Follow that supernova: as SN 1987A develops, astronomers watch and wonder.
Follow That Supernova
Not in centuries have astronomers seen a supernova as close as SN 1987A, and never have they seen one so close with modern observing equipment. Its development keeps offering surprises, like the strange "companion' that suddenly appeared beside it about a month after its discovery last February. Astronomers are not sure whether these behaviors are common and just were not seen in more distant supernovas, or whether SN 1987A really is anomalous in some ways.
Scientists discussing the supernova at the joint gathering in June of the American Astronomical Society The American Astronomical Society (AAS, sometimes pronounced "double-A-S") is a US society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC. and the Canadian Astronomical Society The Canadian Astronomical Society is a Canadian society of professional astronomers. External links
Mark M. Phillips of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (sā`rō tōlō`lō), astronomical observatory located on Cerro Tololo peak, Chile, with offices in La Serena, about 40 mi (64 km) to the west. Funded by the U.S. at La Serena, Chile La Serena ("the serene one") is the second oldest city in Chile. The city, located 471 km north of Santiago, has a population of 147,815, according to the 2002 census. There are also 12,333 inhabitants of the immediately surrounding countryside. , called it "a supernova in search of a tail.' However, it may finally have peaked and the tail may be coming. Robert F. Garrison, director of the University of Toronto Southern Observatory The University of Toronto Southern Observatory (UTSO) was an astronomical observatory built by the University of Toronto at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. It hosted a single 60 cm Cassegrain telescope and a small cottage for the operators, located amongst the at Las Campanas, Chile, where the supernova was discovered, reported at the meeting that it had peaked at magnitude 2.88 on May 22 and was decreasing by 3 percent a day thereafter.
The peak, just slightly brighter than third magnitude, is easily visible to the naked eye, but it doesn't dominate the southern sky as such a close supernova should. "Why so low luminosity luminosity, in astronomy, the rate at which energy of all types is radiated by an object in all directions. A star's luminosity depends on its size and its temperature, varying as the square of the radius and the fourth power of the absolute surface temperature. ?' Phillips asks. If there are more such underluminous supernovas, they would not be seen at large distances. Perhaps this one belongs to a new class, which Phillips calls "Magellanic irregulars.'
The biggest recent surprise seems to be the companion object that suddenly appeared. Costs Papaliolios and Peter Nisenson of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It consists of the Harvard College Observatory and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The Center is located at 60 Garden Street. in Cambridge, Mass., discovered the object in observations made at Carro Tololo on March 25 and April 2. At the Vancouver meeting Nisenson described the speckle Speckle
The generation of a random intensity distribution, called a speckle pattern, when light from a highly coherent source, such as a laser, is scattered by a rough surface or inhomogeneous medium. interferometery that found it.
Speckle interferometry is a means of getting around the twinkling caused by turbulence in the earth's atmosphere. Turbulence continually changes the refractive refractive
capacity to refract light.
a difference between the focal length of the cornea and lens, and the length of the eye, resulting in myopia or hyperopia. properties of the air over the telescope, and in so doing blurs together the images of objects that lie very close together. Speckle interferometry takes a large number of short exposures, trying basically to keep up with the changes, and also uses specially designed apertures in the camera to sharpen the resolution. In this case, Nisenson says, they used a mask with seven pinholes in it. The result is a pattern of a great many speckles, imprinted as the changes in the atmosphere make the image jump around. Computer analysis of the speckles can find correlations that show whether more than one body is present and can draw a picture of their relative locations.
Nisenson says his group's analysis of 50,000 frames revealed something characteristic of a double star--that is, two bright objects very close together. "We found this thing,' he says, "and we didn't quite know what to make of it.' It was brighter by five or six magnitudes than the star that was there before the supernova exploded. It was about three magnitudes fainter than the supernova itself and about 2 light-weeks away from it. They see it in various colors--Lyman alpha (ultraviolet), 5,330 angstroms (green) and 4,500 angstroms (blue)--but with slightly different ratios of brightness to the supernova at different wave-lengths. A group from Imperial College, London, working with the Anglo-Australian Telescope in Australia, confirmed the finding on April 22. Nisenson summed up with the remark: "Nobody's seen this detail before.'
As theorists grope for an explanation, certain obvious suggestions can be ruled out from the start. For one, as Stanford E. Woosley Stanford E. Woosley (born December 8, 1944) is a physicist, and Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics. He is the director of the Center for Supernova Research at UCSC. He has published over 300 papers. of the University of California The University of California has a combined student body of more than 191,000 students, over 1,340,000 living alumni, and a combined systemwide and campus endowment of just over $7.3 billion (8th largest in the United States). at Santa Cruz pointed out at the meeting, the thing wasn't there before, so it couldn't be an ordinary star. By its appearance it is not a second supernova. Nor is it something ejected from the supernova; 2 light-weeks is too far for anything to have flown in the time since the explosion at the speeds measured for matter involved in the explosion. An obvious solution is that the spot represents a bit of interstellar in·ter·stel·lar
Between or among the stars: interstellar gases.
between or among stars
Adj. 1. gas that was already there and is reflecting or reprocessing Reprocessing may refer to:
Adopting such a solution raises other problems, however. The companion spot represents a small part of a spherical surface around the supernova at its distance. If one assumes that the radiation that lights the spot comes out in all directions with equal intensity, the total amount is fantastic, according to several commentators. Richard N. Manchester of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Epping, New South Wales Epping is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Epping is located 18 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district in the local government areas of the City of Ryde, the City of Parramatta and Hornsby Shire. , Australia, suggests that a beam of neutrons sent out by the supernova explosion might be hitting just the one spot and causing it to radiate light.
