Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,728,960 articles and books

Freshwater mussels (bivalvia: unionidae) of the village creek drainage basin in southeast texas.



Abstract. -- A total of 18 species and 2,235 individuals of freshwater mussels were collected from 22 sites in the Village Creek Village Creek is the name of at least 43 streams in the United States, among which are:
  • Village Creek (Allamakee County, Iowa) an immediate tributary of the Upper Mississippi River.
 basin. The number of individuals per site ranged from zero to 528 and the number of species per site ranged from zero to 13. Relative abundance for all collection sites varied from zero to 176 individuals/person-hours. Quadrula mortoni and Fusconaia askewi Fusconaia askewi is a species of bivalve in the Unionidae family. It is endemic to the United States. Source
  • Bogan, A.E. 1996. Fusconaia askewi. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 07 August 2007.
 comprised 60 percent of the total individuals collected and relative abundance was 14.8 and 13.1 individuals/person-hours, respectively. Lampsilis satura Lampsilis satura is a species of bivalve in the Unionidae family. It is endemic to the United States. Source
  • Bogan, A.E. 1996. Lampsilis satura. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 07 August 2007.
, Obovaria jacksoniana and Pleurobema riddellii Pleurobema riddellii is a species of bivalve in the Unionidae family. It is endemic to the United States. Source
  • Bogan, A.E. 1996. Pleurobema riddellii. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 07 August 2007.
 were collected at several sites and are listed as "of special concern" by the American Fisheries Society.

**********

Freshwater mussels are good indicators of water quality and are often the first organism to decline during adverse conditions (Rosenburg & Resh 1993; Howells et al. 1996; Howells 1997). Howells et al. (1997) reported that 52 species of freshwater bivalves Although most bivalves live in the sea some live in freshwater and are known as freshwater bivalves. If they do live in fresh water it is in lake usually. One of the largest type of Bivalves is the swan mussel, it can grow to a huge 20cm long! It is most commonly found in muddy  occurred in Texas and discussed 18 that were dramatically reduced in abundance. Williams et al. (1993) listed 17 of these 52 species as threatened, endangered, or of special concern. This survey of the freshwater bivalves of the Village Creek drainage basin drainage basin: see catchment area.  evaluates the current status of the populations and will serve as a baseline reference for subsequent studies.

There has been no extensive study of the bivalves of Village Creek. Strecker (1931) and Parks (1938) listed some bivalves that occurred in Village Creek, but these works are dated and uncertainties in systematics systematics: see classification.  limit their present day use. Vidrine (1990) surveyed one location in Village Creek for his study of parasitic mites of freshwater mussels. Howells et al. (1996) listed some mussels known to have occurred in Village Creek, but in a later paper (Howells 1997) on the status of mussels in the Big Thicket The Big Thicket is the name of a heavily forested area in Southeast Texas. While no exact boundaries exist, the area occupies much of Hardin, Liberty, Tyler, and Polk Counties and is roughly bounded by the Trinity River, Neches River, and Pine Island Bayou.  region he mentioned an unsuccessful effort by Texas Parks and Wildlife Department The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department is a Texas state agency that oversees and protects wildlife and their habitats. In addition, the agency is responsible for managing the state's parks and historical areas.  personnel to collect any living mussels from Village Creek.

Several studies have been conducted on the physical/chemical conditions and macrobenthos of Village Creek and its tributaries (Tatum & Commander 1971; Harrel 1977; Kost 1977; Lewis & Harrel 1978; Commander 1980; Newberry 1982; Harrel 1985; Barclay & Harrel 1985), but the sampling techniques were not adequate to survey the bivalve bivalve, aquatic mollusk of the class Pelecypoda ("hatchet-foot") or Bivalvia, with a laterally compressed body and a shell consisting of two valves, or movable pieces, hinged by an elastic ligament.  fauna. Nearby Texas and Louisiana mussel mussel, edible freshwater or marine bivalve mollusk. Mussels are able to move slowly by means of the muscular foot. They feed and breathe by filtering water through extensible tubes called siphons; a large mussel filters 10 gal (38 liters) of water per day.  surveys were conducted by Neck (1986), Feaster (1997), Howells (2000) and Vidrine (2001).

DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA

Village Creek is a 5th order stream located in Hardin, Tyler and Polk counties in southeast Texas (Figure 1). From its origin, near the city of Livingston in Tyler County Tyler County is the name of two counties in the United States:
  • Tyler County, Texas
  • Tyler County, West Virginia
, it flows southeasterly into the Neches River. The basin drains an area of approximately 2,883 k[m.sup.2] and has an axial length of 125 km. Land uses in the basin consist of lumber production, several small municipalities (< 10,000 residents) and scat-tered residential developments. Some reaches of Village Creek and its tributaries are within the boundaries of the Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation, the Big Thicket National Preserve Big Thicket National Preserve: see National Parks and Monuments (table). , Roy Larsen Nature Conservancy Sanctuary and Village Creek State Park. The remaining sections of the stem stream of Village Creek, from the Big Thicket National Preserve Big Sandy Creek Big Sandy Creek

A river rising in central Colorado and flowing about 322 km (200 mi) east-northeast and southeast to the Arkansas River.
 Unit to the confluence with the Neches River are proposed as additions to the Big Thicket National Preserve (Big Thicket National Preserve 1996).

The shallow substrate in the stream channel consisted of fine and coarse sand with pockets of silt, detritus detritus /de·tri·tus/ (de-tri´tus) particulate matter produced by or remaining after the wearing away or disintegration of a substance or tissue.

de·tri·tus
n. pl.
 and clay. Sunken logs are abundant. The average gradient is 0.38 m/km and the minimum and maximum daily discharge based on 66 years of record was 1.8 [m.sup.3]/sec and 131.6 [m.sup.3]/sec (USGS USGS United States Geological Survey (US Department of the Interior)  2001). Dominant vegetation along the stream banks consists of Taxodium distichum (bald cypress), Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo), Betula nigra (river birch) and Quercus sp. (water tolerant oaks).

METHODS

Twenty-two sites were sampled between 9 August 2001 and 25 November 2002 (Figure 1). Seventeen sites were located along the lower stem stream and five sites were in smaller tributaries. Vidrine (1998) reported that small to moderate size streams resulted in low to moderate mussel diversity and larger, downstream reaches often had higher diversity and larger populations. At each site, 1.5 to 3 person-hours were spent hand-searching the substrate for mussels, covering an average of 50 meters of shoreline. Vaughn (1995) and Hornbach & Deneka (1996) stated that non-quantitative random time search methods are preferred when examining the distribution of freshwater mussels. Sampling was done only during relatively low stream discharge and depth conditions as indicated by the U.S. Geological Survey gauging station 08041500 located near Kountze, Texas (USGS 2001). Mean water depth for all collecting dates was 1.2 m and mean discharge was 5.6 [m.sup.3]/sec. These conditions allowed productive sampling, which could not have occurred at greater depth or discharge.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Living mussels collected were identified, counted and measured. Most specimens were returned to the stream, but some were retained in order to confirm identification or to be used as reference specimens. Dead shell material was not documented. Retained specimens were returned to the laboratory and placed in three percent ethyl alcohol ethyl alcohol: see ethanol.  to cause the valves to gape, then preserved in 95 percent ethyl alcohol. Identifications were made using the following taxonomic references; Burch (1973), Cummings & Mayer (1992), McMahon (1991), Howells et al. (1996) and Vidrine (2001). Robert Howells (Texas Parks and Wildlife Department), verified the identifications. Common and scientific names are those of Turgeon et al. (1998).

