Further notes on the historiography of British Borneo.Some thirty years ago I prepared "Some Notes on the Historiography of British Borneo British Borneo means the two parts of the island of Borneo presently part (alongside the nine hereditary monarchies on the Malay peninsula) of the federation of Malaysia, during the British colonial rule: Labuan (1846-1963) and what was called North Borneo (now Sabah). ," which were included in the Festschrift fest·schrift
n. pl. fest·schrif·ten or fest·schrifts
A volume of learned articles or essays by colleagues and admirers, serving as a tribute or memorial especially to a scholar. for D. C. E. Hall, Southeast Asian History and Historiography, edited by C. D. Cowan and O. W. Wolters Oliver William "O. W." Wolters (8 June 1915 - 5 December 2000) was a British historian mainly working on the history of Southeast Asia. Important publications
The changes during that period may be included under a number of headings. First, of course, more history has happened. That always shifts the focus on the past, bringing up new topics, or inviting a revisiting of the old. We cannot help recalling that Sarawak and Sabah have now been states of Malaysia Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. Eleven states are located on the Malay Peninsula while two are on the island of Borneo.
West Malaysia, on the Malay Peninsula
in full Association of Southeast Asian Nations
International organization established by the governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand in ), which itself had its first summit meeting in the year the Festschrift was published. Nor can we fail to take account of the different perspectives that the "development" of the states promotes. Will even historians--clinging to a concept and, as far as possible, to a practice of objectivity--still write in the same way, say, of the forests and their dwellers?
Second, more documentary materials have become available, at least in Britain. The archive-based writing listed in the Festschrift article was done at a time when archives even in London were under a fifty-year rule, not a thirty-year rule. As a result of the change, made indeed about the time the book was published, we know far more about the 1950s and 1960s than otherwise we would, particularly, though not exclusively, in respect to Brunei. More non- or semi-official collections have been deposited, for example at Rhodes House Rhodes House is part of the University of Oxford in England. It is located on the south of South Parks Road in central Oxford. The building was built in memory of Cecil Rhodes, an alumnus of the University and a major benefactor. , and notable actors, local and metropolitan, have been interviewed. The Festschrift article offered a warning against pressing for the early opening of achives, lest it merely encouraged their destruction. Reading material at Kew opened under the thirty-year rule does not seem to justify that apprehension, and other governments should be encouraged to go at least as far as the British. The new fear for historians may be lest actors cease to put things down on paper at all. Much business is now done verbally or electronically, and that may in the long term be even more unhelpful to the historian than a disposition to documentary secrecy.
That perhaps relates to a third change, the expansion of the historical profession, and of the range of approaches historians adopt. Of that expansion, those who study Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, region of Asia (1990 est. pop. 442,500,000), c.1,740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east. outside the region may speak somewhat wryly, since an earlier expansion has not been sustained. Within Southeast Asia, even amidst other pressing claims, the reverse is the case. "National" history indeed remains the "regnant REGNANT. One having authority as a king; one in the exercise of royal authority. paradigm," as Ruth McVey puts it, but historians work not only on a range of topics within "national" history, but increasingly on aspects of the history of their ASEAN neighbors.
Much of this endeavor is, of course, sustained by the universities. No longer, alas, in Britain, where the Hull Centre for Southeast Asian Studies Southeast Asian Studies refers to research and education on the language, culture, and history of the different states and ethnic groups of Southeast Asia. External links
These institutions are also the base for publications, the Museum journals, for example. Other journals, including, of course, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies and Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (RAS) was, according to its Royal Charter of August 11, 1824, established to further "the investigation of subjects connected with and for the encouragement of science, literature and the arts in relation to Asia. Malaysian Branch, still welcome material on Borneo, and the present Bulletin has been hospitable to historians. The most notable loss since the 1970s has been of Oxford University Press's local branch, which went the way of the English poetry The history of English poetry stretches from the middle of the 7th century to the present day. Over this period, English poets have written some of the most enduring poems in European culture, and the language and its poetry have spread around the globe. list. The gap it left--both in republishing classics, and in putting out new work--has not been filled by other publishers, modestly active though some of them have been.
