: Vieira da Silva, p. 47. In 1972, the CML abandoned the plans of Faria da Costa, Eduardo Paiva Lopes and A. Barros de Fonseca to erect a plaza in the Baixa Mouraria. In 1974, the CML shifted the 'Plano de Renovacao Urbana de Martim Moniz' to the EPUL. Between the 1970s and 1990s the EPUL worked with engineer Ferro Gomes and architects Francisco Silva, Carlos Duarte and Jose Lamas to replace the empty lots left by the Salvacao Barreto project with the Centro Comercial Martim Moniz, the Centro Comercial Mouraria and the fountains in Praca Martim Moniz.
(6) I estimate that Oliveira wrote the fado 1930-33 despite Norberto de Araujo's claim that the song was still popular as late as 1937: Norberto de Araujo, Peregrinacoes em Lisboa, 15 vols (Lisbon: Vega, 1992), 111, 77. We know that Antonio Amargo's 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' was posterior to Oliveira's and that Amargo died in 1933: Eduardo Sucena, Lisboa, o Fado e os Fadistas (Lisbon: Vega, 2002), p. 316.
(7) Eduardo Faria, 'Fado da Demolicao', Os Ridiculos, 17 May 1952. The Arco do Marques de Alegrete was not demolished until 1961.
(8) Reinaldo Antunes, 'O Fado Mouraria', Parada da Parodia, 54, 16 November 1961.
(9) Jose Stuart Carvalhais, 'Fado da Mouraria', Sempre Fixe, 27 January 1949. Stuart inaccurately attributes the Mouraria's salvation to Afonso Henriques. In fact, in 1147, the Anglo-Norman and Portuguese crusaders set fire to the suburb that was inhabited by Mozarabs. Afonso Henriques's foral of 1170 allowed the free Moors to inhabit the ruins of the commune commune, in medieval history
commune (kôm`yn), in medieval history, collective institution that developed in continental Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. that would later be known as the Mouraria: The Conquest of Lisbon/De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, ed. by Charles Wendell David (New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Columbia, 2001), pp. 124-29.
(10) Mario Elias, 'Um Fado que Todos os Lisboetas Conhecem Bem: Ai, Mouraria que Nunca Mais te Tapam os Buracos', Parada da Parodia, 54, 16 November 1961. The first stages on Lisbon's underground system (today's Gaivota and Caravela lines) were functioning in 1959. 'Ai, Mouraria': Amadeu de Vale/Frederico Valerio.
(11) Eduardo Faria, 'Fado da Demolicao', Os Ridiculos, 17 May 1952. The 'Fado de Severa' (1850) is attributed to Sousa do Casacao.
(12) 'Fado de Peniche (Abandono)': David Mourao-Ferreira/Alain Oulman. Of the 'Fado de Peniche (Abandono)', Amalia Rodrigues has said in Vitor Pavao dos Santos, Amalia ([n.p.]: Contexto, 1987), p. 151:
Sempre achei o 'Abandono' de David Mourao-Ferreira, um fado de amor. Nunca pensei em Peniche [...] Nao me passavam pela cabeca prises. E um fado que, ainda hoje, toda a gente gosta dele. E cada pessoa o sentiu C sua maneira. Um revolucion[sz]rio pensou que era de Peniche, mas a maior parte de Portugal, que nao e privilegiada, que nao estava alertada, que e como eu, pensou no amor.
(13) Fado lyricist lyr·i·cist
A writer of song lyrics. Also called lyrist.
Noun 1. lyricist - a person who writes the words for songs
lyrist , Mascarenhas Barreto explores saudade as a leit-motif in Portuguese song in Fado: A Cancao Portuguesa (Lisbon: [n.pub], 1959); and Fado: Origens Liricas e Motivacao Poetica (Lisbon: Aster, 1970).
(14) 'Ja Nao Vou a Mouraria', Fernanda Maria.
(15) 'Anda o Fado n'Outras Bocas', Artur Ribeiro.
(16) 'Maria Severa', Jose Galhardo/Raul Ferrao.
(17) 'Fadista Louco', Domingo Goncalves Costa/Francisco Viana.
(18) 'Adeus, Mouraria', Artur Ribeiro; 'Mataram a Mouraria', Jose Mariano/Manuel Maria Rodrigues.
(19) This fado's repeated 'adeuses' allude to Josezinho de Alfama's 'Fado da Despedida' (1859), which he wrote in the Limoeiro prison while awaiting deportation deportation, expulsion of an alien from a country by an act of its government. The term is not applied ordinarily to sending a national into exile or to committing one convicted of crime to an overseas penal colony (historically called transportation). to the coast of Angola for having murdered a Galician.
(20) 'Fado Viela', Dr Guilherme P. Rosa/Alfredo Marceneiro.
