Functional foods & skin care: functional foods provide benefits beyond basic nutrition and basic skin care.Functional foods provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Examples include fruits and vegetables, whole grains, fortified or enhanced foods and beverages, and some dietary supplements. Biologically active components in functional foods may impart health benefits or desirable biological effects via ingestion or as an ingredient in a topical application. Everyday common foods, such as natural butters and oils, nuts, seeds, flavors and, especially, fruits, herbs and spices, contain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, enzyme modulating and other beneficial active agents that can be formulated in high-performance topical products for skin care (see Table 1). Functional foods and nutritional supplements are ingested, which in some cases, poses unacceptable odor and taste issues, and degradation of beneficial active agents during digestive and absorptive processes. For example, MSM, when taken orally, produces unacceptable oral cavity odors and capsicum tastes too hot for many consumers. The efficacy of many antioxidants is reduced during their transport from the digestive system to dermal layers of skin due to bacterial action in the gut and enzymatic oxidation and metabolic degradation in the bloodstream. Topically delivered formulations circumvent some of these issues due to their application near or at the site of skin condition or affliction. An ideal skin care regimen involves a comprehensive, inside/outside approach, whereby functional foods and nutritional supplements are taken internally (inside treatment), and active agents obtained from functional foods and nutritional supplements formulated via topical delivery systems are applied externally (outside treatment). This dual approach is fast becoming a new trend in consumer expectation, product development and marketing strategy.
The health benefits of fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains have been known for centuries; e.g., the use of plants in ancient medicine in India (Ayurvedic), China (Zhongyi xue), Greece (Unani), Persia (al-Hawi) and Egypt. Certain plants contain pan-allergens, which are ubiquitous components of several complex sources of allergens. They usually act as minor allergens, as they do not react with sera from patients allergic to a specific allergen source. Lipid transfer protein is a widely cross-reacting plant pan-allergen. Adverse reactions to tree nuts, peanut, beer, maize, mustard, asparagus, grapes, mulberry, cabbage, dates, orange, fig, kiwi, lupine, fennel, celery, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, chestnut and pineapple have been recorded in consumers with pan-allergic skin. (1) Incorporating beneficial, nonallergenic active agents from such plants in topical delivery systems can offer skin care benefits to consumer who may otherwise be sensitive to foods from those pan-allergenic plants.
Seeds and Nuts
Seeds and nuts, crushed or uncrushed, are popular exfoliants in natural skin care products. Smaller sized seeds from poppy, strawberry, cranberry, mustard, sesame, blackberry, grape, and radish, and crushed shells of nuts (walnut, pecan, coconut, apricot, date palm and almond) are formulated in exfoliating cleansers. Seeds and nuts from a wide variety of food plants and trees provide renewable resources for exotic butters, oils, and waxes (2) that are finding applications in exciting skin care products as emollients, skin-smoothing and wrinkle-reducing agents, UV protectants, and hair shine enhancing additives. Some examples include Murumuru butter, Chaulmoogra oil and Ouricouri wax. Exotic butters represent a group of natural fats (triglycerides) that are solid or semi-solid and the oils are liquid at ambient temperatures. Wax is a general term used to refer to the mixture of long-chain non-polar lipids forming a protective coating on plant leaves, fruits, stems and even animals. The formulation technology of many of these natural ingredients in skin care products that can meet demanding consumer expectations for product performance has recently been published. (2) Even seed cakes obtained from oil crushing operations have been used for facial mud preparations in many cultures.
