Food resources and changing patterns of resource use among the the Lundayeh of the Ulu Padas, Sabah.
The Lundayeh communities of Long Pasia and Long Mio are situated in the Ulu Padas region of southwest Sabah. These are the only two highland Lundayeh villages in Sabah. The majority of the Sabahan Lundayeh live in the lowlands, particularly in the Sipitang region. However, they still see themselves as essentially a highland people. The Lundayeh regard the Kerayan-Kelabit highlands in Kalimantan as their heartland. It is from here that they are thought to have originated, migrating throughout the region where the states of Kalimantan, Sarawak and Sabah meet, over the last two centuries (Harrisson 1967).
Long Pasia is a village of about 400 residents, and Long Mio about 120 residents. The villages are at an altitude of 1000m, and are surrounded by undulating hills, and beyond these, mountains. The vegetation close to the villages is a patchwork of fields and secondary forest of varying ages, a consequence of people's long history in the region, and their practice of swidden agriculture. Further afield, the region was, at least until very recently, covered by one of the last extensive areas of old-growth forest remaining in Sabah (Payne and Vaz 1998). This forest is a mix of heath and montane forests. (1)
The Lundayeh of Long Pasia and Long Mio are primarily swidden agriculturalists, although wet rice cultivation is also important. Cash crops are extensively cultivated, with coffee and tobacco having met with particular success during the time of this research. As well as cash-cropping, the other main source of income is from wage labor. Many people go to work in the logging camps, and in towns and cities in Sabah and further afield. Since 1997 the villages have been linked to Sipitang by a logging road, a journey that takes about four hours. The arrival of the road enabled expansion of cash cropping, and easier availability of processed goods. In addition, it encouraged a number of families to return to the village. The population of both villages has grown in recent years, and seems likely to continue to do so. The arrival of the road also marked the beginning of extensive logging activities in the region. These have been going on around the villages, with noticeable impacts on the availability of forest resources and on river quality. However, in spite of the many social and environmental changes which the Lundayeh have experienced in recent years, forest resources continue to make an important and highly valued contribution to their subsistence.
Research was conducted from September 1999 until November 2000 as part of a wider Ph.D. study. Hunting and dietary surveys were conducted to investigate the diversity of resources being used, their importance in the diet, and the relative importance of different environments as sources of these foods. During five seven-day periods in each of the villages, a member of every household was asked to record the foods being eaten within their household. These surveys were conducted at roughly two-month intervals throughout the year, so that any seasonal variation in the diet could be observed. During one survey period, I asked the children to keep their own food diaries, to enable a comparison to be made with that of the adults.
Complementary to the dietary surveys, botanical collecting expeditions were undertaken. These were conducted in the areas surrounding the villages with people from the villages. I collected specimens of plant species used as vegetables, fruits, spices, leaves for wrapping rice, cooking containers, as well as plants that are used to obtain food, for example, to make fishing nets, animal traps, fish poisons and hunting charms. These activities enabled more complete documentation of the edible fruits, since these were often not recorded in the food surveys. In addition, they gave particular insight into neglected food resources--those that are rarely, or never, used today.
Interviews were also undertaken with all households to investigate people's agricultural strategies and land and resource use practices.
Food Resources of the Lundayeh
In common with perhaps all other swidden agriculturalists of Borneo (Chin 1985; Christensen 1997, 2002; Colfer et al. 1997; Dove 1985; Janowski 1995), the food of greatest importance is rice. When asking whether you have eaten yet, the Lundayeh ask whether you have eaten rice (nekuman luba' ko?). Only if you have done so are you considered to have eaten. Eaten with the rice are kikid, 'side-dishes'--these are the vegetables, meat or fruits eaten as side-dishes. It is this aspect of the diet that I describe in most detail.
Snack foods also make a significant contribution to the diet. These were greatly underrecorded in the dietary surveys (an occurrence common to many such studies (Colfer and SSoedjito 1996; Etkin 1994)). Therefore, although the diversity of these foods was recorded, it was not possible to determine their significance in the diet, nor determine the relative importance of vegetation types as sources of fruits.
The foods that are served as kikid are diverse. At their most basic, the kikid may be simply salt or chillies--although this is only out of necessity rather than from choice. More typically, a meal will include a few vegetables, and perhaps some meat or fish. Appendix 1 shows the full range of foods that were recorded in the dietary surveys, as well as the few additional foods I observed being eaten at other times. This gives a more or less complete representation of the range of foods that are eaten as kikid.
Plant resources make up the vast majority of the kikid served, accounting for 68% in Long Mio and 63% in Long Pasia (by frequency) of those recorded in the food diaries (the remainder of which are meat or fish). Apparent from the data is the wide range of plant resources used. The Lundayeh recognize 113 types of vegetable (2) and ubud (stem pith), 28 mushrooms and 22 flavorings. Identification to species level was not always possible (because of the absence of specimens or of fertile material for identification, for example), and so the number of species used cannot be given precisely. However, they represent at least 107 species of vegetable, 19 species of flavoring, and 10 mushroom species. This is certainly an under-estimate of the number of edible mushroom species, since I was only able to gather specimens for 12 of the types of mushrooms.
Similar arrays of edible plant resources (both with respect to the number of species used, and the actual species) have been recorded for other central Borneo societies (Chin 1985; Christensen 1997, 2002; Colfer et al. 1997). Christensen (2002) collected comparable data on the numbers of species being used by an Iban and a Kelabit community in Sarawak. These data are summarized in Table 1. This suggests that the Lundayeh use slightly fewer edible resources than either the Iban or Kelabit communities (although it should be born in mind that my calculations of species numbers are conservative estimates). There are a number of possible reasons for this. Undoubtedly a significant factor is the degree of isolation of these communities. Unlike the Iban and Kelabit communities, Long Pasia and Long Mio are accessible by road, and this is likely to have resulted in a shift away from the use of some local resources towards processed and shop-bought goods.
