From British military intelligence to financial secretary of Sarawak: John Pike 1945-1967.
After raiders from Indonesian Kalimantan killed the Chief Minister's brother on 27 June 1965, retribution fell on the local Chinese, although Special Branch investigations indicated they had not been directly involved in the raid on the 18th Mile police station. British military leaders and the head of the Malaysian Police Force pressed for the immediate resettlement Re`set´tle`ment
n. 1. Act of settling again, or state of being settled again; as, the resettlement of lees s>.
The resettlement of my discomposed soul.
- Norris. of some 60,000 Chinese in areas where there were communists. Fortunately for many Chinese, the voice of an Acting Chief Secretary prevailed and resettlement was limited to some 8,000 living in the vicinity of the raid. (1) The Acting Chief Secretary was John Pike John Pike is the name of:
The ending of World War Two in Europe (4 May 1945) signaled the beginning of the end for Japanese supremacy in the Far East. By then John Pike, who had studied Japanese at university, was a captain in the Intelligence Corps. (2) He had been commissioned in late 1943 upon his arrival in India, attached very briefly to the Rajputana Rifles The Rajputana Rifles are the most senior rifle regiment of the Indian Army. They were formerly called the 6th Rajputana Rifles when part of the British Indian Army. , then posted to Advanced HQ, 11 Army Group, Ceylon, where he was sworn in to the Ultra [secret] list. (3) He worked on the Japanese Order of Battle, which was essential for the planning of Operation Zipper During World War II, Operation Zipper was a British plan to capture either Port Swettenham or Port Dickson, Malaya as staging areas for the recapture of Singapore. But it was never executed. The planned deception for this attack was called Operation Slippery. to oust the Japanese occupying forces from Malaya. (4) After leave and more study of Japanese, Pike was about to begin parachute training to go with the paratroopers on Operation Zipper when the atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. (5) Immediately the airdrop air·drop
A delivery, as of supplies or troops, by parachute from aircraft.
tr. & intr.v. air·dropped, air·drop·ping, air·drops
To drop or be dropped from an aircraft.
Noun 1. part of Operation Zipper was canceled and Pike was posted to Pegu in Burma. After the Japanese surrender on 2 September 1945, he became involved in looking into war crimes with an emphasis on segregating Japanese soldiers who were to be tried for war crimes from those to be repatriated.
At that time the Merdeka (freedom from Dutch rule) movement was sweeping through Indonesia. After the Japanese surrender, the Japanese 2nd Guards Division The Guards Division is an administrative unit of the British Army responsible for the administration of the regiments of Foot Guards.
The Headquarters of the Guards Division is in London, along with the RHQs of each regiment. in Northern Sumatra handed over most of their weapons to the local Acehnese, assuming they would turn the weapons against the incoming British and Dutch troops. (6) But the Acehnese turned on the Japanese instead, driving them out of their barracks bar·rack 1
tr.v. bar·racked, bar·rack·ing, bar·racks
To house (soldiers, for example) in quarters.
1. A building or group of buildings used to house military personnel. and pinning them down in a 1,000-meter perimeter trench on the beach. Responding to urgent calls for help, Pike and a small group were sent to help extricate the Japanese safely, culminating in his group calling on HMS HMS
Her (or His) Majesty's Ship
HMS (Brit) abbr (= His (or Her) Majesty's Ship) → Namensteil von Schiffen der Kriegsmarine Caprice ca·price
a. An impulsive change of mind.
b. An inclination to change one's mind impulsively.
c. , a British frigate frigate (frĭg`ĭt), originally a long, narrow nautical vessel used on the Mediterranean, propelled by either oars or sail or both. Later, during the 18th and early 19th cent. , to provide covering firepower while the Japanese were withdrawn by sea. Pike then spent the next 72 hours in non-stop interrogation interrogation
In criminal law, process of formally and systematically questioning a suspect in order to elicit incriminating responses. The process is largely outside the governance of law, though in the U.S. of Japanese prisoners while returning to Singapore in a Japanese ship in rough seas. (7) In late 1945 following a short stint in the translation section in Singapore dealing with captured Japanese documents, Pike was posted to Kuching, Sarawak, as the second-in-command of the South East Asian Translation and Interrogation Center (SEATIC) Detachment, Borneo. (8) En route, he was briefed in Labuan, the HQ of the 32nd Infantry Brigade, and then flown to Kuching, where he was attached to the 9/14 Punjab, one of the 32nd Infantry Brigade's three battalions.
Travel outside towns in Sarawak was mostly by river and on foot due to lack of roads. (9) One of Pike's early assignments was to recapture two Japanese POWs who were suspected of war crimes and had escaped. Both were armed. The trail led into Dutch Borneo (Kalimantan) through tropical rainforest Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. They are common in Asia, Africa, South America, Central America, and on many of the Pacific Islands. in undulating terrain where Pike and his patrol group of soldiers and police faced a constant hazard of possible ambush. However, everyone returned to base safely but empty-handed after discovering that Dayaks had already decapitated de·cap·i·tate
tr.v. de·cap·i·tat·ed, de·cap·i·tat·ing, de·cap·i·tates
To cut off the head of; behead.
[Late Latin d both POWs. (10) On another occasion, Pike escorted six Japanese POWs suspected of war crimes from Pending to Pontianak in Dutch West Borneo by Sunderland flying-boat. (11) After leaving them at Pending on the Sunderland under only a light guard, Pike belatedly realized the POWs could take over the plane in flight as one was a licensed pilot; so he organized more guards before take off. This was fortunate for the Japanese, as they had been responsible for the assassination Assassination
See also Murder.
Fanatical Moslem sect that smoked hashish and murdered Crusaders (11th—12th centuries). [Islamic Hist.: Brewer Note-Book, 52]
conspirator and assassin of Julius Caesar. [Br. of the Sultan of Pontianak and on arrival had to be protected from angry local Indonesians intent on taking revenge.
Sarawak was in a constant flux of change between 1945 and 1966. At the end of 1945 Sarawak was nominally an independent country under the Brooke dynasty, but debilitated de·bil·i·tat·ed
Showing impairment of energy or strength; enfeebled. See Synonyms at weak.
Adj. 1. debilitated - lacking strength or vigor
asthenic, enervated, adynamic by three years of Japanese occupation Japanese Occupation may refer to:
Traditional communal dwelling of the Iroquois Indians until the 19th century. The longhouse was a rectangular box built out of poles, with doors at each end and saplings stretched over the top to form the roof, the whole structure being covered with bark. without any pomp POMP
A drug used in cancer chemotherapy and composed of purinethol (6-mercaptopurine), Oncovin (vincristine sulfate), methotrexate, and prednisone. or circumstance." (14)
Finding this atmosphere "perhaps unique in the colonial empire" and imbued with ideals, Pike wrote to the Third Rajah, Charles Vyner Brooke The Rajah of Sarawak, Sir Charles Vyner deWindt Brooke, GCMG, (September 26, 1874–May 9, 1963) was the third and final White Rajah of Sarawak .
The Third Rajah spent his youth in the Sarawak public service before travelling to England, where he was , seeking to join the SAS, only to receive a reply that Sarawak was about to be ceded to the British Crown. In turn, the Colonial Office replied to a similar letter saying that Sarawak was not a British possession. Happily for his long-term future, Pike wrote to his college in Oxford for a Class B release from the Army, to complete his degree. (15) Completing his tasks in Sarawak in April 1946, he was posted to command the SEATIC Detachment in Sumatra. But he was quickly recalled to HQ, Allied Land Forces South East Asia East Asia
A region of Asia coextensive with the Far East.
East Asian adj. & n. in Singapore to work on the Russia order of battle in Manchuria and Siberia. (16) On 1 July 1946 Sarawak was ceded to Britain following a controversial vote in Sarawak's Council Negri (legislature). (17) Pike was released from the army in September and flown back to the UK for the start of Oxford's academic year, which he would have missed if he had been repatriated by troopship. Shortly after arrival he received a letter from the Colonial Office asking if he were still interested in overseas service. Resisting pressure to serve in other territories, Pike reached an agreement with the Colonial Office to complete his degree, attend the first Devonshire course, and return to Sarawak at the end of 1948. (18) Married on 17 December, his wife accompanied him to Kuching. (19)
In early 1949 after a short induction in Kuching, SAS cadet officer Cadet Officer is a rank within the St. John Ambulance Brigade of Ireland (SJAB).
The rank is between Cadet Leader and Cadet Superintendent. Despite the title, it is held by an adult who is in command of cadets, and not by a cadet. Pike was posted to the Sarikei Sub-District downriver down·riv·er
adv. & adj.
Toward or near the mouth of a river; in the direction of the current: swam downriver; a downriver canoe race.
Adv. 1. from Sibu, the capital of the Third Division. (20) Alastair Morrison Not to be confused with Alasdair Morrison.
Alastair Morrison is the name of several persons:
A surrender, relinquishment, or assignment of territory by one state or government to another.
The territory of a foreign government gained by the transfer of sovereignty.
CESSION, contracts. of treating everyone equally had undermined the special pre-cession position of primus inter pares pri·mus in·ter pa·res
n. pl. pri·mi inter pares
The first among equals.
