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Focusing on pedestrian safety; Researchers in Arizona are trying to pinpoint when, where, and why pedestrians are killed on U.S. roadways.



Approximately 8.7 percent of the total trips made in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  each year are made exclusively by walking, according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA FHWA Federal Highway Administration (US DoT) ) Summary of Travel Trends: 2001 National Household Travel Survey. People who choose not to drive, cannot drive, or do not have a driver's license or motor vehicle usually depend on walking for their day-to-day trips, often along with other transportation modes, such as public transit.

The Uniform Vehicle Code, a comprehensive set of motor vehicle and traffic laws prepared by the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances as a guide or standard for States' laws, defines a "pedestrian" as "any person afoot." During the 5-year period 2001-2005, pedestrian fatalities in the United States averaged about 11 percent of all roadway traffic fatalities nationwide, according to Traffic Safety Facts, published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (US government) ). Pedestrian fatalities are much higher in urban areas, accounting for 25 to 40 percent of all traffic fatalities, according to How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan, published by FHWA and the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. In 2006, fatalities were approximately 1.6 percent of all traffic injuries in the police-reported motor vehicle traffic crashes nationwide. Pedestrian fatalities were much higher, approximately 7.3 percent of all pedestrian injuries.

"Pedestrians are the most vulnerable roadway users, and unlike drivers, they represent every age group and include people with accessibility issues and other physical and visual disabilities," says Mike Cynecki, traffic engineering supervisor with the Street Transportation Department of Phoenix, AZ. In fact, everyone is a pedestrian at one time or another, when walking from one mode of travel (car, bus, bike, or train) to the front door of their destination.

As part of its efforts to improve pedestrian safety, FHWA identified four "focus cities" that have high numbers of pedestrian fatalities: Chicago, IL; Los Angeles Los Angeles (lôs ăn`jələs, lŏs, ăn`jəlēz'), city (1990 pop. 3,485,398), seat of Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1850. , CA; New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
, NY; and Phoenix, AZ. Researchers affiliated with the Arizona Department of Transportation The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) is an Arizona state government agency charged with facilitating mobility within the state. In addition to managing the state's highway system, the agency is also involved with public transportation and municipal airports.  (ADOT ADOT Arizona Department Of Transportation
ADOT Alaska Department of Transportation
ADOT Fédération des Associations pour le Don d'Organes et de Tissus Humains
ADOT Active Duty Other Than Training
ADOT Automatic Digital Optical Tracker
ADOT Advanced Display Optimization Tools
) recently conducted an independent study focused on determining the factors, related to both drivers and pedestrians, that contributed to the pedestrian fatal crashes in these cities, which could be useful in identifying countermeasures That form of military science that, by the employment of devices and/or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity. See also electronic warfare.  to help improve safety.

FHWA Sets the Bar

FHWA established a goal to continually improve highway safety by reducing pedestrian crashes, fatalities, and injuries by 10 percent. Along with crash reductions in other focus areas, the pedestrian safety goal is intended to help achieve the overall U.S. Department of Transportation goal of reducing roadway-related fatalities from 1.5 per 100 million vehicle miles traveled to 1.0 per 100 million vehicle miles traveled by 2011.

To advance this effort, FHWA identified 14 "focus" States (including the District of Columbia District of Columbia, federal district (2000 pop. 572,059, a 5.7% decrease in population since the 1990 census), 69 sq mi (179 sq km), on the east bank of the Potomac River, coextensive with the city of Washington, D.C. (the capital of the United States). ) and the aforementioned cities as areas to target for improvements in pedestrian safety based on 2005 crash data. Each of the focus States faced more than 150 pedestrian fatalities, or a fatality rate fa·tal·i·ty rate
n.
See death rate.



fatality rate

see case fatality rate.
 above 2.5 per 100,000 population in 2005.

"With close to 5,000 pedestrians being killed on our Nation's roads each year, improving pedestrian safety is one of the FHWA Office of Safety's top priorities," says Tamara Redmon, team leader for the office's Pedestrian & Bicycle Program. "More data on pedestrian exposure and safety research in general are needed to determine the scope of the problem and the best ways to combat it. At the same time, FHWA hopes to make an impact on the problem by focusing resources on the 14 States and 4 cities with the biggest pedestrian safety problems."