Fruits and Berries
Fruits and berries, especially those that are naturally bright colored, contain anthocyanin antioxidants, one of the most potent and chemically varied ingredients known to modern skin care science. Berries have a broad spectrum of biomedical functions, including cardiovascular disorders, advancing age-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and diverse degenerative diseases. Berry anthocyanins also improve neuronal and cognitive brain functions and ocular health, as well as protect genomic DNA integrity. The beneficial effect of wild blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, elderberry, raspberry seeds and strawberry in human health and disease prevention has been established. (3)
Grape and blueberry contain resveratrol and its derivatives, such as pterostilbene, piceid, viniferin and resveratrol dehydrodimer, all of which are potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. (4) Blueberries also contain gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, gentisic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, syringic, sinapic, salicylic, and trans-cinnamic acids, all of which possess antioxidant properties. (5) Mulberry juice contains oxyresveratrol and mulberroside A, both of which have anti-tyrosinase activity, suitable for skin brightening topical applications. Recently, certain native Australian fruits have shown antioxidant activity that is more potent than blueberries, the chemical constituents of which need to be identified and commercialized for their potential topical applications. (6)
Grape seeds provide grape seed oil, a pale, essentially odor-free oil that renders a moisturized, non-oily skin feel. It is rather easy to formulate with common emulsifiers. They also act as exfoliating agents in foaming cleansers and body scrubs. The grape family is well-known for its potent antioxidant constituents, especially procyanidins, obtained from seeds, and resveratrol, concentrated in skins of red and black grapes. Recently, tetramers of resveratrol found in Vitis amurensis, have been found to possess strong anti-inflammatory activity via their inhibition of leukotriene biosynthesis, and other biochemical pathways. (7) This property may be responsible for the inhibitory effect of grape extracts on LOX and COX enzymes, which suggests their application for skin anti-aging benefits.
Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) contains some very exciting active agents. (8) Glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid, glabrol, glabridins and various liquiritins are most interesting for skin care applications due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and skin color (melanin) reduction benefits. The commercial availability of some of these ingredients in their chemically purified forms is opening up new skin anti-aging and skin whitening opportunities.
Pomegranate seeds are used as exfoliating agents in body scrubs, and are the source for pomegranate seed oil, which is now available in essentially colorless and odorless form. This oil has skin feel and formulation properties very similar to grape seed oil. Punica granatum provides a wealth of wonderful antioxidant and free radical neutralizing ingredients, for example, ellagic acid, gallagic acid, punicalins and punicalagins. (9) Recently, a polysaccharide compound was isolated from the rind that inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and also inhibited mushroom tyrosinase. Pomegranate flower extract protects against hepatic lipid peroxidation and preserves glutathione levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase) and significantly scavenges superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits MMP-1, -3, and -13. These ingredients are suitable for skin antiaging applications, although some are not yet commercially available.
Herbs and Spices
Second only to fruits and berries, herbs and spices provide a plethora of active agents for high-performance skin care formulations. The rhizomes in the ginger family contain some of the most well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredients. Ginger contains essential oils and spicy substances such as gingerol, shogaol, zingerone, and capsaicin, all of which increase peripheral blood flow, imparting a warming or tingling sensation. Recent scientific studies suggest that inhibiting the COX-2 enzyme may be an effective way to reduce inflammation without the side effects associated with irreversible COX-1 inhibition. Ginger inhibits COX-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX-5) enzymes. Gingerol, one of the major components of fresh ginger, has been cited for its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities. (10) This ameliorative effect of ginger is related to reduced formation of prostanoids and leukotrienes, which suggests that gingerol, shogaol, and zingerone should also reduce cellular inflammation for anti-aging skin care benefits.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes contain curcumin and its derivatives (curcuminoids), which are bright yellow in color. Their hydrogenated derivatives, tetrahydrocurcuminoids, are nearly colorless materials. All of them possess excellent antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity. Tetrahydrocurcuminoids offer advantages in cosmetic formulations due to their lack of color, although they are somewhat less effective as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. The steam distillation of turmeric rhizomes provides turmeric oil, reportedly possesses excellent anti-inflammatory activity. Our own work has shown turmeric oil to provide good carrier function for skin penetration of other antiaging ingredients. Curcumin protects skin by quenching free radicals and reducing inflammation through nuclear factor-KB inhibition. Curcumin treatment may also reduce wound-healing time, improve collagen deposition and increase fibroblast and vascular density in wounds, thereby enhancing both normal and impaired healing. Curcumin has also been shown to have a beneficial effect as a proangiogenic agent in wound-healing by inducing transforming growth factor-beta, which induces both angiogenesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix, which continues through the remodeling phase of wound repair. Studies reported this year alone suggest the beneficial effects of curcumin and the potential of this compound to be developed as a potent non-toxic agent for treating skin diseases including skin anti-aging. Curcumin and curcuminoids appear to provide these benefits via a combination of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, MMP-regulating and tyrosinase-inhibiting effects. (11)
Galanga (Alpinia officinarum), also known as Galangal or Chinese Ginger, is native to China, Thailand and India. It contains essential oils, gingerols, and diarylheptanoids, a group of pungent substances. Diarylheptanoids and analogous phenyl alkyl ketones possess excellent anti-arthritic properties due to their arrest of prostaglandin biosynthesis via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. Kaempferia galanga is easily confused with other members of the ginger family. The medicinal and cosmetic applications of various galanga preparations include sun protection, skin whitening, anti-cancer, larvaecidal and amebicidal, insect repellent, vaso-relaxant and MAO-inhibition applications. Purified extracts of galanga, which are composed primarily of lower alkyl cinnamate esters, have UV-absorbing, (12) antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibiting properties that suggests their use for anti-aging applications.