Given all those factors, shifts in focus are to be expected. Some of the older topics remain of interest, even if perspectives have changed. One of those is "piracy." At the time of the Festschrift, my Piracy and Politics in the Malay World The Malay World refers to the Malay cultural and linguistic sphere of influence, covering the archipelago of modern-day Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the southernmost part of Thailand, the Philippines, Brunei, East Timor and occasionally New Guinea. , launched in 1963, had been attacked, though not perhaps sunk, and James Warren James Warren may refer to any of the following people:
v. so·phis·ti·cat·ed, so·phis·ti·cat·ing, so·phis·ti·cates
1. To cause to become less natural, especially to make less naive and more worldly.
2. to the subject in The Sulu Zone (1981). That has been followed more recently by The Sulu Zone: The World Capitalist Economy and the Historical Imagination (1998) and Iranun and Balangingi: Globalization globalization
Process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. Factors that have contributed to globalization include increasingly sophisticated communications and transportation , Maritime Raiding and the Birth of Ethnicity (2002).
Interest in another spectacular topic, the Brooke rulers of Sarawak, also continues. The University of Queensland The University of Queensland (UQ) is the longest-established university in the state of Queensland, Australia, a member of Australia's Group of Eight, and the Sandstone Universities. It is also a founding member of the international Universitas 21 organisation. Press' blurb blurb
A brief publicity notice, as on a book jacket.
[Coined by Gelett Burgess (1866-1951), American humorist.]
blurb v. on Cassandra Pybus' book White Rajah: A Dynastic Intrigue (1996) attempts to evoke it. The "enthralling en·thrall
tr.v. en·thralled, en·thrall·ing, en·thralls
1. To hold spellbound; captivate: The magic show enthralled the audience.
2. To enslave. saga of conflict and betrayal," focusing on Raja Charles' first-born, Esca, is intended to be, as she says, not a novel but a work of history. Looking like the former, it is in fact more the latter. Though it may not be presented quite in the style academics expect, it is a welcome attempt to explore "the possibilities of reconstructing the past to admit the experience which has been excluded and the voice which has been suppressed" (p. xiii). Esca had been a focus of Bob Reece's article, "A 'Suitable Population': Charles Brooke and Race-Mixing in Sarawak," Itinerario (1985), and is also mentioned in his stimulating essay, "European-Indigenous Miscegenation Mixture of races. A term formerly applied to marriage between persons of different races. Statutes prohibiting marriage between persons of different races have been held to be invalid as contrary to the equal protection clause and Social Status in Nineteenth Century Borneo" in Vinson H. Sutlive, Jr., ed., Female and Male in Borneo: Contributions and Challenges to Gender Studies (n.d.). Much more recently, Reece has offered a sound and beautifully illustrated account of The White Rajahs The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. A Rajah (or Raja) is a king or princely ruler in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. The coaling station of Brooketon in Brunei was named after the Brooke family. of Sarawak: A Borneo Dynasty (2004).
Craig A. Lockard completed a compendious com·pen·di·ous
Containing or stating briefly and concisely all the essentials; succinct.
[Middle English, from Late Latin compendi thesis on Kuching in 1973, "The Southeast Asian Town in Historical Perspective: A Social History of Kuching, Malaysia, 1820-1970" (Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin). In 1976 he published "The Early Development of Kuching, 1820-1857," and in 1978 he offered a reappraisal of the Chinese "rebellion," "The 1857 Chinese rebellion in Sarawak: A Reappraisal," published by JSEAS (1978). The thesis finally emerged in print as From Kampung to City: A Social History of Kuching, 1820-1870 in 1987 thanks to the Ohio University Ohio University, main campus at Athens; state supported; coeducational; chartered 1804, opened 1809 as the first college in the Old Northwest. There are additional campuses at Chiillicothe, Lancaster, and Zanesville, as well as facilities throughout the state. Center for International Studies. Bob Reece Robert Scott Reece (born January 5 1951 in Sacramento, California) was a catcher in Major League Baseball. Teams
He was born in Mold, Flintshire, and apprenticed to a tailor, then trained unsuccessfully for the ministry before returning to the tailoring business. , a catechist--in SMJ SMJ Southern Medical Journal
SMJ Strategic Management Journal
SMJ Saber Marionette J (WinAMP skin)
SMJ subject matter jurisdiction
SMJ Summary Judgment (legal term)
SMJ Saudi Medical Journal (1992).
Colin Crisswell's rather disappointing life of Raja Charles Brooke, Rajah Charles Brooke: Monarch of All He Surveyed, appeared from OUP OUP (in Northern Ireland) Official Unionist Party in 1978. My own The Burthen, the Risk and the Glory, a political biography of Raja James based largely on the papers of the Brooke family The Brooke family is an English family that ruled Sarawak from 1841 until 1946.