(21) According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Norberto de Araujo, Peregrinacoes, p. 77, the procession occurred every 20 April, 1570-1910. We learn from Santana and Sucena that the first procession occurred on 20 April 1570, and thereafter every third Thursday in April until 1908 (pp. 874-75).
(22) Pinto de Carvalho, Historia do Fado (Lisbon: Dom Quixote, 1992), p. 62.
(23) Carvalho, p. 69.
(24) Julio de Castilho, Lisboa Antiga: Bairros Orientais, 12 vols (Lisbon: [n.pub.], 1939), 111, 51.
(25) Araujo, Peregrinacoes, pp. 68, 71.
(26) Araujo, Peregrinacoes, p. 70, attributes Severa's celebrity in the twentieth century to Julio Dantas:
A-pesar-de o romance e o teatro--ali[sz]s modelarmente trabalhados por um homem de letras de talento superior C media geral dos talentos autenticos da nossa terra, o Dr Jolio Dantas--terem exagerado ou perpetuado, a celebridade da rameira, nao h[sz] dovida de que a Severa foi 'alguem' no seu tempo, no tempo do Bairro Alto e da Mouraria turbulentos, fadistas, pitorescos, e que, assim tal qual foram, dariam '[sz]guas fortes' de preferencia a ingenuas aguarelas.
(27) I allude to several versions of Severa's death. Alberto Pimentel, A Triste Cancao do Sul (Lisbon: Dom Quixote, 1985), p. 156, believed that she died of indigestion indigestion or dyspepsia, discomfort during or after eating caused by some interference with the normal digestive process. Symptoms include nausea, heartburn, abdominal pain, gas distress, and a feeling of abdominal distention. : 'falleceu aos vinte e seis annos de idade, em resultado de uma congestao que uma ceia de borrachos assados provocou.' Araujo, Peregrinacoes, p. 70, concurred with Pimentel: 'morreu com 26 anos, de uma vulgar indigestao,' Carvalho, p. 83, however, believed that she died in a hospital bed of complications related to syphilis:
Maria Severa morreu, segundo papagueia a lenda, de uma indigestao de borrachos regados de boa pinga. Mais uma vez, porem, somos forcados a rectificar a lenda. A Severa adoeceu na sua casa da Rua do Capelao, C esquina do Beco do Forno, e foi conduzida ao hospital, onde se finou na enxerga de uma enfermaria especialista. E essa comborca miser[sz]vel, que, como os deuses e os conquistadores, teve os seus holocaustos, acabou no hospital, porque o hospital e a face sombria desse outro Jano, que se chama--a prostutuicao!
I saw Severa's death certificate at the L94 exhibit, 'Fado: Vozes e Sombras' at the Museu Nacional Museu Nacional means National Museum in Portuguese. The following museums have this denomination:
Castelo Branco (pron. IPA [kɐʃ'tɛlu 'bɾɐ̃ku]) is a city and a municipality, seat of the district of Castelo Branco, in Centro region, Portugal. , Salwa El-Shawan et al., Fado: Vozes e Sombras (Lisbon: Instituto Camoes, 1994). Sucena, p. 23, explains that the family of Severa's lover, the Count of Vimioso, requested that Dantas exclude the nobleman's character from the 1931 film.
(28) 'Novo Fado da Severa (Rua do Capelao)', Julio Dantas/Frederico de Freitas.
(29) Norberto de Araujo, Legendas de Lisboa (Lisbon: SPN SPN Symantec Protection Network
SPN Supernatural (TV show)
SPN Specifications (TMINS)
SPn Streptococcus Pneumoniae
SPN Society of Pediatric Nurses
SPN solitary pulmonary nodule , 1943); 'O, Rua do Capelao | Juncada de rosmaninho | Se o meu amor vier cedinho | Eu beijo as pedras do chao | Que ele pisar no caminho'; 'Novo Fado da Severa (Rua do Capelao)', Julio Dantas/Frederico de Freitas.
(30) According to Sucena, p. 315, Oliveira died in 1948.
(31) Pimentel, p. 58; Sucena, p. 121.
(32) Carvalho, pp. 75-76, describes Rua da Amendoeira in the nineteenth century; 'Em 1832, os banzes e as discordias na Rua da Amendoeira subiram de ponto. Nao se passava um so dia, que nao se servisse aquele prato substancial aos amadores do genero.'
(33) Carvalho gives brief biographies of these Mouraria prostitutes.
(34) 'Ha Festa na Mouraria', Antonio Amargo/Alfredo Marceneiro.
(35) 'Fado Falado', Anibal Nazare/Nelson de Barros.
(36) 'Ze Manel e Rosa Maria', Fernanda Maria.
(37) 'O Leilao da Casa da Mariquinhas', Linhares Barbosa/Fado Corrido cor·ri·do
n. pl. cor·ri·dos
A Mexican ballad or folksong.
[American Spanish, from Spanish, ballad, from past participle of correr, to run .