Clove oil and clove buds have been in use for the treatment of toothache and muscular pains since ancient times. A number of plants in this family, notably Syzygium aromaticum, Syzygium corynocarpum, and Syzygium mallacense, are known to contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. (13) Eugenol, a vasorelaxant and analgesic constituent of Syzygium aromaticum, also possesses strong antiinflammatory activity. The extracts of Syzygium corynocarpum and Syzygium malaccense inhibit prostaglandin biosynthesis via blocking of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. More recently, the extract from the bark of Syzygium cumini has been shown to possess excellent anti-inflammatory activity without any gastric side effects. Acetyl eugenol, a component of clove oil, alters arachidonic acid metabolism, resulting in reduced formation of thromboxane. These findings make these clove family ingredients attractive for antiaging formulations.
Rosemary, an Ayurvedic herb, contains some of the most promising active agents--rosmarinic acid, diterpenes, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, carnosol, oleanolic acid, hinokiol and seco-hinokiol, rofficerone and amyrenones--which, due to their strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and tyrosinase inhibiting properties, (14) deserve further interest in their skin anti-aging and skin whitening applications.
Avena sativa (oat) has found many applications in cosmetics. Oat grains milled as powder or converted into rolled oat, are excellent for exfoliating sensitive skin. Oat flour is useful for facial masks. Oat oil is wonderful as an emollient for sensitive skin lotions and creams. Avenanthramides, alkaloids occurring only in oats, and their synthetic analogs, have recently become commercially available. Avenanthramides have strong skin soothing, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In general, avenanthramide has shown a higher antioxidant level than each of the following typical cereal components: ferulic acid, gentisic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, vanillin and phytic acid. Naturally-occurring dimers of avenanthramides have recently been obtained. Oat beta-glucan has been well known for its serum lipids and cholesterol reduction benefits. This has opened up the formulation of skin soothing, antiaging, and acne care products without using oat flour, which can cause stability issues. (15)
The hydrolyzed proteins from grains such as wheat, rice, soybean and barley, have found application as moisturizing agents in skin care formulations. Rice flour and inulin are complementary to cornstarch for body powder formulations.
Animal Origin Functional Foods
Powdered egg whites and milk powder have facial mask applications, while honey has created a buzz in nutritional and personal care segments. Bees manufacture propolis from balsamic resins actively secreted by plants on leaf buds and barks. But propolis composition is highly variable, depending on the plant species and on the season of collection. It essentially contains resins, balsams, essential oils, flavonoids, vitamins, minerals and pollen, albeit at different concentrations. Although more than 300 constituents have been identified in propolis samples, biological activity is mainly due to a few substances, such as flavonoids, terpenes, caffeic, ferulic and coumaric acids and esters.
Propolis is characterized by multifactorial activities, but only some of them have been substantiated by clinical and experimental evidence. Propolis causes contact dermatitis, but it exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and viruses), and has anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, healing, vasoprotective, antioxidant, antitumoral, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective activities. (16)
Special visual effects, such as shimmers, colored pearls, two-phase and three-phase colored liquid products, natural seeds and plant fragments, colored beads and colored confetti, require formulation technologies that encompass their chemical and physical compatibility, visual aesthetics, long-term stability and cost criteria. The formulation of a shower gel product, for example, with two visually different (water soluble) colors will result in the diffusion of these colors into each other producing a predominantly single mixed color product. A bottle of shower gel that is filled with a yellow material on the top and blue one on the bottom, after a short period of storage, creates a green product, irrespective of product viscosity.
Visual effect additives are formulated usually as suspension products. Examples include: microcapsules, colored mica, colored wax (beeswax, shellac wax, rice bran wax and paraffin), jojoba ester-based beads, colored wax and paraffin-based confetti, polyethylene-based glitter and shimmer agents, natural and synthetic abrasives (sand, polyethylene, crushed nut shells), fragments of botanical parts (flowers, leaves, herbs, sea weeds), and a host of similar ingredients that are insoluble in the formulation matrix.