Rajahs of Sarawak:
1. Preceding or preliminary; introductory: a precursory statement.
2. Suggesting or indicating something to follow.
Adj. 1. piece was "Spenser St. John Spenser St. John, FRGS, FES, was British Consul in Brunei in the mid 19th century. In 1858, St. John made two ascents of the famous Mount Kinabalu with Hugh Low. One of the peaks of Mount Kinabalu, St. and his 'Life in the Forests of the Far East'" in the SMJ (1975), and a by-product by·prod·uct or by-prod·uct
1. Something produced in the making of something else.
2. A secondary result; a side effect.
1. , "St. John's Biography of Sir James Brooke For the American journalist, see .
The Rajah of Sarawak, Sir James Brooke, KCB, LL.D (29 April 1803 – 11 June 1868) was a British statesman. His father Thomas Brooke was English; his mother Anna Maria was born in Hertfordshire, England, the daughter of Scottish peer ," SMJ (1990). Max Saint published studies of two early Sarawak figures, Bishop Francis McDougall and Charles Grant There are many people named Charles Grant. Some included on Wikipedia are:
(1841–1946) Dynasty of British rajas that ruled Sarawak (now a state in Malaysia) for a century. Sir James Brooke (1803–68) served with the British East India Company and fought in the first Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) before using his family in Sarawak, 1848-1941 (1992). With Bob Reece, Saint wrote an introduction to OUP's reprint of Harriette McDougall's Sketches of our Life at Sarawak (1992), itself reprinted in BRB "Be right back." See digispeak.
(chat) BRB - (I will) be right back. (1992). Another excellent introduction--Reece's to the reprint of Hugh Low' Sarawak: Notes during a Residence in that Country with H. H. the Rajah Brooke--was also reprinted in BRB (1990).
Matassim Hj. Jibah has attempted to give a more rounded account of a figure demonized in earlier accounts of James's venture, "Mahkota," in his "Pengiran Indera Mahkota Shahbandar Mohammed Salleh and James Brooke in the History of Brunei Historians believe that there was a forerunner to the present day Brunei Sultanate. One possible predecessor state was called Vijayapura, which possibly existed in northwest Borneo in the seventh century A.D. ," BMJ BMJ n abbr (= British Medical Journal) → vom BMA herausgegebene Zeitschrift , 4,3 (1979). Another, very different, "demon" was given a new look in John Bastin, "James Motley and his Contributions to the Natural History of Labuan," JMBRAS, 60, 2 (1987).
J. H. Walker's Power and Prowess: The Origins of Brooke Kingship in Sarawak (2002) seeks to offer a new slant on the first Raja himself. Attempting this, he accepts the injunction of Tony Milner and others to read "between the lines Between the lines can refer to:
(2) To test the condition or status of a terminal or computer system. " sources, they cannot answer back, and there is always a risk of finding between the lines things that are not really there. It is a risk that Walker does not avoid. Employing the concept of "men of prowess" that the late Oliver Wolters developed in a different context is not an unreasonable step in itself. But the evidence that James Brooke was aware of the concepts that Walker outlines--semangat, potency, for example--seems--despite his sensitivity--less than conclusive. To what extent those whom he aspired to rule or control or of whom he sought support were also guided by such concepts is also a matter of some speculation, perhaps more.
More persuasive, perhaps, is Walker's recent reading of the Hikayat Panglima Nikosa ("Hikayat Panglima Nikosa and the Sarawak Gazette: Transforming Texts in Nineteenth Century Sarawak," Modern Asian Studies Asian studies is a field in cultural studies that is concerned with the Asian peoples, their cultures and languages. Within the Asian sphere, Asian studies combines aspects of sociology, and cultural anthropology to study cultural phenomena in Asian traditional and industrial , 39, 2 ). The earliest known Malay document from the Sarawak River Sarawak River or Sungai Sarawak is a river in Sarawak state of Malaysia. It is an important source of water and transportation for the inhabitants in southwestern Sarawak. region, the Hikayat was republished in 1983, with an introduction by P. L. Thomas, the translator, and Bob Reece (1983). It is to be seen, Walker suggests, not as a source for Sarawak history in the pre-Brooke period, but as an indication of the concerns of members of the Malay elite in the 1870s.
Charles Brooke's views on miscegenation, Reece argues, were "informed, not by notions of racial equality, but of animal breeding and the superiority of the hybrid in an environment which was believed not to be conducive to European reproductive success Reproductive success is defined as the passing of genes onto the next generation in a way that they too can pass those genes on. In practice, this is often a tally of the number of offspring produced by an individual. " (n.d:485). His new biography of Charles Brooke is eagerly anticipated (see Reece 2003). In a measure, his book on the "transfer" of the Raja's authority to the British Crown in 1946, The Name of Brooke (1982), is also biographical, and, with the skills of a journalist investigator as well as historian, he gives us vivid pictures of the personalities involved in what turned out to be the last phase in the history of the raj, Vyner Brooke, his brother Bertram, his son Anthony [Peter], and the mysterious G. T. M. MacBryan. That is all the more valuable inasmuch as in·as·much as
1. Because of the fact that; since.
2. To the extent that; insofar as.
1. since; because
2. the public archives are, tantalizingly tan·ta·lize
tr.v. tan·ta·lized, tan·ta·liz·ing, tan·ta·liz·es
To excite (another) by exposing something desirable while keeping it out of reach. , not fully open. The same skills vividly depict other sides of the story, including the background to the assassination Assassination
See also Murder.