Although plant resources account for the majority of the kikid that are eaten, people have a strong preference for eating meat. When no one has had any recent hunting success, it is common to hear complaints from people about how bored they are with eating 'just leaves' (don mo). The importance of meat and fish in the diet is apparent from the figures showing the percentage of meals in which these are eaten. Thus, in Long Pasia, 49% of meals included hunted meat or fish from the rivers, or if we include meat and fish that have been reared or shop purchased, the figure rises to 64% of meals. The equivalent figures for Long Mio are 42% and 58% respectively.
In terms of numbers of side-dishes, meat and fish account for 32% in Long Mio and 37% in Long Pasia, these figures also include shop-bought meat and livestock. By comparison with data reported from other central Borneo communities, this figure is low. For example, in a Kenyah community, 49% of the side-dishes of three individuals were of hunted meat or local river fish (Chin 1985:90-91). The same figures for four members of a Kantu' community were 43% for hunted meat and river fish, and 45% when including shop-bought meat or livestock (Colfer and Soedjito 1996:176 and 180-181). Although care needs to be taken not to infer too much from this, the data used for comparison being from relatively small survey numbers, it does suggest that less meat and fish is being eaten in Long Mio and Long Pasia than might be expected. This is perhaps not surprising given the decline in animal and fish numbers that local people have noted in recent years. In fact, there is some evidence to suggest that fewer animals are hunted in Long Pasia today than seven years previously. This comes from hunting surveys carried out in Long Pasia in 1993 (Bennett et al. 2000:307-310). At that time, there was no logging in the area, and the road had not yet reached the villages. The population of Long Pasia was also smaller, with only 40 households, in comparison to today's 68. As part of this research, data were recorded of the percentage of evening meals containing wild meat and local river fish (Bennett, personal communication). I do not know at what time of year this information was recorded. However, these figures are considerably higher than those from all the dietary surveys that I conducted (Table 2).
Certainly, it would be surprising if there has not been a decline in the numbers of game and fish consumed because of the changes that have taken place in the last decade. These have included an increase in population, both within the villages, and from the establishment of logging camps throughout the area. In addition, logging in the area has caused forest loss as well as noise and river pollution, and the logging roads have enabled easier access to more remote parts, both to villagers and to outsiders.
Although hunted meat and fish from the local rivers are still the most important sources of protein in the diet, with declining hunting and fishing returns, people are increasingly turning to shop-bought and processed foods. Such foods accounted for 4% and 7% of kikid recorded in the dietary surveys in Long Mio and Long Pasia respectively. The greater consumption of shop-bought foods in Long Pasia reflects their greater availability there (there are three stores in the village, in comparison to Long Mio's one store), and also the greater affluence of some people in Long Pasia. Tinned meat and fish, salted fish, and chicken eggs are the main foods that people buy from the village stores, and the usual reason for buying these is because people have no fresh meat in the house. For the same reasons, the consumption of chicken and tilapia (from fish ponds) is increasing. Of the domesticated animals, only chickens are eaten as kikid on an everyday basis. The other animals, pigs, buffaloes, and cows, are only slaughtered for special occasions.
Snack foods include cakes and biscuits, fruits, instant noodles, bread, sweets and crisps (see Appendix 1). Many snack foods are eaten while people are out in the fields or forest. When a group is working in someone's field, the owner of that field always provides drinks, together with cakes of some kind. Often, flied doughnuts (kui tepong, 'flour cakes') are cooked, or during the months of November and December, when the corn is ripe, fried corn cakes are popular. People often eat cucumbers to refresh themselves while harvesting the rice fields (the season when these fruits are ripe). Sugar cane and the young shoots of certain trees, periku, which have a high water content and are astringent to the taste, also provide a ready source of refreshment (Table 3).
Fruits, as well as other snack foods, are particularly important in children's diets. This was apparent from the data collected in the children's food diaries. As well as a much higher incidence of snack foods, children also recorded a greater diversity, for example, they recorded a number of fruits that were absent from the adult food diaries, including bua bidang (Rubus rosifolius) and bua buau (Syzigium foxworthianum). Children snack on a wide range of fruits. Those most commonly eaten are listed in Table 4. Characteristics shared by these species are that they are easily accessible, easy to harvest, and have fruits requiring little or no preparation before eating. Adults are generally more discerning in their choice of fruits, preferring the larger and sweeter fruits, most of which are from cultivated varieties. However, there are certain forest fruits that adults will go out of their way for, such as the fruits of species of Durio, Nepheliurn, and Mangifera.
The most important snack foods are fruits--important both because they are the most frequently consumed, and because of their nutritional value (Hladik et al. 1993). In Appendix 2 I have listed the edible fruits found locally. Not included in the table are those fruits that are sometimes bought in town. Most commonly, people buy fruits grown in the Sipitang area, such as rambutan, durian, mango, and watermelon. Occasionally, other fruits are bought, such as grapes, apples and oranges. 109 Lundayeh names of fruits were recorded, these corresponding to at least 89 species (a conservative estimate, because not all were identified to species). As previously noted for the kikid, in comparison with the data collected by Christensen (2002), this is a lower number of species. The Kelabit community of Pa Dalih were reported to use 125 species, and the Iban community of Nanga Sumpa, 184 species of fruit.
Patterns of Resource Use
Patterns of resource use are shaped by people's preferences for the particular resources, and the resources' availability and ease of harvesting. In turn, ease of harvesting is influenced by people's activities, for example, when people are out hunting, certain resources, such as rattans, are readily accessible. Similarly, during periods of intensive agricultural work, food resources in the fields are those that are most readily available, and consequently, people tend to rely more on these (Colfer and Soedjito 1996; Dove 1985).
