Food resources and changing patterns of resource use among the the Lundayeh of the Ulu Padas, Sabah.This paper gives an account of the food resources and diet of the Lundayeh of Long Pasia and Long Mio at the end of the twentieth century. I describe the diversity of resources used and patterns of resource use, investigating the importance of different habitats as sources of food. This research is placed in the context of central Borneo Borneo (bôr`nēō'), island (1990 pop. 9,102,906), c.287,000 sq mi (743,330 sq km), largest of the Malay Archipelago and third largest island in the world, SW of the Philippines and N of Java. by comparing my own findings with those of researchers who have done similar studies elsewhere in the region. The Lundayeh have experienced rapid social and environmental changes in the last decade. I examine how people have responded to these changes, as reflected in their resource management practices. On this basis, I consider what lessons can be learned from the Lundayeh by those attempting to develop a more sustainable management strategy for the region.
The Lundayeh communities of Long Pasia and Long Mio are situated in the Ulu Padas region of southwest Southwest or south west is the ordinal direction halfway between south and west, the opposite of northeast.
Southwest or south west may also refer to:
North Borneo, Sabah - a region of Malaysia in northeastern Borneo
Malaysian - a native or inhabitant of Malaysia
Adj. 1. Sabahan - of or pertaining to Sabah or its people; "Sabahan tribesmen" Lundayeh live in the lowlands, particularly in the Sipitang Sipitang is a town and also a parliamentary constituency located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Its population was estimated to be around 24,340 in 1991. region. However, they still see themselves as essentially a highland people. The Lundayeh regard the Kerayan-Kelabit highlands in Kalimantan Kalimantan: see Borneo. as their heartland. It is from here that they are thought to have originated, migrating throughout the region where the states of Kalimantan, Sarawak Sarawak (sərä`wäk), state (1991 pop. 1,648,217), 48,342 sq mi (125,206 sq km), Malaysia, in NW Borneo and on the South China Sea. and Sabah meet, over the last two centuries (Harrisson 1967).
Long Pasia is a village of about 400 residents, and Long Mio about 120 residents. The villages are at an altitude altitude, vertical distance of an object above some datum plane, such as mean sea level or a reference point on the earth's surface. It is usually measured by the reduction in atmospheric pressure with height, as shown on a barometer or altimeter. of 1000m, and are surrounded sur·round
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.
2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.
n. by undulating hills, and beyond these, mountains. The vegetation vegetation /veg·e·ta·tion/ (vej?e-ta´shun) any plantlike fungoid neoplasm or growth; a luxuriant fungus-like growth of pathologic tissue. close to the villages is a patchwork of fields and secondary forest of varying ages, a consequence of people's long history in the region, and their practice of swidden swid·den
An area cleared for temporary cultivation by cutting and burning the vegetation.
[Dialectal alteration of obsolete swithen, from Old Norse svidhna, to be burned.] agriculture. Further afield, the region was, at least until very recently, covered by one of the last extensive areas of old-growth forest remaining in Sabah (Payne
The surname Payne stems from paganus, see pagan. People
heath, tract of open land characterized by a few scattered trees, abundant moss cover, and numerous low shrubs, principally of the heath family (see heath, in botany). and montane mon·tane
Of, growing in, or inhabiting mountain areas.
[Latin montnus, from m forests. (1)
The Lundayeh of Long Pasia and Long Mio are primarily swidden agriculturalists, although wet rice cultivation cultivation, tilling or manipulation of the soil, done primarily to eliminate weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. Cultivation may be used in crusted soils to increase soil aeration and infiltration of water; it may also be used to move soil to or is also important. Cash crops are extensively cultivated cultivated,
n in herbal medicine, used to describe plants that are commercially farmed rather than collected from the wild. , with coffee and tobacco having met with particular success during the time of this research. As well as cash-cropping, the other main source of income is from wage labor. Many people go to work in the logging camps, and in towns and cities in Sabah and further afield. Since 1997 the villages have been linked to Sipitang by a logging road, a journey that takes about four hours. The arrival of the road enabled expansion of cash cropping, and easier availability of processed goods. In addition, it encouraged a number of families to return to the village. The population of both villages has grown in recent years, and seems likely to continue to do so. The arrival of the road also marked the beginning of extensive logging activities in the region. These have been going on around the villages, with noticeable impacts on the availability of forest resources and on river quality. However, in spite of in opposition to all efforts of; in defiance or contempt of; notwithstanding.
See also: Spite the many social and environmental changes which the Lundayeh have experienced in recent years, forest resources continue to make an important and highly valued contribution to their subsistence subsistence,
n the state of being supported or remaining alive with a minimum of essentials. .
Research was conducted from September September: see month. 1999 until November November: see month. 2000 as part of a wider Ph.D. study. Hunting and dietary di·e·tar·y
Of or relating to diet.
1. pertaining to diet.
2. a course or system of diet.
dietary hepatic necrosis
see hepatosis dietetica. surveys were conducted to investigate the diversity of resources being used, their importance in the diet, and the relative importance of different environments as sources of these foods. During five seven-day Adj. 1. seven-day - lasting through a week; "her weeklong vacation"
long - primarily temporal sense; being or indicating a relatively great or greater than average duration or passage of time or a duration as specified; "a long life"; "a long boring periods in each of the villages, a member of every household was asked to record the foods being eaten within their household. These surveys were conducted at roughly two-month intervals throughout the year, so that any seasonal variation in the diet could be observed. During one survey period, I asked the children to keep their own food diaries, to enable a comparison to be made with that of the adults.
Complementary to the dietary surveys, botanical bo·tan·i·cal also bo·tan·ic
1. Of or relating to plants or plant life.
2. Of or relating to the science of botany.
n. collecting expeditions were undertaken. These were conducted in the areas surrounding sur·round
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.
2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.
n. the villages with people from the villages. I collected specimens of plant species used as vegetables, fruits, spices, leaves for wrapping rice, cooking containers, as well as plants that are used to obtain food, for example, to make fishing nets, animal traps, fish poisons and hunting charms. These activities enabled more complete documentation of the edible fruits, since these were often not recorded in the food surveys. In addition, they gave particular insight into neglected food resources--those that are rarely, or never, used today.
Interviews were also undertaken with all households to investigate people's agricultural strategies and land and resource use practices.
Food Resources of the Lundayeh
In common with perhaps all other swidden agriculturalists of Borneo (Chin 1985; Christensen Christensen may refer to:
Snack foods A list of snack foods is shown below. For more information, see snack foods. List of snack foods
The foods that are served as kikid are diverse. At their most basic, the kikid may be simply salt or chillies--although this is only out of necessity rather than from choice. More typically, a meal will include a few vegetables, and perhaps some meat or fish. Appendix 1 shows the full range of foods that were recorded in the dietary surveys, as well as the few additional foods I observed being eaten at other times. This gives a more or less complete representation of the range of foods that are eaten as kikid.
Plant resources make up the vast majority of the kikid served, accounting for 68% in Long Mio and 63% in Long Pasia (by frequency) of those recorded in the food diaries (the remainder of which are meat or fish). Apparent from the data is the wide range of plant resources used. The Lundayeh recognize 113 types of vegetable vegetable, term originally used for any plant, now the name for many food plants, most of them annuals, and for their edible parts. There is no clear botanical distinction between vegetables and fruits. (2) and ubud Ubud is a town in central Bali, Indonesia, considered the arts and culture center of the island.
Ubud has a population of about 8,000 people, but it is becoming difficult to distinguish the town itself from the villages that once surrounded it. (stem pith pith, in botany, core of the stem of most plants. Pith is composed of large, loosely packed food-storage cells. As the stem grows older the pith usually dries out, and in some it disintegrates and the stem becomes hollow. ), 28 mushrooms and 22 flavorings. Identification to species level was not always possible (because of the absence of specimens or of fertile material Fertile material is a term used to describe nuclides which generally themselves do not undergo induced fission (fissionable by thermal neutrons) but from which fissile material is generated by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions. for identification, for example), and so the number of species used cannot be given precisely. However, they represent at least 107 species of vegetable, 19 species of flavoring, and 10 mushroom mushroom, type of basidium fungus characterized by spore-bearing gills on the underside of the umbrella- or cone-shaped cap. The name toadstool is popularly reserved for inedible or poisonous mushrooms, but this classification has no scientific basis. species. This is certainly an under-estimate of the number of edible mushroom species, since I was only able to gather specimens for 12 of the types of mushrooms.
Similar arrays of edible plant resources (both with respect to the number of species used, and the actual species) have been recorded for other central Borneo societies (Chin 1985; Christensen 1997, 2002; Colfer et al. 1997). Christensen (2002) collected comparable data on the numbers of species being used by an Iban and a Kelabit The Kelabit, who have close ties to the Lun Bawang, are an indigenous race of the Sarawak highlands with a minority in the neighbouring state of Brunei. The elevation here is slightly over 1,200 meters. community in Sarawak. These data are summarized in Table 1. This suggests that the Lundayeh use slightly fewer edible resources than either the Iban or Kelabit communities (although it should be born in mind that my calculations of species numbers are conservative estimates). There are a number of possible reasons for this. Undoubtedly a significant factor is the degree of isolation of these communities. Unlike the Iban and Kelabit communities, Long Pasia and Long Mio are accessible by road, and this is likely to have resulted in a shift away from the use of some local resources towards processed and shop-bought goods.
Although plant resources account for the majority of the kikid that are eaten, people have a strong preference for eating meat. When no one has had any recent hunting success, it is common to hear complaints from people about how bored they are with eating 'just leaves' (don mo). The importance of meat and fish in the diet is apparent from the figures showing the percentage of meals in which these are eaten. Thus, in Long Pasia, 49% of meals included hunted meat or fish from the rivers, or if we include meat and fish that have been reared or shop purchased, the figure rises to 64% of meals. The equivalent figures for Long Mio are 42% and 58% respectively.
In terms of numbers of side-dishes, meat and fish account for 32% in Long Mio and 37% in Long Pasia, these figures also include shop-bought meat and livestock livestock
Farm animals, with the exception of poultry. In Western countries the category encompasses primarily cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, donkeys, and mules; other animals (e.g., buffalo, oxen, or camels) may predominate in other areas. . By comparison with data reported from other central Borneo communities, this figure is low. For example, in a Kenyah The Kenyah are an indigenous peoples of Borneo, living in the remote Baram and Belaga regions in Sarawak, Malaysia and Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Kenyah are grouped together with the Kayan under the Bahau ethnic group. Traditionally they lived in long houses. community, 49% of the side-dishes of three individuals were of hunted meat or local river fish (Chin 1985:90-91). The same figures for four members of a Kantu' community were 43% for hunted meat and river fish, and 45% when including shop-bought meat or livestock (Colfer and Soedjito 1996:176 and 180-181). Although care needs to be taken not to infer too much from this, the data used for comparison being from relatively small survey numbers, it does suggest that less meat and fish is being eaten in Long Mio and Long Pasia than might be expected. This is perhaps not surprising given the decline in animal and fish numbers that local people have noted in recent years. In fact, there is some evidence to suggest that fewer animals are hunted in Long Pasia today than seven years previously. This comes from hunting surveys carried out in Long Pasia in 1993 (Bennett et al. 2000:307-310). At that time, there was no logging in A colloquial term for the process of making the initial record of the names of individuals who have been brought to the police station upon their arrest.
The process of logging in is also called booking. the area, and the road had not yet reached the villages. The population of Long Pasia was also smaller, with only 40 households, in comparison to today's 68. As part of this research, data were recorded of the percentage of evening meals containing wild meat and local river fish (Bennett, personal communication). I do not know at what time of year this information was recorded. However, these figures are considerably higher than those from all the dietary surveys that I conducted (Table 2).
Certainly, it would be surprising if there has not been a decline in the numbers of game and fish consumed con·sume
v. con·sumed, con·sum·ing, con·sumes
1. To take in as food; eat or drink up. See Synonyms at eat.
a. because of the changes that have taken place in the last decade. These have included an increase in population, both within the villages, and from the establishment of logging camps throughout the area. In addition, logging in the area has caused forest loss as well as noise and river pollution, and the logging roads have enabled easier access to more remote parts, both to villagers and to outsiders.
Although hunted meat and fish from the local rivers are still the most important sources of protein in the diet, with declining hunting and fishing returns, people are increasingly turning to shop-bought and processed foods. Such foods accounted for 4% and 7% of kikid recorded in the dietary surveys in Long Mio and Long Pasia respectively. The greater consumption of shop-bought foods in Long Pasia reflects their greater availability there (there are three stores in the village, in comparison to Long Mio's one store), and also the greater affluence of some people in Long Pasia. Tinned meat and fish, salted fish, and chicken eggs are the main foods that people buy from the village stores, and the usual reason for buying these is because people have no fresh meat in the house. For the same reasons, the consumption of chicken and tilapia tilapia (təlä`pēə) or St. Peter's fish, a spiny-finned freshwater fish of the family Cichlidae, native chiefly to Africa and the Middle East. (from fish ponds) is increasing. Of the domesticated animals This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
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This is a list of animals which have been domesticated by humans. , only chickens are eaten as kikid on an everyday basis. The other animals, pigs, buffaloes, and cows, are only slaughtered for special occasions.
Snack foods include cakes and biscuits, fruits, instant noodles noo·dle 1
A narrow, ribbonlike strip of dried dough, usually made of flour, eggs, and water.
[German Nudel. , bread, sweets and crisps crisp
adj. crisp·er, crisp·est
1. Firm but easily broken or crumbled; brittle: crisp potato chips.
2. (see Appendix 1). Many snack foods are eaten while people are out in the fields or forest. When a group is working in someone's field, the owner of that field always provides drinks, together with cakes of some kind. Often, flied doughnuts (kui tepong, 'flour cakes') are cooked, or during the months of November and December December: see month. , when the corn is ripe, fried 1. (hardware) fried - Non-working due to hardware failure; burnt out. Especially used of hardware brought down by a "power glitch" (see glitch), drop-outs, a short, or some other electrical event. corn cakes corn cake or corn·cake
n. Chiefly Southern & Midland U.S.
See johnnycake. See Regional Note at johnnycake.
Noun 1. are popular. People often eat cucumbers to refresh (1) To continuously charge a device that cannot hold its content. CRTs must be refreshed, because the phosphors hold their glow for only a few milliseconds. Dynamic RAM chips require refreshing to maintain their charged bit patterns. See vertical scan frequency and redraw. themselves while harvesting the rice fields (the season when these fruits are ripe). Sugar cane cane, walking stick
cane, walking stick. Probably used first as a weapon, it gradually took on the symbolism of strength and power and eventually authority and social prestige. and the young shoots of certain trees, periku, which have a high water content and are astringent astringent (əstrĭn`jənt), substance that shrinks body tissues. Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of serum or mucous secretions in sore throat, to the taste, also provide a ready source of refreshment (Table 3).
Fruits, as well as other snack foods, are particularly important in children's diets. This was apparent from the data collected in the children's food diaries. As well as a much higher incidence of snack foods, children also recorded a greater diversity, for example, they recorded a number of fruits that were absent from the adult food diaries, including bua bidang (Rubus rosifolius) and bua buau (Syzigium foxworthianum). Children snack on a wide range of fruits. Those most commonly eaten are listed in Table 4. Characteristics shared by these species are that they are easily accessible, easy to harvest, and have fruits requiring little or no preparation before eating. Adults are generally more discerning dis·cern·ing
Exhibiting keen insight and good judgment; perceptive.
dis·cerning·ly adv. in their choice of fruits, preferring the larger and sweeter fruits, most of which are from cultivated varieties. However, there are certain forest fruits that adults will go out of their way for, such as the fruits of species of Durio, Nepheliurn, and Mangifera.
The most important snack foods are fruits--important both because they are the most frequently consumed, and because of their nutritional value (Hladik et al. 1993). In Appendix 2 I have listed the edible fruits found locally. Not included in the table are those fruits that are sometimes bought in town. Most commonly, people buy fruits grown in the Sipitang area, such as rambutan, durian durian, the highly esteemed, edible fruit of Durio zibethinus. The edible portions are the seeds found inside the large spiny fruits, which may weigh several pounds. , mango mango (măng`gō), evergreen tree of the Anacardiaceae (sumac family), native to tropical E Asia and now grown in both hemispheres. The chief species, Mangifera indica, is believed to have been cultivated for about 6,000 years. , and watermelon watermelon, plant (Citrullus vulgaris) of the family Curcurbitaceae (gourd family) native to Africa and introduced to America by Africans transported as slaves. Watermelons are now extensively cultivated in the United States and are popular also in S Russia. . Occasionally, other fruits are bought, such as grapes Grapes - A Modula-like system description language.
["GRAPES Language Description. Syntax, Semantics and Grammar of GRAPES-86", Siemens Nixdorf Inform, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-8009-4112-0]. , apples and oranges. 109 Lundayeh names of fruits were recorded, these corresponding to at least 89 species (a conservative estimate, because not all were identified to species). As previously noted for the kikid, in comparison with the data collected by Christensen (2002), this is a lower number of species. The Kelabit community of Pa Dalih were reported to use 125 species, and the Iban community of Nanga This article is about a school of Japanese painting. For the African musical instrument, see nanga (instrument).
Nanga (南画, "Southern painting"), also known as Bunjinga Sumpa, 184 species of fruit.
Patterns of Resource Use
Patterns of resource use are shaped by people's preferences for the particular resources, and the resources' availability and ease of harvesting. In turn, ease of harvesting is influenced by people's activities, for example, when people are out hunting, certain resources, such as rattans, are readily accessible. Similarly, during periods of intensive agricultural work, food resources in the fields are those that are most readily available, and consequently, people tend to rely more on these (Colfer and Soedjito 1996; Dove 1985).
These factors are reflected in the data on the relative importance of different vegetation types as sources of side-dishes. As part of the dietary surveys, I asked people to record where they had harvested their foods--whether from old-growth forest, secondary forest, riverside Riverside.
1 City (1990 pop. 226,505), seat of Riverside co., S Calif.; inc. 1883. One of the fastest growing U.S. cities in the late 20th cent., it is famous for its orange industry. vegetation, the fields or village, field margins and young fallow fallow
a pale cream, light fawn, or pale yellow coat color in dogs. vegetation, or if they had been bought. The results are summarized in Figures 1 and 2. (3) I included hunting as a separate category because people generally recorded all hunted meat as having come from old-growth forest. This is in spite of the fact that a considerable amount of hunting takes place within secondary forest, and to a lesser extent, in agricultural areas and fallow vegetation. It was therefore often impossible to know in which type of vegetation the animals had been caught. Domesticated animals, and also fish from fishponds and paddy fields, were included in the category of "field / village."
The data show that the majority of the foods eaten as side-dishes comes from the fields, with a significant number also coming from riverside vegetation. The importance of fields is not surprising, especially given the expansion in vegetable cultivation in recent years. A wide variety of vegetables are grown, providing an abundant supply. Furthermore, many people have fields near to the village, and so the foods here are readily available. Even for those people who do not have land close by, much time is spent working in the fields, and so the resources growing here are those that are easiest to collect.
The riverside is also an important source of vegetables. The vegetation here is often dominated by edible plant species, making them easy to collect. In Long Mio, riverside vegetation is particularly important as a source of foods, because there are extensive areas close to the village. In contrast, much of the riverside in Long Pasia has been converted to fields. Furthermore, there are many more people, and so harvesting pressure on those remaining areas near the village is quite high. At certain times, such as after a period of drought drought, abnormally long period of insufficient rainfall. Drought cannot be defined in terms of inches of rainfall or number of days without rain, since it is determined by such variable factors as the distribution in time and area of precipitation during and before , the women commented that it was difficult to find enough vegetables to provide for their families from the riverbanks close to the village.
Old-growth and secondary forest are the source of relatively few edible plant resources, their main importance being as a source of hunted meat. However, certain plant resources predominate here, such as bamboo bamboo, plant of the family Gramineae (grass family), chiefly of warm or tropical regions, where it is sometimes an extremely important component of the vegetation. It is most abundant in the monsoon area of E Asia. shoots. Bamboos (Gigantochloa Gigantochloa is a tropical genus of giant clumping bamboo, similar to the genus Bambusa. Found in Southeast Asia, the genus comprises about 24 species. levis, Bambusa vulgaris Noun 1. Bambusa vulgaris - extremely vigorous bamboo having thin-walled culms striped green and yellow; so widely cultivated that native area is uncertain
bamboo shoot - edible young shoots of bamboo and Schizostachyum Schizostachyum is a tall or shrub-like tropical genus of bamboo. The genus name comes from Greek schistos ("cleft") and stachys ("spike"), referring to the spacing of spikelets.
These are clumping, and sometimes climbing bamboos. brachycladum) send up new shoots only a few months each year, between June June: see month. and August, so there is a glut glut pronounced as rut, slut Vox populi An excess of a service or skilled labor in a particular area. See Physician glut. of this vegetable at this time. During the fourth dietary survey conducted in Long Pasia, bamboo shoots were in season, and consequently, secondary forest is the source of many more kikid during this time.
Many seasonal resources are from swidden fields, the agricultural calendar determining their availability. A few weeks after rice planting begins, mustard greens Noun 1. mustard greens - leaves eaten as cooked greens
Indian mustard, leaf mustard, mustard
cruciferous vegetable - a vegetable of the mustard family: especially mustard greens; various cabbages; broccoli; cauliflower; brussels sprouts (Brassica brassica
Any plant of the large genus Brassica, in the mustard family, containing about 40 Old World species and including the cabbages, mustards, and rapes. B. oleracea has many edible varieties, such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and kohlrabi. spp.) and spinach spinach, annual plant (Spinacia oleracea) of the family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family), probably of Persian origin and known to have been introduced into Europe in the 15th cent. (Amaranthus Amaranthus
a genus of the plant family Amaranthaceae, many of them succulent weeds of cultivated fields. Contain high levels of nitrate or oxalate or both. Includes A. blitum, A. cruentus, A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. mitchellii, A. spp.) are ready for harvesting. It is these vegetables that account for the much greater significance of fields as a source of kikid in the fifth dietary surveys which were conducted during the time of rice planting. A contributing factor is that this is a period of intense agricultural activity, and so people do not have time to collect vegetables from elsewhere. A month or so later, around November, the leaves of squashes (Benincasa hispida, Cucurbita spp., Momordica prop. n. 1. A genus of Old World tropical vine.
Noun 1. Momordica - Old World tropical vine
dicot genus, magnoliopsid genus - genus of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually charantia) and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus Cucumis sativus,
n See cucumber. ) can be harvested, and they continue to provide a source of green vegetables until the end of rice harvesting (March or April). Their fruits take a few months to mature, ripening ripening
said of meat. See curing. from January January: see month. onwards on·ward
Moving or tending forward.
adv. also on·wards
In a direction or toward a position that is ahead in space or time; forward.
Adv. 1. .
The availability of snails is also linked with the agricultural calendar. During the relatively slow period between rice harvesting and clearing the fields for next year's crop, from April to June, snails make up an important part of the diet. This is because at this time of year the women do not have much work to do, and so they have the time to collect snails. Furthermore, the paddy fields are free of rice, and so people are able to collect snails as well as fish. This accounts for the higher numbers of "river fish" recorded in the third Long Mio survey (where most snails are collected from a lake, and so were included as river fish), and also for the relatively high numbers of side-dishes coming from the "field/village" in the third Long Pasia survey (where most snails are collected from paddy fields).
The amount of hunting that goes on is also related to people's other activities. Thus, when the men are busy with agricultural work, as during the fifth hunting surveys when they were involved with rice planting, hunting activities decline. Also significant in influencing the amount of hunting is the availability of game. Animal populations vary, particularly in relation to the availability of food. Most significantly, boar populations increase dramatically during mast mast, large metal or timber pole secured vertically or nearly vertically in a ship, used primarily for supporting sails and rigging. The mast is as old as sailing vessels, and the oldest sailboats depicted (those of ancient Egypt) had a small mast placed forward and fruiting events. Apparently, at such times many boar are hunted. Although there was no mast fruiting during the period of my fieldwork field·work
1. A temporary military fortification erected in the field.
2. Work done or firsthand observations made in the field as opposed to that done or observed in a controlled environment.
3. , many species were in fruit during the first and second dietary surveys. Reflecting this, greater numbers of animals were hunted during these survey periods, and more meat was eaten at this time.
Certain other resources vary in availability, although not necessarily at the same times each year. A major factor influencing the amount of fish that is eaten is the timing of fish spawning. Such an event took place during the second dietary survey in Long Pasia, and many people went fishing and made large catches. Consequently, fish made a much greater contribution to the diet during this period.
In summary, investigation of patterns of resource use show that fields are the source for the most frequently eaten vegetables for the Lundayeh. However, non-cultivated habitats are the source of a wide range of vegetable species and also the source of many fruits. The forest is also the source of most of the meat and fish that is eaten. Thus, fallow fields and forest habitats contribute much diversity to the diet, something that is greatly valued by the Lundayeh. This is not only because of personal taste, people also recognize that forest resources are a valuable source of food at times when other foods, such as cultivated vegetables, are unavailable. Thus, forest foods are important for nutrition and for food security (Appell Appell is a surname and may refer to:
One feature then of the Lundayeh subsistence system is the use of a diversity of resources, and of vegetation types. Until recently, such a strategy has been possible because of the availability of extensive forest resources. Furthermore, the Lundayeh system of forest management, of which the practice of swidden agriculture is an integral part, has served to create a mosaic of forest patches at different stages of regeneration Regeneration (biology)
The process by which an animal restores a lost part of its body. Broadly defined, the term can include wound healing, tissue repair, and many kinds of restorative activities. , thus, helping to increase the availability of a wide range of resources. However, whether this strategy will continue to be possible in future years seems unlikely because of the rapid environmental and social changes that are taking place. Indeed, the evidence cited previously suggests that the use of forest resources is in decline. This was indicated by the lower number of species used as vegetables and fruit by the Lundayeh in comparison with Kelabit and Iban communities in Sarawak. Similarly, data on the consumption of hunted meat show that the Lundayeh are eating less in comparison with other highland Borneo communities, and indeed, that its consumption has declined in the period from 1993 to 2000.
One cause of these changes has been the logging activities in the Ulu Padas, which have resulted in the loss of large areas of forest. Consequently, there has been a decline in the availability of certain forest resources. Logging has also placed increased pressure on the land falling outside the logging concessions. The responses of the Lundayeh to these changes have been varied. One response has been to put greater effort and resources into the cultivation of cash crops. Parallel to this, there has been a shift away from swidden cultivation, with some people deciding to cultivate cul·ti·vate
tr.v. cul·ti·vat·ed, cul·ti·vat·ing, cul·ti·vates
a. To improve and prepare (land), as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; till.
b. only wet rice (for which subsidies are available) and others concentrating entirely on cash crops (with subsidies also available for certain of these). People are choosing to do this partly because they recognize that in the future they will not be able to depend on local resources for their needs, and so will have to buy replacements. This is just part of a more general trend towards greater dependence on a cash economy, with people needing to meet such costs as schooling, medical expenses and to purchase various manufactured goods manufactured goods npl → manufacturas fpl; bienes mpl manufacturados
manufactured goods npl → produits manufacturés .
Another response of the Lundayeh to the decline in forest resources has been to bring some of these into cultivation (see Table 5). These include favored rattan rattan (rătăn`), name for a number of plants of the genera Calamus, Daemonorops, and Korthalsia climbing palms of tropical Asia, belonging to the family Palmae (palm family). species, flavorings and spices, and many fruit trees, in particular, species of mango, durian and rambutan. The Lundayeh have a long tradition of bringing fruit trees into cultivation. However, in recent years these activities have expanded, because people fear that these resources will not be available in future years, and also because of a desire to establish fruit orchards for commercial reasons. Similarly, in response to the decline in animal and fish numbers, many people have constructed fish ponds for rearing tilapia, and a number of households keep chickens.
The increased pressure on both land and resources is also resulting in a shift towards greater privatization privatization: see nationalization.
Transfer of government services or assets to the private sector. State-owned assets may be sold to private owners, or statutory restrictions on competition between privately and publicly owned . Today, there exists a great sense of urgency to secure land titles. Furthermore, some people now restrict access to resources that lie on their land. For example, there is a large patch of bamboo forest near Long Pasia which today fails under the ownership of several people. A few individuals have let it be known that they do not want people collecting bamboo shoots from their land, despite there being a long tradition of open access to other villagers for these resources. Although this is the cause of some ill feeling, with such behavior being seen as not customary for the Lundayeh, it has not been openly challenged. Rather, it has led to other people following suit.
Undoubtedly, the Lundayeh of Long Pasia and Long Mio will continue to change and adapt their way of life over the next decade and beyond. Some of these changes will no doubt be welcomed, but others will come about from necessity rather than preference. Already, their future options have been limited by the widespread logging. Consequently, a shift away from a forest-based lifestyle, with more intensive agriculture and greater involvement in the cash economy and in urban life, seems inevitable. What remains uncertain is whether, in this process, any of the particular characteristics of the Lundayeh way of life and of the Ulu Padas will be maintained. The Ulu Padas is a unique region, both biologically and culturally, and it would be both tragic and nonsensical if it were converted to plantations PLANTATIONS. Colonies, (q.v.) dependencies. (q.v.) 1 Bl. Com. 107. In England, this word, as it is used in St. 12, II. c. 18, is never applied to, any of the British dominions in Europe, but only to the colonies in the West Indies and America. 1 Marsh. Ins, B. 1, c. 3, Sec. 2, page 64. and fields in its entirety The whole, in contradistinction to a moiety or part only. When land is conveyed to Husband and Wife, they do not take by moieties, but both are seised of the entirety. . Not only would such a route be unimaginative, it would be wasteful, since it would ignore the potential of local resources and of alternative ways of life. A better route would be to develop a diverse management strategy for the Ulu Padas--i.e., one that would enable local people to continue their current activities of swidden and wet rice cultivation, cash-cropping and hunting, but would also allow the establishment of protected areas
Protected areas , and the development of community forests and agroforestry ag·ro·for·est·ry
A system of land use in which harvestable trees or shrubs are grown among or around crops or on pastureland, as a means of preserving or enhancing the productivity of the land. . (See Christensen (2002:248-249) for similar suggestions regarding Sarawak.) This would enable the Lundayeh to maintain their way of life, an important part of their identity, while enabling economic development, also a local priority. Furthermore, such a strategy has the potential for meeting the state's goals of economic development and conservation.
That a more diverse strategy is possible is suggested by the Lundayeh's own response to the recent changes that they have experienced. In particular, the further development of fruit orchards and of agroforestry systems has great potential. Elsewhere in Borneo, highland peoples have successfully developed agroforestry systems that are economically successful, and at the same time, have enabled conservation of much of the local biodiversity biodiversity: see biological diversity.
Quantity of plant and animal species found in a given environment. Sometimes habitat diversity (the variety of places where organisms live) and genetic diversity (the variety of traits expressed and maintenance of many functions of the forest, such as watershed protection The term watershed refers to an area of land that drains precipitation that falls on it to a common point. These points could be streams, lakes, etc. Precipitatoin falling on any part of a watershed can travel quickly on the surface of the land, known as surface runoff, or travel through (Fried 2000, Michon et al. 2000, Peluso 1996). The potential for the development of agroforestry in the Ulu Padas warrants investigation, particularly in light of the diversity of plant resources found here, including a wealth of local fruit varieties and species (Hoare Hoare may refer to:
The establishment of community forests and agroforestry could be encouraged in a number of ways. One priority is the settlement of land claims so that local people have secure tenure. A possible tool is that of subsidies, as these can have a major influence on the decisions made by local people. Thus, subsidies could be provided for agroforestry initiatives, rather than just for wet rice cultivation and cash crops such as coffee and tobacco, as is the case at the moment. Ultimately, what is needed is some imagination, particularly on the part of agricultural extension Agricultural extension was once known as the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. The field of extension now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organised for rural people by officers and forest managers, so that there is a shift away from the assumption that the only options available for economic development are the traditional ones of logging, plantations and intensive agriculture. Those people with a role in developing a management strategy for the region (from local people up to government level) need to consider what kind of future they want for the region, and whether they want the Ulu Padas to become indistinguishable from many other places in Malaysia Malaysia (məlā`zhə), independent federation (2005 est. pop. 23,953,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital. , or if they wish to maintain at least some part of its biological diversity and rich cultural heritage.
Appendix 1: Foods Eaten as Kikid by the Lundayeh A.VEGETABLES LUNDAYEH NAME FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME Dorey Acanthaceae Justicia obtusa Nees Lindan Keduang Acanthaceae Pseuderanthemum acuminatissimum (Miq.) Radlk. Kuru (sia & bata) Amaranthaceae Amaranthus spp. Ufa' Araceae Alocasia sp. Ufa' Araceae Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. Bunger Araceae Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites Sikarok / kelalang Araceae Schismatoglottis cf. batu calyptrata Zoll. & Mor. Butu / kelalang Araceae Schismatoglottis sp. Dinudur Basellaceae Basella alba L. Pau sia Blechnaceae Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.f.) Bedd. Sayur busak Brassicaceae Brassica chinensis Willd. Sayur peit / sawi Brassicaceae Brassica juncea L. Czern. Sedai /abi' Brassicaceae Brassica juncea L. Czern. Sesei Brassicaceae Brassica juncea L. Czern. Kailan Brassicaceae Brassica oleracea L. Kobis Brassicaceae Brassica oleracea L. Sayur picai Brassicaceae Brassica rapa L. Sayur putih Brassicaceae Brassica rapa L. Sayur gerinting Brassicaceae Brassica sp. Kaber Bromeliaceae Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Sesila' Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Riep alud Cecropiaceae Poikilospermum sp. Riep Cecropiaceae Poikilospermum suaveolens (B1.) Merr. Siluk Commelinaceae Commelina paludosa Bl. Udu daya / Udu Compositae Crassocephalum crepidioides necing (Benth.) Moore Kangkong Convolvulaceae Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. Ubi waar Convolvulaceae Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk. Tadjak fadey Cucurbitaceae Benincasa hispida (Thunb. ex Murray) Cogn. Timon Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sativus L. Timon abai Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sp. Timon belanda Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sp. Tabo Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita sp. Tadjak Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita sp. Sifula / petolak Cucurbitaceae Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. Peria Cucurbitaceae Momordica charantia L. Tadjak cina Cucurbitaceae Unknown species Tukul langit Dracaeneaceae Dracaena sp. Ubi kayu Euphorbiaceae Manihot esculenta Crantz Cangkok manis Euphorbiaceae Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. Patar Fabaceae Parkia sp. Peritak boncis Fabaceae Phaseolus vulgaris L. Peritak lebping Fabaceae Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. Peritak kadang Fabaceae Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Bua fayang Flacourtiaceae Pangium edule Reinw. Felali Hydrocotylaceae Centella asiatica (L.) Urban Ginjer Limnocharitaceae Limnocharis flava Buchenau Lagka Moraceae Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. Pau bulat Oleanchaceae Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott Feciruk Ophioglossaceae Helmintostachys zeylanica (L.) Kaulf. Busak liling Orchidaceae Bromheadia finlaysoniana felanuk / Busak (Lindl.) Miq. fayeh Pulu--bulu ee Poaceae Bambusa vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland Pulu--bulu betung Poaceae Gigantochloa levis Merr. Pulu--bulu telang Poaceae Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz Pulu--bulu poren Poaceae Schizostachyum latifolium Gamble Pulu--bulu Poaceae Schizostachyum lima (Blanco) sebiling Merrill Buyor (feci'; Rutaceae Citrus microcarpa Bunge; kasturi; Citrus maxima Burm. Merr. Lada rayeh / cabai Solanaceae Capsicum sp. Tomate Solanaceae Lycopersicon esculentum Miller Beliwan Solanaceae Solanum americanum Miller Biterung eit lipon Solanaceae Solanum capsicoides All. Biterung pulung Solanaceae Solanum ferox L. Biterong Solanaceae Solanum melongena L. Bua ulem Solanaceae Solanum torvum Sw. Ubi gentang Solanaceae Solanum tuberosum L. Lobak merah Umbelliferae Daucus carota L. Bata Urticaceae Elatostemma sp. Tengayen Urticaceae Pouzolzia hirta (B1.) Hassk. Pau abpa Woodsiaceae Diplazium esculentum Retz. Sw. Pau abu /Pau Woodsiaceae Diplazium polypodioides Bl. kapur B. EDIBLE STEM PITH LUNDAYEH FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME NAME Deremeh Arecaceae Arenga brevipes Becc. Wei leludu Arecaceae Calamus convallium J. Dransf. Wei peit Arecaceae Calamus pogonacanthus Becc. ex Winkl. Riman Arecaceae Caryota mitis Lour. Wei tei' lal Arecaceae Ceratolobus concolor Bl. Wei kurad Arecaceae Daemonorops didymophylla Becc. Wei sia Arecaceae Daemonorops fissa B1. Belikakau / Arecaceae Daemonorops ingens J.Dransf. Lekakau Wei laasun Arecaceae Daemonorops ingens J.Dransf. Wei seseit Arecaceae Daemonorops longistipes Burret Wei lingan Arecaceae Daemonorops sabut Becc. Wei laya Arecaceae Daemonorops sparsiflora Becc. / D. didymophylla Becc. Kinangan Arecaceae Eugeissona utilis Becc. Wei ser Arecaceae Korthalsia ferox Becc. Ilad Arecaceae Licuala valida Becc. Tangan / Bara Arecaceae Pinanga capitata Becc. ex Gibbs Berang Arecaceae Pinanga sp. aff. brevipes Becc. Bisian Arecaceae Salacca vermicularis Becc. Siluk fulung Costaceae Costus speciosus (Koenig) R.M. Smith / C. globosus Bl. Bong Musaceae Musa sp. Sibak Musaceae Musa s p. Terabak Zingiberaceae Alpinia glabra Ridl. / A. nieuwenhuizii Val. Terabak fayeh Zingiberaceae Alpinia ligulata K.Schum. C. SPICES AND FLAVORINGS LUNDAYEH FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME NAME Bawang merah Alliaceae Allium cepa L. Bawang putih Alliaceae Allium sp. Kusei Alliaceae Allium sp. Don sup Apiaceae Apium sp. Piasau/Butan Arecaceae Cocus nucifera L. Bua terur garang / Clusiaceae Garcinia dryobalanoides ticuk mangai' Pierre Bua kecii / kayu Clusiaceae Garcinia parvifolia mein / tutuberu (Miq.) Miq. Bua lipau Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Muell. Arg. Kicui / Bawing Hydrocotylaceae Eryngium foetidum L. kedayan / don sop Bawing Lamiaceae Mentha sp. Kedingau (Kayu Lauraceae Cinnamomum sp. manis Tenem Lauraceae Lindera pipericarpa Boerl. Afa' fulung Menispermaceae Albertisia sp. Bua gitah Moraceae Ficus racemosa L. var. elongata (King) Barrett Kayu bawing Myrtaceae Syzigium sp. Gesimau Poaceae Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. Lada Solanaceae Capsicum sp. Likua Zingiberaceae Alpinia galanga Willd. Kunus Zingiberaceae Curcuma domestica Valeton Bua salleh / Bua Zingiberaceae Etlingera elatior (Jack) beludu /Baku ucat R.M. Smith Baku tubu / Baku Zingiberaceae Etlingera punicea (Roxb.) tubu nanong / R.M. Smith Baku derayau Halia Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale Roscoe D. MUSHROOMS LUNDAYEH FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME NAME Agau -- Unknown species Alit -- Unknown species Alub Amanitaceae Amanita sp. Aleng Pleurotaceae Pleurotus cf. djamor (Fr.) Boedijn Bibir kelabet -- Unknown species Bulu -- Unknown species Buda' Lentinaceae Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. Derian -- Unknown species Deseit -- Unknown species Kecep Schizophyllaceae Schizophyllum commune Fr. Kekudan Lentinaceae Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. Lam -- Unknown species Langan -- Unknown species Likudan Lentinaceae Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. Liputung Hyrophoraceae Hyrocybe sp. Lopet Coprinaceae Coprinus sp. Merong -- Unknown species Rata -- Unknown species Sawan Sarcoscyphaceae Cookeina tricholoma (Mont.) Kuntze Sia -- Unknown species Tana' -- Unknown species Tekudan -- Unknown species Telub -- Unknown species Terupong -- Unknown species Tinunger Auriculariaceae Auricularia fuscosuccinea Mont. Henn. Tinunger becuk Auriculariaceae Auricularia delicata Fr. Henn. Tutung -- Unknown species Upul Lentinaceae Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. E. ANIMAL FOODS LUNDAYEH ENGLISH COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME NAME Akep Snails freshwater Unknown species Arem Pangolin Manis javanica Badan Small-toothed palm Arctogalidia trivirgata civet Bakaa Boar Sus barbatus Becuk Pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina Beladan / ebu Turtle Unknown species Belug Stinging hornet / Unknown species Night wasp Berangad Hose's langur / Grey Presbytis hosei leaf monkey Beruang Sun bear Helarctos malayanus Falang alud Banded linsang Prionodon linsang Fugeh Slow loris &/or Nycticebus coucang / Western tarsier? Tarsius bancanus Kabuk / Kadarat Monitor lizard Varanus salvator Kara' arur Crab Unknown species Kelabet Borneo gibbon Hylobates muelleri Kelatang Moth larva Unknown species Kubeng Flying lemur Cynocephalus variegatus Kuyad Long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis Lawid Fish Various species Labo afing / labo Squirrels Various species fulung / sigaa Menelen Python Python sp. Payau Sambar deer Cervus unicolor Payu Bearcat / binturong Arctictis binturong Pelanuk Mouse deer Tragulus napu Ribuan Masked palm civet Paguma larvata Seruang Cobra Opyhiophagus sp. Talau Barking deer Muntiacus muntjac Tamai Frog Unknown species Terutung Porcupine--common Hystrix brachyura Terutung badak Porcupine--thick- Thecurus crassispinis spined Tubang Leopard cat Felis bengalensis Wet bulu Sago grub Rhynchophorus ferrugineus BIRDS Suit balud Green imperial Ducula aenea pigeon / Pink-necked green pigeon Suit bau ulun Malaysian peacock Polyplectron malacense / pheasant / Crested Lophura ignita fireback Suit keruak White-breasted Amaurornis phoenicurus waterhen Suit metor Green pigeon / Wild Treron sp. pigeon Suit sukur Spotted dove Streptopelia chinensis Suit tapiak Bulwer's pheasant Lophura bulweri EGGS Suit sukur Spotted dove Streptopelia chinensis Suit keruak White-breasted Amaurornis phoenicurus waterhen Suit pirit Sparrow Unknown species Seruang Cobra Ophiophagus sp. DOMESTICATED ANIMALS Berek Pig Sus scrofa Kerbau Buffalo Bubalus bubalis Lal--kampong Chicken--eggs & meat Sapi Cow Bos indicus F. SHOP-BOUGHT KIKID Army rations (e.g. packets of meat curry) Tinned meat Hot dogs Dried meat (e.g. buffalo) Frozen meat (e.g. frozen beef tripe; chicken wings) Chicken eggs Tinned fish Salted fish Dried prawns Instant noodles Pasta Dried mushrooms Soup--tinned Soya bean curd G. SHOP-BOUGHT FLAVORINGS Dried anchovies (ikan bilis) Fermented fish paste (belacan) Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Salt Soya sauce Tamarind paste Garlic Onions H. SNACK FOODS Varieties Army rations biscuits; jam; fruit in syrup; Bread Cakes & biscuits--shop-bought Cakes (kui; noney; pinaram)-- banana; cassava; corn; jackfruit; home-made pumpkin; Crisps Fruit--local various species (see Table 4) Fruit--shop-bought apples; durian; oranges; rambutan; watermelon; Instant noodles Peanuts (kacan tana') Porridge (bubur) (delei; kacang; corn; beans; cassava; taro; ubi; ufa; Spreads (for bread & biscuits) condensed milk; honey; jam; margarine; peanut butter; Sticky rice (fadey mo) Sugar Sugar cane (tebpu) Sunflower seeds Sweets Young shoots (periku) various species (see Tables 3 and 4) Appendix 2: Edible Fruit Species LUNDAYEH NAME FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME Itaan -- Unknown species Puk -- Unknown species Serudang -- Unknown species Taken / Tetaken -- Unknown species Tefuduk binei -- Unknown species War aley -- Unknown species War used -- Unknown species Teberecek buda' Actinidiaceae Saurauia cf. longistyla Merr. Teberecek Actinidiaceae Saurauia sp. Ringurin Anacardiaceae Baccaurea sp. Belunu (Malay) Anacardiaceae Mangifera caesia Jack Lam Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica L. Felam Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. Karamut Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. Karung / Lam Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. karung Rengeh / Telaka ' Anacardiaceae Semecarpus bunburyanus Gibbs Durian belanda Annonaceae Annona muricata L. (Malay) Nona (Malay) Annonaceae Annona reticulata L. Kelang batu Apocynaceae cf. Leuconotis sp. Kelang Apocynaceae Willughbeia coriacea Wall. Tecung ubeh Araceae Colocasia oresbia A.Hay Piasau /Butan Arecaceae Cocus nucifera L. Wei kurad Arecaceae Daemonorops didymophylla Becc. Likakau / Arecaceae Daemonorops ingens J.Dransf. Belikakau Bisian Arecaceae Salacca vermicularis Becc. Beleleh Bombacaceae Durio graveolens Becc. Lapun salat Bombacaceae Durio sp. Dalit Bombacaceae Durio sp. Lapun Bombacaceae Durio zibethinus Murray Kaber Bromeliaceae Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Sesila' Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Kitong Clusiaceae Garcinia bancana (Miq.) Miq. Kapab Clusiaceae Garcinia cf. beccarii Pierre Kecii luang Clusiaceae Garcinia cf. parvifolia (Miq.) Miq. Terur garang / Clusiaceae Garcinia dryobalanoides Pierre Ticuk mangai' Mata lawid / Riaku Clusiaceae Garcinia forbesii King Ubpul Clusiaceae Garcinia maingayi Hook.f. Kecii /Kayu mein / Clusiaceae Garcinia parvifolia (Miq.) Miq. Tutuberu Timon labo Cucurbitaceae Mukia javanica (Miq.) C.Jeffrey Iti /Eki' Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus ferruginea Rich. Uleg Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus sp. Lipau Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Muell.Arg. Pika Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Muell.Arg. Pugi Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq.) Muell.Arg. Siei Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea sp. Terur berek / Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea sp. Terur baka / Terur pa yo Tuer Euphorbiaceae Bischofia javanica B1. Fatar Fabaceae Parkia sp. Fidaawee Fagaceae Castanopsis acuminatissima (B1.) A.DC. Berangan Fagaceae Castanopsis costata (Bl.) A.DC. Abok Fagaceae Castanopsis oviformis Soepadmo / C. cf. hypophoenicea (Seemen) Soepadmo Ukem Fagaceae Lithocarpus psilophylla Soepadmo Tateh Flacourtiaceae Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. Fayang Flacourtiaceae Pangium edule Reinw. Labpak Hypoxidaceae Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Talal Lauraceae Litsea garciae Vidal Tei 'suit bueng Loranthaceae Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. Silaku / Tekang Melastomaceae Medinilla crassifolia (Reinw. ex Bl.) Bl. Sikali Melastomaceae Melastoma malabathricum L. Merikubit Meliaceae Aglaia korthalsii Miq. Terur suit Meliaceae Aglaia korthalsii Miq. Fika labo /Mata Meliaceae Aglaia odoratissima Bl. lawid Lingat Meliaceae Lansium domesticum Correa Kelidang Moraceae Artocarpus cf. lanceifolius Roxb. Feriubi Moraceae Artocarpus cf. primackiana Kochummen Lagka Moraceae Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. Fudu Moraceae Artocarpus kemando Miq. Kiran / Tarap Moraceae Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco Terur talau Moraceae Artocarpus sp. Talun Moraceae Artocarpus tamaran Becc. Likabong Moraceae Ficus cf. francisci H. Winkl. Feriboodok Moraceae Ficus cf. uncinata (King) Becc. Arid Moraceae Ficus megaleia Corner Lunuk Moraceae Ficus parietalis Blume Gitah Moraceae Ficus racemosa L. var. elongata (King) Barrett Lison okok Moraceae Ficus sp. Emel Moraceae Ficus stolonifera King / F. uncinata (King) Becc. Bong Musaceae Musa sp. Pidara / Myristicaceae Horsfieldia sp. Semendara Tereh / Decer Myrsinaceae Ardisia sp. pelanuk War ilang Myrsinaceae Embellia philippinensis A.DC. Lipet Myrtaceae Decaspermum parviflorum (Lam.) A.J. Scott Jambu (Malay) Myrtaceae Psidium guajava L. Buau / Binuber Myrtaceae Syzigium foxworthianum (Ridl.) Merr. & Perry Uber Myrtaceae Syzigium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. Jambu air (Malay) Myrtaceae Syzigium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & Perry; or S. aqueum (Burm.f.) Alston Markisa (Malay) Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis Sims Pisang lalid Rosaceae Rubus benguetensis Elmer Serinit / Tabpa Rosaceae Rubus moluccanus L. serinit Bidang Rosaceae Rubus rosifolius J.E.Smith Buyor Rutaceae Citrus microcarpa Bunge; C. maxima (Burm.) Merr.; C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck; C. medica L. Demicir Sapindaceae Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb.) Leenh. Sia Sapindaceae Nephelium cuspidatum Bl. var. eriopetalum (Miq.) Leenh. Rambutan (Malay) Sapindaceae Nephelium lappaceum L. Beritem Sapindaceae Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Labill.) Leenh. Fuder Sapindaceae Unknown species Arau / Kuceng Tilliaceae Microcos cf. elmeri Merr. Sifei Urticaceae Debregeasia longifolia (Burm.f.) Wedd. Terebak becuk Zingiberaceae Alpinia latilabris Ridl. Terebak labo / Zingiberaceae Alpinia ligulata K.Schum. Terebak fayeh Terebak Zingiberaceae Alpinia nieuwenhuizii Val. / A. glabra Ridl. Tubu beritem Zingiberaceae Alpinia sp. Tubu bigan Zingiberaceae Amomum cf. polycarpum K.Schum. Salleh Zingiberaceae Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Smith Tubu /Baku Zingiberaceae Etlingera punicea (Roxb.) R.M. derayau Smith Teladan Zingiberaceae Hornstedtia affinis Ridl. Teladan becuk / Zingiberaceae Hornstedtia scyphifera Steud. Teladan fayeh / Teladan buki Tubu becit Zingiberaceae Plagiostachys crocydocalyx (K.Schum.) B.L.Burtt & R.M.Sm. Tubu terutung Zingiberaceae Plagiostachys sp. Table 1: Comparison of Edible Plant Resources Used as Kikid by Peoples of Highland Borneo NO. OF KELABIT (PA IBAN (NANGA LUNDAYEH SPECIES: DALIH) SUMPA) (LONG PASIA & (Christensen, (Christensen, LONG MIO) 2002) 2002) MUSHROOMS 38 19 10 VEGETABLES 129 195 108 SPICES OR 34 61 19 FLAVOURINGS TOTAL 201 275 137 Table 2: Long Pasia Dietarv Survevs YEAR OF 1993 1999-2000 (Hoare) SURVEY (Bennett) Survey Survey Survey Survey % MEALS 1: 2: 3: 4: CONTAINING: HUNTED MEAT 39 33 31 20 27 RNER FISH 40 23 29 11 16 YEAR OF 1999-2000 (Hoare) SURVEY Survey Survey % MEALS 5: % CONTAINING: HUNTED MEAT 19 26 RNER FISH 21 20 Table 3: Species used as Periku LUNDAYEH NAME FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME Kayu telatang Anacardiaceae Campnosperma auriculatum Hook. f. Periku bata Urticaceae Oreocnide trinervis (Wedd.) Miq. Periku pelanuk / Periku Myrsinaceae Ardisia sp. abai Periku tuer Euphorbiaceae Bischofia javanica B1. Tebpu barok Begoniaceae Begonia sp. War ilang Myrsinaceae Embelia sp. Table 4: Fruits Most Conunonly Eaten by Children LUNDAYEH NAME FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME Bisian Arecaceae Salacca vermicularis Becc. Kecii / Kayu mein / Clusiaceae Garcinia parvifolia (Miq.) Tutuberu Miq. Timon labo Cucurbitaceae Mukia javanica (Miq.) C. Jeffrey Iti / Eki' Elaea aceae Elaeagnus erru inea Rich. Lipau Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Muell.Arg. Tuer Euphorbiaceae Bischo a javanica BI. Sikali Melastomaceae Melastoma malabathricum L. Terur suit Meliaceae Aglaia korthalsii Miq. Fika labo / Mata lawid Meliaceae Aglaia odoratissima B1. Lingat Meliaceae Lansium domesticum Correa Gitah Moraceae Ficus racemosa L. var. elongata (King) Barrett Bong Musaceae Musa sp. Lipet Myrtceae Decas ermum arviflorum (Lam.) A.J. Scott Jambu (Malay) Myrtceae Psidium guava L. Buau Myrtceae Syzigium foxworthianum (Ridl.) Merr. & Perry Jambu air (Malay) Myrtaceae Syzigium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & Perry; or S. aqueum (Burm.f.) Alston Markisa (Malay) Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis Sims Pisan lalid Rosaceae Rubus benguetensis Elmer Serinit / Tabpa serinit Rosaceae Rubus moluccanus L. Bidang Rosaceae Rubus rosifolius J.E.Smith Buyor Rutaceae Citrus microcarpa Bunge; C. maxima (Burm.) Merr.; C. sinensis L. Osbeck; C. medica L. Teladan Zingiberaceae Hornstedtia affinis Ridl. Terebak Zingiberaceae Alpinia spp. Table 5: Forest Resources Frequently Brought Into Cultivation LUNDAYEH NAME FAMILY SCIENTIFIC NAME FLAVORING Keduang Lauraceae Cinnamomum sp Afa 'fulung Menispermaceae Albertisia sp Bua salleh /Bua Zingiberaceae Edingera elatior (Jack) beludu / Baku ucat R.M.Smith EDIBLE FRUIT Felam Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. Karamut Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. Karung / Lam karung Anacardiaceae Mangifera sp. Beleleh Bombacaceae Durio graveolens Becc. Lapun salat Bombacaceae Durio sp. Dalit Bombacaceae Durio sp. Pugi Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq.) Muell.Arg. Siei Euphorbiaceae Baccaurea sp. Berangan Fagaceae Castanopsis costata (B1.) A.DC. Lingat Meliaceae Lansium domesticum Correa Kelidang Moraceae Artocarpus c^ lanceifolius Roxb. Feriubi Moraceae Artocarpus cf. primackiana Kochununen Kiran / Tarap Moraceae Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco Talun Moraceae Artocarpus tamaran Becc. Sia Sapindaceae Nephelium cuspidatum Bl. var. eriopetalum (Miq.) Leenh. Beritem Sapindaceae Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Labill.) Leenh. EDIBLE STEM PITH Wei sia Arecaceae Daemonorops fissa Bl. Wei seseit Arecaceae Daemonorops longistipes Burret Wei lingan Arecaceae Daemonorops sabut Becc.
(1) For a detailed description of the region's forest types and their botanical composition, see Phillips Phil·lips
A trademark used for a screw with a head having two intersecting perpendicular slots and for a screwdriver with a tip shaped to fit into these slots. and Lamb (1998).
(2) Included within my category of "vegetables" are green leafy leaf·y
adj. leaf·i·er, leaf·i·est
1. Covered with or having leaves.
2. Consisting of leaves: Spinach is a leafy green vegetable.
3. Similar to or resembling a leaf. vegetables, bamboo shoots, and tuberous roots A tuberous root is a modified lateral root, enlarged to function as a storage organ. It is thus different in origin but similar in function and coarse appearance to a tuber. , as well as flowers, seeds, and fruits.
(3) The first dietary surveys are not included because the data on plant resources are incomplete. Subsequent to this, the survey forms were re-designed, enabling better data collection. Furthermore, this data does not reflect the importance of the different vegetation types as sources of fruits, because of the under-recording of these foods in the dietary surveys.
Bibliography bibliography. The listing of books is of ancient origin. Lists of clay tablets have been found at Nineveh and elsewhere; the library at Alexandria had subject lists of its books.
1988 Costing Social Change. IN: M. R. Dove, ed., The Real and Imagined Role of Culture in Development: Case Studies from Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago. . Honolulu Honolulu (hŏn'əl`l, hōnō–), city (1990 pop. : University of Hawaii Press The University of Hawaiʻi Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiʻi. . pp. 271-284.
Bennett, E.L., A.J. Nyaoi and J. Sompud
2000 Saving Borneo's Bacon: The Sustainability of Hunting in Sarawak and Sabah. IN: J. G. Robinson John George Robinson was chief mechanical engineer of the Great Central Railway from 1900 to 1922. Prior to this, he designed locomotives for the Waterford and Limerick Railway (between 1884 and 1900). and E. L. Bennett, eds., Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Columbia University Press Columbia University Press is an academic press based in New York City and affiliated with Columbia University. It is currently directed by James D. Jordan (2004-present) and publishes titles in the humanities and sciences, including the fields of literary and cultural studies, , pp. 305-324.
Chin, S. C.
1985 Agriculture and Resource Utilization in a Lowland Rainforest rainforest
Lush forest, generally composed of tall, broad-leaved trees and usually found in wet tropical regions around the Equator. Despite increased awareness of the rainforests' importance during the late 20th century, they continue to be cleared. Kenyah Community. Sarawak Museum The Sarawak Museum is the oldest museum in Borneo. It was established in 1888 and opened in 1891 in a purpose-built building in Kuching, Sarawak. Sponsored by Charles Brooke, the second White Rajah of Sarawak, the establishment of the museum was strongly encouraged by Alfred Russel Journal 35 (56), Special Monograph No. 4.
1997 An Ethnobotanical Survey of the Flora Flora, in Roman religion, goddess of flowers and fertility. Her festival, the Floralia, Apr. 28–May 1, was celebrated with great gaiety and licentiousness. Used by Two Longhouse longhouse
Traditional communal dwelling of the Iroquois Indians until the 19th century. The longhouse was a rectangular box built out of poles, with doors at each end and saplings stretched over the top to form the roof, the whole structure being covered with bark. Communities in Sarawak and an Evaluation of their Agronomic a·gron·o·my
Application of the various soil and plant sciences to soil management and crop production; scientific agriculture.
ag Potential for Agroforestry Based Farming Systems. University of Aarhus History
It was founded in 1928 as Universitetsundervisningen i Jylland ("University Teaching in Jutland") in classrooms rented from the Technical College and a teaching corps consisting of one professor of philosophy and four Readers of Danish, English, German and , Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
2002 Ethnobotany ethnobotany /eth·no·bot·a·ny/ (-bot´ah-ne) the systematic study of the interactions between a culture and the plants in its environment, particularly the knowledge about and use of such plants. of the lban and the Kelabit. Kuching Kuching (k`chĭng), city (1991 pop. 277,346), capital of Sarawak, Malaysia, in W Borneo and on the Sarawak River. It is the largest city in the state and a river port. : Forest Department Sarawak, Malaysia, NEPCon NEPCon Nature Ecology and People Consult , and University of Aarhus.
Colfer, C. J. P. and H. Soedjito
1996 Foods, Forests, and Fields in a Bornean Rain Forest: Toward Appropriate Agroforestry Development. IN: C. Padoch and N. L. Peluso, eds., Borneo in Transition. People, Forests, Conservation, and Development. Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur (kwä`lə lm`pr), city (1990 est. pop. : Oxford University Press, pp. 162-186.
Colfer, C. J. P. with N. Peluso and S. C. Chin
1997 Beyond Slash and Burn This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. For the military tactic, see scorched earth.
Slash and burn refers to the cutting and burning of forests or woodlands to create fields for agriculture or pasture for livestock, or for a . Buihling on Indigenous Indigenous may refer to:
The New York Botanical Garden is a prestigious botanical garden in New York City. One of the premier botanical gardens in the United States, it spans some 240 acres of Bronx Park in the borough of The Bronx and is home to some of the .
Dove, M. R.
1985 Swidden Agriculture in Indonesia. The Subsistence Strategies of the Kalimantan Kantu'. Mouton mouton
lamb pelt made to resemble seal or beaver. Publishers.
1994 Eating on the Wild Side: The Pharmacologic pharmacologic /phar·ma·co·log·ic/ (-kah-loj´ik) pertaining to pharmacology or to the properties and reactions of drugs.
pertaining to pharmacology. , Ecologic e·col·o·gy
n. pl. e·col·o·gies
a. The science of the relationships between organisms and their environments. Also called bionomics.
b. The relationship between organisms and their environment. , and Social Implications of Using Noncultigens. Tucson Tucson (t`sŏn'), city (1990 pop. 405,390), seat of Pima co., SE Ariz.; inc. 1877. : University of Arizona (body, education) University of Arizona - The University was founded in 1885 as a Land Grant institution with a three-fold mission of teaching, research and public service. Press.
2000 Tropical Forests Forever? A Contextual Ecology ecology, study of the relationships of organisms to their physical environment and to one another. The study of an individual organism or a single species is termed autecology; the study of groups of organisms is called synecology. of Bentian Rattan Agroforestry Systems. IN: C. Zerner, ed., People, Plants and Justice: The Politics of Nature Consepwation. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 204-233.
1967 Ethnological eth·nol·o·gy
1. The science that analyzes and compares human cultures, as in social structure, language, religion, and technology; cultural anthropology.
2. Notes on the Muruts of the Sapulut Sapulut is a town along Sapulut River in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Mount Antulai (1713 metres) is located about 5 kilometres from the town. Nearby the town is the Batu Punggul limestone massif and cave, a popular spot for eco-tourists. River, Sabah. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (RAS) was, according to its Royal Charter of August 11, 1824, established to further "the investigation of subjects connected with and for the encouragement of science, literature and the arts in relation to Asia. 40:111-129.
Hladik, A., E.G E.G For Example . Leigh Leigh (lē), town (1991 pop. 42,627), Wigan metropolitan district, NW England, in the Greater Manchester metropolitan area. Industries include cotton and rayon mills, metalworks, and machinery and electrical goods plants. and F. Bourliere
1993 Food Production and Nutritional Value of Wild and Semi-domesticated Species--Background. IN: Hladik, C.M., A. Hladik, O.F. Linares Linares (lēnä`rās), city (1990 pop. 59,150), Jaén prov., S Spain, in Andalusia. The rich silver and lead mines nearby have brought prosperity to the city, which now has many metallurgical industries. Powder and dynamite are chief products. , H. Pagezy, A. Semple and M. Hadley Had·ley , Henry Kimball 1871-1937.
American composer and conductor whose romantic works include operas, such as Bianca (1918), symphonies, and chamber music. , eds., Tropical Forests, People and Food. Biocultural Interactions and Applications to Development. Paris: UNESCO UNESCO: see United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
in full United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization , pp. 127-138.
2002 Cooking the Wild: The Role of the Lundayeh of the Ulu Padas (Sabah, Malaysia) in Managing Forest Foods and Shaping the Landscape. University of Kent at Canterbury Canterbury, city (1991 pop. 34,046) and district, Kent, SE England, on the Stour River. Tourism, services, and retail are the city's main industries. There is also some light manufacturing. Canterbury is famous as the long-time spiritual center of England. In 597, St. , Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation.
1995 The Hearth-Group, the Conjugal Pertaining or relating to marriage; suitable or applicable to married people.
Conjugal rights are those that are considered to be part and parcel of the state of matrimony, such as love, sex, companionship, and support. Couple and the Symbolism Symbolism
In art, a loosely organized movement that flourished in the 1880s and '90s and was closely related to the Symbolist movement in literature. In reaction against both Realism and Impressionism, Symbolist painters stressed art's subjective, symbolic, and decorative of the Rice Meal among the Kelabit of Sarawak. IN: J. Carsten and S. Hugh-Jones, eds., About the House: Levi-Strauss Lé·vi-Strauss , Claude Born 1908.
French social anthropologist and leading exponent of the theory of structuralism. His works include Structural Anthropology (1958) and Totemism (1962).
Noun 1. and Beyond. Cambridge Cambridge, city, Canada
Cambridge (kām`brĭj), city (1991 pop. 92,772), S Ont., Canada, on the Grand River, NW of Hamilton. It was formed in 1973 with the amalgamation of Galt, Hespeler, and Preston, all founded in the early 19th cent. : Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). , pp. 84-104.
Michon, G., H. de Foresta, Kusworo, and P. Levang
2000 The Damar Damar: see Dhamar, Yemen. Agroforests of Krui KRUI can refer to:
Payne, J. and J. Vaz
1998 Ulu Padas--Final Report and Recommendations. SBCP--IPPA Technical Report. Sabah: Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Development.
Peluso, N. L.
1996 Fruit Trees and Family Trees This is an index of family trees available. It includes noble, politically important and royal families as well as fictional families and thematic diagrams. Europe
1. Of or relating to anthropogenesis.
2. Caused by humans: anthropogenic degradation of the environment. Forest: Ethics of Access, Property Zones, and Environmental Change in Indonesia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 38:510-548.
Phillipps, A. and A. Lamb
1998 The Botanical Richness of the Ulu Padas. SBCP--IPPA Technical Report. Sabah: Ministry of Tourism & Environmental Development.
betrays old husband amusingly with her lodger, Nicholas. [Br. Lit.: Canterbury Tales, “Miller’s Tale”]
See : Adultery Hoare
Department of Anthropology anthropology, classification and analysis of humans and their society, descriptively, culturally, historically, and physically. Its unique contribution to studying the bonds of human social relations has been the distinctive concept of culture.
University of Kent
Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NS UK