(38) 'Chico Faia', Jose Marques/Manuel Oliveira Santos.
(39) 'Fui ao Baile'. Amadeu do Vale/Fernando do Carvalho.
(40) Prostitution was tolerated in Lisbon according to court records in Evora and Viana (1481-82). An edict A decree or law of major import promulgated by a king, queen, or other sovereign of a government.
An edict can be distinguished from a public proclamation in that an edict puts a new statute into effect whereas a public proclamation is no more than a declaration of a law of 25 December 1608 further legitimized urban prostitution. Legal codes dating to 31 December 1836 and a public meeting on 15 May 1836, allowed prostitution in Lisbon, with the objective of monitoring and controlling syphilis: see Francisco Ignacio dos Santos Cruz, Da Prostituicao na Cidade de Lisboa (Porto: [n.pub], 1841), p. 43. Prostitution was outlawed in Lisbon in 1962.
(41) Suzanne Chantal, A Vida Quotidiana em Portugal ao Tempo de Terramoto (Lisbon: Livros do Brasil, [n.d.]), pp. 254-55.
(42) Carvalho, p. 73.
(43) Cruz, pp. 164-69, divides the Lisbon prostitute into three groups: the clandestine CLANDESTINE. That which is done in secret and contrary to law.
2.Generally a clandestine act in case of the limitation of actions will prevent the act from running. type who meets her clients discreetly and charges a higher fee for her services; the prostitute who lives moderately well, either in a brothel or alone; and the streetwalker street·walk·er
A prostitute, especially one who solicits in the streets.
streetwalk who is visited by soldiers, sailors and household servants. We find the latter in the nineteenth-century Mouraria, on Ruas do Capelao, da Guia, da Amendoeira and das Atafonas.
(44) Sucena, p. 317.
(45) Chantal, p. 255.
(46) Cruz, pp. 94-95.
(47) Carvalho, pp. 70-71.
(48) Araujo, p. 77.
(49) Estatutos da Real Irmandade de Nossa Senhora da Saude e de Sao Sebastiao: (Lisbon: Real Irmandade de Nossa Senhora da Saude e de Sao Sebastiao, 1992); Breve BREVE, practice. A writ in which the cause of action is briefly stated, hence its name. Fleta, lib. 2, c. 13, Sec. 25; Co. Lit. 73 b.
2. Writs are distributed into several classes. Noticia Historica sobre a Irmandade e Procissao de Nossa Senhora da Saude e de Sao Sebastiao, ed. by Real Irmandade de Nossa Senhora da Saude e de Sao Sebastiao (Lisbon: Real Irmandade de Nossa Senhora da Saude e de Sao Sebastiao, [n.d.]).
(50) The procession reappeared after 1940 until 1974, when it disappeared again until 1981; see Estatutos; Breve Noticia.
(51) Araujo, Peregrinacoes, p. 76, says of the hermitage: 'Oferece uma certa ingenuidade; lembra uma capela de aldeia, pois nao lembra?'
(52) My thanks to Rui Afonso Santos, Museu do Chiado, for explaining the importance of these churches to the Estado Novo.
(53) 'Ha Festa na Mouraria' appears on Amalia's albums, 'Foi Deus' (1953), 'Maldicao' (1967) and 'Encontro com Dom Byas' (1973). The fado appears on Mariza's album, 'Fado em Mim' (2001), on which the lyrics are incorrectly attributed to Antonio Amargo.
(54) 'Evocando o Passado', F. Carvalhinho/D.G. Costa.
(55) 'Senhora da Saude', Francisco dos Santos/Joaquim Campos Campos (käm`ps), city (1996 pop. 391,299), Rio de Janeiro state, SE Brazil, on the Paraíba River near its mouth. .
(56) 'Ronda da Saudade', Fernanda Maria.
(57) 'Antigamente', Joaquim Proenca/Frederico de Brito; 'O que Sobrou da Mouraria', Paulo Fonseca, Cesar de Oliveira and Rogerio Bracinha/Joao Nobre.
(58) Franca, p. 117; A. Vieira da Silva, Plano Director de 1967 (Lisbon: Camara Municipal, 1967).
(59) 'O fado foi desaparecendo, como iam morrendo as vias de enganar o censor': Humores ao Fado e a Guitarra, ed. by Osvaldo Macedo de Sousa (Lisbon: EBAHL, E.M./Casa do Fado e da Guitarra Portuguesa, 2000), p. 60.
(60) 'A Casa da Mariquinhas', Silva Tavares/Alfredo Marceneiro.
(61) Rua dos Canos disappeared in the demolitions of 1956.
(62) Plano de Renovacao Urbana do Martim Moniz, ed. by EPUL (Lisbon: EPUL, [n.d.]), pp. 2-6.
(63) Araujo, Peregrinacoes, p. 61.
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