These factors are reflected in the data on the relative importance of different vegetation types as sources of side-dishes. As part of the dietary surveys, I asked people to record where they had harvested their foods--whether from old-growth forest, secondary forest, riverside vegetation, the fields or village, field margins and young fallow vegetation, or if they had been bought. The results are summarized in Figures 1 and 2. (3) I included hunting as a separate category because people generally recorded all hunted meat as having come from old-growth forest. This is in spite of the fact that a considerable amount of hunting takes place within secondary forest, and to a lesser extent, in agricultural areas and fallow vegetation. It was therefore often impossible to know in which type of vegetation the animals had been caught. Domesticated animals, and also fish from fishponds and paddy fields, were included in the category of "field / village."
The data show that the majority of the foods eaten as side-dishes comes from the fields, with a significant number also coming from riverside vegetation. The importance of fields is not surprising, especially given the expansion in vegetable cultivation in recent years. A wide variety of vegetables are grown, providing an abundant supply. Furthermore, many people have fields near to the village, and so the foods here are readily available. Even for those people who do not have land close by, much time is spent working in the fields, and so the resources growing here are those that are easiest to collect.
The riverside is also an important source of vegetables. The vegetation here is often dominated by edible plant species, making them easy to collect. In Long Mio, riverside vegetation is particularly important as a source of foods, because there are extensive areas close to the village. In contrast, much of the riverside in Long Pasia has been converted to fields. Furthermore, there are many more people, and so harvesting pressure on those remaining areas near the village is quite high. At certain times, such as after a period of drought, the women commented that it was difficult to find enough vegetables to provide for their families from the riverbanks close to the village.
Old-growth and secondary forest are the source of relatively few edible plant resources, their main importance being as a source of hunted meat. However, certain plant resources predominate here, such as bamboo shoots. Bamboos (Gigantochloa levis, Bambusa vulgaris and Schizostachyum brachycladum) send up new shoots only a few months each year, between June and August, so there is a glut of this vegetable at this time. During the fourth dietary survey conducted in Long Pasia, bamboo shoots were in season, and consequently, secondary forest is the source of many more kikid during this time.
Many seasonal resources are from swidden fields, the agricultural calendar determining their availability. A few weeks after rice planting begins, mustard greens (Brassica spp.) and spinach (Amaranthus spp.) are ready for harvesting. It is these vegetables that account for the much greater significance of fields as a source of kikid in the fifth dietary surveys which were conducted during the time of rice planting. A contributing factor is that this is a period of intense agricultural activity, and so people do not have time to collect vegetables from elsewhere. A month or so later, around November, the leaves of squashes (Benincasa hispida, Cucurbita spp., Momordica charantia) and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) can be harvested, and they continue to provide a source of green vegetables until the end of rice harvesting (March or April). Their fruits take a few months to mature, ripening from January onwards.
The availability of snails is also linked with the agricultural calendar. During the relatively slow period between rice harvesting and clearing the fields for next year's crop, from April to June, snails make up an important part of the diet. This is because at this time of year the women do not have much work to do, and so they have the time to collect snails. Furthermore, the paddy fields are free of rice, and so people are able to collect snails as well as fish. This accounts for the higher numbers of "river fish" recorded in the third Long Mio survey (where most snails are collected from a lake, and so were included as river fish), and also for the relatively high numbers of side-dishes coming from the "field/village" in the third Long Pasia survey (where most snails are collected from paddy fields).
The amount of hunting that goes on is also related to people's other activities. Thus, when the men are busy with agricultural work, as during the fifth hunting surveys when they were involved with rice planting, hunting activities decline. Also significant in influencing the amount of hunting is the availability of game. Animal populations vary, particularly in relation to the availability of food. Most significantly, boar populations increase dramatically during mast fruiting events. Apparently, at such times many boar are hunted. Although there was no mast fruiting during the period of my fieldwork, many species were in fruit during the first and second dietary surveys. Reflecting this, greater numbers of animals were hunted during these survey periods, and more meat was eaten at this time.
Certain other resources vary in availability, although not necessarily at the same times each year. A major factor influencing the amount of fish that is eaten is the timing of fish spawning. Such an event took place during the second dietary survey in Long Pasia, and many people went fishing and made large catches. Consequently, fish made a much greater contribution to the diet during this period.
In summary, investigation of patterns of resource use show that fields are the source for the most frequently eaten vegetables for the Lundayeh. However, non-cultivated habitats are the source of a wide range of vegetable species and also the source of many fruits. The forest is also the source of most of the meat and fish that is eaten. Thus, fallow fields and forest habitats contribute much diversity to the diet, something that is greatly valued by the Lundayeh. This is not only because of personal taste, people also recognize that forest resources are a valuable source of food at times when other foods, such as cultivated vegetables, are unavailable. Thus, forest foods are important for nutrition and for food security (Appell 1988; Etkin 1994).
One feature then of the Lundayeh subsistence system is the use of a diversity of resources, and of vegetation types. Until recently, such a strategy has been possible because of the availability of extensive forest resources. Furthermore, the Lundayeh system of forest management, of which the practice of swidden agriculture is an integral part, has served to create a mosaic of forest patches at different stages of regeneration, thus, helping to increase the availability of a wide range of resources. However, whether this strategy will continue to be possible in future years seems unlikely because of the rapid environmental and social changes that are taking place. Indeed, the evidence cited previously suggests that the use of forest resources is in decline. This was indicated by the lower number of species used as vegetables and fruit by the Lundayeh in comparison with Kelabit and Iban communities in Sarawak. Similarly, data on the consumption of hunted meat show that the Lundayeh are eating less in comparison with other highland Borneo communities, and indeed, that its consumption has declined in the period from 1993 to 2000.