Microcapsules are the most popular, as they can be made in a variety of colors and loaded with fragrances, emollients and formula-sensitive ingredients. Microcapsule materials include urea/formaldehyde, alginic acid/agar, epoxy resin, polyacrylonitrile, polymethacrylate and gelatin. Visual effect formulas require net-forming agents to provide adequate suspension of those additives without affecting the clarity of the product. Most of these suspension agents also contribute to the added viscosity of the product. This viscosity may increase further during conditions of product storage. This property should be carefully evaluated via appropriate stability testing. The selection of a suspension ingredient is also important. Xanthan gum is a common suspension ingredient, however, not all xanthan gums are created equal, relative to their contribution to clarity and viscoelastic properties of the final product. The compatibility of xanthan gums with surfactants also varies. Certain xanthan gums are especially suited for surfactant-based formulations. Gellan gum, chitosan, psyllium and Aristoflex AVC are also useful for this application, however, in a certain pH range. Carbopol Aqua SF-1 is another excellent suspending agent that is relatively insensitive to surfactants. It is frequently advantageous to use a combination instead of a single suspension agent alone.
The inclusion of plant parts, such as crushed seeds, flower petals and chopped roots may discolor and degrade in cosmetic formulations. Antioxidants generally do not provide protection from color loss of such plant parts. Reducing the water content in these formulations generally helps alleviate discoloration and degradation. Additionally, most such plant parts in their bulk state can be contaminated with microbes, making inclusion of appropriate antimicrobial and antifungal preservatives a must! Just because such plant parts, despite their bacterial contamination, may be suitable as food ingredients, they may not be suitable for cosmetic formulation applications.
Even natural butters and oils can be microbially contaminated if their wintering or extraction process was inadequate, resulting in a higher water content, that can promote microbial growth. Unfortunately, this problem has eluded the attention of many formulators who frequently run into stability issues after the approval of those formulations by their marketing groups, which can cause delay, cancellation or recall.
In "hot batching" processes the botanical parts are advised to be included at a lower batch temperature (generally 35 to 45[degrees]C), preferably toward the end of batching steps, before any preservatives or fragrance components are added. The visual-theme ingredients, such as wax beads, wax ribbons, seeds, flower petals and crushed nutshells, also require the use of a suspending agent to prevent such ingredients either from floating to the top or settling to the bottom of a packaging container. Appropriate gelling and net-forming ingredients are commercially available.
Formulators are advised to use the active agents from functional food ingredients in their purified forms, whether in extract or powder form. This assures the quality, claimed use level, efficacy, formulation ease and sensory consumer attributes.
Formulators should be cognizant of the chemical structure of active agents and determine their chemical compatibility with all other ingredients of the formulation, including excipients, processing aids, pH adjusting agents, chelating agents and minor additives. Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, for example, can form colored Schiff's bases due to their ketone groups when formulated with amines, amino acids, peptides or hydrolyzed proteins. The use of capsicum resin can render an orange to red color in the final product. However, capsaicin, obtained from capsicum resin, is essentially white in color, thus avoiding the discoloration issues.
Stability studies with every modification of a formulation are recommended, irrespective of how minor the change to the "base" formulation. For instance, a mere change of fragrance from citrus to a vanilla-type aldehydic note can cause color and odor instability issues when amine-type ingredients, such as amino acids, peptides or hydrolyzed proteins, are also present in that "base" formulation. The formulation of proteins, hydrolyzed proteins, peptides, and amino acids requires special attention in the proper selection of antibacterial preservatives, as bacteria love to feed on such food sources, even when those ingredients are present in a cosmetic formulation. The optimal preservatives can only be determined after careful experimentation. Common food preservatives, such as citric acid, citrates, benzoates, sorbates, parabens, BHT, TBHQ, and a host of "natural" preservatives usually perform poorly when used alone for such formulations. Combination preservatives are preferred.
The best ingredients also require proper delivery systems to optimize their intended benefits. (17) Proper selection of delivery systems, in combination with consumer desirable sensory attributes, via innovative ingredients can lead to successful new products!