Data Analysis

FHWA identified the focus cities based solely on pedestrian fatalities in 2005. For the present study, the ADOT researchers analyzed pedestrian fatal crashes occurring in these cities during 2001-2005, using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) was created in the United States by NHTSA (the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) to provide an overall measure of highway safety, to help suggest solutions, and to help provide an objective basis to evaluate the effectiveness  (FARS). The FARS data included crash, person, and vehicle information for each of the cities for the 5 years. The researchers combined the data to obtain summary information for each city by year. The study excluded crashes where only the driver and/or occupant(s) sustained fatal injuries, even though a pedestrian might have sustained nonfatal injuries during the crash. Next, the researchers calculated the annual pedestrian crash averages for each of the cities and grouped them to identify crash patterns.

Data relating to relating to relate prepconcernant

relating to relate prepbezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc 
 the roadway conditions and driver and pedestrian behaviors at the time of each crash also were collected from various resources, such as police reports and FARS. The researchers studied all roadway, pedestrian, and driver behavioral conditions coded in FARS, but further analyzed a few conditions based on their percentage occurrences. These roadway conditions included the type of road, location of the crash relative to an intersection, traffic flow, and lighting at the crash site. Driver behaviors studied included whether the driver was operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs, ran off the road, was in the improper lane, failed to yield to the pedestrian, or was speeding. Pedestrian behaviors included whether the pedestrian darted into the road, crossed improperly, walked with or against traffic, had a physical impairment, or disobeyed traffic signs.

The researchers pulled data on the demographic characteristics of the focus cities from the U.S. Census Bureau Noun 1. Census Bureau - the bureau of the Commerce Department responsible for taking the census; provides demographic information and analyses about the population of the United States
Bureau of the Census
. Types of demographic data included population, income levels, and number of families owning vehicles.

A number of data deficiencies existed that compounded the difficulty in finding the likely causes of the pedestrian fatalities. Data on pedestrian volumes (the number of pedestrians crossing at a particular section of the road at midblock or intersection, or particular side of an intersection during a specific interval In diatonic set theory a specific interval is the shortest possible clockwise distance between pitch classes on the chromatic circle (interval class), in other words the number of half steps between notes.  of time) typically were not available, possibly due to the resources necessary for data collection by the roadway owner agency.

Information on the purposes of the pedestrian trips--trip attractors (destinations) and generators (places where pedestrians start their trips)--and the presence or absence of sidewalks are crucial to understanding the causes of pedestrian crashes and crash severities; however, these data were not readily available. Coding errors, such as errors in jurisdictional reporting, street names, directions of travel, and others, created additional challenges for the crash analysis. Coding inconsistencies between jurisdictions also led to differences in the patterns of driver and pedestrian contributing factors.

Despite these challenges, the researchers analyzed the data available in the U.S. census and FARS databases, and produced the following summary of key demographic, driver/pedestrian behavior, and crash information for each city.

Chicago

Defining "pedestrian." Illinois defines a pedestrian as "any person afoot including a person with a physical, hearing, or visual disability."

Demographics. The population of Chicago is approximately 2.7 million, according to the 2005 census. This includes the 18 percent of families with incomes below the poverty level, the 22 percent of households that do not own automobiles, and the 5 percent of workers 16 or older who walk to work. The researchers looked at the latter demographic statistics Among the kinds of data that national leaders need are the demographic statistics of their population. Records of births, deaths, marriages, immigration and emigration and a regular census of population provide information that is key to making sound decisions about national policy.  as indicators of the number of people who are likely to walk or use public transit to get around.

Driver behaviors. Failure to yield, hit and run, and speeding were major contributing factors on the part of drivers in Chicago.

Pedestrian behaviors. Walking with or against traffic, improper crossing of the roadway, and not being visible to drivers were among the major factors attributed to pedestrian actions. (The Illinois Vehicle Code states: "No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a moving vehicle which is so close as to constitute an immediate hazard.")