One cause of these changes has been the logging activities in the Ulu Padas, which have resulted in the loss of large areas of forest. Consequently, there has been a decline in the availability of certain forest resources. Logging has also placed increased pressure on the land falling outside the logging concessions. The responses of the Lundayeh to these changes have been varied. One response has been to put greater effort and resources into the cultivation of cash crops. Parallel to this, there has been a shift away from swidden cultivation, with some people deciding to cultivate only wet rice (for which subsidies are available) and others concentrating entirely on cash crops (with subsidies also available for certain of these). People are choosing to do this partly because they recognize that in the future they will not be able to depend on local resources for their needs, and so will have to buy replacements. This is just part of a more general trend towards greater dependence on a cash economy, with people needing to meet such costs as schooling, medical expenses and to purchase various manufactured goods.
Another response of the Lundayeh to the decline in forest resources has been to bring some of these into cultivation (see Table 5). These include favored rattan species, flavorings and spices, and many fruit trees, in particular, species of mango, durian and rambutan. The Lundayeh have a long tradition of bringing fruit trees into cultivation. However, in recent years these activities have expanded, because people fear that these resources will not be available in future years, and also because of a desire to establish fruit orchards for commercial reasons. Similarly, in response to the decline in animal and fish numbers, many people have constructed fish ponds for rearing tilapia, and a number of households keep chickens.
The increased pressure on both land and resources is also resulting in a shift towards greater privatization. Today, there exists a great sense of urgency to secure land titles. Furthermore, some people now restrict access to resources that lie on their land. For example, there is a large patch of bamboo forest near Long Pasia which today fails under the ownership of several people. A few individuals have let it be known that they do not want people collecting bamboo shoots from their land, despite there being a long tradition of open access to other villagers for these resources. Although this is the cause of some ill feeling, with such behavior being seen as not customary for the Lundayeh, it has not been openly challenged. Rather, it has led to other people following suit.
Undoubtedly, the Lundayeh of Long Pasia and Long Mio will continue to change and adapt their way of life over the next decade and beyond. Some of these changes will no doubt be welcomed, but others will come about from necessity rather than preference. Already, their future options have been limited by the widespread logging. Consequently, a shift away from a forest-based lifestyle, with more intensive agriculture and greater involvement in the cash economy and in urban life, seems inevitable. What remains uncertain is whether, in this process, any of the particular characteristics of the Lundayeh way of life and of the Ulu Padas will be maintained. The Ulu Padas is a unique region, both biologically and culturally, and it would be both tragic and nonsensical if it were converted to plantations and fields in its entirety. Not only would such a route be unimaginative, it would be wasteful, since it would ignore the potential of local resources and of alternative ways of life. A better route would be to develop a diverse management strategy for the Ulu Padas--i.e., one that would enable local people to continue their current activities of swidden and wet rice cultivation, cash-cropping and hunting, but would also allow the establishment of protected areas, and the development of community forests and agroforestry. (See Christensen (2002:248-249) for similar suggestions regarding Sarawak.) This would enable the Lundayeh to maintain their way of life, an important part of their identity, while enabling economic development, also a local priority. Furthermore, such a strategy has the potential for meeting the state's goals of economic development and conservation.
That a more diverse strategy is possible is suggested by the Lundayeh's own response to the recent changes that they have experienced. In particular, the further development of fruit orchards and of agroforestry systems has great potential. Elsewhere in Borneo, highland peoples have successfully developed agroforestry systems that are economically successful, and at the same time, have enabled conservation of much of the local biodiversity and maintenance of many functions of the forest, such as watershed protection (Fried 2000, Michon et al. 2000, Peluso 1996). The potential for the development of agroforestry in the Ulu Padas warrants investigation, particularly in light of the diversity of plant resources found here, including a wealth of local fruit varieties and species (Hoare 2002, Phillipps and Lamb 1998). Agroforestry is also more compatible with tourism, in comparison to intensive agriculture, for example. Tourism to the region is presently at a low level, but both villages have been working to develop this further.
The establishment of community forests and agroforestry could be encouraged in a number of ways. One priority is the settlement of land claims so that local people have secure tenure. A possible tool is that of subsidies, as these can have a major influence on the decisions made by local people. Thus, subsidies could be provided for agroforestry initiatives, rather than just for wet rice cultivation and cash crops such as coffee and tobacco, as is the case at the moment. Ultimately, what is needed is some imagination, particularly on the part of agricultural extension officers and forest managers, so that there is a shift away from the assumption that the only options available for economic development are the traditional ones of logging, plantations and intensive agriculture. Those people with a role in developing a management strategy for the region (from local people up to government level) need to consider what kind of future they want for the region, and whether they want the Ulu Padas to become indistinguishable from many other places in Malaysia, or if they wish to maintain at least some part of its biological diversity and rich cultural heritage.