Fanatical Moslem sect that smoked hashish and murdered Crusaders (11th—12th centuries). [Islamic Hist.: Brewer Note-Book, 52]
conspirator and assassin of Julius Caesar. [Br. of the second Governor of the new Colony. Not surprisingly, Reece has also applied his biographical skills to a noteworthy figure of the raj/post-raj phase, Abang Hj. Mustapha, Datu Bandar (1993). There he joins Vinson H. Sutlive, whose Tun TUN, measure. A vessel of wine or oil, containing four hogsheads. dugah of Sarawak Colonialism and Iban Response was published by the Sarawak Literary Society in 1992.
The autobiographical contribution to the history of an earlier phase in the history of the raj by A. B. Ward's Rajah's Servant, mentioned in the Festschrift piece, was continued by K. H. Digby, whose Lawyer in the Wilderness, covering the years 1934-1951, was published as Data Paper 114 by the Cornell Southeast Asia Program in 1980. Alastair Morrison's Fair Land Sarawak: Some Recollections of an Expatriate Official, which takes us into the Colony phase, was also published by the Southeast Asian Program in 1993.
British records have been far more helpful in the growing historiography of the sultanate of Brunei. Through them, for example, D. E. Brown continued the pioneering work of his Brunei: The Structure and History of a Bornean Malay Sultanate (1970) with "Sultan Mumin's Will and Related Documents," BMJ, 3 (1974). A. C. Watson published reports made by Inche Mahomed bin Mahommed Kassim, the Malay who was in day-to-day charge of the British consulate in Brunei 1861-1890 ("Letters from Brunei: Inche Mahomed's Consular Reports 1866-1890," BMJ, 5, 4 (1984)). Graham Saunders has boldly attempted a history of the sultanate (1994). In general the focus has been on more recent times, though that, too, is not without its hazards. Parts of D. S. Ranjit Singh Ranjit Singh (rŭn`jĭt sĭng), 1780–1839, Indian maharaja, ruler of the Sikhs. Seizing Lahore (1799) and Amritsar (1809), he established himself as the leading Sikh chieftain. , Brunei 1839-1938: The Problems of Political Survival (1984), rather overlap Britain, the Brookes and Brunei, but it goes on to cover the Residency period and mainly using newspaper sources, the post-war phase, taking the story up to 1982, shortly before the sultanate secured "full independence." The latter phase is also the focus of B. A. Hamzah's "Oil and Independence in Brunei. A Perspective," a by-product of a Fletcher School thesis published in Southeast Asian Affairs Asian Affairs, the Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs, has been published continuously since 1914 (formerly as the Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society). It covers a range of social, political, and historical subjects linked to Asia. in 1981. His book, The Oil Sultanate, was published in Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur (kwä`lə lm`pr), city (1990 est. pop. by Muwaddah Enterprises in 1991.
The study of those phases has since been greatly enriched by the research and writing of B. A. Hussainmiya at Universiti Brunei Darussalam University of Brunei Darussalam (Abbreviation: UBD; Malay: Universiti Brunei Darussalam; Jawi: يونيبرسيتي بروني . His masterpiece is Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Omar Ali Saifuddin is the name of three Sultans of Brunei:
The work of A. V. M. Horton, a private scholar who emerged from and continued a connection with the Hull Centre, has been even more copious, though some of it is less readily available. He published his account of The British Residency in Brunei, 1906--1959 in 1984 (Hull: Centre for South-East Asian Studies). That was followed by a carefully annotated edition of M. S. H. McArthur's crucial report of 1904--for which the Festschrift article had issued a discreet call--published as one of Ohio University's Monographs in International Studies in 1987. In the same year Horton's article, "The Disturbances in the Tutong and Belait Districts of Brunei Brunei is divided into four districts (daerah):
No. District Capital 1. Belait Kuala Belait 2. (1899-1901)," was published in JSEAS, 18, 1 (1987b), and the following year the Brunei Museum Journal published "M. S. H. McArthur and Brunei 1904-1908 or 'A Dying Kingdom' Reprieved" (1988).