[Latin pr of the Malays vis-a-vis the other two main racial groups (Chinese and Dayaks) and had created resentment. (23) He also noted the contrast between the formality of officers who had served in Africa and the friendly relationship between the people and officers who had served under the Brookes. The first British governor was Sir Charles Arden Clarke, who had served in Basutoland and tended to be rather formal. (24) In sharp contrast, the Commissioner General, Malcolm MacDonald
Malcolm Ian Macdonald (b. 7 January 1950) is an English footballer nicknamed "Supermac". Football career , was informal and friendly, building up a strong personal rapport with many local people in Sarawak. (25) Illustrating this, for a time Sir Charles insisted on taking a chair when he visited longhouses, whereas everyone else sat on the floor. This came to an abrupt end after Malcolm MacDonald pulled the chair from under Sir Charles, who "to the great delight of all, crashed to the floor and who never then got back on a chair when traveling to longhouses." (26)
Writing in the Sarawak Gazette on 7 October 1949, Pike postulated that economic strength was a prerequisite of independence, and that neither Sarawak nor British North Borneo British North Borneo: see Sabah, Malaysia. had large reserves upon which to draw. (27) He pointed out that Colonial Development and Welfare Funds could provide little more than a "pump primer" for development. For any development that created enough revenue to support interest and amortization charges on 20-year loans, Pike suggested foreign borrowing with suitable safeguards to prevent exploitation. (28) To foster the creation of capital, he suggested replacing a simple self-sufficiency economy by promoting a spirit of individual enterprise. Pike also drew attention to Sarawak's oil concession, describing it as "extremely disadvantageous dis·ad·van·ta·geous
dis·advan·ta to the Government." (29) As a cadet officer his views had little weight, but over time his observations were accepted and introduced. (30)
In late 1949 Pike was posted to the Binatang Sub-District near Sibu as Assistant District Officer, once again following Alastair Morrison. (31) As an independent country under the Brookes, by 1941 Sarawak had a reasonably well-established hierarchal court and appeal system, and codified cod·i·fy
tr.v. cod·i·fied, cod·i·fy·ing, cod·i·fies
1. To reduce to a code: codify laws.
2. To arrange or systematize. laws covered mainly in local Ordinances and native customary law. Sarawak Criminal Law was contained in the Criminal Procedure and Penal Codes based on the Indian (Colonial) Codes. Under English common law, existing laws of ceded countries applied until altered by the Crown. (32) After passing examinations in law during their cadetship, SAS officers usually became responsible for administering the law in the lower courts in their districts. There were no private practicing lawyers in Sarawak until February 1950 and Pike's newly acquired knowledge of Sarawak law was quickly put to the test. (33)
The anti-cession movement that began in 1946 was still active when the new governor, Duncan George Stewart, arrived in Sarawak on 19 November 1949. (34) Accompanied by other officials, he was being welcomed by a line of school children during his first official visit to Sibu on 3 December 1949, when Rosli Dhobie (18) thrust a knife in his abdomen. John Barcroft, the Resident of the Third Division, and the governor's private secretary, Dilks, thwarted a second would-be attacker, Morshidi Sidek (25). (35) Stewart was quickly flown to Singapore, but died seven days later after two unsuccessful operations. (36) Rosli and Morshidi were arrested immediately and subsequently committed to trial on 5 January 1950. (37) Barcroft ordered Pike, who had been appointed a Magistrate, 3rd Class, on 1 January 1950, to act as their defense counsel. (38) The trial was held in Sibu before Judge D. R. Lascelles and five assessors, three Malays, one Dayak, and one Chinese. (39) By then, Rukun Tiga-belas, the secret anti-cession group behind the assassination, had been uncovered and ten of its members had been arrested and charged with conspiracy to murder. (40) On 28 August 1948, the leader of this secret group, Awang Rambli bin Mohammed Deli had convinced the members that "if we kill the Governor, our country will quickly regain freedom [from the British]" and then the Brooke dynasty could be reinstated with Anthony Brooke, the Tuan Muda, as Rajah. (41)
In his defense speech, Pike pointed out both the accused were young and impressionable and had been driven to act by "a discredited Government servant [Awang Rambli] who has not the courage to act for himself and drives small innocent people to do his dirty work for him." (42) He also pointed out their background of having endured the Japanese occupation "when a true appreciation of values of law and order" was missing and that both had helped the Crown to uncover the Rukun Tiga-belas movement. Both Rosli and Morshidi admitted their guilt, spoke of being instigated by Rambli, and pleaded for clemency Leniency or mercy. A power given to a public official, such as a governor or the president, to in some way lower or moderate the harshness of punishment imposed upon a prisoner.
Clemency is considered to be an act of grace. . Judge Lascelles sentenced both to death by hanging, saying their "names will go down in the history of Sarawak [as men] who cowardly murdered an innocent man." (43) Another SAS officer records that "when the trial was over, relatives of the accused bitterly rounded on Pike and he narrowly escaped at the very least a serious assault." (44)
The war in Korea (1950-1953) created a boom market in rubber and pepper, two of Sarawak's staple exports at that time. (45) Income from rubber exports more than trebled between 1949 and 1950, and by another 40 per cent in 1951. (46) Similarly pepper exports doubled between 1949 and 1950 and quadrupled again in 1951. (47) But both rubber and pepper were long-term crops and there had been little rubber replanting since World War Two. Most Chinese farmers benefitted from the boom, but some missed out due to their rubber trees and pepper plants no longer being productive or new plantings not being ready for tapping or pepper collection. An "astonishing a·ston·ish
tr.v. as·ton·ished, as·ton·ish·ing, as·ton·ish·es
To fill with sudden wonder or amazement. See Synonyms at surprise. number of Chinese" who failed in this way committed suicide. Pike's most poignant memory when at Binatang "was the frequency of calls to him as a newly appointed Third Class Magistrate to view the bodies." (48)
On 25 February 1951 Pike was appointed District Officer to the Lawas District, once again preceded by Morrison. (49) For convenience, although unofficial, Bareo on the Kelabit plateau some 180 kilometers from Lawas by land and river came within the Lawas District area of influence. (50) Before Pike's first visit to Bareo, he asked Tom Harrisson Not to be confused with Tom Harrison.
Tom Harrisson (1911-1976) was a British polymath (although often described as an anthropologist his degree studies at Cambridge were in ecology before he left to live in Oxford). , an experienced traveler in the region, if there were any route that avoided crossing into Indonesian Kalimantan. (51) Told there was not, Pike followed the accepted route and was arrested by the local Penghulu when he crossed the border near Ba Kelalan. (52) He was escorted to his opposite number, the Kiai (District Head), at nearby Long Bawang, where he was able to provide some much-needed medicine. (53) Pike was allowed to continue on his journey unhindered unhindered
not prevented or obstructed: unhindered access
without being prevented or obstructed: he was able to go about his work unhindered and the goodwill his gesture created was not forgotten. On another visit some years later, his arrival at Long Bawang was greeted with a very unique rendition of the British national anthem by the local bamboo pipe band. After two explorations, Pike found an old rhino trail over Gunung Murud (2,423 meters), and Tom Harrisson said it would be shown on maps and given the name "Pike's Path." (54) His magisterial mag·is·te·ri·al
a. Of, relating to, or characteristic of a master or teacher; authoritative: a magisterial account of the history of the English language.
b. duties also had their less serious moments. The recently opened cinema in Lawas showed many American wild-west movies, moving a person accused of stealing buffalo to say in his own defense, saya jadi cowboy tuan ('I have become a cowboy, Sir').
When King George King George has referred to many kings throughout history. When used, by Americans, without further reference it most often means George III of the United Kingdom, against whom the Whigs of the American Revolution rebelled. VI died on 6 February 1952, Pike received a signal from the Resident of the Fifth Division instructing him to honor Elizabeth II Elizabeth II, queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Elizabeth II, 1926–, queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1952–), elder daughter and successor of George VI. At age 18 she was made a State Counsellor, a confidante of the king. becoming the Queen of England Noun 1. Queen of England - the sovereign ruler of England
female monarch, queen regnant, queen - a female sovereign ruler with a local proclamation ceremony. (55) With no guidelines of how this should be done, he tuned into the BBC BBC
in full British Broadcasting Corp.
Publicly financed broadcasting system in Britain. A private company at its founding in 1922, it was replaced by a public corporation under royal charter in 1927. and his wife took down the official proclamation in shorthand. Lawas was then treated to Elizabeth II being proclaimed Queen in a local ceremony that followed the official proclamation in London word for word. Some sixteen months later, Pike took the salute of the local Constabulary celebrating the Coronation of Queen Elisabeth. (56) In the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile , Pike had been on leave and had attended the Second Devonshire Course in Oxford (September 1952 to April 1953), where he added to his language skills by specializing in Mandarin. (57)
In the first stages of devolution of power to an electorate, in 1947 Governor Arden Clarke had formulated a four-tier local government system. (58) A year later, the Local Authority Ordinance was enacted, providing for full development of Local Government throughout Sarawak. (59) Local authorities were gradually established and began to take over local government activities from government officers. (60) After his return from leave, Pike was deeply involved in setting up the first multi-racial Lawas District Council, which was then established on 1 January 1954. (61) Since in the early years members were selected by communities and/or nominated by government, achieving a viable working group from various ethnic groups was a delicate task. (62) The selection process was reasonably successful in Lawas as two members of the Lawas District Council later became distinguished members of the Council Negri. (63) On a more negative note, while Pike was in Lawas he and his wife were refused entry to Brunei for dental treatment. Barcroft was the British Resident of Brunei at the time and refused entry on the grounds that Pike had left Sarawak without the Secretary of State's permission. (64) Pike had to call on the help of the Resident at Limbang, John Fisher
Saint John Fisher also John Cardinal Fisher (c. 1469 – 1535), was an English Catholic bishop, cardinal and martyr. , to sort this out. (65) However, he had to be completely self-reliant when placed in a very dangerous situation of his own making, which showed the close relationship between SAS officers in the field and the local people. (66)
One of the residents of Lawas was a rather likeable like·a·ble
Variant of likable.