Voucher specimens were placed in a collection at Lamar University. Relative abundance of all mussels for each collection site was calculated by the formula: number of individuals of all species collected/person-hours (48) spent collecting at that site. Relative abundance for each species was determined by the formula: number of individuals of a species collected/total person-hours (48) for entire study.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

During the study, 18 species of unionds and 2,235 individuals were collected during a total of 48 person-hours (Table 1). The number of species per collection site ranged from zero at site 9 to 13 at sites 1, 2 and 3 (Table 2). The number of individuals per collection site ranged from zero (site 9) to 528 (site 3). No mussels were found at site 9 after 2.25 person-hours of searching. This was probably due to the unsuitable habitat that was composed of steep cut clay banks and tree roots, which made searching difficult. Relative abundance of all mussels at individual collection sites ranged from zero (site 9) to 176 (site 3) per person-hour (Table 2).

Site 3 had a large diversity of microhabitats including substrate types, variations in flow, and a large area of suitable depth for collecting. Site 3 is the location where Vidrine (1990) collected and removed 1,000 individuals for his study of mites associated with mussels. Site 3 is also the location where Texas Parks and Wildlife personnel reported finding no living mussels (Howells et al. 1996). This was probably due to their collecting method. They used a brail brail   Nautical
n.
1. One of several small ropes attached to the leech of a sail for drawing the sail in or up.

2. A small net for drawing fish from a trap or a larger net into a boat.

tr.v.
, which cannot be effectively utilized in Village Creek due to the amount of sunken trees.

Quadrula mortoni and Fusconaia askewi were the most abundant species, representing 31.8 and 28.2 percent, respectively, of the total number of individuals collected during the study (Table 3). Relative abundance of Q. mortoni and F. askewi was 14.8/person-hour and 13.1/person-hour, respectively. Quadrula mortoni occurred at 20 collecting sites and F. askewi occurred at 18 sites. These species are euryecious and were found in all types of substrates and were often the only species found in coarse sand away from the shore. One specimen of F. askewi measured 74 mm in shell length, which exceeds the maximum length recorded for Texas waters (Howells et al. 1996). Uniomerus tetralasmus was the least abundant species and was collected only in two tributary streams; one specimen each in Beech Creek (site 12) and Turkey Creek (site 13). This species is adapted for desiccation des·ic·ca·tion
n.
The process of being desiccated.



desic·ca
, dewatering and stagnant water (Neck & Metcalf 1988; Cummings & Mayer 1992) and was the only species collected only in smaller tributary streams.

Three species found during this study are listed as of "special concern" by the American Fisheries Society (Williams et al. 1993). These include Lampsilis satura, Obovaria jacksoniana and Pleurobema riddellii. Only eight living specimens of L. satura had been reported in the Big Thicket region during the past five years (Howells 1997). During this study 33 specimens from seven sites were collected (Tables 1 & 3). Howells (1997) reported that only one dead shell of Obovaria jacksoniana had been found in Texas since 1990. During this study, 16 specimens of O. jacksoniana were collected from four sites (Tables 1 & 3). Since 1987, only two living and two dead specimens of P. riddellii have been reported from the central Neches River in Texas (Howells 1997). During this survey 11 specimens from four sites were collected (Tables 1 & 3).

Seven species of mussels were considered to be uncommon or rare and represented less than one percent of the total number collected and their relative abundance was less than 0.5 clams per person-hour (Table 3). Three species of mussels that were previously collected in Village Creek or the nearby Neches River during benthic ben·thos  
n.
1. The collection of organisms living on or in sea or lake bottoms.

2. The bottom of a sea or lake.



[Greek.
 surveys, but not during this study, include Glebula rotundata, Quadrula apiculata and Megalonaias nervosa. The exotic Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, was noted at sites 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13 and 20, but it was abundant only at sites 11 and 13 in Turkey Creek.

The results of this study indicate that Village Creek supports a diverse and healthy bivalve fauna. However, Neck (1982), Samad & Stanley (1986), Alderman & Adams (1993), Layzer & Gordon (1993) Neves (1993) and Howells (2000) reported that habitat alterations in and around waterways adversely alter mussel habitats. Within the basin, current and projected residential development and economic growth, together with increased recreational usage of Village Creek, may effect bivalve populations. The bivalve fauna should be monitored closely in the future to ensure protection of these organisms.
Table 1. Total number of living individuals of each species collected at
each site sampled. (Total number of person-hours spent = 48.)