A number of articles on the government of Brunei have also followed, marked by an unexampled un·ex·am·pled
Without precedent; unparalleled: "Witchcraft blazed forth with unexampled virulence" Montague Summers. thoroughness, including, for example, "Post War Constitutional Changes in Brunei: 1944-1948" (1990a), "The Muara Damit Negotiations 1920-1924" (1992a), and "'I Have Taken Steps to Ensure that the Utmost Economy is Exercised': Government Finance in Brunei, 1906-1932" (1994). Articles on other topics also contribute to our knowledge through their scholarly care and particularity par·tic·u·lar·i·ty
n. pl. par·tic·u·lar·i·ties
1. The quality or state of being particular rather than general.
2. , for example "Brunei, Sarawak and the Kota Batu Lands (1903-1917)" (1985); "Rajah Charles Brooke and Mining Concessions in Brunei 1888-1924" (1986a); "The British Resident Murdered: Ernest Maundrell and Brunei 1915-1916" (1990b); "Rajah Charles Brooke, the Central Borneo Company, and Oil Prospecting in Brunei (1883-1929)" (1992b); "Brunei: The Redemption of Monopolies and the Hatton Hall Case 1903-1907" (1993); "James Hatton Hall (1866-1945): Planter, Merchant Soldier" (1995a); and "'A Pauper An impoverished person who is supported at public expense; an indigent litigant who is permitted to sue or defend without paying costs; an impoverished criminal defendant who has a right to receive legal services without charge.
PAUPER. with a Valuable Property for Sale': The British Borneo Petroleum Syndicate and the Search for Oil in Brunei, 1906-1923" (1995b).
Horton has himself published A New Sketch of the History of Brunei (1995c) and Turun Temurun: A Dissection of Negara Brunei Darussalam (1995d), originally written for the Library of Congress, but not published by it, a shrewd and detailed work. A Biographical Dictionary Biographical dictionaries — a type of encyclopedic dictionary limited to biographical information — have been written in many languages. Many attempt to cover the major personalities of a country (with limitations, such as living persons only, in Who's Who of Negara Brunei Darussalam: (1841-1998), which he also published in 1995, has since gone through a number of editions.
Independent Brunei's search for a distinct identity within the larger contexts of the Malay world and Islam has been studied, for example, by C. H. Gallop, "Brunei Darussalam and the Modern Novel," JMBRAS (2004). G. Braighlinn [Roger Kershaw] has offered an account of the creation of Brunei's state ideology in Ideological Innovation under Monarchy: Aspects of Legitimation Activity in Contemporary Brunei (1992). Geoffrey C. Gunn describes his book Language, Power, and Ideology in Brunei Darussalam (1997) as "a work of historical sociology Historical sociology is a branch of sociology focusing on how societies develop through history. It's looks at how social structure that many regard as natural are in fact shaped by complex social processes. or at least political anthropology Political anthropology concerns the structure of political systems, looked at from the basis of the structure of societies. Political anthropologists include E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Meyer Fortes, Georges Balandier, Marc Abélès, Jocelyne Streiff-Fenart, Ted C. ." For Kershaw it is a "high-minded and thought-provoking ... work" that yet "fails to live up to its high theoretical pretensions," perhaps because "the framework itself is less than optimally focused" (Kershaw 2003:145). But, even if, as Kershaw says, "Hussainmiya comes closer to the mark on the dynamics of modern history" (2003:146), Gunn's book offers a stimulating account of a unique polity, where wealth and literacy are combined with hierarchy and ideology.
The British archives serve the historian of the Japanese occupation Japanese Occupation may refer to:
Existing or occurring before a war.
relating to the period before a war, esp. before World War I or II
Adj. 1. Japanese interests, as Sabibah Osman has shown in her "Japanese Economic Activities in Sabah from the 1880s until 1941" (1998), and Danny Wong in "Anti-Japanese Activities in North Borneo North Borneo or British North Borneo: see Sabah, Malaysia. before World War Two, 1937-1941" (2001). The indefatigable Horton has added to our knowledge of the subsequent invasion with "A Note on the British Retreat from Kuching 1941-1942," SMJ (1986b), and Hussainmiya has drawn on interviews as well as British records for his paper "Resuscitating Nationalism: Brunei under the Japanese Military Administration (1941-1945)," in Akitoshi Shimizu and Jan van Breman, eds., Wartime Anthropology in Japan (2003). Bob Reece's wide range of skills enabled him to produce a readable and memorable account of Sarawak's experience, Masa Jepun: Sarawak under the Japanese 1941-1945, published by the Sarawak Literary Society (1998). The year 1998 also saw the publication in the Ohio series of a collection of documents, Japanese Empire in the Tropics, which the editor, Ooi Keat Gin, allowed Reece to see in advance of publication. His own monograph, Rising Sun over Borneo: The Japanese Occupation, 1941-1945, was published by St Martin's Press, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , in 1999.