Adj. 1. likeable - (of characters in literature or drama) evoking empathic or sympathetic feelings; "the sympathetic characters in the play"
likable, appealing, sympathetic but volatile Sikh who was so prone to running afoul of a·foul of
1. In or into collision, entanglement, or conflict with.
2. Up against; in trouble with: ran afoul of the law. authority that he was close to being declared an undesirable person and expelled from Sarawak. (67) Morrison, Pike's predecessor in Lawas, had advised the Sikh could be dangerous when "full of brandy" and that his shotgun, which had been confiscated con·fis·cate
tr.v. con·fis·cat·ed, con·fis·cat·ing, con·fis·cates
1. To seize (private property) for the public treasury.
2. To seize by or as if by authority. See Synonyms at appropriate.
adj. , should not be returned. (68) Worn down by constant pestering for return of the shotgun, Pike finally agreed with the Sikh that his shotgun would be returned, providing his drinking was limited to beer and he remained on good behavior Orderly and lawful action; conduct that is deemed proper for a peaceful and law-abiding individual.
The definition of good behavior depends upon how the phrase is used. for six months. (69) The shotgun was duly returned and peace reigned for a time. Then Pike had to intervene in a quarrel between the Sikh and his arch-enemy, possibly causing the Sikh to lose face. In the middle of the night a few days later, the Sikh appeared outside Pike's house shouting that he was going to shoot him. With the safety of his wife and two children also compromised, a very alarmed Pike slowly opened the door and walked down the steps to confront a brandy-charged Sikh with a raised shotgun ready to fire. Pike managed to persuade the Sikh to hand over the spare cartridges by saying only one was needed to kill him and that he was sure there was no intention to harm Pike's wife and children. After further persuasion the Sikh removed the last cartridge from the breach and, handing it to Pike, finally agreed to let Pike take him home. The police, who had been keeping out of harm's way beyond the danger limit; in a safe place.
See also: Out , then appeared, asking Pike if he was all right. After that Pike took far more notice of any advice from his predecessors.
On 10 July 1954, Pike was appointed District Officer of the Lower Rajang District based at Sarikei. (70) His normal routine of adjudication The legal process of resolving a dispute. The formal giving or pronouncing of a judgment or decree in a court proceeding; also the judgment or decision given. The entry of a decree by a court in respect to the parties in a case. , administration, and travel throughout his area of jurisdiction was disturbed at the end of 1954 by what initially seemed a minor matter. To help finance an increase in expenditure on education and offset lower prices for staple exports, in the 1955 budget the government decided to raise an additional $31 1/2 million by increasing trade license fees 500 to 1,000 percent. (71) Opposition to the new fees from the predominantly Chinese business community quickly escalated. (72) Initiated and led by the politically astute Cantonese kapitan of Sarikei, Chert chert: see flint. Koh Ming, a ten-day hartal Hartal (also hartaal) is a term in many Indian languages for strike action, used often during the Indian Independence Movement. It is mass protest often involving a total shutdown of workplaces, offices, shops, courts of law as a form of civil disobedience. in Sibu, Sarikei and Binatang began on 1 January 1955. (73) Importers in those towns refused to take delivery of cargo, all shops and businesses closed, and bus and taxi services ceased. (74) To keep trade moving in Sarikei, Pike commandeered the Customs godowns at Binatang and Sarikei and goods not accepted by their importers were sold to the public. (75) Kuching and its environs joined the protests with a three-day hartal that began on 7 January. (76) Spurred into action, on 1 January the government conceded license fees could be paid by installments, set up a committee to examine revising Trade Licensing fees on 7 January, and accepted its recommendations on 13 January. (77) The Council Negri passed the resulting amendments to the Trade Licensing Ordinance on 30 March, but not without protest. (78) It is known that Pike was recommended for a MBE MBE (in Britain) Member of the Order of the British Empire
MBE n abbr (BRIT) (= Member of the Order of the British Empire) → título ceremonial
MBE n abbr (Brit) (= at this time. Was the recommendation due to his firm yet peaceful handling of the hartal in Sarikei? But the recommendation was blocked. (79)
Just as Pike had established local government in the Lawas District, he did the same for the rural areas in the Lower Rajang District outside the Sarikei and Binatang Municipal Councils that covered those townships. (80) To do this, Pike split the Lower Rajang District into two parts and over time set up the Sarikei District Council and the Binatang District Council. This had to be a slow and meticulous operation, as persons of influence and standing in the community acceptable to both the people and the government had to be selected. Some of them later became members of the Council Negri, including Chen Koh Ming who became a prominent parliamentarian par·lia·men·tar·i·an
1. One who is expert in parliamentary procedures, rules, or debate.
2. A member of a parliament.
As a First Class Magistrate, Pike adjudicated in both civil and criminal cases. (81) In an opium smuggling smuggling, illegal transport across state or national boundaries of goods or persons liable to customs or to prohibition. Smuggling has been carried on in nearly all nations and has occasionally been adopted as an instrument of national policy, as by Great Britain case that came before his District Court, the Constabulary seized some opium, providing conclusive proof that several of the accused were guilty. Pike sentenced them to appropriate periods of imprisonment Imprisonment
See also Isolation.
former federal maximum security penitentiary, near San Francisco; “escapeproof.” [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 218]
German prison ship in World War II. [Br. Hist. , which collectively added up to 50 years. (82) Some eight years later, Abang Othman, the head of the Constabulary in the Lower Rajang police district at the time, told Pike that the smugglers had offered him a substantial bribe to leave the keys of his safe in his desk, so that the opium could be switched for an innocuous substance. (83) Asked why he had refused the bribe, Abang said his wife would have gone on a spending spree Noun 1. spending spree - a brief period of extravagant spending
spree, fling - a brief indulgence of your impulses buying new clothes for the entire family and bicycles for the children, and "then you would have known." (84) To Pike's relief, his magisterial duties ended when, following a few month's leave at the end of 1955, he was posted to the Secretariat in Kuching as Principal Assistant Secretary (PAS) Finance. (85)
Pike had a good grounding in central government over the following eight years, serving consecutively as PAS Finance (1956-1959), PAS Local Government (1959), PAS Economic (1960-1961), and Under-Secretary Finance and Planning (1962-1963). (86) When J. C. H. Barcroft, the Financial Secretary, fell ill in 1957, Pike wrote the government's budget speech, an unusual responsibility for the PAS Finance. (87) While Pike was the PAS Finance, his wife became seriously ill A patient is seriously ill when his or her illness is of such severity that there is cause for immediate concern but there is no imminent danger to life. See also very seriously ill. and was flown to Singapore. (88) Ignoring refusal of his application to leave Sarawak, Pike visited his wife in Singapore, his disobedience being allowed to pass without comment. (89)
By 1958, government revenues together with Colonial Development and Welfare funds could not cover the cost of development considered essential for the future of Sarawak. (90) Sarawak had no public debt at that time. Pike thought that the UK government's Macmillan Bonds would appeal to the general public, as the bonds included an element of chance by annual drawing of lots Drawing of lots is an easy way to settle a dispute when no other alternatives have worked. It is won by luck, akin to tossing a coin.
According to the Bible, the guards at Jesus's death cast lots to divide up his clothes. for early redemption of bonds at matured value. (91) The outcome was an advertisement on 1 July 1958 in the Sarawak Tribune The Sarawak Tribune is a Malaysian newspaper that was published in Kuching, Sibu and Bintulu, in Sarawak, Malaysia. It was established in 1945. It was last owned by Sarawak Press Sdn. Bhd. Its sister paper was the state Malay-language daily, Utusan Sarawak. offering nominally ten-year $10 debentures with a redemption value Redemption Value refers to the value that is placed on a party's head after they wrong you in some way. It is seen as the payment you are willing to make to get justice. of $14. (92) Lots were to be drawn annually for one tenth of the debentures, which could be redeemed immediately at full value. (93) Although not as successful as hoped, in 1958 over $1.5 million debenture bonds were issued, a sizable amount considering government revenue was just over $52 million.