                                                Site
                          1    2    3    4    5   6   7   8   9  10  11

Amblema plicata          13   11   31    4    4  14   5   1   0   0   0
Fusconaia askewi         11    8  212    2   26   1   0  11   0   0  11
Fusconaia flava           2    3   12    0    5   0   0   5   0   0   6
Lampsilis hydiana         5   10   25    2   26  34   9   7   0   0   0
Lampsilis satura          4    3    0    0    0   0   0   0   0   0   0
Lampsilis teres           2    8   20    4    6   4   4   0   0   0   0
Leptodea fragilis         1    2    0    0    0   0   0   0   0   0   0
Obliquaria reflexa        0    0    0    3    1   1   0   1   0   0   0
Obovaria jacksoniana      0    6    0    4    3   0   0   0   0   0   0
Plectomerus dombeyanus    1    1   21    0    1   2   2   0   0   0   0
Pleurobema riddellii      1    5    1    0    0   0   0   0   0   0   0
Potamilus purpuratus      2    0    2    0    0   1   0   0   0   0   0
Quadrula mortoni         61   86  185   82   41   3  54  12   0   3  18
Quadrula nobilis          7    8   15    5    5   1   2   4   0   0   3
Toxolasma texasiensis     0    0    2    3    3  16   0   3   0   0   0
Tritogonia verrucosa      0    0    1    0    0   0   0   0   0   0   3
Uniomerus tetralasmus     0    0    0    0    0   0   0   0   0   0   0
Villosa lienosa           1    4    1    0    9  14   0   3   0   0   0
Total                   111  152  528  109  130  91  76  47   0   3  41

                                               Site
                        12  13   14   15   16   17  18   19   20   21 22

Amblema plicata          0   0    7    9   25    4   6    8   15   5   4
Fusconaia askewi        37   0   89   10   24   58  13   61   28  15  14
Fusconaia flava          6   0    7    2   16    3   4    3    2   5   0
Lampsilis hydiana        1   0    0    2    4   18   7    3    8   4   5
Lampsilis satura         0   0    0   17    2    3   0    1    0   3   0
Lampsilis teres          0   0    0    1    2    3   4    0    6   4   0
Leptodea fragilis        0   0    0    8    0    0   0    0    0   0   0
Obliquaria reflexa       0   0    0    0    0    0   0    0    0   1   0
Obovaria jacksoniana     0   0    0    0    0    0   0    3    0   0   0
Plectomerus dombeyanus   1   0    0    0    3    0   0    0    0   1   0
Pleurobema riddellii     0   0    2    0    2    0   0    0    0   0   0
Potamilus purpuratus     0   0    0    1    0    0   0    0    0   0   0
Quadrula mortoni         1   0   10   10   33   18  23    9   21  31   7
Quadrula nobilis         1   0    3    5   15    6   8   30   14  10   0
Toxolasma texasiensis    0   0    3   44    0    4   4    0    4   3   0
Tritogonia verrucosa     0   0    5    0    0    0   0    1    0   0   0
Uniomerus tetralasmus    1   1    0    0    0    0   0    0    0   0   0
Villosa lienosa          1   0    1    0    0    0   5    1    4   6   0
Total                   49   1  128  109  126  117  74  120  106  88  30

Table 2. Number of species collected, mussels collected, person-hours
spent collecting, and relative abundance for each collecting site. Data
indicates living specimens only.

Site  Species    Number     Person-hours  Relative
      collected  collected                abundance

 1       13         111           3           37
 2       13         152           3           51
 3       13         528           3          176
 4        9         109           2           55
 5       12         130           2           65
 6       11          91           2.50        36
 7        6          76           2           38
 8        9          47           2           24
 9        0           0           2.25         0
10        1           3           3            1
11        5          41           2           21
12        8          49           3           16
13        1           1           2.25         0.4
14        9         128           3           43
15       11         109           2           55
16       10         126           1.5         84
17        9         117           1.5         78
18        9          74           1.5         49
19       10         120           2           60
20        9         106           1.5         71
21       12          88           1.5         59
22        4          30           1.5         20

Table 3. Total number of sites where species occurred, total number of
individuals collected, percentages of all individuals collected, and
relative abundance of each species (in order of relative abundance).
Data indicates living specimens only.