Appendix 1: Foods Eaten as Kikid by the Lundayeh A.VEGETABLES LUNDAYEH NAME FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME Dorey Acanthaceae Justicia obtusa Nees Lindan Keduang Acanthaceae Pseuderanthemum acuminatissimum (Miq.) Radlk. Kuru (sia & bata) Amaranthaceae Amaranthus spp. Ufa' Araceae Alocasia sp. Ufa' Araceae Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. Bunger Araceae Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites Sikarok / kelalang Araceae Schismatoglottis cf. batu calyptrata Zoll. & Mor. Butu / kelalang Araceae Schismatoglottis sp. Dinudur Basellaceae Basella alba L. Pau sia Blechnaceae Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.f.) Bedd. Sayur busak Brassicaceae Brassica chinensis Willd. Sayur peit / sawi Brassicaceae Brassica juncea L. Czern. Sedai /abi' Brassicaceae Brassica juncea L. Czern. Sesei Brassicaceae Brassica juncea L. Czern. Kailan Brassicaceae Brassica oleracea L. Kobis Brassicaceae Brassica oleracea L. Sayur picai Brassicaceae Brassica rapa L. Sayur putih Brassicaceae Brassica rapa L. Sayur gerinting Brassicaceae Brassica sp. Kaber Bromeliaceae Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Sesila' Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Riep alud Cecropiaceae Poikilospermum sp. Riep Cecropiaceae Poikilospermum suaveolens (B1.) Merr. Siluk Commelinaceae Commelina paludosa Bl. Udu daya / Udu Compositae Crassocephalum crepidioides necing (Benth.) Moore Kangkong Convolvulaceae Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. Ubi waar Convolvulaceae Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk. Tadjak fadey Cucurbitaceae Benincasa hispida (Thunb. ex Murray) Cogn. Timon Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sativus L. Timon abai Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sp. Timon belanda Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sp. Tabo Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita sp. Tadjak Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita sp. Sifula / petolak Cucurbitaceae Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. Peria Cucurbitaceae Momordica charantia L. Tadjak cina Cucurbitaceae Unknown species Tukul langit Dracaeneaceae Dracaena sp. Ubi kayu Euphorbiaceae Manihot esculenta Crantz Cangkok manis Euphorbiaceae Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. Patar Fabaceae Parkia sp. Peritak boncis Fabaceae Phaseolus vulgaris L. Peritak lebping Fabaceae Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. Peritak kadang Fabaceae Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Bua fayang Flacourtiaceae Pangium edule Reinw. Felali Hydrocotylaceae Centella asiatica (L.) Urban Ginjer Limnocharitaceae Limnocharis flava Buchenau Lagka Moraceae Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. Pau bulat Oleanchaceae Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott Feciruk Ophioglossaceae Helmintostachys zeylanica (L.) Kaulf. Busak liling Orchidaceae Bromheadia finlaysoniana felanuk / Busak (Lindl.) Miq. fayeh Pulu--bulu ee Poaceae Bambusa vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland Pulu--bulu betung Poaceae Gigantochloa levis Merr. Pulu--bulu telang Poaceae Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz Pulu--bulu poren Poaceae Schizostachyum latifolium Gamble Pulu--bulu Poaceae Schizostachyum lima (Blanco) sebiling Merrill Buyor (feci'; Rutaceae Citrus microcarpa Bunge; kasturi; Citrus maxima Burm. Merr. Lada rayeh / cabai Solanaceae Capsicum sp. Tomate Solanaceae Lycopersicon esculentum Miller Beliwan Solanaceae Solanum americanum Miller Biterung eit lipon Solanaceae Solanum capsicoides All. Biterung pulung Solanaceae Solanum ferox L. Biterong Solanaceae Solanum melongena L. Bua ulem Solanaceae Solanum torvum Sw. Ubi gentang Solanaceae Solanum tuberosum L. Lobak merah Umbelliferae Daucus carota L. Bata Urticaceae Elatostemma sp. Tengayen Urticaceae Pouzolzia hirta (B1.) Hassk. Pau abpa Woodsiaceae Diplazium esculentum Retz. Sw. Pau abu /Pau Woodsiaceae Diplazium polypodioides Bl. kapur B. EDIBLE STEM PITH LUNDAYEH FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME NAME Deremeh Arecaceae Arenga brevipes Becc. Wei leludu Arecaceae Calamus convallium J. Dransf. Wei peit Arecaceae Calamus pogonacanthus Becc. ex Winkl. Riman Arecaceae Caryota mitis Lour. Wei tei' lal Arecaceae Ceratolobus concolor Bl. Wei kurad Arecaceae Daemonorops didymophylla Becc. Wei sia Arecaceae Daemonorops fissa B1. Belikakau / Arecaceae Daemonorops ingens J.Dransf. Lekakau Wei laasun Arecaceae Daemonorops ingens J.Dransf. Wei seseit Arecaceae Daemonorops longistipes Burret Wei lingan Arecaceae Daemonorops sabut Becc. Wei laya Arecaceae Daemonorops sparsiflora Becc. / D. didymophylla Becc. Kinangan Arecaceae Eugeissona utilis Becc. Wei ser Arecaceae Korthalsia ferox Becc. Ilad Arecaceae Licuala valida Becc. Tangan / Bara Arecaceae Pinanga capitata Becc. ex Gibbs Berang Arecaceae Pinanga sp. aff. brevipes Becc. Bisian Arecaceae Salacca vermicularis Becc. Siluk fulung Costaceae Costus speciosus (Koenig) R.M. Smith / C. globosus Bl. Bong Musaceae Musa sp. Sibak Musaceae Musa s p. Terabak Zingiberaceae Alpinia glabra Ridl. / A. nieuwenhuizii Val. Terabak fayeh Zingiberaceae Alpinia ligulata K.Schum. C. SPICES AND FLAVORINGS LUNDAYEH FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME NAME Bawang merah Alliaceae Allium cepa L. Bawang putih Alliaceae Allium sp. Kusei Alliaceae Allium sp. Don