1. Asero et al., Int Arch Allergy Immunol., 144, 57 (2007).
2. S. Gupta, HAPPI, 65, (August 2005).
3. Zafra-Stone et al., Mol Nutr Food Res., 51, 675 (2007); Seeram et al., J Agric Food Chem., 54, 9329 (2006) and J Agric Food Chem., 52, 2512 (2004).
4. Suh et al., Clin Cancer Res., 13, 350 (2007); Breuil et al., Phytopathology, 89, 298 (1999).
5. Ayaz et al., J Agric Food Chem., 53, 8116 (2005); Torri et al., J Pharm Pharmacol., 59, 591 (2007); Lau et al., J Neurosci Res., 85, 1010 (2007).
6. Netzel et al., J Agric Food Chem., 54, 9820 (2006).
7. Sharma et al., Mol Cancer Ther., 6, 995 (2007); Feng et al., Pediatr Res., 61, 295 (2007); Rho et al., J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo)., 52, 33 (2006); Greenspan et al., Agric Food Chem., 53, 8481 (2005).
8. Chin et al., J Agric Food Chem., 55, 4691 (2007); Vaya et al., Free Radic Biol Med., 23, 302 (1997); Baumann et al., Cutis., 78 (6 Suppl), 2 (2006); Rendon et al., Dermatol Surg., 31, 886 (2005); "Botanicals, A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference," D'Amelio, Sr., CRC Press, Boca Raton (1999).
9. Reddy et al., Planta Med., 73, 461 (2007); Rout et al., Bioresour Technol., 98, 3159 (2007); Kaur et al., Food Chem Toxicol., 44, 984 (2006); Ahmed et al., J. Nutr., 135, 2096 (2005).
10. Kim et al., Free Radic Res., 41, 603 (2007); Tripathi et al., J Surg Res., 138, 209 (2007).
11. Thangapazham et al., Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 595, 343 (2007); Nonn et al., Carcinogenesis, 28, 1188 (2007); Menon et al., Adv Exp Med Biol., 595, 105 (2007); Aggarwal et al., Adv Exp Med Biol., 595, 1 (2007) (a good review); Sandoor et al., Carcinogenesis., 2007 May 23; [Epub ahead of print], see also www.curcuminoids.com and www.tetrahydrocurcuminoids.com.
12. S. Gupta, L. Prakash and K. Satyan, HAPPI, 96, December 2002.
13. Kukonqwiriyapan et al., Biol Pharm Bull., 30, 661 (2007).
14. Wijeratne et al., J Agric Food Chem., 55, 1193 (2007), see also www.ursolicacid.com; Arouma et al., Food Chem Toxicol., 34, 449 (1996); Cheung et al., Oncol Rep., 17, 1525 (2007); Almela et al., J. Chromatog. A, 1120, 221 (2006); Ramirez et al., J Chromatogr A., 1143, 234 (2007); Cantrell et al., J Nat Prod., 68, 98 (2005); Altinier et al., J Agric Food Chem., 55, 1718 (2007); Kim et al., Neuroreport., 17, 1729 (2006).
15. www.symrise.com (see Symcalmin); Banas et al., J Exp Bot. Jun 22 (2007); [Epub ahead of print]; Chen et al., J Nutr., 137, 1375 (2007); Okazaki et al., J Org Chem., 72, 3830 (2007); Reyna-Villasmil et al., Am J Then, 14, 203 (2007); Martinez-Tome et al., J Agric Food Chem., 52, 4690 (2004).
16. See www.burtsbees.com; De Vecchi et al., Infez Med., 15, 7 (2007); Munstead et al., Allergol Immunopathol (Madr)., 35, 95 (2007); Ansorge et al., Z. Naturforsch, 50C, 580 (2003), Armstrong et al., U.S. patent pre-grant publication 20070122426.
17. "Skin Delivery Systems," J.J. Wille, (ed.), Blackwell Publishing, IA (2006).
About the author: Shyam Gupta presides his consulting company, Bioderm Research (www.bioderminc.com), with nearly 50 patents and pending patents and over 70 publications in high-performance technologies specializing in skin and hair care including anti-aging, dermal enzyme modulation, skin brightening, acne, depilatory, and hair restoration that are based on novel nature-based ingredients and delivery systems. He can be reached at 602-996-9700; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
By Shyam Gupta, PhD
RELATED ARTICLE: Formulation Examples
It is advised that patent status of the ingredients be checked prior to commercial use of these or any other formulations.