                           Site    Number     % of total   Relative
Species                 frequency  collected  collected   abundance

Quadrula mortoni            20       712        31.8%       14.8
Fusconaia askewi            18       631        28.2%       13.1
Lampsilis hydiana           17       170         7.6%        3.5
Amblema plicata             17       166         7.4%        3.5
Quadrula nobilis            18       135         6.3%        2.9
Fusconaia flava             15       101         4.5%        1.7
Toxolasma texasiensis       11        89         4.0%        1.9
Lampsilis teres             13        68         3.0%        1.4
Villosa lienosa             12        50         2.2%        1.0
Lampsilis satura             7        33         1.4%         .7
Plectomerus dombeyanus       9        33         1.4%         .7
Obovaria jacksoniana         4        16       < 1%           .3
Pleurobema riddellii         5        11       < 1%           .2
Leptodea fragilis            3        11       < 1%           .2
Tritogonia verrucosa         4        10       < 1%           .2
Potamilus purpuratus         4         6       < 1%           .1
Obliquaria reflexa           5         7       < 1%           .1
Uniomerus tetralasmus        2         2       < 1%         < .1


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study was funded by a student research award from the Texas Academy of Science to V. Bordelon and a Lamar University Scholar award to R. Harrel.

LITERATURE CITED

Alderman, J. M. & W. F. Adams. 1993. Conservation of critical habitat for freshwater mussels. Pages 81-82, in K.S. Cummings, A. C. Buchanan, & L.M. Koch (eds.), Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels. Proceedings of a UMRCC UMRCC Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee
UMRCC University of Manchester Regional Computer Centre (UK) 
 symposium, 12-14 October 1992, St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River
See also: Mississippi River


The Upper Mississippi River is the portion of the Mississippi River upstream of Cairo, Illinois, United States.
 Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois Rock Island is a city in Rock Island County, Illinois, United States. The population was 39,684 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Rock Island CountyGR6 , 189 pp.

Barclay, C. M. & R. C. Harrel. 1985. Effects of pollution effluents on two successive tributaries and Village Creek in Southeastern Texas. Tex. J. Sci., 37(5):175-188.

Big Thicket National Preserve. 1996. Amendment to Land Protection Plan for Big Thicket National Preserve Approved May 7, 1984. Land protection plan Big Thicket National Preserve Addition Act of 1993, 272 pp.

Burch, J. B. 1973. Biota of Freshwater Ecosystems Manual 1., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Freshwater unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Washington, D.C., 177 pp.

Commander, S. D. 1980. Physiochemical physiochemical /phys·io·chem·i·cal/ (fiz?e-o-kem´ik-il) pertaining to both physiology and chemistry.

physiochemical

pertaining to both physiology and chemistry.
 condition, fecal bacteria, and macrobenthos of streams in the Turkey Creek Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Lamar University. Beaumont, Texas, 92 pp.

Cummings, K. S. & C. A. Mayer. 1992. Field guide to the freshwater mussels of the midwest. Illinois Natural History Survey, Manuel 5, Champaign, Illinois, 114 pp.

Feaster, D. M. 1997. Lotic lo·tic  
adj.
Of, relating to, or living in moving water.



[From Latin l
 freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) of the Angelina and Davy Crockett National Forests of east Texas. Tex. J. Sci., 50(2):163-170.

Harrel, R. C. 1977. Water quality monitoring in the Big Thicket National Preserve. Research Report. Contract No. PX7029-6-0846, 48 pp.

Harrel, R. C. 1985. Effects of an oil spill on water quality and macrobenthos of a Southeast Texas stream. Hydrobiologia, 124:223-228.

Hornbach, D. J. & T. Deneka. 1996. A comparison of a qualitative and a quantitative collection method for examining freshwater mussel assemblages. J. of the N. A. Benth. Soc., 15:587-596.