Kenneth Brecher of Boston University suggests beamed radiation from a pulsar inside the supernova. Astrophysicists expect supernovas to produce pulsars. The explosion crushes the core of the exploding star, turning it into a neutron star--a tiny, extremely dense body composed almost entirely of neutrons. All neutron stars may not be pulsars, but astrophysicists generally believe that all radio pulsars are neutron stars.
If there is such a pulsar in the supernova, Brecher says, it may be beaming some kind of electromagnetic radiation or some highly energetic particles in such a way that they strike just the spot represented by the mystery companion. Subatomic particles moving at at least half the speed of light could have covered the distance by now, he calculates. However, the energy supplied by such a beam has to be converted to light by the gas or other matter in the companion object, and on this point Brecher passes: "How you reprocess re·proc·ess
tr.v. re·proc·essed, re·proc·ess·ing, re·proc·ess·es
To cause to undergo special or additional processing before reuse.
Verb 1. it, I don't know.'
Manchester objects that this "would be an extraordinary pulsar,' 10 times as bright as the one in the Crab nebula, which is considered a standard.
Referring to the companion, Richard A. McCray of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics at the University of Colorado University of Colorado may refer to:
Whether or not the pulsar is beaming something at the companion, it should eventually manifest its presence with its own direct radiation, a pulsed radio signal and maybe a pulsed light signal. Right now the thickness of the material flying out from the explosion hides the pulsar, but as that material spreads out in space it will thin, and eventually the pulsar in the middle should shine through. Actually discovering it will be a direct proof of the hypothesis that pulsars are made in supernovas. For the first time, scientists will have observed the birth of a pulsar.
Astronomers are keeping watch in the hope of making the discovery. Brecher notes that Jerome Kristian of the Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories in Pasadena, Calif., has a millisecond pulsar detector watching in case the pulsar turns out to have a pulse period in the millisecond One thousandth of a second. See space/time and ohnosecond.
(unit) millisecond - (ms) One thousandth of a second, one thousand microseconds. A long time for a modern computer. range. Manchester reports that telescopes in Australia are watching for both visible and radio pulses. The Anglo-Australian Telescope looks for optical pulses once a week, while radio telescopes at Parkes and Molonglo in New South Wales New South Wales, state (1991 pop. 5,164,549), 309,443 sq mi (801,457 sq km), SE Australia. It is bounded on the E by the Pacific Ocean. Sydney is the capital. The other principal urban centers are Newcastle, Wagga Wagga, Lismore, Wollongong, and Broken Hill. are looking for radio pulses.
So far astronomers observe the supernova in light, ultraviolet and radio. They are also keeping watch for other forms of radiation expected from the supernova. One of these is infrared.
According to Robert D. Gehrz of the University of Minnesota (body, education) University of Minnesota - The home of Gopher.
Address: Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. in Minneapolis, who specializes in infrared observations, dust may form in a supernova. He points out that dust forms in the ejecta e·jec·ta
Something that has been ejected from the body. Also called ejection.
refuse cast off from the body. of a nova, a less catastrophic form of stellar explosion. Reasoning from this and from inclusions of dust in meteorites Meteorites
See also astronomy.
the science of aerolites, whether meteoric stones or meteorites. Also called aerolitics.
the study of meteorites. Also called meteoritics. , he concludes that "we have every reason to believe dust should form in a supernova.' Heated dust would radiate infrared, and infrared would enable astronomers to follow the supernova in daylight, something visible-light observations can't do.
The onset of such dust formation may be as early as August or September, or it could be as much as six months later, Gehrz suggests. However, when and if it comes, it will seriously obscure the visible and ultraviolet radiation from the supernova. This part of the prediction caused Robert P. Kirshner of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who supervises observations by the International Ultraviolet Explorer International Ultraviolet Explorer: see ultraviolet astronomy. satellite, to remark, "I hope not.'
Dust and infrared may be controversial, but gamma rays are not. Experts generally expect them from a supernova. Theorists of nuclear physics consider supernova explosions to be the only likely places for the formation of some of the heaviest chemical elements. The nuclear fusion processes that synthesize these elements produce gamma rays that will be recognized by their characteristic energies. The pulsar in the supernova may also emit gamma rays.
Under the direction of Edward L. Chupp of the University of New Hampshire at Durham, the Solar Maximum Mission This article is about the space satellite. For other uses, see SMM (disambiguation)
The Solar Maximum Mission satellite (or SolarMax) was designed to investigate solar phenomenon, particularly solar flares. It was launched on February 14, 1980. satellite is looking for both kinds of gamma rays. Finding those from nuclear synthesis would be a direct confirmation of a theory that is of capital importance to cosmology, chemistry and ultimately biology. As Chupp puts it, we would "find out where the elements come from that we're all made of.'
Table: CAPABILITIES FOR OBSERVING SN 1987a
Capabilities of various satellites, rockets and balloons observing SN 1987A are graphed according to the wavelengths each receives and its relative sensitivity (sensitivity is greatest at top). The output of the Crab nebula, the remnant of a supernova of 1,000 years ago, appears for comparison.
Photo: The core of a layered star collapses and blows off the outer layers to make a type II supernova Type II supernova, or core-collapse supernova, is a sub-category of cataclysmic variable stars that results from the internal collapse and violent explosion of a massive star. Stars must have at least 9 times the mass of the Sun in order to undergo a core-collapse. . Numbers are multiples of the sun's mass.