Focus: climate change.
Global warming is predicted to reduce worldwide agricultural productivity more than 15 percent by the 2080s. The effect will be more severe for developing countries than for developed countries, partly for geographic reasons. The predicted effect becomes positive for developed countries when carbon fertilization effects are taken into account.
Climate change effects on health
The largest health impacts of climate change are on malnutrition and are linked to declining agricultural yields. While the effects are felt in South East Asia through malnutrition and diarrhea, the impact on Africa is expected to be dominated by increased incidence of malaria.
Climate change effects due to rise in sea level
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts a 1 meter rise in sea level over the next hundred years linked to climate change (barring catastrophic events, such as the melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet). The effects are most severe in the Middle East and North Africa and East Asia and Pacific for virtually all dimensions measured.
Climate change effects due to extreme weather events
Weather variability is likely to increase. The five countries most vulnerable to extreme weather events in each region are shown. Ethiopia and Bangladesh stand out as the countries most vulnerable to extreme weather events.
Projected trends in energy emissions
While high-income economies today produce nearly half of world carbon dioxide emissions from energy, developing economies are projected to increase their share at a faster rate.
World distribution of per capita emissions
Per capita emissions of greenhouse gases (including land use change) differ widely across countries and regions. High-income economies have the highest levels of emissions, but when land use change is taken into account Indonesia, the Russian Federation, and Brazil also have significant emissions per capita.
Emissions by source, high-income and transition economies
Nearly all greenhouse gas emissions from high-income and transition economies (those listed in Annex I of the Kyoto Protocol) are linked to energy use (86.6 percent), including power generation, transport, and building heating and cooling.
Emissions by source, low-income economies
In developing economies greenhouse gas emissions stem mostly from land use change, forestry, and agriculture (51.2 percent). Energy-related emissions come next (42.5 percent). Better management of land and forests in developing economies can offer both mitigation and development benefits.
Share of emissions, 2000 (Annex I) Energy 86.6% Industrial processes 3.7% Agriculture 8.7% Land use change and forestry -1.6% Waste 2.8% Source: WRI 2008. Note: Table made from pie chart. Share of emissions, 2000 (non-Annex I) Energy 42.5% Industrial processes 3.2% Agriculture 15.7% Land use change and forestry 35.5% Waste 3.1% Source: WRI 2008. Note: Annex I countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are committed to binding emissions targets to reduce greenhouse gases. Non-Annex I countries are developing countries, which have no specific greenhouse gas emissions obligations. Note: Table made from pie chart.