sup Apiaceae Apium sp. Piasau/Butan Arecaceae Cocus nucifera L. Bua terur garang / Clusiaceae Garcinia dryobalanoides ticuk mangai' Pierre Bua kecii / kayu Clusiaceae Garcinia parvifolia mein / tutuberu (Miq.) Miq. Bua lipau Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Muell. Arg. Kicui / Bawing Hydrocotylaceae Eryngium foetidum L. kedayan / don sop Bawing Lamiaceae Mentha sp. Kedingau (Kayu Lauraceae Cinnamomum sp. manis Tenem Lauraceae Lindera pipericarpa Boerl. Afa' fulung Menispermaceae Albertisia sp. Bua gitah Moraceae Ficus racemosa L. var. elongata (King) Barrett Kayu bawing Myrtaceae Syzigium sp. Gesimau Poaceae Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. Lada Solanaceae Capsicum sp. Likua Zingiberaceae Alpinia galanga Willd. Kunus Zingiberaceae Curcuma domestica Valeton Bua salleh / Bua Zingiberaceae Etlingera elatior (Jack) beludu /Baku ucat R.M. Smith Baku tubu / Baku Zingiberaceae Etlingera punicea (Roxb.) tubu nanong / R.M. Smith Baku derayau Halia Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale Roscoe D. MUSHROOMS LUNDAYEH FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME NAME Agau -- Unknown species Alit -- Unknown species Alub Amanitaceae Amanita sp. Aleng Pleurotaceae Pleurotus cf. djamor (Fr.) Boedijn Bibir kelabet -- Unknown species Bulu -- Unknown species Buda' Lentinaceae Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. Derian -- Unknown species Deseit -- Unknown species Kecep Schizophyllaceae Schizophyllum commune Fr. Kekudan Lentinaceae Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. Lam -- Unknown species Langan -- Unknown species Likudan Lentinaceae Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. Liputung Hyrophoraceae Hyrocybe sp. Lopet Coprinaceae Coprinus sp. Merong -- Unknown species Rata -- Unknown species Sawan Sarcoscyphaceae Cookeina tricholoma (Mont.) Kuntze Sia -- Unknown species Tana' -- Unknown species Tekudan -- Unknown species Telub -- Unknown species Terupong -- Unknown species Tinunger Auriculariaceae Auricularia fuscosuccinea Mont. Henn. Tinunger becuk Auriculariaceae Auricularia delicata Fr. Henn. Tutung -- Unknown species Upul Lentinaceae Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. E. ANIMAL FOODS LUNDAYEH ENGLISH COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME NAME Akep Snails freshwater Unknown species Arem Pangolin Manis javanica Badan Small-toothed palm Arctogalidia trivirgata civet Bakaa Boar Sus barbatus Becuk Pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina Beladan / ebu Turtle Unknown species Belug Stinging hornet / Unknown species Night wasp Berangad Hose's langur / Grey Presbytis hosei leaf monkey Beruang Sun bear Helarctos malayanus Falang alud Banded linsang Prionodon linsang Fugeh Slow loris &/or Nycticebus coucang / Western tarsier? Tarsius bancanus Kabuk / Kadarat Monitor lizard Varanus salvator Kara' arur Crab Unknown species Kelabet Borneo gibbon Hylobates muelleri Kelatang Moth larva Unknown species Kubeng Flying lemur Cynocephalus variegatus Kuyad Long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis Lawid Fish Various species Labo afing / labo Squirrels Various species fulung / sigaa Menelen Python Python sp. Payau Sambar deer Cervus unicolor Payu Bearcat / binturong Arctictis binturong Pelanuk Mouse deer Tragulus napu Ribuan Masked palm civet Paguma larvata Seruang Cobra Opyhiophagus sp. Talau Barking deer Muntiacus muntjac Tamai Frog Unknown species Terutung Porcupine--common Hystrix brachyura Terutung badak Porcupine--thick- Thecurus crassispinis spined Tubang Leopard cat Felis bengalensis Wet bulu Sago grub Rhynchophorus ferrugineus BIRDS Suit balud Green imperial Ducula aenea pigeon / Pink-necked green pigeon Suit bau ulun Malaysian peacock Polyplectron malacense / pheasant / Crested Lophura ignita fireback Suit keruak White-breasted Amaurornis phoenicurus waterhen Suit metor Green pigeon / Wild Treron sp. pigeon Suit sukur Spotted dove Streptopelia chinensis Suit tapiak Bulwer's pheasant Lophura bulweri EGGS Suit sukur Spotted dove Streptopelia chinensis Suit keruak White-breasted Amaurornis phoenicurus waterhen Suit pirit Sparrow Unknown species Seruang Cobra Ophiophagus sp. DOMESTICATED ANIMALS Berek Pig Sus scrofa Kerbau Buffalo Bubalus bubalis Lal--kampong Chicken--eggs & meat Sapi Cow Bos indicus F. SHOP-BOUGHT KIKID Army rations (e.g. packets of meat curry) Tinned meat Hot dogs Dried meat (e.g. buffalo) Frozen meat (e.g. frozen beef tripe; chicken wings) Chicken eggs Tinned fish Salted fish Dried prawns Instant noodles Pasta Dried mushrooms Soup--tinned Soya bean curd G. SHOP-BOUGHT FLAVORINGS Dried anchovies (ikan bilis) Fermented fish paste (belacan) Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Salt Soya sauce Tamarind paste Garlic Onions H. SNACK FOODS Varieties Army rations biscuits; jam; fruit in syrup; Bread Cakes & biscuits--shop-bought Cakes (kui; noney; pinaram)-- banana; cassava; corn; jackfruit; home-made pumpkin; Crisps Fruit--local various species (see Table 4) Fruit--shop-bought apples; durian; oranges; rambutan; watermelon; Instant noodles Peanuts (kacan tana') Porridge (bubur) (delei; kacang; corn; beans; cassava; taro; ubi; ufa; Spreads (for bread & biscuits) condensed milk; honey; jam; margarine; peanut butter; Sticky rice (fadey mo) Sugar Sugar cane (tebpu) Sunflower seeds Sweets Young shoots (periku) various species (see Tables 3 and 4) Appendix 2: Edible Fruit Species LUNDAYEH