Deep Moisturizing Cream
Ingredients % Weight 1. Deionized water to 100% 2. Glycerin 5.0 3. Exotic oils blend* 8.0 4. Stearic acid 3.0 5. Arlacel 165 5.0 6. Cetyl alcohol 2.0 7. Turmeric oil 0.5 8. Coleus oil 0.5 9. Resacetophenone 0.5 10. Galanga extract 0.5 11. Ellagic acid 0.2 12. Boswellia extract 0.5 13. Glydant Plus Liquid (Lonza) 0.35 14. Caustic soda (50% solution) pH to 5.5-6.0
Procedure. Mix 1 to 8 and heat at 80 to 90[degrees]C until all solids have melted. Cool to 50 to 60[degrees]C with mixing, and add 9 to 12. Cool with mixing to 35 to 40C. Add 13 and 14. Mix. Adjust pH. Homogenize, and then cool to room temperature. A fragrance may also be added, if desired. Exotic oils blend is a mixture of several butters, oils and waxes that can be selected as desired.
Broad Spectrum Antioxidant/Anti-wrinkle Cream
(This product is based on a combination of five different chemical classes of antioxidants covering broad antioxidant protection mechanisms.)
Ingredients % Weight 1. Deionized water to 100% 2. Cetearyl alcohol (and) dicetyl phosphate (and) ceteth-10 5 phosphate 3. Cetyl alcohol 2 4. Glyceryl stearate (and) PEG-100 stearate 4 5. Caprylic/capric triglyceride 5 6. Rosmarinic acid 0.1 7. Tetrahydrodiferuloylmethane 0.1 8. Glutathione 0.1 9. Diosmin 0.05 10. Resveratrol 0.05 11. Andrographolide 0.05 12. Hesperetin 0.05 13. Mangiferin 0.05 14. Fragrance 0.5 15. Preservatives qs
Procedure. Mix 1 to 5 and heat to 75-80[degrees]C. Adjust pH to 4.0-4.5. Cool to 35-40[degrees]C with mixing and homogenize. Add 6 to 15 with mixing. Adjust pH to 4.0-4.5, if necessary. Off-white cream.
Foaming Facial Cleanser with Suspended Jojoba Beads & Crushed Apricot Shell Powder
Ingredients % Weight 1. Glycerin (water miscible organic solvent) to 100% 2. Methyl paraben 0.2 3. Niacinamide ascorbate 5.0 4. Niacinamide salicylate 10.0 5. Deionized Water 15.0 6. Polyphenols (red wine extract) 0.5 7. Glycyrrhetinic acid 0.5 8. Phenoxyethanol 0.9 9. Tauranol I-78-6 (Sodium cocoyl isethionate) 20.0 10. Tauranol ws conc. (Sodium methyl cocoyl taurate) 5.0 11. Jojoba beads 2.0 12. Apricot shells, crushed 2.0 13. Active Organics Actiplex 2789 0.1 14. Carbopol Aqua SF-1 4.0 15. Fragrance 0.5
Procedure. Mix deionized water, ascorbic acid, and niacin in a tank separately. A clear solution is obtained. All other ingredients, except 11 to 15, are then added, and the mixture is heated and stirred at 60 to 70[degrees]C for about five to 10 minutes until the mixture is homogenous. The homogeneous mixture is cooled to 35 to 45[degrees]C. Ingredients 11 to 15 are added with mixing. pH is then adjusted to 4.5 to 5.5, if necessary. A paste-like product is formed.
Table 1: Functional Food Ingredients for Skin Care Food Group Skin Care Ingredient Fruit: Mango Mangiferin Pomegranate Ellagic acid Blueberry Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic acid Mulberry Mulberroside, Moracin Grape Resveratrol, Polyphenols, Grapeseed oil Vegetable: Carrot Carotene Tomato Lycopene Chicory Inulin Seed & Nut: Mango Seed Mango butter Coconut Coconut oil Papaya Seed Papaya seed oil Herb & Spice: Curcumin Curcuminoids Ginger Gingerol, Gingerone Rosemary Rosmarinic acid, Terpenoids Vanilla Vanilla Capsicum Capsaicin Grain: Rice Rice bran oil, Rice flour Oat Avenanthramides Animal Origin: Milk Egg Bee Honey, beeswax, propolis