Howells, R. G. 1997. Status of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Big Thicket Region of Eastern Texas. Tex. J. Sci., 49(3), Supplement: 21-34.

Howells, R. G. 2000. Impacts of dewatering and cold on freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in B. A. Steinhagen Reservoir, Texas. Tex. J. Sci., 52(4), Supplement: 93-104.

Howells, R. G., C. M. Mather & J. A. M. Bergmann. 1997. Conservation status of selected freshwater mussels in Texas. Pages 117-128, in K. S. Cummings, A. C. Buchanan, C. A. Mayer & T. J. Naimo (eds.), The Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels II: Initiatives for the Future. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Commission, St. Loius, Missouri, 293 pp.

Howells, R. G., R. W. Neck & H. D. Murray. 1996. Freshwater mussels of Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Press, Austin, Texas, 218 pp.

Kost, D. A. 1977. Physicochemical conditions and macrobenthos of streams in the Beech Creek Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas, 93 pp.

Layzer, J. B. & M. E. Gordon. 1993. Reintroduction of mussels into the Upper Duck River, Tennessee. Pages 89-92, in K. S. Cummings, A. C. Buchanan, and L. M. Koch (eds.), Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels. Proceedings of a UMRCC symposium, 12-14 October 1992. St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois, 189 pp.

Lewis, S. P. & R. C. Harrel. 1978. Physicochemical conditions and diversity of macrobenthos Village Creek, Texas. Southwest. Nat., 23(3):263-272.

McMahon, R. F. 1991. Mollusca: Bivalvia. Pages 315-399, in J. H. Thorp and A. P. Covich, (ed.), Ecology and classification of North American North American

named after North America.


North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.

North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus.
 freshwater invertebrates. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Academic Press, Inc., 911 pp.

Neck, R. W. 1982. A review of interactions between humans and freshwater mussels in Texas. Pages 169-182, in J. R. Davis, (ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Recent Benthological Investigations in Texas and Adjacent States. Austin, Texas, 277 pp.

Neck, R. W. 1986. Freshwater bivalves of Lake Tawakoni, Sabine River, Texas. Tex. J. Sci., 38(2):241-249.

Neck, R. W. 1989. Freshwater bivalves of Arrowhead Lake, Texas: apparent lack of extirpation ex·tir·pa·tion
n.
The surgical removal of an organ, part of an organ, or diseased tissue.



extir·pate
 following impoundment An action taken by the president in which he or she proposes not to spend all or part of a sum of money appropriated by Congress.

The current rules and procedures for impoundment were created by the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 (2 U.S.C.A.
. Tex. J. Sci., 41(5):371-377.

Neck, R. W. & A. L. Metcalf. 1988. Freshwater bivalves of the lower Rio Grande, Texas. Tex. J. Sci., 40(1):259-268.

Neves, R. J. 1993. A-state-of-the-unionids address. Pages 1-10, in K. S. Cummings, A. C. Buchanan, and L. M. Koch (eds.), Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels. Proceedings of a UMRCC Symposium, 12-14 October 1992. St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois, 189 pp.

Newberry, W. 1982. Physicochemical conditions, fecal bacteria, and benthic macroinvertebrates of Big Sandy Creek in the Big Thicket National Preserve. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas, 89 pp.

Parks, H. B. 1938. Mollusca. Pages 7-8, in H. B. Parks & V. L. Cory (eds.), Biological Survey of the East Texas Big Thicket Area. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (TAES) is the agricultural and life sciences research agency of the U.S. state of Texas and a part of the Texas A&M University System. , College Station, Texas College Station is a city in Brazos County, Texas, situated in Central Texas. It is located in the heart of the Brazos Valley. The city is located within the most populated region of Texas, near to three of the 10 largest cities in the United States - Houston, Dallas, and San , 22 pp.

Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh. 1993. Introduction to freshwater biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates in freshwater. New York: Chapman and Hall Chapman and Hall was a British publishing house, founded in the first half of the 19th century by Edward Chapman and William Hall. Upon Hall's death in 1847, Chapman's cousin Frederic Chapman became partner in the company, of which he became sole manager upon the retirement of , Inc., 307 pp.