Those books were, of course, a contribution to occupation studies in general, as well as to a hitherto untended field in Borneo's history. On the achievement of the Japanese in restoring oil production--one of their major objectives--neither Ooi nor Reece is, however, ideally clear. Self-sufficiency in food, another aim, Dr. Ooi claims that the Japanese attained, unlike the Brookes, whose endeavors he notes in "For Want of Rice: Sarawak's Attempts at Rice Self-Sufficiency during the Period of Brooke Rule, 1841-1941" (1998). Their methods, it should be said, were rather different. Perhaps Ooi says too little about them, too little, too, about the fear that, as Reece shows, their regime inculcated. Ooi's overall judgment is placed within the framework of the argument that has been carried on among historians of the occupation. Was it a turning-point in the history of Southeast Asia The history of Southeast Asia has been characterized as interaction between regional players and foreign powers. Though 11 countries currently make up the region, the history of each country is intertwined with all the others. , or of countries in Southeast Asia? The late Harry Benda argued that it was crucial in bringing about the emergence of new elites. Robert H. Taylor and Al McCoy Al McCoy may be:
Ooi has also contributed to what might be called the domestic history of Sarawak. His article, "Sarawak Malay Attitudes towards Education during the Period of Brooke Rule, 1841-1946," appeared in JSEAS (1990), "Mission Education in Sarawak during the Period of Brooke Rule, 1840-1946," in SMJ (1991), "Education in Sarawak from Brooke Rule to Colonial Office Administration 1841-1963," in BRB (1992), and "The Attitudes of the Brookes towards Education in Sarawak 1841-1941," in JMBRAS (1997a). His book, Of Free Trade and Native Interests: The Brookes and the Development of Sarawak, 1841-1941 (1997b), based on a doctoral dissertation for the Centre for Southeast Asian Studies at the University of Hull, presents the first substantial economic history of the raj. He retains, however, the regnal reg·nal
Being a specified year of a monarch's reign calculated from the date of accession: in her 12th regnal year. pattern common in the historiography of Sarawak, dealing in the first section with the policies of its rulers, and in the later sections with "implementation" and "effects and impact." His "single most important source" was the Sarawak Gazette, a "mine of information," but more or less official. Those who have worked on Sarawak indeed have to reckon with to settle accounts or claims with; - used literally or figuratively.
to include as a factor in one's plans or calculations; to anticipate.
to deal with; to handle; as, I have to reckon with raising three children as well as doing my job s>.
See also: Reckon Reckon Reckon a paucity, or a spasmodicity, of documentation. It is not surprising that Ooi is sometimes able to tell us more about proposals than practice.
Without emphasizing it, Ooi suggests the ambiguity of the Brookes' attitude to development. Clearly, as he says, they were opposed to speculative European companies It may never be fully completed or, depending on its its nature, it may be that it can never be completed. However, new and revised entries in the list are always welcome.
This is a list of companies from the countries in the European Union. , but they certainly favored the Borneo Company Limited and later the oil company. In general, however, the priority (the sago rivers aside) was political. The limits on European investment were supported by the wish to protect the native peoples from exploitation, as he several times says; but they were also designed to preserve the raj.
Amarjit Kaur has approached development from another angle, the creation of transport infrastructure. "Transport and the Sarawak Economy, 1841-1983," appeared in the Borneo Research Bulletin (1993), and she extended north with "Hantu and Highway: Transport in Sabah 1881-1963," in Modern Asian Studies (1994). On that infrastructure, she has built accounts of economic change, "The Babbling babbling Neurology Quasi-random vocalizations in infants that precede language acquisition. See Lalling stage. Brookes: Economic Change in Sarawak 1841-1941" (1995), and, extending north by a comparative route, Economic Change in East Malaysia East Malaysia: see Malaysia. : Sabah and Sarawak since 1850 (1998).
One feature that stands out from Ooi's book is the economic attachment of Sarawak to Singapore: the founding of the latter indeed begins the modern transformation of the former. Another feature, as R. M. Pringle emphasized, is the role allocation of the Sarawak communities, decided both by commercial change and by dynasty: the Chinese came to dominate commerce, the Malays administration. The Iban tend to escape the ready categorizations Southeast Asian historians offer.
Those communities have been further studied, in part by members of them. Oxford University Press published John M. Chin's The Sarawak Chinese in 1981, and followed up with Daniel Chew's more systematic Chinese Pioneers on the Sarawak Frontier 1841-1941 in 1990. Back in 1976 Edwin Lee published The Towkays of Sabah: Chinese Leadership and Indigenous Challenge in the Last Phase of British Rule (Singapore UP). More than a generation later Danny Wong Tze-ken published The Transformation of an Immigrant Society: A Study of the Chinese of Sabah (1998).
Other communities have not been ignored. In a book based on another Hull thesis, Jayum A. Jawan Noun 1. jawan - (India) a private soldier or male constable
Bharat, India, Republic of India - a republic in the Asian subcontinent in southern Asia; second most populous country in the world; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947 writes on the best documented of the indigenous populations of Borneo, Iban Politics and Economic Development: Their Patterns and Change (1994). A Hull thesis by Sabibah Osman, "Malay-Muslim Political Participation in Sarawak and Sabah 1841-1951" (1983) has so far not been published in full.
Sabah is, in general, less fully studied than Sarawak. The State, however, celebrated its centenary--controversially dating it from the Company's charter--in 1981 by publishing Commemorative History of Sabah, edited by Anwar Sullivan and Cecilia Leong, and the journal literature has also been building up. Mat Zin bin Mat Kib covers a significant topic in a concise manner in "Christianisation in Sabah and the Development of Indigenous Communities: A Historical Study," JMBRAS, 77, 1 (2004). How North Borneo came to be called "Sabah" is covered by an article in the same number of JMBRAS by P. J. Rivers, "The Origin of 'Sabah' and a Reappraisal of Overbeck as Maharajah" (2004).
Jawan's book is also in another line of succession Noun 1. line of succession - the order in which individuals are expected to succeed one another in some official position
line - a formation of people or things one behind another; "the line stretched clear around the corner"; "you must wait in a long line at the . It continues the work on the politics of the states begun by Michael Leigh Michael Leigh is an artist, based in Cheshire, England and working mainly in the area of mail art. As well as working in his own name, he has produced work since 1980 as A1 Waste Paper Co. and Margaret Roff in 1974. That has also been continued in Sahib sa·hib
Used formerly as a form of respectful address for a European man in colonial India.
[Hindi s Said's book, Malay Politics in Sarawak, 1945-1966: The Search for Unity and Political Ascendancy (1985), and in James F. Ongkili's thesis, "Political Development in Sabah: The Emergence of a Modern Polity" (1986). James Chin's Chinese Politics in Sarawak: A Study of the Sarawak United People's Party The Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Rakyat Bersatu Sarawak) is a political party in Malaysia. The party is one of the constituent members of the ruling National Front (Barisan Nasional). , published by OUP in 1996, may be read alongside the autobiography of Stephen Yong, A Life Twice Lived, published by the author in 1998. In 2000, Vernon L. Porritt published 'Operation Hammer.' Enforced Resettlement Re`set´tle`ment
n. 1. Act of settling again, or state of being settled again; as, the resettlement of lees s>.
The resettlement of my discomposed soul.
- Norris. in Sarawak in 1965, and in 2004 The Rise and Fall of Communism in Sarawak 1940-1990.
A further context for accounts of Borneo politics is, of course, provided by the state structures. In the period before the proposal for the creation of Malaysia was put forward, they hardly allowed for modern forms of participation. After its creation they were set within other constraining patterns, those created by the Brunei monarchy which stayed outside Malaysia and those created by the federal arrangements for those that joined it.
Ian Black's excellent thesis on the early years of North Borneo was published as A Gambling Style of Government in 1983 and a small supplement was offered in my "Mat Salleh and Krani Usman," (Tarling 1985). In 2000 D. S. Ranjit Singh published The Making of Sabah 1865-1941. The Dynamics of Indigenous Society, attempting "to look at the processes involved from 'the bottom-up' as well as from the 'the top-down,' to show how, in both pre-Company and Company times, grass-roots circumstances modified political patterns which had been externally imposed" (Singh 2000:xiii). No full-scale work has covered the later years. The emphasis, once more, is on Sarawak, with Vernon L. Porritt, British Colonial Rule in Sarawak 1946-1963 (1997), and Naimah S. Talib, Administrators and Their Service: The Sarawak Administrative Service under the Brooke Rajahs and British Colonial Rule (1999).
Such books, as well as Hussainmiya's major work and James Ongkili Sr.'s book, help to provide the Malaysian context. But for what happened both during its rather painful creation and its often contentious early years, it is necessary also to resort to the substantial literature on the venture as a whole. Its ur-history may be investigated through, for example, D. S. Ranjit Singh's article, "British Proposals for a Dominion of Southeast Asia, 1943-1957" (1998). Then pursue larger works, such as J. A. C. Mackie's masterful Konfrontasi (1974), the more recent works of John Subritzky, Confronting Sukarno: British, American, Australian and New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. Diplomacy in the Malaysian-Indonesian Confrontation, 1961-5 (2000), and Matthew Jones, Conflict and Confrontation in South East Asia East Asia
A region of Asia coextensive with the Far East.
East Asian adj. & n. , 1961-1965: Britain, the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. and the Creation of Malaysia (2002), and the more tendentious ten·den·tious also ten·den·cious
Marked by a strong implicit point of view; partisan: a tendentious account of the recent elections. book by Greg Poulgrain, The Genesis of Konfrontasi (1998). Pursue, too, Mohamad Yusop's article "The Malaysia Plan and the first Brunei Elections, 1962" (1998).
Whether Borneo's history can or will be written in the future more as an integral part of a national history of Malaysia The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. Culturally and linguistically, there was until recent times little to distinguish the territories which now constitute Malaysia from the lands of the Malay Archipelago. remains, perhaps, to be seen, though Barbara Watson Andaya and Leonard Y. Andaya made the attempt as far back as 1982, with A History of Malaysia, first published by Macmillan in 1982. Perhaps a balance can be achieved between the local and the national. It will be important, too, that the "international" boundaries do not rule out cross-border studies and collaborative and comparative work with historians of Kalimantan. Nor, more generally, should the focus on local and the national discourage the continued participation of scholars from other parts of the world. The expanded involvement of local and national scholars has been in welcome evidence over the last three decades. But the historiography of British and post-British Borneo would be much weaker without the substantial contributions of Reece and Horton.
Whatever the future of history-writing on Borneo may be, it must surely leave room for the informed and engaged super-amateurs that have contributed so much in the past. Two of them have recently been celebrated, very different men, in quite different ways. Robert Nicholl, who, as well as contributing many articles to the Brunei Museum Journal--including, for example, the documentary "Relations between Brunei and Manila A.D. 1682-1690" (1977)--published European Sources for the History of Brunei in the Sixteenth Century (Muzium Brunei, 1975) and Raja Bongsu of Sulu: A Brunei Hero in His Times (MBRAS Monograph No. 19, 1991), was honored, in the year before his death, with a collection of essays, many on Borneo topics, From Buckfast to Borneo, edited by Victor King and A. V. M. Horton (Hull: Centre for South-East Asian Studies, 1995). Judith M. Heimann's absorbing The Most Offending Soul Alive: Tom Harrisson Not to be confused with Tom Harrison.
Tom Harrisson (1911-1976) was a British polymath (although often described as an anthropologist his degree studies at Cambridge were in ecology before he left to live in Oxford). and His Remarkable Life, was published by the University of Hawai'i Press in 1999.
Since 1976, when the author's earlier survey was published, the historiography of "British" or once-"British" Borneo has expanded and become more diverse. Perhaps the most striking feature is the growth of published material on the history of Brunei, ambiguous as is the attitude of its government to research into the past. Sarawak has continued, however, to attract attention, substantially, however, as before, because of curiosity about its Brooke rulers. Without any such focus, Sabah's historiography seems to be relatively neglected.
Partly because of the paucity or spasmodicity of the written record, historians of Southeast Asia have been open to methods and insights afforded by the development of other disciplines. That is certainly the case with historians of Borneo, and Walker, for example, has followed the "linguistic turn The linguistic turn refers to a major development in Western philosophy during the 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy, and consequently also the other humanities, towards a primary focus on the relationship between ." There is, however, still plenty of scope, even within the written records, for applying more "traditional" skills, and neither should rule out the other.
Undertaking even a brief survey such as the present can hardly be concluded without a reference to the purpose of historiography. Since the 1970s Ranke's ideal has been increasingly challenged, and some have taken the recognition that complete objectivity is unattainable as a mandate for complete relativity. The preferable view is surely that, while objectivity is unattainable, dismissing the attempt is irresponsible. Indeed, somewhat paradoxically, that may only make it easier to employ history to buttress ideology. In Southeast Asian studies the regnant paradigm is still the nation-state. The proper task of the historian, to borrow Soedjatmoko's eloquence, is "with the fruits of his endless efforts, constantly to feed and refresh historical consciousness as a creative impulse in the life of his nation" (1965:413).
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New Zealand Asia Institute
University of Auckland Not to be confused with Auckland University of Technology.
The University of Auckland (Māori: Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau) is New Zealand's largest university.
Auckland, New Zealand