While acting as Secretary for Local Government, Pike drew up Sessional Paper No 1 of 1959 "The Financing of Primary Education and Financial Assistance to Local Authorities." (94) Passed by the Council Negri in August 1959, the paper made Local Authorities responsible for meeting part of the cost of primary education, another phase in placing responsibility for local affairs firmly in their hands. At the same time the legislation replaced existing racially-based tax systems; the Chinese (occupied house tax), the Dayaks (door tax), and the Malays (head tax); with a broad rating system for all races that did not offend any racial sensibilities. (95) To provide local authorities with the will to collect the rates, the government offered a grant of $1.50 for every $1 collected. Setting up and empowering multi-racial local authorities was the government's primary means of removing racial barriers and giving increasing self-governance. As the paper's architect and writer, Pike visited every district in Sarawak to explain to local authorities the implications of the paper, held press interviews, and spoke on Radio Sarawak. This extremely important piece of legislation operated successfully for the next eight years, fulfilling its primary political purpose. (96)
In May 1961, Pike, then the Acting Economic Secretary, and Ong Kee Hui Ong Kee Hui was a Chinese Malaysian politician and leader of the Sarawak United People's Party. , the Chairman of the Sarawak United People's Party The Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Rakyat Bersatu Sarawak) is a political party in Malaysia. The party is one of the constituent members of the ruling National Front (Barisan Nasional). , attended a special marketing meeting of the Economic Commission for Asia and Far East (ECAFE ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia & the Far East ) in Bangkok. At the meeting, Pike and Ong argued without success for a producer's organization to stabilize pepper prices. (97) ECAFE conferences were useful in enabling politicians and high-level government officers to meet their counterparts in other UN member states and exchange ideas on development. (98) For Pike, being nominated by Jakeway to attend a course in Washington at the World Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) The electronic communication of business transactions, such as orders, confirmations and invoices, between organizations. Third parties provide EDI services that enable organizations with different equipment to connect. ) in 1961-1962 proved far more useful. Some eighteen senior civil servants from all over the world attended the course, many later becoming finance ministers or governors of central banks This is a list of central banks.
Contents A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z . The EDI course together with discussions with the other attendees, whose experience and problems were generally similar, proved very valuable in formulating proposals and implementing policies throughout Pike's subsequent career. (99) While in Washington, Pike wrote a 72-page monograph, "The Fiscal Implications for Sarawak of Entering a Federation of Malaysia Federation of Malaysia: see Malaysia. ," which was accepted by the World Bank Library in March 1962. (100)
As many others in the community, Pike had reservations about Sarawak becoming a member state in a proposed Federation of Malaysia. But he finally concluded that, as Fourth Division Resident J. C. B. Fisher wrote at the time, "... in the long run I believe that it [joining Malaysia] is worth it, and indeed our only alternative ... Please God that I am right." (101) On his return to Sarawak, Pike, as Under Secretary, Finance and Planning, was deeply involved in negotiating terms and conditions under which Sarawak would become a state within the proposed Federation of Malaysia. With primary responsibilities for the fiscal implications of joining Malaysia, Pike had the satisfaction of playing a useful role in negotiating an agreement that committed Malaya to "use its best endeavors to enable this amount [$300 million] of development expenditure to be achieved [spread over five years]." (102) Pike's responsibilities also included overseeing the preparation of Sarawak's 1964-1968 $343 million Development Plan that provided a virtual blueprint of how the promised funds would be spent. On 15 September 1963, Pike was one of those bidding farewell to Sarawak's fourth and last British Governor, Sir Alexander Waddell, ushering in Noun 1. ushering in - the introduction of something new; "it signalled the ushering in of a new era"
first appearance, introduction, debut, entry, launching, unveiling - the act of beginning something new; "they looked forward to the debut of their new product line" a new era with an indirectly elected state government within the Federation of Malaysia. (103)
With the advent of Malaysia, expatriate Administrative Officers in Sarawak were offered either immediate retirement with suitable compensation or four years further service with compensation for loss of pension spread over five years. (104) Among others opting for four years further service were John Pike and Tony Shaw
Shaw was recruited to Collingwood from Reservoir-Lakeside to make his debut in 1977 along-side brother Ray. , who was appointed State Secretary when Malaysia was formed. (105) Stephen Kalong Ka`long´
n. 1. (Zool.) A fruit bat, esp. the Indian edible fruit bat (Pteropus edulis). Ningkan, a Second Division Iban, became the Chief Minister of Sarawak The Chief Minister of Sarawak is the head of the executive branch of the state government in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. The Chief Minister is appointed by the Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor of Sarawak) from the state's Legislative Council. and the chairman of the Supreme Council (cabinet or executive council). Ningkan led a coalition government of competing, ethnically based political parties that had differing levels of empathy with the Federal government. Malaysia and, in particular, Sarawak were facing a hostile Indonesia. Indonesian army
State Financial Secretary B.A. St. J. Hepburn presented Sarawak's 1964-1968 Development Plan on 12 November, gave his last Budget speech on 3 December 1964, and a week later moved to an appointment in Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur (kwä`lə lm`pr), city (1990 est. pop. . (107) Pike was confirmed as State Financial Secretary on 1 January 1964, and thus directly responsible to Chief Minister Kalong Ningkan. As well as dealing directly with Kalong Ningkan and his ministers, Pike became an ex-officio member An ex-officio member was a member of a colonial legislative council or an executive council. They were civil servants who served in a colonial government, appointed to sit in a council or both councils alongside with unofficial members. of the Council Negri, taking part in its meetings and exercising voting powers. Pike also became Sarawak's representative on the National Development Committee, charged with integrating Sarawak's Development Plan with the first Malaysia Development Plan. In this role, to estimate Sarawak's national income for the first time, a difficult task in a partially subsistence economy A subsistence economy is an economy in which a group generally obtains the necessities of life, but do not attempt to accumulate wealth. In such a system, a concept of wealth does not exist, and only minimal surpluses generally are created, therefore there is a reliance on renewal , Pike successfully pressed for a statistician within his section.
On 26 February 1964, a page 5 headline in the Sarawak Tribune read: "Pike Weathers the Storm in the Council Negeri [Negri]: Lively Session All Way." A week prior to Chinese New Year Chinese New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: Chūnjié), or Spring Festival (13 February) and Hari Raya Raya may refer to:
n. pl. fes·tiv·i·ties
1. A joyous feast, holiday, or celebration; a festival.
2. The pleasure, joy, and gaiety of a festival or celebration.
3. in the Sarawak calendar, the Sarawak Government Asian Officers Union (SGAOU) had requested either prepayment of their February salaries or advance salaries. (108) Although at one stage the union threatened to strike, the government stood firm and made no prepayments or advances. For the Opposition, this was an ideal opportunity to gain some political capital and a series of potentially damaging questions were asked. However, Pike had done his homework, pointing out that in the previous decade, when the festivals fell in the first half of the month, no advances were made nor was the Personal Advances Public Officers Fund adequate to meet the union's demand. (109) The Tribune reported that "Mr. Pike, however, calmly manoeuvred his way out of the 'cross-fire' to hit back hard and strong at the Opposition speakers ... and on occasion had the House roaring with laughter with his witty answers."