Samad, F. & J. G. Stanley. 1986. Loss of freshwater shellfish after water dropdown in Lake Sebasticook, Maine. J. Fresh Ecol., 3:519-523.

Strecker, J. 1931. The distribution of naiades or pearly fresh-water mussels of Texas. Baylor University Museum, Bulletin 2, 63 pp.

Tatum, J. W. & D. Commander. 1971. Texas Water Quality Board. Water Quality Study of Village Creek, Hardin County, Texas Hardin County is a county located in the state of Texas, United States. In 2000, its population was 48,073. The county is named for a family from Liberty County, Texas. The seat of the county is Kountze6. . Ausin, Texas, 142 pp.

Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. L. Pratt, C. F. E. Roper, A. Scheltema, F. G. Thompson & J. D Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Spec. Publ. 16, Bethesda, Maryland, 277 pp.

U.S. Geological Survey. 2001. National Water Information System (NWISWeb). Data available at URL URL
 in full Uniform Resource Locator

Address of a resource on the Internet. The resource can be any type of file stored on a server, such as a Web page, a text file, a graphics file, or an application program.
: http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/.

Vaughn, C. C. 1995. Freshwater mussel sampling techniques and strategies in Native mussels of Oklahoma: a workshop for field aquatic biologist. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service symposium conducted at Tulsa Tech. Center, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Vidrine, M. F. 1990. Fresh-water mussel-mite and mussel-Ablabesmyia Associations in Village Creek, Hardin County, Texas. Proc. Louisiana Acad. of Sci., 53:1-4.

Vidrine, M. F. 1998. Freshwater mussels of Fort Polk, Louisiana. Pages 228-266, in (C. Allen Ed.) Natural History of Fort Polk, Ft. Polk, Louisiana, 256 pp.

Vidrine, M. F. 2001. The historical distributions of freshwater mussels in Louisiana. (Electronic Version 1.0 by C. J. Thibodeaux and B. J. Fontenot). Eunice, Louisiana: Gail Q. Vidrine Collectables, 316 pp.

Williams, J. D., M. L. Warren, Jr., K. S. Cummings, J. L. Harris & R. J. Neves. 1993. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries (Bethesda), 18(9):6-22.

Vickie L. Bordelon and Richard C. Harrel

Department of Biology

Lamar University

Beaumont, Texas 77710

VLB See VL-bus.

VLB - VESA local bus
 at: VBordelon@aol.com
COPYRIGHT 2004 Texas Academy of Science
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2004 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Bordelon, Vickie L.; Harrel, Richard C.
Publication:The Texas Journal of Science
Date:Feb 1, 2004
Words:3664
Previous Article:Reproductive cycle of the sidewinder, Crotalus cerastes (Serpentes: Viperidae), from California.
Next Article:Noteworthy records of the millipeds, eurymerodesmus angularis and E. mundus (Polydesmida: Eurymerodesmidae), from northeastern and westcentral texas.
Topics:



Related Articles
THE FRESHWATER MUSSELS (BIVALVIA: UNIONIDAE) OF PIGEON CREEK, A SMALL SOUTHWESTERN INDIANA TRIBUTARY OF THE OHIO RIVER.
THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RESPIRATION OF THE FRESHWATER MUSSEL LAMPSILIS SILIQUOIDEA (BIVALVIA: UNIONIDAE).
A prehistoric unionid assemblage from the Big Black River drainage in Hinds County, Mississippi.
New Louisiana records for freshwater mussels (Unionidae) and a snail (Pleuroceridae).
Lotic freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) of the Angelina and Davy Crockett National Forests of east Texas.
Range extension of the freshwater mussel Potamilus purpuratus (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Texas.
Freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) survey of the Brouilletts Creek basin in Illinois and Indiana.
A survey of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) of the Old Sabine Wildlife Management Area, Smith County, Texas.
Non-invasive method to obtain DNA from freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae).
Freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) survey of the Galena River Basin, Wisconsin and Illinois.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters