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Food resources and changing patterns of resource use among the the Lundayeh of the Ulu Padas, Sabah.



This paper gives an account of the food resources and diet of the Lundayeh of Long Pasia and Long Mio at the end of the twentieth century. I describe the diversity of resources used and patterns of resource use, investigating the importance of different habitats as sources of food. This research is placed in the context of central Borneo Borneo (bôr`nēō'), island (1990 pop. 9,102,906), c.287,000 sq mi (743,330 sq km), largest of the Malay Archipelago and third largest island in the world, SW of the Philippines and N of Java.  by comparing my own findings with those of researchers who have done similar studies elsewhere in the region. The Lundayeh have experienced rapid social and environmental changes in the last decade. I examine how people have responded to these changes, as reflected in their resource management practices. On this basis, I consider what lessons can be learned from the Lundayeh by those attempting to develop a more sustainable management strategy for the region.

**********

Background

The Lundayeh communities of Long Pasia and Long Mio are situated in the Ulu Padas region of southwest Southwest or south west is the ordinal direction halfway between south and west, the opposite of northeast.

Southwest or south west may also refer to:
  • The Southwestern United States
  • Southwest China
 Sabah Sabah (sä`bä), state (1991 pop. 1,736,902), 28,417 sq mi (73,600 sq km), Malaysia, N Borneo, on the South China and Sulu seas. It is bordered on the south by Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). . These are the only two highland Lundayeh villages in Sabah. The majority of the Sabahan Noun 1. Sabahan - a Malaysian from Sabah
North Borneo, Sabah - a region of Malaysia in northeastern Borneo

Malaysian - a native or inhabitant of Malaysia

Adj. 1. Sabahan - of or pertaining to Sabah or its people; "Sabahan tribesmen"
 Lundayeh live in the lowlands, particularly in the Sipitang Sipitang is a town and also a parliamentary constituency located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Its population was estimated to be around 24,340 in 1991.  region. However, they still see themselves as essentially a highland people. The Lundayeh regard the Kerayan-Kelabit highlands in Kalimantan Kalimantan: see Borneo.  as their heartland. It is from here that they are thought to have originated, migrating throughout the region where the states of Kalimantan, Sarawak Sarawak (sərä`wäk), state (1991 pop. 1,648,217), 48,342 sq mi (125,206 sq km), Malaysia, in NW Borneo and on the South China Sea.  and Sabah meet, over the last two centuries (Harrisson 1967).

Long Pasia is a village of about 400 residents, and Long Mio about 120 residents. The villages are at an altitude altitude, vertical distance of an object above some datum plane, such as mean sea level or a reference point on the earth's surface. It is usually measured by the reduction in atmospheric pressure with height, as shown on a barometer or altimeter.  of 1000m, and are surrounded sur·round  
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.

2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.

n.
 by undulating hills, and beyond these, mountains. The vegetation vegetation /veg·e·ta·tion/ (vej?e-ta´shun) any plantlike fungoid neoplasm or growth; a luxuriant fungus-like growth of pathologic tissue.  close to the villages is a patchwork of fields and secondary forest of varying ages, a consequence of people's long history in the region, and their practice of swidden swid·den  
n.
An area cleared for temporary cultivation by cutting and burning the vegetation.



[Dialectal alteration of obsolete swithen, from Old Norse svidhna, to be burned.]
 agriculture. Further afield, the region was, at least until very recently, covered by one of the last extensive areas of old-growth forest remaining in Sabah (Payne
:The name may also be spelt Paine.


The surname Payne stems from paganus, see pagan. People
  • King Payne, a Seminole chief
  • A.R.
 and Vaz 1998). This forest is a mix of heath heath, tract of open land
heath, tract of open land characterized by a few scattered trees, abundant moss cover, and numerous low shrubs, principally of the heath family (see heath, in botany).
 and montane mon·tane  
adj.
Of, growing in, or inhabiting mountain areas.



[Latin montnus, from m
 forests. (1)

The Lundayeh of Long Pasia and Long Mio are primarily swidden agriculturalists, although wet rice cultivation cultivation, tilling or manipulation of the soil, done primarily to eliminate weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. Cultivation may be used in crusted soils to increase soil aeration and infiltration of water; it may also be used to move soil to or  is also important. Cash crops are extensively cultivated cultivated,
n in herbal medicine, used to describe plants that are commercially farmed rather than collected from the wild.
, with coffee and tobacco having met with particular success during the time of this research. As well as cash-cropping, the other main source of income is from wage labor. Many people go to work in the logging camps, and in towns and cities in Sabah and further afield. Since 1997 the villages have been linked to Sipitang by a logging road, a journey that takes about four hours. The arrival of the road enabled expansion of cash cropping, and easier availability of processed goods. In addition, it encouraged a number of families to return to the village. The population of both villages has grown in recent years, and seems likely to continue to do so. The arrival of the road also marked the beginning of extensive logging activities in the region. These have been going on around the villages, with noticeable impacts on the availability of forest resources and on river quality. However, in spite of in opposition to all efforts of; in defiance or contempt of; notwithstanding.

See also: Spite
 the many social and environmental changes which the Lundayeh have experienced in recent years, forest resources continue to make an important and highly valued contribution to their subsistence subsistence,
n the state of being supported or remaining alive with a minimum of essentials.
.

Methodology

Research was conducted from September September: see month.  1999 until November November: see month.  2000 as part of a wider Ph.D. study. Hunting and dietary di·e·tar·y
adj.
Of or relating to diet.



dietary

1. pertaining to diet.

2. a course or system of diet.


dietary hepatic necrosis
see hepatosis dietetica.
 surveys were conducted to investigate the diversity of resources being used, their importance in the diet, and the relative importance of different environments as sources of these foods. During five seven-day Adj. 1. seven-day - lasting through a week; "her weeklong vacation"
weeklong

long - primarily temporal sense; being or indicating a relatively great or greater than average duration or passage of time or a duration as specified; "a long life"; "a long boring
 periods in each of the villages, a member of every household was asked to record the foods being eaten within their household. These surveys were conducted at roughly two-month intervals throughout the year, so that any seasonal variation in the diet could be observed. During one survey period, I asked the children to keep their own food diaries, to enable a comparison to be made with that of the adults.

Complementary to the dietary surveys, botanical bo·tan·i·cal   also bo·tan·ic
adj.
1. Of or relating to plants or plant life.

2. Of or relating to the science of botany.

n.
 collecting expeditions were undertaken. These were conducted in the areas surrounding sur·round  
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.

2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.

n.
 the villages with people from the villages. I collected specimens of plant species used as vegetables, fruits, spices, leaves for wrapping rice, cooking containers, as well as plants that are used to obtain food, for example, to make fishing nets, animal traps, fish poisons and hunting charms. These activities enabled more complete documentation of the edible fruits, since these were often not recorded in the food surveys. In addition, they gave particular insight into neglected food resources--those that are rarely, or never, used today.

Interviews were also undertaken with all households to investigate people's agricultural strategies and land and resource use practices.

Food Resources of the Lundayeh

In common with perhaps all other swidden agriculturalists of Borneo (Chin 1985; Christensen Christensen may refer to:
  • Christensen (constructor), a former racing car constructor
  • 164P/Christensen, a periodic comet
  • 170P/Christensen, a periodic comet
  • Several other periodic comets discovered by Christensen
 1997, 2002; Colfer et al. 1997; Dove 1985; Janowski 1995), the food of greatest importance is rice. When asking whether you have eaten yet, the Lundayeh ask whether you have eaten rice (nekuman luba' ko?). Only if you have done so are you considered to have eaten. Eaten with the rice are kikid, 'side-dishes'--these are the vegetables, meat or fruits eaten as side-dishes. It is this aspect of the diet that I describe in most detail.

Snack foods A list of snack foods is shown below. For more information, see snack foods. List of snack foods
Chips
(Crisps)
  • Banana chips
  • Bugles
  • Cheese curls
  • Cheese puffs
  • Combos
  • Corn chips
  • Nachos
  • Pita chips
  • Pretzel
  • Potato chips
 also make a significant contribution to the diet. These were greatly underrecorded in the dietary surveys (an occurrence common to many such studies (Colfer and SSoedjito 1996; Etkin 1994)). Therefore, although the diversity of these foods was recorded, it was not possible to determine their significance in the diet, nor determine the relative importance of vegetation types as sources of fruits.

Kikid

The foods that are served as kikid are diverse. At their most basic, the kikid may be simply salt or chillies--although this is only out of necessity rather than from choice. More typically, a meal will include a few vegetables, and perhaps some meat or fish. Appendix 1 shows the full range of foods that were recorded in the dietary surveys, as well as the few additional foods I observed being eaten at other times. This gives a more or less complete representation of the range of foods that are eaten as kikid.

Plant resources make up the vast majority of the kikid served, accounting for 68% in Long Mio and 63% in Long Pasia (by frequency) of those recorded in the food diaries (the remainder of which are meat or fish). Apparent from the data is the wide range of plant resources used. The Lundayeh recognize 113 types of vegetable vegetable, term originally used for any plant, now the name for many food plants, most of them annuals, and for their edible parts. There is no clear botanical distinction between vegetables and fruits.  (2) and ubud Ubud is a town in central Bali, Indonesia, considered the arts and culture center of the island.

Ubud has a population of about 8,000 people, but it is becoming difficult to distinguish the town itself from the villages that once surrounded it.
 (stem pith pith, in botany, core of the stem of most plants. Pith is composed of large, loosely packed food-storage cells. As the stem grows older the pith usually dries out, and in some it disintegrates and the stem becomes hollow. ), 28 mushrooms and 22 flavorings. Identification to species level was not always possible (because of the absence of specimens or of fertile material Fertile material is a term used to describe nuclides which generally themselves do not undergo induced fission (fissionable by thermal neutrons) but from which fissile material is generated by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions.  for identification, for example), and so the number of species used cannot be given precisely. However, they represent at least 107 species of vegetable, 19 species of flavoring, and 10 mushroom mushroom, type of basidium fungus characterized by spore-bearing gills on the underside of the umbrella- or cone-shaped cap. The name toadstool is popularly reserved for inedible or poisonous mushrooms, but this classification has no scientific basis.  species. This is certainly an under-estimate of the number of edible mushroom species, since I was only able to gather specimens for 12 of the types of mushrooms.

Similar arrays of edible plant resources (both with respect to the number of species used, and the actual species) have been recorded for other central Borneo societies (Chin 1985; Christensen 1997, 2002; Colfer et al. 1997). Christensen (2002) collected comparable data on the numbers of species being used by an Iban and a Kelabit The Kelabit, who have close ties to the Lun Bawang, are an indigenous race of the Sarawak highlands with a minority in the neighbouring state of Brunei. The elevation here is slightly over 1,200 meters.  community in Sarawak. These data are summarized in Table 1. This suggests that the Lundayeh use slightly fewer edible resources than either the Iban or Kelabit communities (although it should be born in mind that my calculations of species numbers are conservative estimates). There are a number of possible reasons for this. Undoubtedly a significant factor is the degree of isolation of these communities. Unlike the Iban and Kelabit communities, Long Pasia and Long Mio are accessible by road, and this is likely to have resulted in a shift away from the use of some local resources towards processed and shop-bought goods.

Although plant resources account for the majority of the kikid that are eaten, people have a strong preference for eating meat. When no one has had any recent hunting success, it is common to hear complaints from people about how bored they are with eating 'just leaves' (don mo). The importance of meat and fish in the diet is apparent from the figures showing the percentage of meals in which these are eaten. Thus, in Long Pasia, 49% of meals included hunted meat or fish from the rivers, or if we include meat and fish that have been reared or shop purchased, the figure rises to 64% of meals. The equivalent figures for Long Mio are 42% and 58% respectively.

In terms of numbers of side-dishes, meat and fish account for 32% in Long Mio and 37% in Long Pasia, these figures also include shop-bought meat and livestock livestock

Farm animals, with the exception of poultry. In Western countries the category encompasses primarily cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, donkeys, and mules; other animals (e.g., buffalo, oxen, or camels) may predominate in other areas.
. By comparison with data reported from other central Borneo communities, this figure is low. For example, in a Kenyah The Kenyah are an indigenous peoples of Borneo, living in the remote Baram and Belaga regions in Sarawak, Malaysia and Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Kenyah are grouped together with the Kayan under the Bahau ethnic group. Traditionally they lived in long houses.  community, 49% of the side-dishes of three individuals were of hunted meat or local river fish (Chin 1985:90-91). The same figures for four members of a Kantu' community were 43% for hunted meat and river fish, and 45% when including shop-bought meat or livestock (Colfer and Soedjito 1996:176 and 180-181). Although care needs to be taken not to infer too much from this, the data used for comparison being from relatively small survey numbers, it does suggest that less meat and fish is being eaten in Long Mio and Long Pasia than might be expected. This is perhaps not surprising given the decline in animal and fish numbers that local people have noted in recent years. In fact, there is some evidence to suggest that fewer animals are hunted in Long Pasia today than seven years previously. This comes from hunting surveys carried out in Long Pasia in 1993 (Bennett et al. 2000:307-310). At that time, there was no logging in A colloquial term for the process of making the initial record of the names of individuals who have been brought to the police station upon their arrest.

The process of logging in is also called booking.
 the area, and the road had not yet reached the villages. The population of Long Pasia was also smaller, with only 40 households, in comparison to today's 68. As part of this research, data were recorded of the percentage of evening meals containing wild meat and local river fish (Bennett, personal communication). I do not know at what time of year this information was recorded. However, these figures are considerably higher than those from all the dietary surveys that I conducted (Table 2).

Certainly, it would be surprising if there has not been a decline in the numbers of game and fish consumed con·sume  
v. con·sumed, con·sum·ing, con·sumes

v.tr.
1. To take in as food; eat or drink up. See Synonyms at eat.

2.
a.
 because of the changes that have taken place in the last decade. These have included an increase in population, both within the villages, and from the establishment of logging camps throughout the area. In addition, logging in the area has caused forest loss as well as noise and river pollution, and the logging roads have enabled easier access to more remote parts, both to villagers and to outsiders.

Although hunted meat and fish from the local rivers are still the most important sources of protein in the diet, with declining hunting and fishing returns, people are increasingly turning to shop-bought and processed foods. Such foods accounted for 4% and 7% of kikid recorded in the dietary surveys in Long Mio and Long Pasia respectively. The greater consumption of shop-bought foods in Long Pasia reflects their greater availability there (there are three stores in the village, in comparison to Long Mio's one store), and also the greater affluence of some people in Long Pasia. Tinned meat and fish, salted fish, and chicken eggs are the main foods that people buy from the village stores, and the usual reason for buying these is because people have no fresh meat in the house. For the same reasons, the consumption of chicken and tilapia tilapia (təlä`pēə) or St. Peter's fish, a spiny-finned freshwater fish of the family Cichlidae, native chiefly to Africa and the Middle East.  (from fish ponds) is increasing. Of the domesticated animals This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.

Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007.

This is a list of animals which have been domesticated by humans.
, only chickens are eaten as kikid on an everyday basis. The other animals, pigs, buffaloes, and cows, are only slaughtered for special occasions.

Snack Foods

Snack foods include cakes and biscuits, fruits, instant noodles noo·dle 1  
n.
A narrow, ribbonlike strip of dried dough, usually made of flour, eggs, and water.



[German Nudel.
, bread, sweets and crisps crisp  
adj. crisp·er, crisp·est
1. Firm but easily broken or crumbled; brittle: crisp potato chips.

2.
 (see Appendix 1). Many snack foods are eaten while people are out in the fields or forest. When a group is working in someone's field, the owner of that field always provides drinks, together with cakes of some kind. Often, flied doughnuts (kui tepong, 'flour cakes') are cooked, or during the months of November and December December: see month. , when the corn is ripe, fried 1. (hardware) fried - Non-working due to hardware failure; burnt out. Especially used of hardware brought down by a "power glitch" (see glitch), drop-outs, a short, or some other electrical event.  corn cakes corn cake or corn·cake
n. Chiefly Southern & Midland U.S.
See johnnycake. See Regional Note at johnnycake.

Noun 1.
 are popular. People often eat cucumbers to refresh (1) To continuously charge a device that cannot hold its content. CRTs must be refreshed, because the phosphors hold their glow for only a few milliseconds. Dynamic RAM chips require refreshing to maintain their charged bit patterns. See vertical scan frequency and redraw.  themselves while harvesting the rice fields (the season when these fruits are ripe). Sugar cane cane, walking stick
cane, walking stick. Probably used first as a weapon, it gradually took on the symbolism of strength and power and eventually authority and social prestige.
 and the young shoots of certain trees, periku, which have a high water content and are astringent astringent (əstrĭn`jənt), substance that shrinks body tissues. Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of serum or mucous secretions in sore throat,  to the taste, also provide a ready source of refreshment (Table 3).

Fruits, as well as other snack foods, are particularly important in children's diets. This was apparent from the data collected in the children's food diaries. As well as a much higher incidence of snack foods, children also recorded a greater diversity, for example, they recorded a number of fruits that were absent from the adult food diaries, including bua bidang (Rubus rosifolius) and bua buau (Syzigium foxworthianum). Children snack on a wide range of fruits. Those most commonly eaten are listed in Table 4. Characteristics shared by these species are that they are easily accessible, easy to harvest, and have fruits requiring little or no preparation before eating. Adults are generally more discerning dis·cern·ing  
adj.
Exhibiting keen insight and good judgment; perceptive.



dis·cerning·ly adv.
 in their choice of fruits, preferring the larger and sweeter fruits, most of which are from cultivated varieties. However, there are certain forest fruits that adults will go out of their way for, such as the fruits of species of Durio, Nepheliurn, and Mangifera.

The most important snack foods are fruits--important both because they are the most frequently consumed, and because of their nutritional value (Hladik et al. 1993). In Appendix 2 I have listed the edible fruits found locally. Not included in the table are those fruits that are sometimes bought in town. Most commonly, people buy fruits grown in the Sipitang area, such as rambutan, durian durian, the highly esteemed, edible fruit of Durio zibethinus. The edible portions are the seeds found inside the large spiny fruits, which may weigh several pounds. , mango mango (măng`gō), evergreen tree of the Anacardiaceae (sumac family), native to tropical E Asia and now grown in both hemispheres. The chief species, Mangifera indica, is believed to have been cultivated for about 6,000 years. , and watermelon watermelon, plant (Citrullus vulgaris) of the family Curcurbitaceae (gourd family) native to Africa and introduced to America by Africans transported as slaves. Watermelons are now extensively cultivated in the United States and are popular also in S Russia. . Occasionally, other fruits are bought, such as grapes Grapes - A Modula-like system description language.

E-mail: <peter@cadlab.cadlab.de>.

["GRAPES Language Description. Syntax, Semantics and Grammar of GRAPES-86", Siemens Nixdorf Inform, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-8009-4112-0].
, apples and oranges. 109 Lundayeh names of fruits were recorded, these corresponding to at least 89 species (a conservative estimate, because not all were identified to species). As previously noted for the kikid, in comparison with the data collected by Christensen (2002), this is a lower number of species. The Kelabit community of Pa Dalih were reported to use 125 species, and the Iban community of Nanga This article is about a school of Japanese painting. For the African musical instrument, see nanga (instrument).

Nanga (南画, "Southern painting"), also known as Bunjinga
 Sumpa, 184 species of fruit.

Patterns of Resource Use

Patterns of resource use are shaped by people's preferences for the particular resources, and the resources' availability and ease of harvesting. In turn, ease of harvesting is influenced by people's activities, for example, when people are out hunting, certain resources, such as rattans, are readily accessible. Similarly, during periods of intensive agricultural work, food resources in the fields are those that are most readily available, and consequently, people tend to rely more on these (Colfer and Soedjito 1996; Dove 1985).

These factors are reflected in the data on the relative importance of different vegetation types as sources of side-dishes. As part of the dietary surveys, I asked people to record where they had harvested their foods--whether from old-growth forest, secondary forest, riverside Riverside.

1 City (1990 pop. 226,505), seat of Riverside co., S Calif.; inc. 1883. One of the fastest growing U.S. cities in the late 20th cent., it is famous for its orange industry.
 vegetation, the fields or village, field margins and young fallow fallow

a pale cream, light fawn, or pale yellow coat color in dogs.
 vegetation, or if they had been bought. The results are summarized in Figures 1 and 2. (3) I included hunting as a separate category because people generally recorded all hunted meat as having come from old-growth forest. This is in spite of the fact that a considerable amount of hunting takes place within secondary forest, and to a lesser extent, in agricultural areas and fallow vegetation. It was therefore often impossible to know in which type of vegetation the animals had been caught. Domesticated animals, and also fish from fishponds and paddy fields, were included in the category of "field / village."

The data show that the majority of the foods eaten as side-dishes comes from the fields, with a significant number also coming from riverside vegetation. The importance of fields is not surprising, especially given the expansion in vegetable cultivation in recent years. A wide variety of vegetables are grown, providing an abundant supply. Furthermore, many people have fields near to the village, and so the foods here are readily available. Even for those people who do not have land close by, much time is spent working in the fields, and so the resources growing here are those that are easiest to collect.

The riverside is also an important source of vegetables. The vegetation here is often dominated by edible plant species, making them easy to collect. In Long Mio, riverside vegetation is particularly important as a source of foods, because there are extensive areas close to the village. In contrast, much of the riverside in Long Pasia has been converted to fields. Furthermore, there are many more people, and so harvesting pressure on those remaining areas near the village is quite high. At certain times, such as after a period of drought drought, abnormally long period of insufficient rainfall. Drought cannot be defined in terms of inches of rainfall or number of days without rain, since it is determined by such variable factors as the distribution in time and area of precipitation during and before , the women commented that it was difficult to find enough vegetables to provide for their families from the riverbanks close to the village.

Old-growth and secondary forest are the source of relatively few edible plant resources, their main importance being as a source of hunted meat. However, certain plant resources predominate here, such as bamboo bamboo, plant of the family Gramineae (grass family), chiefly of warm or tropical regions, where it is sometimes an extremely important component of the vegetation. It is most abundant in the monsoon area of E Asia.  shoots. Bamboos (Gigantochloa Gigantochloa is a tropical genus of giant clumping bamboo, similar to the genus Bambusa. Found in Southeast Asia, the genus comprises about 24 species.  levis, Bambusa vulgaris Noun 1. Bambusa vulgaris - extremely vigorous bamboo having thin-walled culms striped green and yellow; so widely cultivated that native area is uncertain
common bamboo

bamboo shoot - edible young shoots of bamboo
 and Schizostachyum Schizostachyum is a tall or shrub-like tropical genus of bamboo. The genus name comes from Greek schistos ("cleft") and stachys ("spike"), referring to the spacing of spikelets.

These are clumping, and sometimes climbing bamboos.
 brachycladum) send up new shoots only a few months each year, between June June: see month.  and August, so there is a glut glut pronounced as rut, slut Vox populi An excess of a service or skilled labor in a particular area. See Physician glut.  of this vegetable at this time. During the fourth dietary survey conducted in Long Pasia, bamboo shoots were in season, and consequently, secondary forest is the source of many more kikid during this time.

Many seasonal resources are from swidden fields, the agricultural calendar determining their availability. A few weeks after rice planting begins, mustard greens Noun 1. mustard greens - leaves eaten as cooked greens
Indian mustard, leaf mustard, mustard

cruciferous vegetable - a vegetable of the mustard family: especially mustard greens; various cabbages; broccoli; cauliflower; brussels sprouts
 (Brassica brassica

Any plant of the large genus Brassica, in the mustard family, containing about 40 Old World species and including the cabbages, mustards, and rapes. B. oleracea has many edible varieties, such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and kohlrabi.
 spp.) and spinach spinach, annual plant (Spinacia oleracea) of the family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family), probably of Persian origin and known to have been introduced into Europe in the 15th cent.  (Amaranthus Amaranthus

a genus of the plant family Amaranthaceae, many of them succulent weeds of cultivated fields. Contain high levels of nitrate or oxalate or both. Includes A. blitum, A. cruentus, A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. mitchellii, A.
 spp.) are ready for harvesting. It is these vegetables that account for the much greater significance of fields as a source of kikid in the fifth dietary surveys which were conducted during the time of rice planting. A contributing factor is that this is a period of intense agricultural activity, and so people do not have time to collect vegetables from elsewhere. A month or so later, around November, the leaves of squashes (Benincasa hispida, Cucurbita spp., Momordica prop. n. 1. A genus of Old World tropical vine.

Noun 1. Momordica - Old World tropical vine
genus Momordica

dicot genus, magnoliopsid genus - genus of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually
 charantia) and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus Cucumis sativus,
n See cucumber.
) can be harvested, and they continue to provide a source of green vegetables until the end of rice harvesting (March or April). Their fruits take a few months to mature, ripening ripening

said of meat. See curing.
 from January January: see month.  onwards on·ward  
adj.
Moving or tending forward.

adv. also on·wards
In a direction or toward a position that is ahead in space or time; forward.

Adv. 1.
.

The availability of snails is also linked with the agricultural calendar. During the relatively slow period between rice harvesting and clearing the fields for next year's crop, from April to June, snails make up an important part of the diet. This is because at this time of year the women do not have much work to do, and so they have the time to collect snails. Furthermore, the paddy fields are free of rice, and so people are able to collect snails as well as fish. This accounts for the higher numbers of "river fish" recorded in the third Long Mio survey (where most snails are collected from a lake, and so were included as river fish), and also for the relatively high numbers of side-dishes coming from the "field/village" in the third Long Pasia survey (where most snails are collected from paddy fields).

The amount of hunting that goes on is also related to people's other activities. Thus, when the men are busy with agricultural work, as during the fifth hunting surveys when they were involved with rice planting, hunting activities decline. Also significant in influencing the amount of hunting is the availability of game. Animal populations vary, particularly in relation to the availability of food. Most significantly, boar populations increase dramatically during mast mast, large metal or timber pole secured vertically or nearly vertically in a ship, used primarily for supporting sails and rigging. The mast is as old as sailing vessels, and the oldest sailboats depicted (those of ancient Egypt) had a small mast placed forward and  fruiting events. Apparently, at such times many boar are hunted. Although there was no mast fruiting during the period of my fieldwork field·work  
n.
1. A temporary military fortification erected in the field.

2. Work done or firsthand observations made in the field as opposed to that done or observed in a controlled environment.

3.
, many species were in fruit during the first and second dietary surveys. Reflecting this, greater numbers of animals were hunted during these survey periods, and more meat was eaten at this time.

Certain other resources vary in availability, although not necessarily at the same times each year. A major factor influencing the amount of fish that is eaten is the timing of fish spawning. Such an event took place during the second dietary survey in Long Pasia, and many people went fishing and made large catches. Consequently, fish made a much greater contribution to the diet during this period.

In summary, investigation of patterns of resource use show that fields are the source for the most frequently eaten vegetables for the Lundayeh. However, non-cultivated habitats are the source of a wide range of vegetable species and also the source of many fruits. The forest is also the source of most of the meat and fish that is eaten. Thus, fallow fields and forest habitats contribute much diversity to the diet, something that is greatly valued by the Lundayeh. This is not only because of personal taste, people also recognize that forest resources are a valuable source of food at times when other foods, such as cultivated vegetables, are unavailable. Thus, forest foods are important for nutrition and for food security (Appell Appell is a surname and may refer to:
  • Dave Appell, an arranger, producer, and musician
  • Paul Émile Appell, a French mathematician and rector of the University of Paris
 1988; Etkin 1994).

Changing Strategies

One feature then of the Lundayeh subsistence system is the use of a diversity of resources, and of vegetation types. Until recently, such a strategy has been possible because of the availability of extensive forest resources. Furthermore, the Lundayeh system of forest management, of which the practice of swidden agriculture is an integral part, has served to create a mosaic of forest patches at different stages of regeneration Regeneration (biology)

The process by which an animal restores a lost part of its body. Broadly defined, the term can include wound healing, tissue repair, and many kinds of restorative activities.
, thus, helping to increase the availability of a wide range of resources. However, whether this strategy will continue to be possible in future years seems unlikely because of the rapid environmental and social changes that are taking place. Indeed, the evidence cited previously suggests that the use of forest resources is in decline. This was indicated by the lower number of species used as vegetables and fruit by the Lundayeh in comparison with Kelabit and Iban communities in Sarawak. Similarly, data on the consumption of hunted meat show that the Lundayeh are eating less in comparison with other highland Borneo communities, and indeed, that its consumption has declined in the period from 1993 to 2000.

One cause of these changes has been the logging activities in the Ulu Padas, which have resulted in the loss of large areas of forest. Consequently, there has been a decline in the availability of certain forest resources. Logging has also placed increased pressure on the land falling outside the logging concessions. The responses of the Lundayeh to these changes have been varied. One response has been to put greater effort and resources into the cultivation of cash crops. Parallel to this, there has been a shift away from swidden cultivation, with some people deciding to cultivate cul·ti·vate  
tr.v. cul·ti·vat·ed, cul·ti·vat·ing, cul·ti·vates
1.
a. To improve and prepare (land), as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; till.

b.
 only wet rice (for which subsidies are available) and others concentrating entirely on cash crops (with subsidies also available for certain of these). People are choosing to do this partly because they recognize that in the future they will not be able to depend on local resources for their needs, and so will have to buy replacements. This is just part of a more general trend towards greater dependence on a cash economy, with people needing to meet such costs as schooling, medical expenses and to purchase various manufactured goods manufactured goods nplmanufacturas fpl; bienes mpl manufacturados

manufactured goods nplproduits manufacturés 
.

Another response of the Lundayeh to the decline in forest resources has been to bring some of these into cultivation (see Table 5). These include favored rattan rattan (rătăn`), name for a number of plants of the genera Calamus, Daemonorops, and Korthalsia climbing palms of tropical Asia, belonging to the family Palmae (palm family).  species, flavorings and spices, and many fruit trees, in particular, species of mango, durian and rambutan. The Lundayeh have a long tradition of bringing fruit trees into cultivation. However, in recent years these activities have expanded, because people fear that these resources will not be available in future years, and also because of a desire to establish fruit orchards for commercial reasons. Similarly, in response to the decline in animal and fish numbers, many people have constructed fish ponds for rearing tilapia, and a number of households keep chickens.

The increased pressure on both land and resources is also resulting in a shift towards greater privatization privatization: see nationalization.
privatization

Transfer of government services or assets to the private sector. State-owned assets may be sold to private owners, or statutory restrictions on competition between privately and publicly owned
. Today, there exists a great sense of urgency to secure land titles. Furthermore, some people now restrict access to resources that lie on their land. For example, there is a large patch of bamboo forest near Long Pasia which today fails under the ownership of several people. A few individuals have let it be known that they do not want people collecting bamboo shoots from their land, despite there being a long tradition of open access to other villagers for these resources. Although this is the cause of some ill feeling, with such behavior being seen as not customary for the Lundayeh, it has not been openly challenged. Rather, it has led to other people following suit.

Undoubtedly, the Lundayeh of Long Pasia and Long Mio will continue to change and adapt their way of life over the next decade and beyond. Some of these changes will no doubt be welcomed, but others will come about from necessity rather than preference. Already, their future options have been limited by the widespread logging. Consequently, a shift away from a forest-based lifestyle, with more intensive agriculture and greater involvement in the cash economy and in urban life, seems inevitable. What remains uncertain is whether, in this process, any of the particular characteristics of the Lundayeh way of life and of the Ulu Padas will be maintained. The Ulu Padas is a unique region, both biologically and culturally, and it would be both tragic and nonsensical if it were converted to plantations PLANTATIONS. Colonies, (q.v.) dependencies. (q.v.) 1 Bl. Com. 107. In England, this word, as it is used in St. 12, II. c. 18, is never applied to, any of the British dominions in Europe, but only to the colonies in the West Indies and America. 1 Marsh. Ins, B. 1, c. 3, Sec. 2, page 64.  and fields in its entirety The whole, in contradistinction to a moiety or part only. When land is conveyed to Husband and Wife, they do not take by moieties, but both are seised of the entirety. . Not only would such a route be unimaginative, it would be wasteful, since it would ignore the potential of local resources and of alternative ways of life. A better route would be to develop a diverse management strategy for the Ulu Padas--i.e., one that would enable local people to continue their current activities of swidden and wet rice cultivation, cash-cropping and hunting, but would also allow the establishment of protected areas
This article refers to protected regions of environmental or cultural value. For the protected area of a cricket pitch, see cricket pitch.


Protected areas
, and the development of community forests and agroforestry ag·ro·for·est·ry  
n.
A system of land use in which harvestable trees or shrubs are grown among or around crops or on pastureland, as a means of preserving or enhancing the productivity of the land.
. (See Christensen (2002:248-249) for similar suggestions regarding Sarawak.) This would enable the Lundayeh to maintain their way of life, an important part of their identity, while enabling economic development, also a local priority. Furthermore, such a strategy has the potential for meeting the state's goals of economic development and conservation.

That a more diverse strategy is possible is suggested by the Lundayeh's own response to the recent changes that they have experienced. In particular, the further development of fruit orchards and of agroforestry systems has great potential. Elsewhere in Borneo, highland peoples have successfully developed agroforestry systems that are economically successful, and at the same time, have enabled conservation of much of the local biodiversity biodiversity: see biological diversity.
biodiversity

Quantity of plant and animal species found in a given environment. Sometimes habitat diversity (the variety of places where organisms live) and genetic diversity (the variety of traits expressed
 and maintenance of many functions of the forest, such as watershed protection The term watershed refers to an area of land that drains precipitation that falls on it to a common point. These points could be streams, lakes, etc. Precipitatoin falling on any part of a watershed can travel quickly on the surface of the land, known as surface runoff, or travel through  (Fried 2000, Michon et al. 2000, Peluso 1996). The potential for the development of agroforestry in the Ulu Padas warrants investigation, particularly in light of the diversity of plant resources found here, including a wealth of local fruit varieties and species (Hoare Hoare may refer to:
  • C. A. R. Hoare (b. 1934), British computer scientist , creator of Hoare logic
  • Kelly Hoare (b. 1963), Australian politician
  • Mike Hoare (b.
 2002, Phillipps and Lamb 1998). Agroforestry is also more compatible with tourism, in comparison to intensive agriculture, for example. Tourism to the region is presently at a low level, but both villages have been working to develop this further.

The establishment of community forests and agroforestry could be encouraged in a number of ways. One priority is the settlement of land claims so that local people have secure tenure. A possible tool is that of subsidies, as these can have a major influence on the decisions made by local people. Thus, subsidies could be provided for agroforestry initiatives, rather than just for wet rice cultivation and cash crops such as coffee and tobacco, as is the case at the moment. Ultimately, what is needed is some imagination, particularly on the part of agricultural extension Agricultural extension was once known as the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. The field of extension now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organised for rural people by  officers and forest managers, so that there is a shift away from the assumption that the only options available for economic development are the traditional ones of logging, plantations and intensive agriculture. Those people with a role in developing a management strategy for the region (from local people up to government level) need to consider what kind of future they want for the region, and whether they want the Ulu Padas to become indistinguishable from many other places in Malaysia Malaysia (məlā`zhə), independent federation (2005 est. pop. 23,953,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital. , or if they wish to maintain at least some part of its biological diversity and rich cultural heritage.
Appendix 1: Foods Eaten as Kikid by the Lundayeh

A.VEGETABLES

LUNDAYEH
NAME                 FAMILY             SCIENTIFIC NAME

Dorey                Acanthaceae        Justicia obtusa Nees Lindan
Keduang              Acanthaceae        Pseuderanthemum
                                        acuminatissimum (Miq.) Radlk.
Kuru (sia & bata)    Amaranthaceae      Amaranthus spp.
Ufa'                 Araceae            Alocasia sp.
Ufa'                 Araceae            Colocasia esculenta (L.)
                                        Schott.
Bunger               Araceae            Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites
Sikarok / kelalang   Araceae            Schismatoglottis cf.
batu                                    calyptrata Zoll. & Mor.
Butu / kelalang      Araceae            Schismatoglottis sp.
Dinudur              Basellaceae        Basella alba L.
Pau sia              Blechnaceae        Stenochlaena palustris
                                        (Burm.f.) Bedd.
Sayur busak          Brassicaceae       Brassica chinensis Willd.
Sayur peit / sawi    Brassicaceae       Brassica juncea L. Czern.
Sedai /abi'          Brassicaceae       Brassica juncea L. Czern.
Sesei                Brassicaceae       Brassica juncea L. Czern.
Kailan               Brassicaceae       Brassica oleracea L.
Kobis                Brassicaceae       Brassica oleracea L.
Sayur picai          Brassicaceae       Brassica rapa L.
Sayur putih          Brassicaceae       Brassica rapa L.
Sayur gerinting      Brassicaceae       Brassica sp.
Kaber                Bromeliaceae       Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.
Sesila'              Caricaceae         Carica papaya L.
Riep alud            Cecropiaceae       Poikilospermum sp.
Riep                 Cecropiaceae       Poikilospermum suaveolens
                                        (B1.) Merr.
Siluk                Commelinaceae      Commelina paludosa Bl.
Udu daya / Udu       Compositae         Crassocephalum crepidioides
necing                                  (Benth.) Moore
Kangkong             Convolvulaceae     Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.
Ubi waar             Convolvulaceae     Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk.
Tadjak fadey         Cucurbitaceae      Benincasa hispida (Thunb. ex
                                        Murray) Cogn.
Timon                Cucurbitaceae      Cucumis sativus L.
Timon abai           Cucurbitaceae      Cucumis sp.
Timon belanda        Cucurbitaceae      Cucumis sp.
Tabo                 Cucurbitaceae      Cucurbita sp.
Tadjak               Cucurbitaceae      Cucurbita sp.
Sifula / petolak     Cucurbitaceae      Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.
Peria                Cucurbitaceae      Momordica charantia L.
Tadjak cina          Cucurbitaceae      Unknown species
Tukul langit         Dracaeneaceae      Dracaena sp.
Ubi kayu             Euphorbiaceae      Manihot esculenta Crantz
Cangkok manis        Euphorbiaceae      Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.
Patar                Fabaceae           Parkia sp.
Peritak boncis       Fabaceae           Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Peritak lebping      Fabaceae           Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
                                        (L.) DC.
Peritak kadang       Fabaceae           Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.
Bua fayang           Flacourtiaceae     Pangium edule Reinw.
Felali               Hydrocotylaceae    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban
Ginjer               Limnocharitaceae   Limnocharis flava Buchenau
Lagka                Moraceae           Artocarpus heterophyllus
                                        Lamk.
Pau bulat            Oleanchaceae       Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.)
                                        Schott
Feciruk              Ophioglossaceae    Helmintostachys zeylanica
                                        (L.) Kaulf.
Busak liling         Orchidaceae        Bromheadia finlaysoniana
felanuk / Busak                         (Lindl.) Miq.
fayeh
Pulu--bulu ee        Poaceae            Bambusa vulgaris Schrader ex
                                        Wendland
Pulu--bulu betung    Poaceae            Gigantochloa levis Merr.
Pulu--bulu telang    Poaceae            Schizostachyum brachycladum
                                        Kurz
Pulu--bulu poren     Poaceae            Schizostachyum latifolium
                                        Gamble
Pulu--bulu           Poaceae            Schizostachyum lima (Blanco)
sebiling                                Merrill
Buyor (feci';        Rutaceae           Citrus microcarpa Bunge;
kasturi;                                Citrus maxima Burm. Merr.
Lada rayeh / cabai   Solanaceae         Capsicum sp.
Tomate               Solanaceae         Lycopersicon esculentum
                                        Miller
Beliwan              Solanaceae         Solanum americanum Miller
Biterung eit lipon   Solanaceae         Solanum capsicoides All.
Biterung pulung      Solanaceae         Solanum ferox L.
Biterong             Solanaceae         Solanum melongena L.
Bua ulem             Solanaceae         Solanum torvum Sw.
Ubi gentang          Solanaceae         Solanum tuberosum L.
Lobak merah          Umbelliferae       Daucus carota L.
Bata                 Urticaceae         Elatostemma sp.
Tengayen             Urticaceae         Pouzolzia hirta (B1.) Hassk.
Pau abpa             Woodsiaceae        Diplazium esculentum Retz.
                                        Sw.
Pau abu /Pau         Woodsiaceae        Diplazium polypodioides Bl.
kapur

B. EDIBLE STEM PITH

LUNDAYEH             FAMILY             SCIENTIFIC NAME
NAME

Deremeh              Arecaceae          Arenga brevipes Becc.
Wei leludu           Arecaceae          Calamus convallium J. Dransf.
Wei peit             Arecaceae          Calamus pogonacanthus Becc.
                                        ex Winkl.
Riman                Arecaceae          Caryota mitis Lour.
Wei tei' lal         Arecaceae          Ceratolobus concolor Bl.
Wei kurad            Arecaceae          Daemonorops didymophylla
                                        Becc.
Wei sia              Arecaceae          Daemonorops fissa B1.
Belikakau /          Arecaceae          Daemonorops ingens J.Dransf.
Lekakau
Wei laasun           Arecaceae          Daemonorops ingens J.Dransf.
Wei seseit           Arecaceae          Daemonorops longistipes
                                        Burret
Wei lingan           Arecaceae          Daemonorops sabut Becc.
Wei laya             Arecaceae          Daemonorops sparsiflora
                                        Becc. / D. didymophylla Becc.
Kinangan             Arecaceae          Eugeissona utilis Becc.
Wei ser              Arecaceae          Korthalsia ferox Becc.
Ilad                 Arecaceae          Licuala valida Becc.
Tangan / Bara        Arecaceae          Pinanga capitata Becc. ex
                                        Gibbs
Berang               Arecaceae          Pinanga sp. aff. brevipes
                                        Becc.
Bisian               Arecaceae          Salacca vermicularis Becc.
Siluk fulung         Costaceae          Costus speciosus (Koenig)
                                        R.M. Smith / C. globosus Bl.
Bong                 Musaceae           Musa sp.
Sibak                Musaceae           Musa s p.
Terabak              Zingiberaceae      Alpinia glabra Ridl. / A.
                                        nieuwenhuizii Val.
Terabak fayeh        Zingiberaceae      Alpinia ligulata K.Schum.

C. SPICES AND FLAVORINGS

LUNDAYEH              FAMILY                  SCIENTIFIC NAME
NAME

Bawang merah          Alliaceae               Allium cepa L.
Bawang putih          Alliaceae               Allium sp.
Kusei                 Alliaceae               Allium sp.
Don sup               Apiaceae                Apium sp.
Piasau/Butan          Arecaceae               Cocus nucifera L.
Bua terur garang /    Clusiaceae              Garcinia dryobalanoides
ticuk mangai'                                 Pierre
Bua kecii / kayu      Clusiaceae              Garcinia parvifolia
mein / tutuberu                               (Miq.) Miq.
Bua lipau             Euphorbiaceae           Baccaurea lanceolata
                                              (Miq.) Muell. Arg.
Kicui / Bawing        Hydrocotylaceae         Eryngium foetidum L.
kedayan / don sop
Bawing                Lamiaceae               Mentha sp.
Kedingau (Kayu        Lauraceae               Cinnamomum sp.
manis
Tenem                 Lauraceae               Lindera pipericarpa
                                              Boerl.
Afa' fulung           Menispermaceae          Albertisia sp.
Bua gitah             Moraceae                Ficus racemosa L. var.
                                              elongata (King) Barrett
Kayu bawing           Myrtaceae               Syzigium sp.
Gesimau               Poaceae                 Cymbopogon citratus
                                              Stapf.
Lada                  Solanaceae              Capsicum sp.
Likua                 Zingiberaceae           Alpinia galanga Willd.
Kunus                 Zingiberaceae           Curcuma domestica Valeton
Bua salleh / Bua      Zingiberaceae           Etlingera elatior (Jack)
beludu /Baku ucat                             R.M. Smith
Baku tubu / Baku      Zingiberaceae           Etlingera punicea (Roxb.)
tubu nanong /                                 R.M. Smith
Baku derayau
Halia                 Zingiberaceae           Zingiber officinale
                                              Roscoe

D. MUSHROOMS

LUNDAYEH              FAMILY                  SCIENTIFIC NAME
NAME

Agau                  --                      Unknown species
Alit                  --                      Unknown species
Alub                  Amanitaceae             Amanita sp.
Aleng                 Pleurotaceae            Pleurotus cf. djamor
                                              (Fr.) Boedijn
Bibir kelabet         --                      Unknown species
Bulu                  --                      Unknown species
Buda'                 Lentinaceae             Lentinus squarrosulus
                                              Mont.
Derian                --                      Unknown species
Deseit                --                      Unknown species
Kecep                 Schizophyllaceae        Schizophyllum commune Fr.
Kekudan               Lentinaceae             Lentinus sajor-caju
                                              (Fr.) Fr.
Lam                   --                      Unknown species
Langan                --                      Unknown species
Likudan               Lentinaceae             Lentinus sajor-caju
                                              (Fr.) Fr.
Liputung              Hyrophoraceae           Hyrocybe sp.
Lopet                 Coprinaceae             Coprinus sp.
Merong                --                      Unknown species
Rata                  --                      Unknown species
Sawan                 Sarcoscyphaceae         Cookeina tricholoma
                                              (Mont.) Kuntze
Sia                   --                      Unknown species
Tana'                 --                      Unknown species
Tekudan               --                      Unknown species
Telub                 --                      Unknown species
Terupong              --                      Unknown species
Tinunger              Auriculariaceae         Auricularia fuscosuccinea
                                              Mont. Henn.
Tinunger becuk        Auriculariaceae         Auricularia delicata Fr.
                                              Henn.
Tutung                --                      Unknown species
Upul                  Lentinaceae             Lentinus sajor-caju
                                              (Fr.) Fr.

E. ANIMAL FOODS

LUNDAYEH              ENGLISH COMMON NAME     SCIENTIFIC NAME
NAME

Akep                  Snails freshwater       Unknown species
Arem                  Pangolin                Manis javanica
Badan                 Small-toothed palm      Arctogalidia trivirgata
                      civet
Bakaa                 Boar                    Sus barbatus
Becuk                 Pig-tailed macaque      Macaca nemestrina
Beladan / ebu         Turtle                  Unknown species
Belug                 Stinging hornet /       Unknown species
                      Night wasp
Berangad              Hose's langur / Grey    Presbytis hosei
                      leaf monkey
Beruang               Sun bear                Helarctos malayanus
Falang alud           Banded linsang          Prionodon linsang
Fugeh                 Slow loris &/or         Nycticebus coucang /
                      Western tarsier?        Tarsius bancanus
Kabuk / Kadarat       Monitor lizard          Varanus salvator
Kara' arur            Crab                    Unknown species
Kelabet               Borneo gibbon           Hylobates muelleri
Kelatang              Moth larva              Unknown species
Kubeng                Flying lemur            Cynocephalus variegatus
Kuyad                 Long-tailed macaque     Macaca fascicularis
Lawid                 Fish                    Various species
Labo afing / labo     Squirrels               Various species
fulung / sigaa
Menelen               Python                  Python sp.
Payau                 Sambar deer             Cervus unicolor
Payu                  Bearcat / binturong     Arctictis binturong
Pelanuk               Mouse deer              Tragulus napu
Ribuan                Masked palm civet       Paguma larvata
Seruang               Cobra                   Opyhiophagus sp.
Talau                 Barking deer            Muntiacus muntjac
Tamai                 Frog                    Unknown species
Terutung              Porcupine--common       Hystrix brachyura
Terutung badak        Porcupine--thick-       Thecurus crassispinis
                      spined
Tubang                Leopard cat             Felis bengalensis
Wet bulu              Sago grub               Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

BIRDS

Suit balud            Green imperial          Ducula aenea
                      pigeon / Pink-necked
                      green pigeon
Suit bau ulun         Malaysian peacock       Polyplectron malacense /
                      pheasant / Crested      Lophura ignita
                      fireback
Suit keruak           White-breasted          Amaurornis phoenicurus
                      waterhen
Suit metor            Green pigeon / Wild     Treron sp.
                      pigeon
Suit sukur            Spotted dove            Streptopelia chinensis
Suit tapiak           Bulwer's pheasant       Lophura bulweri

EGGS

Suit sukur            Spotted dove            Streptopelia chinensis
Suit keruak           White-breasted          Amaurornis phoenicurus
                      waterhen
Suit pirit            Sparrow                 Unknown species
Seruang               Cobra                   Ophiophagus sp.

DOMESTICATED ANIMALS

Berek                 Pig                     Sus scrofa
Kerbau                Buffalo                 Bubalus bubalis
Lal--kampong          Chicken--eggs & meat
Sapi                  Cow                     Bos indicus

F. SHOP-BOUGHT KIKID

Army rations (e.g. packets of meat curry)
Tinned meat
Hot dogs
Dried meat (e.g. buffalo)
Frozen meat (e.g. frozen beef tripe; chicken wings)
Chicken eggs
Tinned fish
Salted fish
Dried prawns
Instant noodles
Pasta
Dried mushrooms
Soup--tinned
Soya bean curd

G. SHOP-BOUGHT FLAVORINGS

Dried anchovies (ikan bilis)
Fermented fish paste (belacan)
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
Salt
Soya sauce
Tamarind paste
Garlic
Onions

H. SNACK FOODS

                                     Varieties

Army rations                         biscuits; jam; fruit in syrup;
Bread
Cakes & biscuits--shop-bought
Cakes (kui; noney; pinaram)--        banana; cassava; corn; jackfruit;
home-made                            pumpkin;
Crisps
Fruit--local                         various species (see Table 4)
Fruit--shop-bought                   apples; durian; oranges; rambutan;
                                     watermelon;
Instant noodles
Peanuts (kacan tana')
Porridge (bubur) (delei; kacang;     corn; beans; cassava; taro;
ubi; ufa;
Spreads (for bread & biscuits)       condensed milk; honey; jam;
                                     margarine; peanut butter;
Sticky rice (fadey mo)
Sugar
Sugar cane (tebpu)
Sunflower seeds
Sweets
Young shoots (periku)                various species (see Tables 3 and
                                     4)

Appendix 2: Edible Fruit Species

LUNDAYEH
NAME                 FAMILY           SCIENTIFIC NAME

Itaan                --               Unknown species
Puk                  --               Unknown species
Serudang             --               Unknown species
Taken / Tetaken      --               Unknown species
Tefuduk binei        --               Unknown species
War aley             --               Unknown species
War used             --               Unknown species
Teberecek buda'      Actinidiaceae    Saurauia cf. longistyla Merr.
Teberecek            Actinidiaceae    Saurauia sp.
Ringurin             Anacardiaceae    Baccaurea sp.
Belunu (Malay)       Anacardiaceae    Mangifera caesia Jack
Lam                  Anacardiaceae    Mangifera indica L.
Felam                Anacardiaceae    Mangifera sp.
Karamut              Anacardiaceae    Mangifera sp.
Karung / Lam         Anacardiaceae    Mangifera sp.
karung
Rengeh / Telaka '    Anacardiaceae    Semecarpus bunburyanus Gibbs
Durian belanda       Annonaceae       Annona muricata L.
(Malay)
Nona (Malay)         Annonaceae       Annona reticulata L.
Kelang batu          Apocynaceae      cf. Leuconotis sp.
Kelang               Apocynaceae      Willughbeia coriacea Wall.
Tecung ubeh          Araceae          Colocasia oresbia A.Hay
Piasau /Butan        Arecaceae        Cocus nucifera L.
Wei kurad            Arecaceae        Daemonorops didymophylla Becc.
Likakau /            Arecaceae        Daemonorops ingens J.Dransf.
Belikakau
Bisian               Arecaceae        Salacca vermicularis Becc.
Beleleh              Bombacaceae      Durio graveolens Becc.
Lapun salat          Bombacaceae      Durio sp.
Dalit                Bombacaceae      Durio sp.
Lapun                Bombacaceae      Durio zibethinus Murray
Kaber                Bromeliaceae     Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.
Sesila'              Caricaceae       Carica papaya L.
Kitong               Clusiaceae       Garcinia bancana (Miq.) Miq.
Kapab                Clusiaceae       Garcinia cf. beccarii Pierre
Kecii luang          Clusiaceae       Garcinia cf. parvifolia (Miq.)
                                      Miq.
Terur garang /       Clusiaceae       Garcinia dryobalanoides Pierre
Ticuk mangai'
Mata lawid / Riaku   Clusiaceae       Garcinia forbesii King
Ubpul                Clusiaceae       Garcinia maingayi Hook.f.
Kecii /Kayu mein /   Clusiaceae       Garcinia parvifolia (Miq.) Miq.
Tutuberu
Timon labo           Cucurbitaceae    Mukia javanica (Miq.) C.Jeffrey
Iti /Eki'            Elaeagnaceae     Elaeagnus ferruginea Rich.
Uleg                 Elaeocarpaceae   Elaeocarpus sp.
Lipau                Euphorbiaceae    Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.)
                                      Muell.Arg.
Pika                 Euphorbiaceae    Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.)
                                      Muell.Arg.
Pugi                 Euphorbiaceae    Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq.)
                                      Muell.Arg.
Siei                 Euphorbiaceae    Baccaurea sp.
Terur berek /        Euphorbiaceae    Baccaurea sp.
Terur baka / Terur
pa yo
Tuer                 Euphorbiaceae    Bischofia javanica B1.
Fatar                Fabaceae         Parkia sp.
Fidaawee             Fagaceae         Castanopsis acuminatissima (B1.)
                                      A.DC.
Berangan             Fagaceae         Castanopsis costata (Bl.) A.DC.
Abok                 Fagaceae         Castanopsis oviformis Soepadmo /
                                      C. cf. hypophoenicea (Seemen)
                                      Soepadmo
Ukem                 Fagaceae         Lithocarpus psilophylla Soepadmo
Tateh                Flacourtiaceae   Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor.
Fayang               Flacourtiaceae   Pangium edule Reinw.
Labpak               Hypoxidaceae     Curculigo latifolia Dryand.
Talal                Lauraceae        Litsea garciae Vidal
Tei 'suit bueng      Loranthaceae     Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.
Silaku / Tekang      Melastomaceae    Medinilla crassifolia (Reinw. ex
                                      Bl.) Bl.
Sikali               Melastomaceae    Melastoma malabathricum L.
Merikubit            Meliaceae        Aglaia korthalsii Miq.
Terur suit           Meliaceae        Aglaia korthalsii Miq.
Fika labo /Mata      Meliaceae        Aglaia odoratissima Bl.
lawid
Lingat               Meliaceae        Lansium domesticum Correa
Kelidang             Moraceae         Artocarpus cf. lanceifolius Roxb.
Feriubi              Moraceae         Artocarpus cf. primackiana
                                      Kochummen
Lagka                Moraceae         Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk.
Fudu                 Moraceae         Artocarpus kemando Miq.
Kiran / Tarap        Moraceae         Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco
Terur talau          Moraceae         Artocarpus sp.
Talun                Moraceae         Artocarpus tamaran Becc.
Likabong             Moraceae         Ficus cf. francisci H. Winkl.
Feriboodok           Moraceae         Ficus cf. uncinata (King) Becc.
Arid                 Moraceae         Ficus megaleia Corner
Lunuk                Moraceae         Ficus parietalis Blume
Gitah                Moraceae         Ficus racemosa L. var. elongata
                                      (King) Barrett
Lison okok           Moraceae         Ficus sp.
Emel                 Moraceae         Ficus stolonifera King / F.
                                      uncinata (King) Becc.
Bong                 Musaceae         Musa sp.
Pidara /             Myristicaceae    Horsfieldia sp.
Semendara
Tereh / Decer        Myrsinaceae      Ardisia sp.
pelanuk
War ilang            Myrsinaceae      Embellia philippinensis A.DC.
Lipet                Myrtaceae        Decaspermum parviflorum (Lam.)
                                      A.J. Scott
Jambu (Malay)        Myrtaceae        Psidium guajava L.
Buau / Binuber       Myrtaceae        Syzigium foxworthianum (Ridl.)
                                      Merr. & Perry
Uber                 Myrtaceae        Syzigium polyanthum (Wight)
                                      Walp.
Jambu air (Malay)    Myrtaceae        Syzigium samarangense (Blume)
                                      Merr. & Perry; or S. aqueum
                                      (Burm.f.) Alston
Markisa (Malay)      Passifloraceae   Passiflora edulis Sims
Pisang lalid         Rosaceae         Rubus benguetensis Elmer
Serinit / Tabpa      Rosaceae         Rubus moluccanus L.
serinit
Bidang               Rosaceae         Rubus rosifolius J.E.Smith
Buyor                Rutaceae         Citrus microcarpa Bunge; C.
                                      maxima (Burm.) Merr.; C. sinensis
                                      (L.) Osbeck; C. medica L.
Demicir              Sapindaceae      Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb.)
                                      Leenh.
Sia                  Sapindaceae      Nephelium cuspidatum Bl. var.
                                      eriopetalum (Miq.) Leenh.
Rambutan (Malay)     Sapindaceae      Nephelium lappaceum L.
Beritem              Sapindaceae      Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Labill.)
                                      Leenh.
Fuder                Sapindaceae      Unknown species
Arau / Kuceng        Tilliaceae       Microcos cf. elmeri Merr.
Sifei                Urticaceae       Debregeasia longifolia (Burm.f.)
                                      Wedd.
Terebak becuk        Zingiberaceae    Alpinia latilabris Ridl.
Terebak labo /       Zingiberaceae    Alpinia ligulata K.Schum.
Terebak fayeh
Terebak              Zingiberaceae    Alpinia nieuwenhuizii Val. / A.
                                      glabra Ridl.
Tubu beritem         Zingiberaceae    Alpinia sp.
Tubu bigan           Zingiberaceae    Amomum cf. polycarpum K.Schum.
Salleh               Zingiberaceae    Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.
                                      Smith
Tubu /Baku           Zingiberaceae    Etlingera punicea (Roxb.) R.M.
derayau                               Smith
Teladan              Zingiberaceae    Hornstedtia affinis Ridl.
Teladan becuk /      Zingiberaceae    Hornstedtia scyphifera Steud.
Teladan fayeh /
Teladan buki
Tubu becit           Zingiberaceae    Plagiostachys crocydocalyx
                                      (K.Schum.) B.L.Burtt & R.M.Sm.
Tubu terutung        Zingiberaceae    Plagiostachys sp.

Table 1: Comparison of Edible Plant Resources Used as Kikid
by Peoples of Highland Borneo

NO. OF           KELABIT (PA      IBAN (NANGA      LUNDAYEH
SPECIES:         DALIH)           SUMPA)           (LONG PASIA &
                 (Christensen,    (Christensen,    LONG MIO)
                 2002)            2002)

MUSHROOMS              38               19               10
VEGETABLES            129              195              108
SPICES OR              34               61               19
FLAVOURINGS

TOTAL                 201              275              137

Table 2: Long Pasia Dietarv Survevs

YEAR OF        1993         1999-2000 (Hoare)
SURVEY         (Bennett)
                            Survey    Survey    Survey    Survey
% MEALS                       1:        2:        3:        4:
CONTAINING:

HUNTED MEAT       39          33        31        20        27
RNER FISH         40          23        29        11        16

YEAR OF        1999-2000 (Hoare)
SURVEY
               Survey    Survey
% MEALS          5:        %
CONTAINING:

HUNTED MEAT      19        26
RNER FISH        21        20

Table 3: Species used as Periku

LUNDAYEH NAME              FAMILY           SCIENTIFIC NAME

Kayu telatang              Anacardiaceae    Campnosperma auriculatum
                                            Hook. f.
Periku bata                Urticaceae       Oreocnide trinervis (Wedd.)
                                            Miq.
Periku pelanuk / Periku    Myrsinaceae      Ardisia sp.
abai
Periku tuer                Euphorbiaceae    Bischofia javanica B1.
Tebpu barok                Begoniaceae      Begonia sp.
War ilang                  Myrsinaceae      Embelia sp.