Pike's 1965 Budget attracted the headline "Our Economic Life Proceeds on Steady Course," but Sarawak was still facing incursions by Indonesian troops, militant communism, growing signs of instability in the various political alliances, and a volatile hubristic Chief Minister whose "personal conduct continued to give much offence." (110) In late 1964 when pressed by the Opposition for reasons why two secretaries always accompanied him to Kuala Lumpur, Chief Minister Ningkan raised his voice, saying, "You bloody Opposition." (111) Later in the debate he challenged member Chan Siaw Hee "to go outside Chambers." Proposed Land Bills intended to free up land held under Native Title for development aroused strident political opposition, providing an opportunity to try to overthrow Ningkan. (112) Political parties realigned presaging collapse of Ningkan's government, but Shaw and Pike felt that at this critical time Sarawak's interests were best served by avoiding this. (113) They managed to persuade the Commonwealth security forces to fly an influential Chinese businessman, Ling Beng Siew, to Kuching at a few hours' notice to persuade Temenggong Jugah, the paramount chief A paramount chief is the highest-level traditional (usually tribal) chief or political leader in a regional or local polity or country typically administered politically with a chief-based system. of the Third Division Ibans, to join a Chinese-Iban alliance. (114) This proved successful and on the next day, 11 May, the Land Bills were withdrawn, saving the government for the time being. Seven days later a correspondent in the Sarawak Tribune wrote that "it is an undeniable fact that Inche Taib, his Uncle Rahman and their company are making the Land Bills as an excuse for them to topple the Government of Dato Stephen Kalong Ningkan." (115)
The government was still in danger of imminent collapse as two political parties, Pesaka and Barjasa, had withdrawn from the group of parties holding governance (the Alliance), ostensibly os·ten·si·ble
Represented or appearing as such; ostensive: His ostensible purpose was charity, but his real goal was popularity. over the Land Bills issue. (116) Pesaka was Jugah's party and thus would continue to support the government, but to retain a safe working majority the support of another party was essential. (117) To attract another party to the Alliance, on 11 May Pike proposed removing himself and the other two ex-officio members (the State Secretary and the Attorney-General) from the Supreme Council, to be offset by creating three new ministries. (118) Immediately approved, the necessary Constitutional Amendment Bill was prepared overnight, tabled the next day, and approved by the Council Negri on 13 May. (119) Shifting groupings of political parties quickly followed and by mid-June Pesaka, Barjasa, and Panas had rejoined the Alliance. (120) Against a backdrop of letters to the press calling for expatriate officers in the SAS to be replaced by local personnel, an urgent need for action to curb communist activities was about to arise. (121)
On 27 June 1965, in a well-coordinated attack, about thirty armed raiders from Indonesian Kalimantan overran o·ver·ran
Past tense of overrun. a police station eighteen miles from the capital, Kuching, and escaped unscathed. (122) During the raid, two policemen--one was the Chief Minister's younger brother--and six civilians were killed. (123) Two days later key figures in defense and internal security met to consider what action should be taken. There was strong support for implementing an earlier plan to resettle resettle
[-tling, -tled] to settle to live in a different place
Verb 1. some 60,000 Chinese in closed villages to prevent any material support being given to communist insurgents Insurgents, in U.S. history, the Republican Senators and Representatives who in 1909–10 rose against the Republican standpatters controlling Congress, to oppose the Payne-Aldrich tariff and the dictatorial power of House speaker Joseph G. Cannon. from Sarawak. (124) As acting State Secretary, Pike argued strongly for limiting resettlement to the immediate locality of the raid, which involved a much smaller number of Chinese--about 7,600. His views finally prevailed. (125) Approved by the Supreme Council on 30 June, the civil service and military swung into action. Pike recalled Kenneth Robinson The Rt. Hon. Kenneth Robinson (19 March 1911-16 February 1996) was a British Labour politician who served as Minister of Health in Harold Wilson's first government, from 1964 to 1968, when the position was merged into the new title of Secretary of State for Social Services. from leave to head a Psychological Operations Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. team, seconded John Woods John Woods may refer to:
settled - established in a desired position or place; not moving about; "nomads...absorbed among the settled people"; "settled areas"; "I don't feel entirely settled here"; "the advent of settled were disrupted. (127) Recognizing Pike as "godfather" of the scheme, he received a letter of commendation from the Chief Minister on 20 October 1965, having been awarded the Order of the Star of Sarawak with the title of Dato some days earlier. By 5 January 1966 three permanent guarded settlements had been built and occupied by some 8,000 Chinese, another step in the struggle against communist insurgency in Sarawak. (128)
But Ningkan's volatility led to Pike being threatened with dismissal on the day Operation Hammer was launched. (129) At a press conference that morning, aggressive questioning by an Australian journalist upset Ningkan, who threatened to imprison im·pris·on
tr.v. im·pris·oned, im·pris·on·ing, im·pris·ons
To put in or as if in prison; confine.
[Middle English emprisonen, from Old French emprisoner : en- him immediately. (130) To prevent the situation deteriorating further, Pike quickly maneuvered Ningkan out of the room and Deputy Chief Minister James Wong took over. Council Negri was in session at the time and the same evening a still irate Ningkan summoned Pike to his home, where an impromptu assembly of the Supreme Council had convened to witness his dismissal. (131) In an inimitable in·im·i·ta·ble
Defying imitation; matchless.
[Middle English, from Latin inimit Sarawak solution to the problem and ironically at Pike's suggestion, Temenggong Jugah insisted drinks be served and by the end of a convivial con·viv·i·al
1. Fond of feasting, drinking, and good company; sociable. See Synonyms at social.
2. Merry; festive: a convivial atmosphere at the reunion. evening the whole episode had been forgotten, never to be mentioned again.
Sarawak's security improved immensely with the end of Indonesian armed confrontation on 3 June 1966. By then Malaysian armed forces from semenanjung Malaysia were beginning to take over responsibility for security and all Commonwealth armed service personnel were withdrawn over the next six months. (132) But relations with the federal government were strained. Among other points of difference, the Ningkan government was resisting Federal pressure to introduce Malay as the national language in Sarawak quickly. (133) Conferring responsibility for the strained relations, the Prime Minister of Malaysia The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. He is formally appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or Supreme Ruler, of Malaysia, and is invariably the leader of the largest party in the federal House accused Sarawak's Dayak leaders (the Ningkan government) of being under British influence. (134) But Shaw and Pike had already decided any further political efforts on their part to maintain the Ningkan government would be counterproductive. (135)
The political situation began to spin out of control on 13 June 1966, when Ningkan dismissed Inche Taib bin Mahmud, his Minister for Communications and Works, as a leader of a "Rebel group ... plotting to topple the government." (136) The federal government demanded Ningkan's resignation, Ningkan was removed from office and a new Chief Minister, Penghulu Tawi Sli, was sworn in on 17 June 1966. (137) Action against Shaw and Pike, who were seen as obstacles to closer integration of Sarawak within Malaysia, and by some as obstacles to their own careers, was swift. (138) On 28 July Tawi Sli said, "it is of vital importance that the local officers should run the administration." (139) Shaw was given ten days to leave Sarawak and Pike, who was on leave at the time, was told he had no need to return. Both were given extended paid leave for the remainder of their four-year contracts. What one observer has described as "an effective combination" and others may have viewed as an impediment to their aims and ambitions had been removed from the scene. (140)
Like many of Sarawak's "old hands," Pike had built up a strong affinity with Sarawak and its people. Shortly before the 1969 elections a leading political figure in Sarawak asked Pike to return to Sarawak to help him and his party in the election campaign. Considering this would be unwise for both that politician and his party, Pike declined. In 1993 much to Pike's surprise, he received an invitation from the Sarawak government to attend the 30th anniversary of the formation of Malaysia. During that visit he was particularly pleased to see that the creation of wealth, while benefiting a few disproportionately, had also provided much-needed amenities for many rural people. (141) Pike's affiliation with Sarawak also found ongoing expression through two voluntary roles: Honorary Treasurer of the Sarawak Association (1980-2004) which still has over 600 members, and a Trustee of the Sarawak Foundation (1970-1998) that awards scholarships to deserving Sarawak citizens.
After leaving Sarawak in 1966, Pike went on to a successful sixteen years with the London School of Economics The School is a member of the Russell Group, the European University Association, Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Community of European Management Schools and International Companies, The Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs as well as the Golden as Financial Secretary, finally retiring in 1983. Lord Donaghue wrote in the June 1983 edition of the London School of Economics Magazine that only when discreetly enquiring "about securing for him [Pike] the well-earned reward of a C.B.E." did he discover Pike had already received that award for his services to Sarawak. (142)
Vernon L. Porritt
Honorary Research Associate
Western Australia Western Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,409,965), 975,920 sq mi (2,527,633 sq km), Australia, comprising the entire western part of the continent. It is bounded on the N, W, and S by the Indian Ocean. Perth is the capital. 6150
(1) In his unpublished 2004 memoirs, Tim Hardy, head of the Sarawak Special Branch at the time, labeled even the reduced resettlement as "vindictive, unjust, small-minded," but acknowledged "the mood was too ugly [at that time] for reason to intervene" to try to avert the "punitive operation code-named Hammer."
(2) Born 1924; education--Dauntsey's School, St Edmund Hall, Oxford (MA); Intelligence Corps SEA 1943-1946 (GSO GSO
general staff officer III): SCS 1949-1966; London School of Economics 1967-1983. Pike learned to speak Japanese at the School of Oriental & African Studies African studies (also known as Africana studies) is the study of Africa, and can encompass such fields as social and economic development, politics, history, culture, sociology, anthropology or linguistics. A specialist in African studies is referred to as an Africanist. (1942-1943).
(3) Japanese and German signal codes had been deciphered. To prevent the Japanese and Germans from becoming aware their ciphers had been broken, advantage was not always taken on information gleaned. Only Army and Corps Commanders and above, and a handful of direct operatives such as John Pike, were on the Ultra list.
(4) Pike was rather pleased to find out later that the order of battle intelligence had been remarkably accurate (J. Pike letter of 2 June 1992).
(5) Pike had pressured for a more active role for months. (Tales from the Burma Campaign The Burma Campaign was a campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II. It was fought primarily between British Empire, Chinese and American forces against the forces of the Empire of Japan, the Burmese Independence Army and the Indian National Army. , 1942-1945, pp. 66-68). The time he spent on leave and further studies of Japanese had made any information to which he had been privy through the Ultra list redundant, thus enabling him to take part in the proposed airdrop over Malaya.
(6) J. Pike letter 2 June 1992.
(7) On arrival, Pike called in at the officers' mess where he was introduced to a visitor, Sir John Gielgud Noun 1. Sir John Gielgud - English actor of Shakespearean roles who was also noted for appearances in films (1904-2000)
Arthur John Gielgud, Gielgud , but, completely exhausted, promptly passed out and collapsed at Gielgud's feet.
(8) Pike had stumbled across a cigarette smuggling operation from India to Singapore involving a superior officer, but it was covered up by Pike's speedy removal from the scene by posting him to Sarawak.
(9) In September 1945, in Sarawak there were only two notable roads outside major towns. The 64 km. Kuching to Serian road was impassable and the 40 km. Kuching to Bau road was in dire disrepair.
(10) Head hunting was an established part of Dayak culture, but had been mostly eliminated by the Brookes. It had reappeared in the guerilla warfare against the Japanese in the latter stages of the war and any Japanese in North Borneo North Borneo or British North Borneo: see Sabah, Malaysia. and Kalimantan was still a prospective target.