[GRAPHIC OMITTED]

Crash timing. Approximately 33 percent of pedestrian fatal crashes occurred between 6 p.m. and midnight.

Crash location. The majority occurred on urban local roads or streets, at nonjunction locations, on roads that were not physically divided, and on roads that were in dark but lighted conditions (that is, the crash occurred in darkness Adv. 1. in darkness - without light; "the river was sliding darkly under the mist"
darkly
, but street lighting was present).

Los Angeles

Defining "pedestrian." California defines a pedestrian as "any person who is afoot or who is using a means of conveyance The transfer of ownership or interest in real property from one person to another by a document, such as a deed, lease, or mortgage.


conveyance n.
 propelled by human power other than a bicycle." This includes a person operating "a self-propelled wheelchair, invalid tricycle, or motorized mo·tor·ize  
tr.v. mo·tor·ized, mo·tor·iz·ing, mo·tor·iz·es
1. To equip with a motor.

2. To supply with motor-driven vehicles.

3. To provide with automobiles.
 quadricycle" when that person is disabled and "otherwise unable to move about as a pedestrian."

Demographics. The population of Los Angeles is approximately 3.7 million, according to the 2005 census. This includes the 17 percent of families with incomes below the poverty level, the 13 percent of households that do not own automobiles, and the 3 percent of workers 16 or older who walk to work.

Driver behaviors. Hit and run, failure to yield, and speeding were major contributing factors by drivers in Los Angeles.

Pedestrian behaviors. Major pedestrian-related contributing factors involved failure to yield (California law California Law consists of 29 codes, covering various subject areas, the State Constitution and Statutes. See also
  • Statute
  • Bill (proposed law)
  • California State Legislature
External links
  • http://www.leginfo.ca.
 states that "no pedestrian may suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle that is so close as to constitute an immediate hazard"), improper crossing, walking with or against traffic, and darting/running into the road.

Crash timing. Approximately 48 percent of pedestrian fatal crashes occurred between 5 p.m. and midnight.

Crash location. The majority of fatal crashes occurred on urban other principal arterials (major roadways, excluding interstates and freeways, that do not have controlled access), at nonjunction locations, on roads that were not physically divided, and on roads that were in dark but lighted conditions.

New York City New York City: see New York, city.
New York City

City (pop., 2000: 8,008,278), southeastern New York, at the mouth of the Hudson River. The largest city in the U.S.
 

Defining "pedestrian." New York defines a pedestrian as "any person who is afoot or in a wheelchair."

Demographics. The population of New York City is approximately 8.0 million, according to the 2005 census. This includes the 17 percent of families with below-poverty-level incomes, the 51 percent of households without automobiles, and the 9 percent of workers 16 or older who walk to work.

Driver behaviors. Driver hit and run, inattention in·at·ten·tion  
n.
Lack of attention, notice, or regard.

Noun 1. inattention - lack of attention
basic cognitive process - cognitive processes involved in obtaining and storing knowledge
, failure to yield, and speeding were major contributing factors in the New York crashes.

Pedestrian behaviors. Major pedestrian-related contributing factors included improper crossing of the roadway and darting or running into the road. (According to New York State law, "No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle which is so close that it is impractical for the driver to yield.")

[GRAPHIC OMITTED]

Crash timing. Approximately 35 percent of pedestrian fatal crashes occurred between 5 p.m. and midnight.

Crash location. The majority of fatal crashes occurred on urban other principal arterials, at intersections, on roads that were not physically divided, and during daylight hours. Further, according to Emmett McDevitt, a transportation safety engineer with the FHWA New York Division Office, data from New York State in 2006 showed that 35 percent of the pedestrians killed were over 65.

Phoenix

Defining "pedestrian." Arizona defines a pedestrian as "any person who is afoot. A person who uses an electric personal assistive mobility device or a manual or motorized wheelchair is considered a pedestrian unless the manual wheelchair qualifies as a bicycle."

Demographics. The population of Phoenix is approximately 1.4 million, according to the 2005 census. This includes the 14 percent of families with below-poverty-level incomes, the 8 percent of households without automobiles, and the 2 percent of workers 16 or older who walk to work.