Table 4: Fruits Most Conunonly Eaten by Children

LUNDAYEH NAME              FAMILY            SCIENTIFIC NAME

Bisian                     Arecaceae         Salacca vermicularis Becc.
Kecii / Kayu mein /        Clusiaceae        Garcinia parvifolia (Miq.)
Tutuberu                                     Miq.
Timon labo                 Cucurbitaceae     Mukia javanica (Miq.) C.
                                             Jeffrey
Iti / Eki'                 Elaea aceae       Elaeagnus erru inea Rich.
Lipau                      Euphorbiaceae     Baccaurea lanceolata
                                             (Miq.) Muell.Arg.
Tuer                       Euphorbiaceae     Bischo a javanica BI.
Sikali                     Melastomaceae     Melastoma malabathricum L.
Terur suit                 Meliaceae         Aglaia korthalsii Miq.
Fika labo / Mata lawid     Meliaceae         Aglaia odoratissima B1.
Lingat                     Meliaceae         Lansium domesticum Correa
Gitah                      Moraceae          Ficus racemosa L. var.
                                             elongata (King) Barrett
Bong                       Musaceae          Musa sp.
Lipet                      Myrtceae          Decas ermum arviflorum
                                             (Lam.) A.J. Scott
Jambu (Malay)              Myrtceae          Psidium guava L.
Buau                       Myrtceae          Syzigium foxworthianum
                                             (Ridl.) Merr. & Perry
Jambu air (Malay)          Myrtaceae         Syzigium samarangense
                                             (Blume) Merr. & Perry; or
                                             S. aqueum (Burm.f.) Alston
Markisa (Malay)            Passifloraceae    Passiflora edulis Sims
Pisan lalid                Rosaceae          Rubus benguetensis Elmer
Serinit / Tabpa serinit    Rosaceae          Rubus moluccanus L.
Bidang                     Rosaceae          Rubus rosifolius J.E.Smith
Buyor                      Rutaceae          Citrus microcarpa Bunge;
                                             C. maxima (Burm.) Merr.;
                                             C. sinensis L. Osbeck; C.
                                             medica L.
Teladan                    Zingiberaceae     Hornstedtia affinis Ridl.
Terebak                    Zingiberaceae     Alpinia spp.

Table 5: Forest Resources Frequently Brought Into Cultivation

LUNDAYEH NAME         FAMILY           SCIENTIFIC NAME

FLAVORING

Keduang               Lauraceae        Cinnamomum sp
Afa 'fulung           Menispermaceae   Albertisia sp
Bua salleh /Bua       Zingiberaceae    Edingera elatior (Jack)
beludu / Baku ucat                     R.M.Smith

EDIBLE FRUIT

Felam                 Anacardiaceae    Mangifera sp.
Karamut               Anacardiaceae    Mangifera sp.
Karung / Lam karung   Anacardiaceae    Mangifera sp.
Beleleh               Bombacaceae      Durio graveolens Becc.
Lapun salat           Bombacaceae      Durio sp.
Dalit                 Bombacaceae      Durio sp.
Pugi                  Euphorbiaceae    Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq.)
                                       Muell.Arg.
Siei                  Euphorbiaceae    Baccaurea sp.
Berangan              Fagaceae         Castanopsis costata (B1.)
                                       A.DC.
Lingat                Meliaceae        Lansium domesticum Correa
Kelidang              Moraceae         Artocarpus c^ lanceifolius Roxb.
Feriubi               Moraceae         Artocarpus cf. primackiana
                                       Kochununen
Kiran / Tarap         Moraceae         Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco
Talun                 Moraceae         Artocarpus tamaran Becc.
Sia                   Sapindaceae      Nephelium cuspidatum Bl. var.
                                       eriopetalum (Miq.) Leenh.
Beritem               Sapindaceae      Nephelium ramboutan-ake
                                       (Labill.) Leenh.

EDIBLE STEM PITH

Wei sia               Arecaceae        Daemonorops fissa Bl.
Wei seseit            Arecaceae        Daemonorops longistipes Burret
Wei lingan            Arecaceae        Daemonorops sabut Becc.


(1) For a detailed description of the region's forest types and their botanical composition, see Phillips Phil·lips  

A trademark used for a screw with a head having two intersecting perpendicular slots and for a screwdriver with a tip shaped to fit into these slots.
 and Lamb (1998).

(2) Included within my category of "vegetables" are green leafy leaf·y  
adj. leaf·i·er, leaf·i·est
1. Covered with or having leaves.

2. Consisting of leaves: Spinach is a leafy green vegetable.

3. Similar to or resembling a leaf.
 vegetables, bamboo shoots, and tuberous roots A tuberous root is a modified lateral root, enlarged to function as a storage organ. It is thus different in origin but similar in function and coarse appearance to a tuber. , as well as flowers, seeds, and fruits.

(3) The first dietary surveys are not included because the data on plant resources are incomplete. Subsequent to this, the survey forms were re-designed, enabling better data collection. Furthermore, this data does not reflect the importance of the different vegetation types as sources of fruits, because of the under-recording of these foods in the dietary surveys.

Bibliography bibliography. The listing of books is of ancient origin. Lists of clay tablets have been found at Nineveh and elsewhere; the library at Alexandria had subject lists of its books.  

Appell, G.N.

1988 Costing Social Change. IN: M. R. Dove, ed., The Real and Imagined Role of Culture in Development: Case Studies from Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago. . Honolulu Honolulu (hŏn'əl`l, hōnō–), city (1990 pop. : University of Hawaii Press The University of Hawaiʻi Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiʻi. . pp. 271-284.

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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
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Chin, S. C.

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Lush forest, generally composed of tall, broad-leaved trees and usually found in wet tropical regions around the Equator. Despite increased awareness of the rainforests' importance during the late 20th century, they continue to be cleared.
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1997 An Ethnobotanical Survey of the Flora Flora, in Roman religion, goddess of flowers and fertility. Her festival, the Floralia, Apr. 28–May 1, was celebrated with great gaiety and licentiousness.  Used by Two Longhouse longhouse

Traditional communal dwelling of the Iroquois Indians until the 19th century. The longhouse was a rectangular box built out of poles, with doors at each end and saplings stretched over the top to form the roof, the whole structure being covered with bark.
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Application of the various soil and plant sciences to soil management and crop production; scientific agriculture.



ag
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A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.


dissertation
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1.
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Slash and burn refers to the cutting and burning of forests or woodlands to create fields for agriculture or pasture for livestock, or for a
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lamb pelt made to resemble seal or beaver.
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pharmacological, pharmacologic

pertaining to pharmacology.
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a. The science of the relationships between organisms and their environments. Also called bionomics.

b. The relationship between organisms and their environment.
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1. The science that analyzes and compares human cultures, as in social structure, language, religion, and technology; cultural anthropology.

2.
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Hladik, A., E.G E.G For Example . Leigh Leigh (lē), town (1991 pop. 42,627), Wigan metropolitan district, NW England, in the Greater Manchester metropolitan area. Industries include cotton and rayon mills, metalworks, and machinery and electrical goods plants.  and F. Bourliere

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American composer and conductor whose romantic works include operas, such as Bianca (1918), symphonies, and chamber music.
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Hoare, A.L.

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1995 The Hearth-Group, the Conjugal Pertaining or relating to marriage; suitable or applicable to married people.

Conjugal rights are those that are considered to be part and parcel of the state of matrimony, such as love, sex, companionship, and support.
 Couple and the Symbolism Symbolism

In art, a loosely organized movement that flourished in the 1880s and '90s and was closely related to the Symbolist movement in literature. In reaction against both Realism and Impressionism, Symbolist painters stressed art's subjective, symbolic, and decorative
 of the Rice Meal among the Kelabit of Sarawak. IN: J. Carsten and S. Hugh-Jones, eds., About the House: Levi-Strauss Lé·vi-Strauss   , Claude Born 1908.

French social anthropologist and leading exponent of the theory of structuralism. His works include Structural Anthropology (1958) and Totemism (1962).

Noun 1.
 and Beyond. Cambridge Cambridge, city, Canada
Cambridge (kām`brĭj), city (1991 pop. 92,772), S Ont., Canada, on the Grand River, NW of Hamilton. It was formed in 1973 with the amalgamation of Galt, Hespeler, and Preston, all founded in the early 19th cent.
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Michon, G., H. de Foresta, Kusworo, and P. Levang

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  • KRUI-FM, an FM radio station located in Iowa City, Iowa
  • KRUI (AM), an AM radio station located in Ruidoso Downs, New Mexico
, Indonesia: Justice for Forest Farmers. IN: C. Zerner, ed., People, Plants and Justice: The Politics of Nature Conservation. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 159-203.

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Peluso, N. L.

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  • Counts of Flanders
  • Counts of Hainaut
  • Counts of Holland
 in an Anthropogenic an·thro·po·gen·ic  
adj.
1. Of or relating to anthropogenesis.

2. Caused by humans: anthropogenic degradation of the environment.
 Forest: Ethics of Access, Property Zones, and Environmental Change in Indonesia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 38:510-548.

Phillipps, A. and A. Lamb

1998 The Botanical Richness of the Ulu Padas. SBCP--IPPA Technical Report. Sabah: Ministry of Tourism & Environmental Development.

Alison Alison

betrays old husband amusingly with her lodger, Nicholas. [Br. Lit.: Canterbury Tales, “Miller’s Tale”]

See : Adultery
 Hoare

Department of Anthropology anthropology, classification and analysis of humans and their society, descriptively, culturally, historically, and physically. Its unique contribution to studying the bonds of human social relations has been the distinctive concept of culture.  

University of Kent

Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NS UK
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Title Annotation:Research Notes
Author:Hoare, Alison
Publication:Borneo Research Bulletin
Geographic Code:90SOU
Date:Jan 1, 2003
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