NAME FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME Itaan -- Unknown species Puk -- Unknown species Serudang -- Unknown species Taken / Tetaken -- Unknown species Tefuduk binei -- Unknown species War aley -- Unknown species War used -- Unknown species Teberecek buda' Actinidiaceae Saurauia cf. longistyla Merr. Teberecek Actinidiaceae Saurauia sp. Ringurin Anacardiaceae Baccaurea sp. Belunu (Malay) Anacardiaceae Mangifera caesia Jack Lam Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica L. Felam Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. Karamut Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. Karung / Lam Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. karung Rengeh / Telaka ' Anacardiaceae Semecarpus bunburyanus Gibbs Durian belanda Annonaceae Annona muricata L. (Malay) Nona (Malay) Annonaceae Annona reticulata L. Kelang batu Apocynaceae cf. Leuconotis sp. Kelang Apocynaceae Willughbeia coriacea Wall. Tecung ubeh Araceae Colocasia oresbia A.Hay Piasau /Butan Arecaceae Cocus nucifera L. Wei kurad Arecaceae Daemonorops didymophylla Becc. Likakau / Arecaceae Daemonorops ingens J.Dransf. Belikakau Bisian Arecaceae Salacca vermicularis Becc. Beleleh Bombacaceae Durio graveolens Becc. Lapun salat Bombacaceae Durio sp. Dalit Bombacaceae Durio sp. Lapun Bombacaceae Durio zibethinus Murray Kaber Bromeliaceae Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Sesila' Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Kitong Clusiaceae Garcinia bancana (Miq.) Miq. Kapab Clusiaceae Garcinia cf. beccarii Pierre Kecii luang Clusiaceae Garcinia cf. parvifolia (Miq.) Miq. Terur garang / Clusiaceae Garcinia dryobalanoides Pierre Ticuk mangai' Mata lawid / Riaku Clusiaceae Garcinia forbesii King Ubpul Clusiaceae Garcinia maingayi Hook.f. Kecii /Kayu mein / Clusiaceae Garcinia parvifolia (Miq.) Miq. Tutuberu Timon labo Cucurbitaceae Mukia javanica (Miq.) C.Jeffrey Iti /Eki' Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus ferruginea Rich. Uleg Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus sp. Lipau Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Muell.Arg. Pika Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Muell.Arg. Pugi Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq.) Muell.Arg. Siei Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea sp. Terur berek / Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea sp. Terur baka / Terur pa yo Tuer Euphorbiaceae Bischofia javanica B1. Fatar Fabaceae Parkia sp. Fidaawee Fagaceae Castanopsis acuminatissima (B1.) A.DC. Berangan Fagaceae Castanopsis costata (Bl.) A.DC. Abok Fagaceae Castanopsis oviformis Soepadmo / C. cf. hypophoenicea (Seemen) Soepadmo Ukem Fagaceae Lithocarpus psilophylla Soepadmo Tateh Flacourtiaceae Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. Fayang Flacourtiaceae Pangium edule Reinw. Labpak Hypoxidaceae Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Talal Lauraceae Litsea garciae Vidal Tei 'suit bueng Loranthaceae Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. Silaku / Tekang Melastomaceae Medinilla crassifolia (Reinw. ex Bl.) Bl. Sikali Melastomaceae Melastoma malabathricum L. Merikubit Meliaceae Aglaia korthalsii Miq. Terur suit Meliaceae Aglaia korthalsii Miq. Fika labo /Mata Meliaceae Aglaia odoratissima Bl. lawid Lingat Meliaceae Lansium domesticum Correa Kelidang Moraceae Artocarpus cf. lanceifolius Roxb. Feriubi Moraceae Artocarpus cf. primackiana Kochummen Lagka Moraceae Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. Fudu Moraceae Artocarpus kemando Miq. Kiran / Tarap Moraceae Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco Terur talau Moraceae Artocarpus sp. Talun Moraceae Artocarpus tamaran Becc. Likabong Moraceae Ficus cf. francisci H. Winkl. Feriboodok Moraceae Ficus cf. uncinata (King) Becc. Arid Moraceae Ficus megaleia Corner Lunuk Moraceae Ficus parietalis Blume Gitah Moraceae Ficus racemosa L. var. elongata (King) Barrett Lison okok Moraceae Ficus sp. Emel Moraceae Ficus stolonifera King / F. uncinata (King) Becc. Bong Musaceae Musa sp. Pidara / Myristicaceae Horsfieldia sp. Semendara Tereh / Decer Myrsinaceae Ardisia sp. pelanuk War ilang Myrsinaceae Embellia philippinensis A.DC. Lipet Myrtaceae Decaspermum parviflorum (Lam.) A.J. Scott Jambu (Malay) Myrtaceae Psidium guajava L. Buau / Binuber Myrtaceae Syzigium foxworthianum (Ridl.) Merr. & Perry Uber Myrtaceae Syzigium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. Jambu air (Malay) Myrtaceae Syzigium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & Perry; or S. aqueum (Burm.f.) Alston Markisa (Malay) Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis Sims Pisang lalid Rosaceae Rubus benguetensis Elmer Serinit / Tabpa Rosaceae Rubus moluccanus L. serinit Bidang Rosaceae Rubus rosifolius J.E.Smith Buyor Rutaceae Citrus microcarpa Bunge; C. maxima (Burm.) Merr.; C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck; C. medica L. Demicir Sapindaceae Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb.) Leenh. Sia Sapindaceae Nephelium cuspidatum Bl. var. eriopetalum (Miq.) Leenh. Rambutan (Malay) Sapindaceae Nephelium lappaceum L. Beritem Sapindaceae Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Labill.) Leenh. Fuder Sapindaceae Unknown species Arau / Kuceng Tilliaceae Microcos cf. elmeri Merr. Sifei Urticaceae Debregeasia longifolia (Burm.f.) Wedd. Terebak becuk Zingiberaceae Alpinia latilabris Ridl. Terebak labo / Zingiberaceae Alpinia ligulata K.Schum. Terebak fayeh Terebak Zingiberaceae Alpinia nieuwenhuizii Val. / A. glabra Ridl. Tubu beritem Zingiberaceae Alpinia sp. Tubu bigan Zingiberaceae Amomum cf. polycarpum K.Schum. Salleh Zingiberaceae Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Smith Tubu /Baku Zingiberaceae Etlingera punicea (Roxb.) R.M. derayau Smith Teladan Zingiberaceae Hornstedtia affinis Ridl. Teladan becuk / Zingiberaceae Hornstedtia scyphifera Steud. Teladan fayeh / Teladan buki Tubu becit Zingiberaceae Plagiostachys crocydocalyx (K.Schum.) B.L.Burtt & R.M.Sm. Tubu terutung Zingiberaceae Plagiostachys sp. Table 1: Comparison of Edible Plant Resources Used as Kikid by Peoples of Highland Borneo NO. OF KELABIT (PA IBAN (NANGA LUNDAYEH SPECIES: DALIH) SUMPA) (LONG PASIA & (Christensen, (Christensen, LONG MIO) 2002) 2002) MUSHROOMS 38 19 10 VEGETABLES 129 195 108 SPICES OR 34 61 19 FLAVOURINGS TOTAL 201 275 137 Table 2: Long Pasia Dietarv Survevs YEAR OF 1993 1999-2000 (Hoare) SURVEY (Bennett) Survey Survey Survey Survey % MEALS 1: 2: 3: 4: CONTAINING: HUNTED MEAT 39 33 31 20 27 RNER FISH 40 23 29 11 16 YEAR OF 1999-2000 (Hoare) SURVEY Survey Survey % MEALS 5: % CONTAINING: HUNTED MEAT 19 26 RNER FISH 21 20 Table 3: Species used as Periku LUNDAYEH NAME FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME Kayu telatang Anacardiaceae Campnosperma auriculatum Hook. f. Periku bata Urticaceae Oreocnide trinervis (Wedd.) Miq. Periku pelanuk / Periku Myrsinaceae Ardisia sp. abai Periku tuer Euphorbiaceae Bischofia javanica B1. Tebpu barok Begoniaceae Begonia sp. War ilang Myrsinaceae Embelia sp. Table 4: Fruits Most Conunonly Eaten by Children LUNDAYEH NAME FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME Bisian Arecaceae Salacca vermicularis Becc. Kecii / Kayu mein / Clusiaceae Garcinia parvifolia (Miq.) Tutuberu Miq. Timon labo Cucurbitaceae Mukia javanica (Miq.) C. Jeffrey Iti / Eki' Elaea aceae Elaeagnus erru inea Rich. Lipau Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Muell.Arg. Tuer Euphorbiaceae Bischo a javanica BI. Sikali Melastomaceae Melastoma malabathricum L. Terur suit Meliaceae Aglaia korthalsii Miq. Fika labo / Mata lawid Meliaceae Aglaia odoratissima B1. Lingat Meliaceae Lansium domesticum Correa Gitah Moraceae Ficus racemosa L. var. elongata (King) Barrett Bong Musaceae Musa sp. Lipet Myrtceae Decas ermum arviflorum (Lam.) A.J. Scott Jambu (Malay) Myrtceae Psidium guava L. Buau Myrtceae Syzigium foxworthianum (Ridl.) Merr. & Perry Jambu air (Malay) Myrtaceae Syzigium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & Perry; or S. aqueum (Burm.f.) Alston Markisa (Malay) Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis Sims Pisan lalid Rosaceae Rubus benguetensis Elmer Serinit / Tabpa serinit Rosaceae Rubus moluccanus L. Bidang Rosaceae Rubus rosifolius J.E.Smith Buyor Rutaceae Citrus microcarpa Bunge; C. maxima (Burm.) Merr.; C. sinensis L. Osbeck; C. medica L. Teladan Zingiberaceae Hornstedtia affinis Ridl. Terebak Zingiberaceae Alpinia spp. Table 5: Forest Resources Frequently Brought Into Cultivation LUNDAYEH NAME FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME FLAVORING Keduang Lauraceae Cinnamomum sp Afa 'fulung Menispermaceae Albertisia sp Bua salleh /Bua Zingiberaceae Edingera elatior (Jack) beludu / Baku ucat R.M.Smith EDIBLE FRUIT Felam Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. Karamut Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. Karung / Lam karung Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. Beleleh Bombacaceae Durio graveolens Becc. Lapun salat Bombacaceae Durio sp. Dalit Bombacaceae Durio sp. Pugi Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq.) Muell.Arg. Siei Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea sp. Berangan Fagaceae Castanopsis costata (B1.) A.DC. Lingat Meliaceae Lansium domesticum Correa Kelidang Moraceae Artocarpus c^ lanceifolius Roxb. Feriubi Moraceae Artocarpus cf. primackiana Kochununen Kiran / Tarap Moraceae Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco Talun Moraceae Artocarpus tamaran Becc. Sia Sapindaceae Nephelium cuspidatum Bl. var. eriopetalum (Miq.) Leenh. Beritem Sapindaceae Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Labill.) Leenh. EDIBLE STEM PITH Wei sia Arecaceae Daemonorops fissa Bl. Wei seseit Arecaceae Daemonorops longistipes Burret Wei lingan Arecaceae Daemonorops sabut Becc.
(1) For a detailed description of the region's forest types and their botanical composition, see Phillips and Lamb (1998).
(2) Included within my category of "vegetables" are green leafy vegetables, bamboo shoots, and tuberous roots, as well as flowers, seeds, and fruits.
(3) The first dietary surveys are not included because the data on plant resources are incomplete. Subsequent to this, the survey forms were re-designed, enabling better data collection. Furthermore, this data does not reflect the importance of the different vegetation types as sources of fruits, because of the under-recording of these foods in the dietary surveys.
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Department of Anthropology
University of Kent
Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NS UK
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|Title Annotation:||Research Notes|
|Publication:||Borneo Research Bulletin|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2003|
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