Even though pedestrians comprise less than 2 percent of the total annual crashes, in 2005 they accounted for 4.4 percent of the total roadway injuries and nearly 30 percent of roadway fatalities, according to Cynecki, the Phoenix traffic engineer. In 2005, 612 pedestrians were struck by motor vehicles, resulting in 572 injuries and 49 deaths.

Driver behaviors. Driver hit and run, speeding, and obscured vision were major contributing factors in Phoenix.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Pedestrian behaviors. Major pedestrian-related contributing factors involved improper crossing, failure to yield, and darting or running into the road. (Arizona Revised Statutes A body of statutes that have been revised, collected, arranged in order, and reenacted as a whole. The legal title of the collection of compiled laws of the United States, as well as some of the individual states.  state that "a pedestrian shall not suddenly leave any curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle that is so close that it is impossible for the driver to yield.")

Crash timing. Approximately 56 percent of pedestrian fatal crashes occurred between 6 p.m. and midnight.

Crash location. The majority of the fatal crashes occurred on urban other principal arterials; at non-junction locations; on roads with two-way continuous, left-turn lanes; and in dark but lighted conditions.

Comparison Among Cities

All four cities defined "pedestrian" at least as "any person afoot," along with different additions, such as a person using a wheelchair or a person using a means of conveyance propelled by human power other than a bicycle. This implies that, by definition, the majority of pedestrians are "persons afoot."

Because the focus cities vary substantially in their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, comparing them in order to discern commonalities or a lack thereof is difficult. Therefore, the researchers discussed a few prominent contributing factors prevalent in these cities. Hit and run was the most prominent driver contributing factor in all four cities. Note the distinction between a hit and run, where the driver leaves the scene of the crash, and a crash in which the driver stays and notifies the police and emergency medical services An Emergency medical service (abbreviated to initialism "EMS" in many countries) is a service providing out-of-hospital acute care and transport to definitive care, to patients with illnesses and injuries which the patient believes constitutes a medical emergency.  (EMS). In the latter case, the chances are greater that the EMS will arrive in time to save the victim and prevent a fatality fa·tal·i·ty
n.
1. A death resulting from an accident or disaster.

2. One that is killed as a result of such an occurrence.
. Another notable assumption about hit and run is that the driver might have left the scene because he or she was intoxicated in·tox·i·cate  
v. in·tox·i·cat·ed, in·tox·i·cat·ing, in·tox·i·cates

v.tr.
1. To stupefy or excite by the action of a chemical substance such as alcohol.

2.
 or otherwise impaired, which could mean that statistics regarding operating a vehicle under the influence, as a contributing factor to pedestrian crashes, are greatly underreported.

Other contributing factors common in all the cities were failure to yield and speeding. Improper crossing, including jaywalking jay·walk  
intr.v. jay·walked, jay·walk·ing, jay·walks
To cross a street illegally or in a reckless manner.



[From jay2, inexperienced person.
, was a major pedestrian contributing factor in the four cities. Other major factors were pedestrians hit while walking with or against traffic and darting or running into the road.

"Our wide streets, heavy traffic, and good traffic flow [in Phoenix] often result in motorists driving too fast for conditions," says Cynecki. "The wide streets and typically higher speeds make it difficult for pedestrians to cross, often resulting in barriers to the community or pedestrians taking chances while crossing."

From the analysis by time of day, most pedestrian fatal crashes occurred in the evening or at night in dark but lighted conditions.

The researchers considered functional classifications of both urban and rural roadways in these analyses. Most of the fatal crashes occurred on urban roadways and at midblock locations in three of the four cities. Pedestrians tend to choose the shortest paths to their destinations and cross roadways midblock, where drivers least expect pedestrians.

Cynecki continues: "Ironically, the downtown [Phoenix] area is not where we are experiencing the most crashes despite the fact that this is the area with the highest number of pedestrians. The higher speed suburban arterial streets are where the majority of our pedestrian crashes occur, where it is more difficult to cross. Higher speeds also result in more severe injuries."