(11) A few miles down river from Kuching, Pending was a flying-boat base on the Sarawak River Sarawak River or Sungai Sarawak is a river in Sarawak state of Malaysia. It is an important source of water and transportation for the inhabitants in southwestern Sarawak. .
(12) James Brooke For the American journalist, see .
The Rajah of Sarawak, Sir James Brooke, KCB, LL.D (29 April 1803 – 11 June 1868) was a British statesman. His father Thomas Brooke was English; his mother Anna Maria was born in Hertfordshire, England, the daughter of Scottish peer , the First Rajah, started the SAS in 1843 by appointing the first expatriate Chief Secretary. The Brooke administrative structure can be traced back to 1476 when Sarawak was part of the Brunei Empire.
(13) John Pike, "Questionnaire: Towards a Retrospective Record": Overseas Pensioners Association Record, Rhodes House Rhodes House is part of the University of Oxford in England. It is located on the south of South Parks Road in central Oxford. The building was built in memory of Cecil Rhodes, an alumnus of the University and a major benefactor. Library (RHL RHL Red Hat Linux
RHL Roller Hockey League
RHL Rhodes House Library (Oxford University; UK)
RHL Richardson-Hill Ltd (London, UK) ), October 2001.
(14) "Interview with Mr. John Pike, C.B.E., P.N.B.S., November 1998," Oral History Archives, British Commonwealth and Empire Museum, Bristol.
(15) At Oxford, he read Economics, Philosophy, and Politics. A Class B Release from the armed services The Constitution authorizes Congress to raise, support, and regulate armed services for the national defense. The President of the United States is commander in chief of all the branches of the services and has ultimate control over most military matters. provided speedy discharge for those resuming studies interrupted by military service.
(16) Coming under fire from Indonesians when traveling was so commonplace that when Pike was recalled to Singapore, he was taken to the nearest airport in Sumatra by ambulance to secure his personal safety.
(17) J. C. B. Archer, the Archer, The, English name for Sagittarius, a constellation. Chief Secretary, cast the deciding vote in favor of cession on 16 May 1946. As all Sarawak's signals traffic went through the 9/14th Punjab, Pike was unofficially privy to those signals. These led him to believe that more finesse in handling cession could have alleviated post-cession problems with the anti-cession movement (Pike letter, 29 July 1992).
(18) The Devonshire courses reflected the euphoria of the immediate post World War Two era by imbuing members of Her Majesty's Overseas Civil Service with developing the Welfare State concept in all its colonies ("Problems of Colonial Government" p. 1, Second Devonshire Course Material, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950/1, MSS Pac.s.s105(1), RHL).
(19) Under SAS rules, all expatriate officers required the Chief Secretary's permission to marry. Pike did not have this but nothing was said, although another officer was refused permission a year later.
(20) Pike's immediate superior was the District Officer of the Lower Rajang District, A. R. Snelus, a prewar Brooke officer, who had been interned by the Japanese.
(21) Alastair Morrison, Fair Land Sarawak: Some Recollections of an Expatriate Official. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, region of Asia (1990 est. pop. 442,500,000), c.1,740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east. Program, 1993, pp. 17-30.
(22) Longhouses were usually remote and very compact communities where one met the entire community when one visited. In contrast, Malays and Chinese lived in individual houses, generally either in or on the fringes of centers of population, where usually some form of segregated accommodation was accessible.
(23) "Interview ... November 1998."
(24) Charles Noble Arden Clarke, Governor of Sarawak from 29 October 1946 to 26 July 1949, upbraided former local customs officer customs officer n → aduanero/a, funcionario/a de aduanas
customs officer customs n → douanier m
customs officer Awang Rambli instead of patiently reasoning with him, embarrassing two long service senior SAS officers, Barcroft and Fisher, "as that was not the way things were done in Sarawak" (Morrison, Fair Land Sarawak, p. 450).
(25) Malcolm MacDonald, the Commissioner-General for South-East Asia South-East Asia n → le Sud-Est asiatique
South-East Asia south n → Südostasien nt
South-East Asia n → from 1946 to 1963, developed a close relationship with Temenggong Jugah, the paramount chief of the Third Division Ibans, and his people.
(26) Pike felt that MacDonald did a great deal to "ease some of these rather pompous color based biases that existed not just in Sarawak but elsewhere in Southeast Asia" ("Interview ... November 1998").
(27) Sarawak Gazette, 1099 (7 October 1949): 263-36. Conversely, Sarawak had no public debt and operated without incurring deficits.
(28) Sarawak did not adopt "forced development," such as the experimental groundnut groundnut, common name for several different genera of twining herbaceous, leguminous plants with geocarpie (underground fruits), chiefly the peanut. Groundnuts are classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Rosales, family Leguminosae. scheme in Tanganyika that failed.
(29) Oil royalties were renegotiated and a new agreement was signed on 23 June 1952.
(30) As a junior officer, Pike was not acknowledged as the author of the article.
(31) For the role of an ADO and everyday life in Binatang, see Morrison, Fair Land Sarawak, pp. 30-37.
(32) Halsbury, Laws of England, vol. 10, para 986.
(33) No private lawyers were allowed in Sarawak during the Brooke regime (A. B. Ward, Rajah's Servant, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Cornell University Cornell University, mainly at Ithaca, N.Y.; with land-grant, state, and private support; coeducational; chartered 1865, opened 1868. It was named for Ezra Cornell, who donated $500,000 and a tract of land. With the help of state senator Andrew D. , 1966, p. 166; K. H. Digby, Lawyer in the Wilderness, New York: Cornell University, 1980, p. 98).
(34) Stewart's predecessor, Arden Clarke, had been "resolved to strangle Strangle
An options strategy where the investor holds a position in both a call and put with different strike prices but with the same maturity and underlying asset. This option strategy is profitable only if there are large movements in the price of the underlying asset. the anti-cession movement" (Digby, p. 91), but had not succeeded.
(35) J. C. H. Barcroft was a pre-war Brooke officer of the "old school," who had risen through the ranks.
(36) Incensed by the assassination, the Iban community in the area had to be persuaded not to seek retribution by taking action against the Malays in Sibu.
(37) The District Court Magistrate had held a preliminary enquiry committing Rosli and Moshidi to trial.
(38) Barcroft refused permission for Pike to visit the accused a second time before the trial, but Pike ignored this.
(39) For an account of the trial, see the Sarawak Gazette, 1103 (7 February 1950):27-29.
(40) Rukun tiga-belas refers to the thirteen essentials that according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Muslim practice must be included in a prayer if it is to be successful. Naming themselves the "Rukun tiga-belas," as initially there were thirteen members plus the leader Awang Rambli, the group first met on 20 August 1948. On behalf of the group, Awang subsequently persuaded Rosli, a young teacher who was not a member, to carry out the assassination, telling him "If a youth undertakes this, the government would have no suspicion" and this was the chance for him to make a name for himself. Rosli chose Rukun tiga-belas member Morshidi, to help carry out the assassination. Awang in turn told Morshidi that his was an order from Rukun tiga-belas, which would take action against him if he refused to obey. At their trial, both Rosli and Morshidi admitted their guilt, spoke of being instigated by Rambli, and pleaded for clemency. Judge Lascelles sentenced them both to death by hanging.
After the trial of Rosli and Morshidi, ten members of the Rukun tiga-belas, including Awang Rambli, were tried for conspiracy to murder. Eight were defended by the first private lawyer to practice in Sarawak, T. G. Dunbar, and two by District Officer A. R. Meikle. Awang Rambli and Bujang bin Sutong were sentenced to death and hanged, seven were sentenced to death subsequently commuted to terms of imprisonment, and the last, a youth under 17, was acquitted.
(41) A protest was unusual, the Sarawak Tribune commenting, "That any bill should have been opposed ... is an event in itself" (2 April 1955). At that time the Council Negri was made up of 14 government officers, known as Official Members, and 19 government nominees known as Unofficial Members chosen from group and interest representatives, prominent personalities and community leaders. Unofficial Members tended to rubber stamp legislation and it was uncommon for them to speak their minds.
(42) Sarawak Gazette, 1103 (7 February 1950):29.
(43) As a fascinating counterpoint to the Judge's statement, on 29 November 1990 in a revision of history, the Chief Minister laid the foundation of a grandiose Heroes monument near the Sarawak Museum The Sarawak Museum is the oldest museum in Borneo. It was established in 1888 and opened in 1891 in a purpose-built building in Kuching, Sarawak. Sponsored by Charles Brooke, the second White Rajah of Sarawak, the establishment of the museum was strongly encouraged by Alfred Russel in Kuching commemorating Rosli et al. as freedom fighters.
(44) Morrison, Fair LandSarawak, p. 45.
(45) See V. L. Porritt, British Colonial Rule in Sarawak, 1946-1963, Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 187-93.
(46) Approximate rubber-export values were 1949-$31 m, 1950-$114m, 1951-$160m, and 1952-$65m.
(47) Approximate pepper-export values were 1949-$2m, 1950-$4m, 1951-$18m, and 1952 $33m.
(48) Pike letter of 27 June 2005. This outcome of the boom in commodity prices has passed unrecorded.
(49) The Lawas District covered about 1,000 square miles with a population of over 10,000. For the life of a District Officer in Lawas, see Morrison, Fair Land Sarawak, pp. 39-55.
(50) Pike graphically describes what staying in a longhouse entailed for an SAS officer, with a preceding welcoming party, daytime official duties of taking a running census, hearing cases, and trying to settle disputes, followed by a sometimes all night "party" with heavy drinking in which everyone joined, and finally, exhausted, sleeping on the floor ("Interview ... 1998").
(51) The influence of Tom Harrisson, the Curator of the Sarawak Museum, in the Kelabit plateau area arose from his role in raising and leading
guerrilla groups in Japanese-occupied Sarawak during World War Two (Harrisson, Tom, The World Within: A Borneo Story. London: Cresset cres·set
A metal cup, often suspended on a pole, containing burning oil or pitch and used as a torch.
[Middle English, from Old French, alteration of croisuel, probably from Vulgar Latin , 1959). His influence was so great even in the 1950s that no Murut or Kelabit would answer a summons from the Lawas District Officer, however serious the offence, without Harrisson's concurrence CONCURRENCE, French law. The equality of rights, or privilege which several persons-have over the same thing; as, for example, the right which two judgment creditors, Whose judgments were rendered at the same time, have to be paid out of the proceeds of real estate bound by them. Dict. de Jur. h.t. , so the DO had to signal Harrisson first.
(52) The local Kelabits were being harassed when they crossed into Indonesian Kalimantan on their travels.
(53) Traveling SAS officers routinely carried medicines for issue as needed as needed prn. See prn order. during their visits to longhouses.
(54) Harrisson does not appear to have honored this promise of permanent but rather obscure fame.
(55) Pike letter of 27 June 2005.
(56) The Coronation in London was on 2 June 1953 and the Lawas ceremony took place four days later.
(57) Most Sarawak Chinese spoke in one or more of their many dialects, not Mandarin. Pike had working knowledge of Japanese and Malay (including Jawi script Jawi (Arabic: جوي Jăwi) (or Yawi in Pattani) is an adapted Arabic alphabet for writing the Malay language. It is used as one of two official scripts in Brunei for writing Malay, and is employed to a limited extent in Malaysia, in Indonesia, in southern ), and a smattering of some indigenous languages.
(58) Arden Clarke, "Note on Development of Local Government in Sarawak," Unpublished typescript, 5 July 1947 (MSS.In.Ocn.s.223, Rhodes House Library). Under the pre-war Native Administration Ordinance, the first Native Authorities were established in 1948.
(59) The Local Authority Ordinance has been described as the cornerstone for the development of later local government institutions.
(60) For an authoritative work on local government in Sarawak, see John Woods, Local Government in Sarawak: An Introduction to the Nature and Working of District Councils in the State, Kuching: Sarawak Government Printing Office, 1968.
(61) In the Lawas District, about 50% of the people were Malays, about 35% were indigenes (mainly Kelabits and Muruts), and about 12% were Chinese.
(62) The first elections in Sarawak were for the Kuching Municipal Council in 1956.
(63) The two Lawas District Council members were Racha Umong and Mak Yau Lim.
(64) Usually a notation would be made in the officer's personal file and ultimately influence his future. Many pre-war Brooke officers placed great weight on not leaving their posts without permission, with an ongoing debate on whether having done so to try and escape when the Japanese invaded Sarawak was desertion.
(65) J. C. B. Fisher, like Barcroft, was a pre-war Brooke officer of the "old school," who had risen through the ranks and was able to pacify pac·i·fy
tr.v. pac·i·fied, pac·i·fy·ing, pac·i·fies
1. To ease the anger or agitation of.
2. To end war, fighting, or violence in; establish peace in. Barcroft during a very convivial evening.
(66) In retrospect Pike views this as a fascinating insight into how a good District Officer looked after the people in his area, illustrating why he was so attracted to serving in Sarawak.
(67) He had been awarded the BEM BEM British Empire Medal for helping the Services Reconnaissance Department The Services Reconnaissance Department (SRD), also known as Inter-Allied Services Department (IASD), Special Operations Australia (SOA) and Section A, Allied Intelligence Bureau was an Australian intelligence and special operations agency of World War II. in their behind-the-lines action in the Lawas area during World War Two. He told Pike of taking part in cannibalism cannibalism (kăn`ĭbəlĭzəm) [Span. caníbal, referring to the Carib], eating of human flesh by other humans. when very hungry SRD SRD Suriname Dollar (ISO currency code)
SRD Sustainable Resource Development (Alberta, Canada)
SRD Short Range Devices (wireless networking)
SRD System Reference Document irregulars destroyed the Tagai saw mill and killed the occupying Japanese.
(68) In his handover n. 1. The act of relinquishing property or authority etc. to another; as, the handover of occupied territory to the original posssessors; the handover of power from the military back to the civilian authorities s>. notes Morrison wrote that the Sikh was "our premier problem child."
(69) Pike letter 2 August 2005.
(70) The Lower Rajang District covered over 1,800 square miles with a population of some 54,000. Pike took over from Anthony Richards, a pre-war Brooke officer who later produced the first authoritative Iban dictionary with financial help organized by Pike from the Ford Foundation.
(71) Sarawak Gazette, 1174 (31 December 1955):308. The Council Negri passed the 1955 budget in November 1954. An import/export license fee was increased from $400 to $4,000.
(72) The only way to alter the fees was by amending the Trade Licensing Ordinance at the Council Negri's next meeting in March 1955.
(73) For a more complete account of the hartal, see V. Porritt, "The 1955 Trade Hartal (The Unofficial Birth of the SUPP SUPP Support
SUPP Supplementary (geometry)
SUPP Sarawak United People's Party (Malaysia) )," Sarawak Gazette, 1530 (December 1954):58.
(74) The Straits Times said Sarawak faced economic chaos, pointing out Sibu, Sarikei and Binatang were three of Sarawak's six biggest towns (4 January 1955, p. 1).
(75) Denis Denis, king of Portugal: see Diniz. White, the Resident, instructed Pike to give priority to European firms, no doubt because Chinese business had organized the hartal, but Pike ignored this as impractical (Pike letter, 28 July 2005).
(76) All shops and petrol stations as far as Serian were closed, there were no taxis, and the markets were empty (Sarawak Tribune, 8 January 1955). Saratok held a three-day hartal that began on 9 January, and Mukah held a one-day hartal on 1 March.
(77) This concession reduced revenue from this source by some $1 1/2 million dollars (Sarawak Government, Sarawak Annual Report, 1955, Kuching: Government Printing Office, p. 3).
(78) Unofficial Council Negri members showed they were willing to challenge the government, the Sarawak Tribune commenting "That any bill should have been opposed ... is an event in itself" (2 April 1955). There were fourteen official (government officers) and nineteen unofficial (all nominees, prominent personalities, community leaders, and government favorites) members. The unofficials tended to rubber stamp legislation and it was uncommon for them to speak their minds.
(79) Possibly A. R. Snelus, the Deputy Chief Secretary, viewed Pike's posting to the most senior District Officer posting in Sarawak, the Lower Rajang, as overrapid, especially when compared with his own experience, and that adding a M.B.E. would not be appropriate at that stage.
(80) A Local Government Department was set up in 1954 to accelerate expansion of local government.
(81) Pike was appointed a First Class Magistrate on 1 January 1952, operating under the Criminal Procedure Code and Courts Ordinance that came into force on 1 May 1952.
(82) Some First Class Magistrates, including Pike, were given special powers to impose prison terms of up to ten years (Pike letter 28 July 2005).
(83) Abang was a fellow Council Negri member when he told Pike about the bribe. 84 The inference here is that he would have let down Pike, who he looked upon as a colleague and friend.
(85) During his leave, Pike furthered his Mandarin studies at the School of Oriental & African Studies.
(86) Pike also acted for a time as Secretary for Local Government and as Economic Secretary.
(87) Barcroft was appointed Chief Secretary in May 1958, dying suddenly a month later.
(88) After a number of operations, Pike's wife was flown to England for further hospitalization, eventually discharged, and finally recovered after several months' convalescence convalescence /con·va·les·cence/ (kon?vah-les´ins) the stage of recovery from an illness, operation, or injury.
1. , her weight having dropped to 32 kg.
(89) This was the second time Pike had left Sarawak without permission, but technically more serious as this time he had disobeyed an instruction.
(90) In 1957, of the total development costs of $27.5 million, CD&W met $3.5million and the Sarawak government $23 million.
(91) The Financial Secretary was then B.A. St. J. Hepburn, previously the Development Secretary.
(92) To help secure Supreme Council approval for the debenture scheme, Pike used the name Barcroft Bonds, Barcroft being the Chief Secretary at the time.
(93) Thus a debenture drawn in the first draw, that is twelve months after issue, would yield 40% interest, 20% in the second draw, 13.3% in the third draw, and so on.
(94) Sarawak Tribune, 1 August 1959.
(95) This was a major reform of the local taxation system.
(96) Collection of rates is never popular, and the scheme began to fail in 1966 when arrears of rates were allowed to build up.
(97) Pike was instrumental in changing the structure of pepper export duties to encourage production of higher-value white pepper (Straits Times, 2 December 1960; Pike letter 20 July 1994).
(98) ECAFE established the Asia Development Bank that provided loans to member states for development. After joining Malaysia as a state, Sarawak lost the right to representation at international conferences.
(99) Pike was later elected a Fellow of the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank.
(100) The World Bank reference is EDI/9R/336-3/P638. Although Pike's paper focused on Sarawak, the Financial Secretary of British North Borneo (now Sabah), Howard Davidson, told Pike years later that he had used the paper as "a bible in Sabah's financial negotiations with Malaya to set up Malaysia."
(101) Fisher's letter to A. F. R. Griffin, Third Division Resident, 27 January 1962 (MSS.Pac.s. 109, Rhodes House Library).
(102) Department of Information, Malaysia Report of the Inter-Governmental Committee, 1962, Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer, 1964, clause 24(10).
(103) In the three-tier election system, Council Negri members were elected by elected members of the urban and rural district councils, leading to some distortion in political representation, which was further accentuated by political party alignments.
(104) The terms applied to pensionable overseas officers who were members of Her Majesty's Overseas Civil Service. The British government paid their inducement allowances and half the cost of their passages to and from the UK (Malaysia Report of the Inter-Governmental Committee, 1962; Annex B).
(105) G. A. T. Shaw joined the Civil Service of Malaya in 1940, rejoined after serving in the Intelligence Corps during WWII WWII
World War II
WWII World War Two , and was transferred to Sarawak in 1948 (Sunday Telegraph, London, 10 June 1990)
(106) The first Indonesian cross-border raid was at Tebedu on 11 April 1963. Indonesia's President Sukarno was strongly opposed to the formation of Malaysia.
(107) Hepburn became Deputy Chairman of the Tariff Advisory Board. He had served in Sarawak since 1947 following 17 years in the Jamaican Civil Service (Sarawak Tribune, 7 December 1963).
(108) The Sarawak Government Asian Officers Union (SGAOU) requested the advances only for its members.
(109) Only Council Negri could increase the Personal Advances Public Officer's Fund, but the Council could not be convened in the time available.
(110) Sarawak Tribune, 22 December 1964; Morrison, Fair Land Sarawak, p. 171. A sourced example of Ningkan's unacceptable behavior was when in Kuala Lumpur, he called Shaw and Pike to his hotel room "on urgent business" late at night when he was enjoying the company of local perempuan jalang.
(111) Sarawak Tribune, 23 December 1964.
(112) The proposed land bills became available in print for public discussion in March 1964 (Sarawak Tribune, 9 March 1964).
(113) Ibans were the "eyes and ears" of the Commonwealth Security Forces facing Indonesian armed incursions supported by Sarawak communists, and retaining an Iban Chief Minister was considered essential for retaining ongoing Iban support.
(114) The maneuvers of political players and parties in a struggle for power were very involved and not fully played out for another thirteen months. This is covered in Borneo Research Bulletin, vol. 35, 2004, pp.77-79.
(115) Inche Taib was Abdul Taib bin Mahmud, Minister of Communications, and Uncle Rahman, Taib's uncle, was Abdul Rahman Ya'akub, Federal Minister for Land and Mines.
(116) The two parties were Pesaka (mainly Iban with 11 Council Negri seats) and Barjasa (mainly Malay/Melanau with 5 Council Negri seats).
(117) Pesaka was "Jugah's party." Without Barjasa but including Pesaka, the government held 20 of the 39 Council Negri seats and would be dependent on the votes of three ex-officio members for survival.
(118) The possibility of securing ministerial positions could serve to attract parties to join the Alliance.
(119) This Bill attracted a press headline of "Shock Move" as, being unaware of Pesaka's and Barjasa's withdrawal from the Alliance, the media and public did not know that Ningkan's government was in jeopardy (Sarawak Tribune, 13 May 1965).
(120) Sarawak Tribune, 16 June 1965. Panas had withdrawn from the Alliance on 15 April 1963.
(121) In a letter copied to the Tunku, SGAOU claimed "the retention of expatriate officers ... lent color to the allegation that Sarawak is still a neo-colonialist country." In contrast, the main Chinese political party, the SUPP, and others held that Sarawak joining Malaysia as a state was neo-colonialism, since ultimate power was merely transferred from London to Kuala Lumpur (Sarawak Tribune, 16 June 1965).
(122) For a detailed account of this and the repercussions repercussions npl → répercussions fpl
repercussions npl → Auswirkungen pl , see Porritt's Operation Hammer: Enforced Resettlement in Sarawak in 1965, Hull: University of Hull, 2002.
(123) Needless to say, Ningkan was very upset over the death of his brother and wanted strong retaliation. The raid was attributed to Indonesian military personnel helped by Sarawak communists. However, the Special Branch held that any Sarawak communist involvement was inconsequential. Civilians killed included Special Branch or Customs informers and some were mutilated mu·ti·late
tr.v. mu·ti·lat·ed, mu·ti·lat·ing, mu·ti·lates
1. To deprive of a limb or an essential part; cripple.
2. To disfigure by damaging irreparably: mutilate a statue. .
(124) This plan had been agreed to in principle some time before the raid by State Secretary Shaw to assuage as·suage
tr.v. as·suaged, as·suag·ing, as·suag·es
1. To make (something burdensome or painful) less intense or severe: assuage her grief. See Synonyms at relieve.
2. police and military pressure, but with no intention of it being carried out.
(125) Pike faced robust opposition from strong personalities in the British and Malaysian military and civil hierarchy responsible for Sarawak's defense and internal security. Brigadier William W. Cheyne, Commander, West Brigade, wrote in his uncompleted and unpublished memoirs that "Pike quietly took control" of the meeting.
(126) Pike's letter of 8 December 1994.
(127) For a more detailed account, see Porritt's The Rise and Fall of Communism 1940-1990, Clayton: Monash University Facilities in are diverse and vary in services offered. Information on residential sevices at Monash University, including on-campus (MRS managed) and off-campus, can be found at  Student organisations , 2004.
(128) Gradually all restrictions on movement were removed and the three settlements are now flourishing towns; Siburan, Beratok and Tapah. Communist insurgency continued until 1990, although much reduced after 1973.
(129) Pike letter 27 June 2005.
(130) The Federal Prime Minister had only recently conferred the power to impose immediate imprisonment on Ningkan for use in combating communism, but as a draconian measure it was to be kept secret.
(131) On a whimsical note, Ningkan's peremptory peremptory adj. absolute, final and not entitled to delay or reconsideration. The term is applied to writs, juror challenges or a date set for hearing.
PEREMPTORY. Absolute; positive. A final determination to act without hope of renewing or altering. summons interrupted Pike's dinner with Major-General George Harris George Harris may refer to:
(132) A diplomatic incident "A Diplomatic Incident" is the eleventh episode of the BBC comedy series Yes, Prime Minister and was first broadcast 17 December 1987. Plot
Jim Hacker is joined by Sir Humphrey Appleby, to discuss the forthcoming public ceremony for the start of work on the arose when the Chief of Staff of Major-General Lea circulated a report by Lea for the Commander-in-Chief Far East to all Brigade Commanders in Borneo. The report questioned the competence of a Malay Regiment battalion, and one of the Brigade Commanders, a Malay, passed the report to Kuala Lumpur. Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman Not to be confused with Tuanku Abdul Rahman, the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong of the Federation of Malaya.
Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah demanded Lea be removed. As Confrontation was coming to an end, London withdrew Lea and then promoted him to Lieutenant-General and awarded him a knighthood knighthood: see chivalry; courtly love; knight. .
(133) Under the Malaysia Report of the Inter-Governmental Committee the Sarawak government had ten years to introduce Malay as its national language.
(134) Sarawak Tribune, 17 May 1966.
(135) Michael B. Leigh, The Rising Moon: Political Change in Sarawak, Sydney: Sydney University Press Sydney University Press http://www.sup.usyd.edu.au/operated as a traditional press from 1962 to 1987 and was re-established in 2003 under the management of the University of Sydney Library http://www.library.usyd.edu. , 1974, p. 99. Underlying this decision was the improved security situation and Ningkan's increasing inability to accept advice. On 13 September Alfred Mason, another Sarawak political figure, publicly accused Ningkan of having attempting to strangle him nine months earlier (Vanguard, 14 September 1966).
(136) Sarawak Tribune, 13 June 1966.
(137) Tawi Sli's government laid the foundation for a pro-UMNO Malay/Melanau dynasty that has dominated Sarawak's government to this day.
(138) Shaw and Pike had insisted on the provisions of the Malaysia Report of the Inter-Governmental Committee being fully adhered to, which on occasion had irritated the Federal government.
(139) Sarawak Tribune, 28 July 1966.
(140) Morrison, Fair Land Sarawak, p. 156.
(141) Pike was also invited to the 40th anniversary celebrations in 2003.
(142) Lord Donaghue, at one time the Chief Policy Adviser to Prime Ministers Harold Wilson
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. his [Pike's] earlier service as a District Officer was particularly helpful in preparing him for the culture of Houghton Street [the LSE LSE - Language Sensitive Editor ]."