Opportunities for Further Studies

The present study was limited to analyzing pedestrian fatal crashes in the focus cities, each of which differs substantially in its demographic characteristics. Detailed analyses using data on both fatal and injury crashes could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the prevalent issues. However, the trends in pedestrian fatal crashes give an indication of pedestrian safety performance in these cities. Once the detailed types of crashes or contributing factors are identified, the focuscities and any roadway agency can use the Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool or any other approach to identify potential countermeasures to improve pedestrian safety.

[GRAPHIC OMITTED]

As the research revealed, all the focus cities have issues related to driver and/or pedestrian behavior. However, engineering solutions that affect the functional and operational characteristics of the roadways and selection of pedestrian safety countermeasures could play a role in offsetting some of the behavioral problems.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Despite the insights garnered from the present study, the researchers contend that a detailed evaluation of high crash sites, corridors, or areas is necessary before developing countermeasures. Further research should look at resolving the aforementioned data issues. Pedestrian crashes involving children and elderly pedestrians, crashes in work zones, and crashes involving people with disabilities should be analyzed separately. Future research also might glean glean  
v. gleaned, glean·ing, gleans

v.intr.
To gather grain left behind by reapers.

v.tr.
1. To gather (grain) left behind by reapers.

2.
 trends regarding crashes occurring during special events, at recreational areas, and near medical centers and shopping areas with substantial walking activity.

On the Move To Improve

Identifying the most likely causes of pedestrian injuries and fatalities can help cities and States allocate their resources to achieve improved safety. Therefore, considering all "the E's" (most commonly engineering, enforcement, and education, as well as emergency medical services, encouragement, and evaluation) in developing countermeasures is crucial to addressing the pedestrian safety issues. Depending on the crash contributing factors that create pedestrian safety issues and/or roadway inadequacies, roadway agencies might choose a single "E" or a combination of more than one. Efforts are underway in each city to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety.

[GRAPHIC OMITTED]

Phoenix. In Phoenix, for example, pedestrian fatalities, although, for example, pedestrian fatalities, although still too high at 49 in 2005, are down from 63 in 2001 and 61 in 2002, according to Cynecki.

Phoenix is no longer building arterial streets with sidewalks immediately adjacent to the travellanes, Cynecki says. All new arterial streets have landscaped buffer areas between pedestrians and traffic to improve safety and enhance the walking experience. Onstreet bike lanes provide an additional buffer for pedestrian safety.

Following participation in an international scan tour on signalized intersection safety, Phoenix officials began building two-stage crossings with pedestrian safety islands across wide arterial street. These crossings allow pedestrians to cross only half a street, forcing them to walk in the fences pedestrian median island facing oncoming on·com·ing  
adj.
Coming nearer; approaching: an oncoming storm.

n.
An approach; an advance.
 traffic before crossing the second half of the street. In fact, one of the two-stage crossing/pedestrian safety islands was constructed directly as a result of an FHWA training course and workshop, according to Cynecki.

Phoenix initiated a School Safety Program in 2002 to make walking and bicycling trips to school safer for students. Some of the counter-measures include a program to enforce speed limits by using cameras and stand-back lines (a line painted on the sidewalk A Microsoft service that was launched in 1997 to provide online arts and entertainment guides on the Web for major cities worldwide. In 1999, Microsoft sold Sidewalk to Ticketmaster, which continued to provide guides, ticketing and other information to the MSN network.  indicating where students should wait to cross) at crossings, along with improved crossing-guard training and monitoring.

Other measures implemented include annual pedestrian safety audits, "road diets" (reconfiguring a four-lane undivided UNDIVIDED. That which is held by the same title by two or more persons, whether their rights are equal, as to value or quantity, or unequal.
     2. Tenants in common, joint-tenants, and partners, hold an undivided right in their respective properties, until
 street, with two lanes in each direction, to two travel lanes, a center turnlane, and two bike lanes) in at least five locations, addition of a countdown feature to some pedestrian signals, and continuance of sidewalk retrofit ret·ro·fit  
v. ret·ro·fit·ted or ret·ro·fit, ret·ro·fit·ting, ret·ro·fits

v.tr.
1. To provide (a jet, automobile, computer, or factory, for example) with parts, devices, or equipment not in
 projects in developed areas that were lacking adequate or safe pedestrian walkways. In addition to making it safer to walk, Phoenix wants to encourage more people to walk, as it is the most environmentally friendly Environmentally friendly, also referred to as nature friendly, is a term used to refer to goods and services considered to inflict minimal harm on the environment.[1]  and healthy form of transportation, Cynecki says.

At the State level, ADOT is taking the lead in developing a statewide pedestrian safety action plan. Arizona's plan will consist of individual pedestrian safety plans from ADOT, the city of Phoenix, and others. One of the effective tools being used to investigate issues with nonmotorized traffic (such as pedestrian) safety in Arizona is the road safety assessment. ADOT also is managing the Safe Routes to School Program with funding for infrastructure and noninfrastructure projects throughout the State.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Chicago. In Chicago, the Mayor's Pedestrian Advisory Committee (MPAC MPAC Muslim Public Affairs Council
MPAC Municipal Property Assessment Corporation
MPAC Muslim Public Affairs Committee
MPAC Missouri Precision Agriculture Center
MPAC Member Political Action Conference
MPAC Medicare Payment Advisory Commission
), composed of transportation professionals and representatives of pedestrian advocacy groups, was formed in 2006 to improve pedestrian safety and access to public transit, schools, workplaces, shops, libraries, parks, roads, and other public spaces. The committee also promotes policies and practices that will advance pedestrian mobility as a desirable and viable form of transportation and recreation. Other duties include providing a forum for input and participation in pedestrian health, safety, convenience, and comfort issues and promoting awareness and responsibility to pedestrians and other road users.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

MPAC provides feedback on development of Chicago's Pedestrian Plan, which is scheduled for completion in 2008 and includes an evaluation of existing conditions and recommendations for pedestrian safety improvements.

In 2006, Chicago launched Safe Streets for Chicago, a traffic and pedestrian safety program that combines the efforts of several city departments. A key element of the program was Chicago's Complete Streets policy, requiring that "the safety and convenience of all users of the transportation system including pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users, freight, and motor vehicle drivers shall be accommodated and balanced in all types of transportation and development projects and through all phases of a project so that even the most vulnerable--children, elderly, and persons with disabilities--can travel safety within the public right of way."

Los Angeles. With a jurisdiction that covers 1,217 square kilometers (470 square miles), the Los Angeles metropolitan area includes rural, high-density urban, and industrial sections with numerous subcommunities. According to Transportation Engineer Crystal Killian with the city of Los Angeles' pedestrian program, the city is incorporating streetscape street·scape  
n.
1. An artistic representation of a street.

2. Surroundings composed of streets: the urban streetscape. 
 elements near light rail transit The name Light Rail Transit is used by the following specific light rail systems, either as an official name or otherwise:
  • Light Rail Transit, Metro Manila, Philippines
  • Rapid KL Light Rail Transit, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
 stations, rapid bus corridors, and other high-activity centers. The city also adopted a walkability checklist for site plan reviews, asking architects and developers to consider architectural features that link the facility to the street to create better pedestrian environments.

From the operations perspective, Los Angeles has numerous programs in place to assist pedestrians. For example, in neighborhoods with large populations of Orthodox Jewish residents (who are prohibited from work, which includes pushing a pedestrian signal button, on the Sabbath), the city programmed the pedestrian signals to operate automatically from sundown Friday until sundown Saturday. Similarly, the city programs signal timing to accommodate pedestrian surges at intersections near schools in the morning and early afternoon to facilitate safe crossing for children, and distributes walkable "route to school" maps.

Other ongoing initiatives include creating high-visibility crosswalks, double-posting fluorescent pedestrian crossing signs, and initiating a 5-year effort to upgrade the city's 4,300 traffic signals with LED lights, a project that also involves installing LED pedestrian countdown signals.

At the State level, where pedestrian fatalities account for 17 percent of all roadway fatalities, a number of activities are underway to combat the high fatality and injury numbers. For example, California is implementing a strategic highway safety plan in which one of the challenge areas is improving the safety of walking and street crossing. Within this area, safety stakeholders Stakeholders

All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government.
 identified eight high-priority actions to help reduce fatalities, including developing pedestrian safety improvement programs to identify and improve safety at locations with a high concentration of crashes involving pedestrians, and enhancing pedestrian striping Interleaving or multiplexing data to increase speed. See disk striping.

striping - data striping
 and making other safety upgrades during routine maintenance.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

In addition, a diverse group of pedestrian safety stakeholders is drafting a statewide pedestrian safety action plan that will serve as the basis for directing resources in many communities. Further, California is developing a pedestrian safety audit program, which would send safety experts to 18 targeted communities to perform safety audits and identify ways to increase safe mobility for pedestrians.

New York City. In New York City, seniors make up only 12 percent of the population, but they account for 39 percent of pedestrian fatalities, according to the New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT NYCDOT New York City Department of Transportation ). The disproportional dis·pro·por·tion·al  
adj.
Disproportionate.



dispro·por
 representation of the senior population in severe pedestrian injuries and fatalities prompted NYCDOT to launch Safe Streets for Seniors, a program to address the safety of senior pedestrians at 25 locations across the city. The department identified areas within each borough with the highest concentrations of senior pedestrian crashes and will develop short- and long-term measures to create a safer pedestrian environment, specifically for older adults. Ongoing studies will yield recommendations for improving safety, which could include extending pedestrian crossing times at crosswalks and shortening crossing distances, altering curbs and sidewalks, restricting vehicle turns, and narrowing roadways.

New York City also is focusing on improving safety for school children through its Safe Routes to School "priority schools" initiative. NYCDOT already has installed hundreds of short-term safety improvements around 135 priority schools, including new traffic and stop signs, exclusive pedestrian crossing time, speed bumps, high-visibility crosswalks, and school crossing signs. NYCDOT also designed and scheduled long-term capital measures to improve safety, such as sidewalk extensions, refuge islands, and intersection narrowing, at 32 priority schools. Future work includes analyzing the latest crash data to identify the next group of priority schools that will receive similar safety enhancements.

From the outreach and education perspective, the department has developed traffic safety maps for more than 1,400 schools city-wide, which help students and parents identify their safest routes to schools by showing the roadway network, school locations, signalized intersections, and designated school crosswalks. NYCDOT also created a guide to help students and parents understand the meanings of traffic and pedestrian signs and markings.

The efforts of the focus cities and States, coupled with those of the FHWA Office of Safety, to identify problems and implement the most effective countermeasures will help reduce injuries and fatalities, and thereby assist FHWA in accomplishing its national goals for pedestrian safety.

Kohinoor Kar, Ph.D., P.E., is a transportation safety engineer at ADOT. He has a doctorate in civil engineering, specializing in transportation, from Wayne State University Wayne State University, at Detroit, Mich.; state supported; coeducational; established 1956 as a successor to Wayne Univ. (formed 1934 by a merger of five city colleges).  in Michigan. He is experienced as a practitioner, researcher, instructor, and consultant, and serves on a number of national and State safety research advisory committees.

Sreelatha Gajula, M.S., is a traffic engineering associate at ADOT. She has been with ADOT since 2005, working with the traffic safety team on various projects related to pedestrian safety, lane departure, and traffic records. She earned a master's degree in civil engineering from Ohio's The University of Toledo National recognition
In its 125-year history UT has garnered several national accolades. The University’s programs, faculty and facilities have been highlighted in the media, including
.

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support provided by Tamara Redmon, of the FHWA Office of Safety, and Karen King, of the FHWA Arizona Division Office, in helping improve pedestrian safety in Arizona.

For more information, contact Kohinoor Kar at 602-712-6857 or kkar@azdot.gov, or Sreelatha Gajula at 602-712-6863 or sgajula@azdot.gov.

Disclaimer: Any statements expressed in this article are those of the individual authors or representatives from the focus cities and do not necessarily represent the views of ADOT.
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Title Annotation:Federal Highway Administration
Author:Kar, Kohinoor; Gajula, Sreelatha
Publication:Public Roads
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:May 1, 2008
Words:4342
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